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1- ABOARD= Bir ulaşım aracında bulunma durumunu gösterir.

1- There were nearly a hundred people aboard the ship when it sank down the sea.
2- An airplane bound four Cairo crashed into the sea and all the passengers aboard were killed severely.
3- On the voyage aboard an old coach, we ran into as much hardship as you could imagine.

ABOUT = be close to/ on the point of/on the verge of = “Konusunda, hakkında, üstünde, yanında, civarında,
çevresinde, yaklaşık olarak, aşağı yukarı, … üzere olmak, önerilerde bulunurken kullanılır.

1- The teacher will give us a lecture about the famine and poverty in Africa.
2- I’ll stay there for about a week.
3- He has just about finished his work.
4- The train is about to leave for Ankara, so we had better hurry up.
5- When I looked in her eyes, she was about to burst into tears.
6- How about going for a walk along the river-bank?
7- What/how about going to the zoo today?
8- Let’s walk about the woods for a while as I’ve something to tell you in person.

2- ABOVE = “üzerinde” anlamını veren bu sözcük ya fiziksel konum olarak bir şeyin üstünde ya da soyut bir değer
ya da miktarın üzerinde olma anlamı verir.

A) Birinden/bir şeyden daha yüksek bir yerde veya makamda bulunmak anlamını verir.

1- The water came above our knees.

2- We were flying above the clouds.
3- The people in the apartment above mine
4- A captain in the navy ranks above a captain in the army.
5- They finished the year six places above their local rivals.
6- The curtain blew in above Jane’s head and she heard a volley of rain spatter on the windowsill.
7- Those fossils were found high above the sea level.
8- The speaker raised his voice above normal to address his friend.
9- A good teacher should value his students above every other commitment.
B) Bir sayı/miktarın/düzeyin/yaşın üzerinde anlamını verir.

1- Inflation is above 6%.

2- Temperatures have been above average.
3- We cannot accept children above the age of 10.

C) (kötü/yakışıksız) bir şeyi yapmayacak kadar iyi/dürüst anlamını verir.

1- She's not above telling lying when it suits her.

2- He's above suspicion (= he is completely trusted).
3- She can’t have stolen the jewellery. She is above such disgraceful things.
4- God is above all imperfections.

3- ACCORDING TO = “Bir şeye göre/Bir şey temel alınarak” anlamına gelir.

1- According to a report published in Sofia last week, military exports for last year were up by 140 per cent compared
to 1993.
2- According to a number of studies, smoking may not lead to cancer as much as it is claimed to do.

4-ACROSS = “deniz, ırmak, ülke, sokak, oda” gibi bir fiziksel ortamın bir yanından diğer
tarafına doğru yapılan eylemleri tanımlayan bu sözcük,
KARŞISINA/ÇAPINDA” anlamına gelir.

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1- I parked my car across the street (= caddenin karşısına)
2- The old couple cut across the field as the night was falling.
3- You will have to move this trolley across the room. (= odanın diğer tarafına)
4- This weird-looking man is living across from us.
5- I always help the old people across the street when they are in need of help.
6- Her family is scattered across (= throughout) the country.
7- This view is common across (= throughout) all sections of the community.

5- AGAINST = “karşı”, “karşıt” ya da “dayalı, yaslanmış” anlamına gelir.

NOTE = bu sözcük “bir düşünceye, eyleme karşı olmak, karşı tutum almak” anlamını verebilir. Bu şekilde en sık kullanılan
fiiller ve isimler aşağıda verilmiştir.

Common VERBS used with “AGAINST”

1- advise =
2- align =
3- align =
4- ally =
5- compete =
6- conspire =
7- discriminate =
8- guard =
9- immunize =
10- inoculate =
11- insulate =
12- plot =
13- protest =
14- side =
15- vaccinate =
16- vote =
17- warn =

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Common NOUNS used with “AGAINST”

1- aggression = 9- discrimination =
2- battle = 10- fight =
3- bias = 11- insurance =
4- boycott = 12- prejudice =
5- campaign = 13- safeguard =
6- conspiracy = 14- sanctions =
7- crime = 15- shield =
8- defence = 16- war =

1- He was leaning against the front door when I saw him.

2- I always rest my bike against the three over there.
3- He smashed his head against the wardrobe during the fight. I voted against that party, but my friend voted for it.
4- Women are discriminated against in some underdeveloped countries.
5- It is about time we insured our house against an earthquake.
6- I think America intends to wage a war against Iraq for financial reason indeed.
7- We're playing against the league champions next week.
8- We were rowing against the current.
9- That's against the law.
10- She was forced to marry against her will
11- Are you for or against the death penalty?
12- I'd advise you against doing that.
13- They took precautions against fire.
14- His red clothes stood out clearly against the snow.
15- You must weigh the benefits against the cost.
16- What's the rate of exchange against the dollar?
17- The conspiracy against the minister was discovered before it could be fulfilled.
18- The campaign against the large pay rises for the chiefs of privatised industries is likely to gain support.

