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Dr.

Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis DSPM IIIT-NR 21


Recap…charge/current
Charge and Current- Most basic quantity is electric charge. “Charge is an electrical
property of the atomic particles of which matter consists, measured in coulombs {C}”.
Important characteristics of electric charge:
•bipolar +ve, -ve charge
•charge is conserved: it is neither created nor destroyed
•the smallest charge, the electronic charge, is carried by an electron (−1.602×10-19 C)
•in most circuits, the charges in motion are electrons
•mobile: can be transferred from one place to another
 motion of charge creates a electric field (current)

Current is the rate of charge flow: i=dq/dt


1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second (or 1 A = 1 C/s)

Direction of current flow


DC vs AC current

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 22
Current
Example:
A conductor has a constant current of 5 A.
How many electrons pass a fixed point on the conductor in one
minute?

Solution

Total no. of charges pass in 1 min is given by 5 A = (5 C/s)(60 s/min) = 300 C/min

Total no. of electronics pass in 1 min is given

300 C/min
19
 1 . 87 x10 21
electrons/min
1.602 x10 C/electron

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 23
Voltage/Potential
Voltage- is the energy required to move a unit charge
through an element
When 1 J of work is required to move 1 C of charge,
there is a voltage of 1 volt between the terminal.

• Mathematically, vab  dw / dq (volt)

– w is energy in joules (J) and q is charge in coulomb (C).

• Electric voltage, vab, is always across the circuit element or between two
points in a circuit.
– vab > 0 means the potential of a is higher than potential of b.
– vab < 0 means the potential of a is lower than potential of b.

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 24
Voltage
Example:
Electrical energy is converted to heat at a rate of 8 kJ/min in a
resistor and charge flowing through it at the rate of 300 C/min.
What is the voltage difference across the resistor terminals?

Solution

p 8  103 J / min
v   26.67V
i 300 C/min

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 25
Power & Energy
Real-life examples

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 26
Power
• Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy,
measured in watts (W).
dw dw dq
• Mathematical expression: p     vi
dt dq dt
When power is +ve the element is absorbing energy.

When power is –ve the element is supplying energy.

How do we know when power has a +ve/ -ve sign?


--check polarity of voltage and direction of current

absorbing supplying

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 27
Energy

• The law of conservation of energy

p0
• Energy is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J).
t t
• Mathematical expression w   pdt   vidt
t0 t0

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Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR
Energy
Example:
How much energy does a 200 W electric lamp consume in 2 hr.

Solution

w  pi  200  2  400 w-h


 400  60  60 J
 1440 kJ

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 29
Circuit Elements
Active Elements Passive Elements

Passive Element: The element which receives


energy (or absorbs energy) and then either
converts it into heat (R) or stored it in an
electric (C) or magnetic (L)

Independent Dependant
sources sources Active Element: The elements that supply
energy to the circuit

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 30
Independent/Dependent Source

Independent: two terminal element that maintains a specified voltage/ current independently.

current will be voltage is


determined by determined by
other circuit other circuit
elements elements

Dependent: Voltage across/ current flowing through is function of other voltages/ currents in
the circuit.

VCVS CCVS CCCS VCCS


Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 31
Independent/Dependent Source
Example

Obtain the voltage v in the branch shown in Figure for


i2 = 1A.

Solution

Voltage v is the sum of the current-independent 10-V source and the current-
dependent voltage source vx.

Note that the factor 15 multiplying the control current carries the units Ω.

Therefore, v = 10 + vx = 10 + 15(1) = 25 V

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Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR
Ideal and Practical Voltage Sources

“Regulation
curve” or “load
line”

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 33
Ideal and Practical Current Sources

Find open-circuit volt


and short-circuit
current

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Current Sources DSPM IIIT-NR 34
Construct a Circuit Model of a Flashlight

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Current Sources DSPM IIIT-NR 35
Passive Elements: 1. Resistance

Ohm’s Law: v α i or v=iR

Resistance: capacity of materials to impede flow of current

Resistance of a wire is determined by the resistivity of the conductor as well as the geometry:
R=ρl/A

Power is always positive for a resistor! p=vi = v2/R = i2R

Conductance: G=1/R

Open and Short Circuits:

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Resistance DSPM IIIT-NR 36


Series & Parallel Resistances

Series Resistors & Voltage Divider Parallel Resistors & Current divider

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Resistance DSPM IIIT-NR 37


2. Capacitance
• An ideal capacitor is an energy-storage circuit element (with no loss associated
with it) representing the electric-field effect.
q
• The capacitance in farads (F) is defined by C
v
With v being proportional to q, C is a constant determined by the geometric configuration of
the two conductors

Circuit symbol

Two perfect conductors carrying +q dq dv


and −q charges i C
dt dt

• Capacitors in series and in parallel

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Capacitance DSPM IIIT-NR 38


3. Inductance
• An ideal inductor is also an energy-storage circuit element (with no loss associated
with it), representing the magnetic-field effect
• The inductance in henrys (H) is defined by  N
L 
i i
where λ is the magnetic-flux linkage in weber-turns (Wb·t), N is the number of turns of the
coil, and Nψ is the magnetic flux in webers (Wb) produced by the current i in amperes (A)

Circuit symbol

di
A single inductive coil of N turns vL
dt

• Inductors in series and in parallel

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Inductance DSPM IIIT-NR 39


Nodes, Branches & Loops

Branch: represents any two-terminal element.


Node: point of connection between two or more branches.
Loop: is a closed path

Identify no of branches, nodes and loops??

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Network Theorem DSPM IIIT-NR 40
Kirchhoff’s Law
KCL: The algebraic sum of the currents entering any node is zero. (conservation of charge)

iA + iB + (−iC) + (−iD) = 0
KVL: The algebraic sum of the voltages around any closed path is zero. (conservation of energy)

v1 + (-v2 )+ (−v3) = 0

#Currents entering(+ve sign) and currents leaving (-ve sign)


Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Network Theorem DSPM IIIT-NR 41
Series Resistors & Voltage Divider Parallel Resistors & Current divider

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Network Theorem DSPM IIIT-NR 42