6- ALONG = “boyunca” anlamına gelir.

1- Let’s take a walk along the river.

2- May I come along with you on the picnic?
3- May I tag along with you?
4- They walked slowly along the road.
5- I looked along the shelves for the book I needed.
6- Houses had been built along both sides of the river.
7- You'll find his office just along the corridor.

*** along with *** = in addition to = as well as = besides (= yanı sıra / ilaveten)

1- You need to carry out this task, along with the other two officers.
2- The doctor, along with his assistants, was ready for the operation.
3- She lost her job when the factory closed, along with hundreds of others.

7- AMID (AMIDST) = “ortasında, arasında” anlamını vermek için kullanılır.

1- He felt very embarrassed amid so many people due to his failure on the exam.
2- Amid all the confusion, the real point of the meeting was lost.
3- Some of the wreckage caused by the explosion fell amid the crowd of spectators.

8-AMONG (AMONGST) = “ortasında/etrafı sarılı” anlamını vermek için kullanılır.

1- I was among the crowd.

2- You can see our old house among the oak trees.
3- The family were constantly quarrelling among themselves.
4- The author was particularly popular among his contemporaries.


A) “-den başka”, “-nın yanında”, “ek olarak” anlamına gelir.

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1- His prime interest, apart from music, was his family.
2- Apart from regular midterms, there are pop quizzes, all of which make up 10 % of the total score.

B) “except for” a paralel olarak “haricinde, dışında” anlamına gelir.

1- Apart from the president, everybody could grasp how severe the situation was.
2- All the participants enjoyed themselves apart from my cousin.
3- There was nothing for me to read apart from a few silly fairy stories.


A) Bir şeyin “çevresinde, etrafında” ya da “her tarafında” anlamına gelir.

1- To some eyewitnesses, a shower of sparks sprayed around the chimney.

2- I could hear laughter all around.
3- How do you make the wheels go around?
4- We were all running around trying to get ready in time.
5- This is our new office—Kay will show you around.
6- There were papers lying around all over the floor.
7- There were several young people sitting around looking bored.
8- There was more money around in those days.
9- I knocked but there was no one around.
10- Digital television has been around for some time now.
11- The house is built around a central courtyard.
12- He put his arms around her.
13- Our house is just around the corner.
14- The bus came around the bend.
15- There must be a way around the problem.

B) “civarında/yaklaşık” anlamına gelir.

1- He arrived around five o'clock.

2- The cost would be somewhere around £1 500.

9- AS = “OLARAK” anlamını verir. Genelde bir şeyin (1) ne olarak işlev yaptığını (2) ne olarak düşünüldüğünü (3) ne
olarak kabul edildiğini göstermek için kullanılır.

Common verbs used with “as”

1- acknowledge = 12- depict =

2- address = 13- describe =
3- adopt = 14- diagnose =
4- cast = 15- disguise =
5- categorise = 16- employ =
6- characterise = 17- interpret =
7- choose = 18- regard =
8- cite = 19- name =
9- classify = 20- perceive =
10- conceive = 21- use =
11- consider =
1- He was chosen as the leader of the new party.
2- We are using our living room as bedroom this week, as we are having our bedroom painted.
3- She used to consider her personal problems as impregnable before she saw a psychiatrist.
4- This scientist is acknowledged as the one who paved the way for new dimensions in language schools.
5- Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised as a crippling disease involving joints mostly.

*** AS FOR/TO =… -e/-a ya gelince

1- We were in the presence of a very great man; as for/to our predicament, we were confident that he would rescue
2- As for/to you, you have no other chances but to accept our proposal.

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3- As to/for the expenses, we should be more careful.

ASIDE FROM = = except for/with the exception of = … nın/nin haricinde

1- There was nothing I could do, aside from consoling her.

2- Aside from tutor’s fees, there is the travel cost.
3- We will pay for the expense on the journey, aside from buying tickets.

AS REGARDS = … ile ilgili olarak, bakımından

1- I have very little information as regards her past.

2- The two girls are alike as regards their social background.
3- As regards the security of the building, we should take more precautions.
AS WELL AS = in addition to/besides = nın/nin yanı sıra

1- He can play the guitar as well as the piano.

2- He can read well as well as writing.
3- He can speak good English as well as good Spanish.

*** AT =

1- Belli bir yerdeki bir noktadan söz ederken(a point in space);

at one’s destination at the end (of a street)

at the crossroads at the (first/second) roundabout
at the corner of (somewhere) at Frankfurt
at Downing Street at the door
at the beginning of (a story) at the traffic lights
at the top/bottom (of the page) at Robert’s (house)/at the doctor’s/dentist’s
at the window at the centre of the Earth at the front/back

2- İnsanların belli bir amaç için bir araya gelip daha sonra da ayrıldıkları yerler

at the conference at the office at the market

at the station at a party at (the)college
at the shore at home/work at a match
at a hotel at the store at (the) university
at hospital at a concert at the bank
at reception at school at the church
at the bazaar at the club at the mosque
at a meeting at the bus-stop at the theatre
at the cinema at the airport at a lecture
3- Hedef/yönelme bildiren birtakım fillerle kulllanılır.

smile at look at wave at point at

glance at peep at shoot at laugh at
throw at shout at stare at knock at

1- He pointed a gun at her.

2- Somebody threw paint at the prime minister.

4- Bazı deyimsel ifadelerle kullanılır =

1- at a glance = 10- at death =
2- at a loss/profit = 11- at close quarters =
3- at all costs = 12- at ease =
4- at an advantage = 13- at first sight =
5- at any rate = 14- at first/last =
6- at best/worst = 15- at hand =
7- at birth = 16- at heart =
8- at dawn = 17- at large =
9- at dusk = 18- at least =

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19- at length = 29- at the crack of dawn =
20- at one time = 30- at the expense of =
21- at once = 31- at the latest =
22- at one’s disposal = 32- at the mercy of =
23- at peace = 33- at the same time =
24- at random = 34- at this rate =
25- at short notice = 35- at times =
26- at the age of = 36- at war =
27- at the peak of = 37- at will =
28- at the cost of one’s life 38- good at/bad at =
5- Belli bir etkinlikte uzmanlık ifade ederken kullanılır.

1- He is an expert at repairing clocks.

2- My mother is brilliant at dressmaking.
3- I'm good at French.
4- She's hopeless at managing people.

6- Tam zamanlardaki saat ifadelerinin önünde kullanılır

at six o’clock at 8 p.m. at eleven o’clock at 4.15.

7- Günün bazı vakitleri ve yemek saatleri ve özel günler ile;

at dawn at night at midday

at the same time at breakfast at lunch at dinner
at meal at the weekend at present
at that time at this time at the time
at times at Christmas at Easter
at Ramadan Feast at noon at midnight


a) Kapalı mekanlar, kıta, ülke, şehir, kasaba, köy vs gibi yerleşim birimleri ile;

in Turkey in class in the sky in Asia

in a room in bed in a mirror in Europe
in a forest in a building in line in a square
in a picture in a village in a city in the water
in a garden in a factory in a queue in the world
in the sea in a box in a car in prison in the
field in a row in a street

b) Günün dilimleri, aylar, yıllar, mevsimler, yüzyıllar ve çağlar ile:

in the morning in the afternoon in the evening in the night

in January in 1926 in (the) Spring in the 20th century
in December in 1938 in (the) Summer in the Middle Ages

c) Bir olayın ne kadar zaman içerisinde gerçekleşebileceğini ifade ederken( süreç), bir aktivite ya da olayın ne
kadar süre alacağı söz konusu olduğu durumlarda:

in three weeks in three week’s time in moths in a moment

in a month in a month’s time in years in no time
in the meantime in the same time in time in a few minutes

d) Bazen de hava ya da fiziksel konumlar için kullanılır;

in the rain in the snow in the moonlight

in the hail in the sun in the sky

e) Bir şeyin/olayın olma şekli;

in secret in danger in a hurry in a manner

in answer/response to in advance in brief in pieces
in common in error in cash in case

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in order in a whisper in one word in silent
in terror in sight in fear in reply to
in vain in the air in a way in haste

f) Meslek, bir kimsenin üstüne giydiği elbiseden bahsederken, bir nesne ya da maddeyi kullanarak, miktar,
yön belirtirken, ayrıca … -den/-dan biri derken;

in politics in uniform in pencil in (one’s) eye in large numbers

in teaching in red/blue in ink one in five in large quantities
in front of

g) Bazı deyimsel ifadelerle kullanımı:

in one,s opinion in a bad temper in a daze in a hurry in a jifty in a mess

in a moment in a nutshell in abeyance in action in addition to in advance
in aid of in all probabilty in an instant in brief in acptivity in case of
in cash in charge of in common in common with in conclusion in confidence
in accordance with in danger in danger of in debt in demand in due coursein
in comprasion with in error in exchance of in fashion in favour of in for
in conjunction within full swing in gear in general in hand in haste
in connection with in love with in moderation in need of in no time in opposition to
in orbit in order in order of in other words in pain in particular
in person in pieces in place of in practice in progress in proportion to
in prospect in public in pursit of in reality in relation to in return for
in search of is short in sight in silence in succession in tears
in that in the act in the beginning in the country in the course of in the event of
in the flesh in the form of in the habit of in the hope of in the limelight in the long run
in the meantime in the name of in the open in the same time in the suburbs in the wake of
in time in time in touch with in trouble in tune in turn
in use in vain in view of in the circumstances in the nick of


a) Üzerinde, üstünde, üzerinde olma, üzerine, düzlem üzerinde olma, yön, toplu bir taşıma aracı içinde olma,
herhangi bir konuda ya da alanda veya … yoluyla gibi durumlar söz konusu olunca;

on the table on one’s finger on a string on one’s car on a chair

on one’s head on one’s back on the floor on a farm on suspicion
on one’s return on the ground on the page on a list on the right
on the left on a plane on a train on a bus on foot
on the tip of on this subject on this enemy on birds on one’s way
on the wall on the ceiling on a door on a plateon the tree

b) Haftanın günleri, günün belli bölümleri, gün ve tarih bir arada verilirken, bayramlar, festivaller,yıl
dönümleri veya belli özel günler için;

On Tuesday On Friday morning On May 8th

On Wednesday On Monday evening On 10th March
On Ramadan On Christmas Day On one’s birthday
On the morning of the 25th May

c) Seyahat sözcükleri ile;

on a journey on holiday on a trip on a cruise on vacation on an expedition

d) Durumunda, halinde, ya da iletişim araçları ile;

on fire on strike on average on the pretext of

on sale on loan on a diet on the principle
on purpose on board on the agenda on the outskirts
on the radio on the TV on the internet on the phone

e) Kenarında, boyunca, -den dolayı, …nın/nin üzerine (konum), …- den/- dan sonra, ile yaşam sürdürmek,
yiyecek veya içecek ısmarlarken, TV, Radyo ve tiyatro gibi yerlerde gösterimde olan oyun ya da film gibi

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on the river on both sides of (a road) on the north/south…of…
acting on (sth) on thinking on deciding
on vegetables drinks are on me what is on/radio or at the Odean

f) Deyimsel ifadelerle;

on consideration on condition that on a (large/small) scale on guard on fire

take pity on have mercy on on approval one one,s own on board
on duty on trial on sail on one,s way on foot
on land on credit on account of on (that) date on loan
on average on good terms with on guard on a diet on occasions
on the agenda on the increase/decrease on the strength of on a trip on purpose
on the whole on the tip of on time on account of on sale
on the verge of on the brink of on behalf of on average on strike
on behalf of on the agenda on good terms with on the hour on the increase
on … grounds on the decrease on the outskirts on the phone on the point of
on the strength on the tip of on the whole on time

g) “on” ilgecini alan belli başlı kelime ve sıfatlar

assault burden effect insistence negotiation attack

comment embargo limit restriction ban constraint
emphasis limitation sanctions boycott dependence focus
outlook act bet centre compliment concentrate
count depend dwell economize elaborate embark
feed experiment gain hinge impose inflict
insist intrude live operate pride oneself rely
spend spy subsist wait reliance keen
insist intent contingent dependent


( gemi, uçak, tren vs) gibi araçlara binerken;

They went aboard the ship. We went aboard the train.


a) Yukarıda, üstünde, …(sıcaklık derecesi vs) …nın/nin üzerinde anlamındadır. Fakat üstünde olduğu şeyle
temas halinde değildir.

We flew above the clouds. The balloons were flying above our heads.
A helicopter was hovering above the building. The mountain summit is 5137 meters above the sea level
The lamb is above the table. The elevator does not go above the tenth floor.
The heat was 32 C above the zero.

b) Fazla, daha fazla, daha ziyade gibi kıyaslama belirten ifadelerle;

The company values hard work above good ideas. My work is well above the average.

c) Güç ve rütbece büyük ve üst mevkide olmak;

The captain is above a lieutenant in the Army. A principal is above a teacher.

A captain ranks above a sergeant.
There are so many people above me that I can never hope to reach a senior post myself.
d) Deyimsel anlamda ( her şeyden öte ) anlamında;

Think about what I told you; but, above all, don’t breathe a word of it to him.

e) Bir konuda ziyadesiyle onurlu ve iyi olmak (karakter anlamında);

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He wouldn’t steal; he is above that.


(…-e/-a göre)

The work has been carried out according to your instructions.

According to the resent statistics, Turkey’s economy has made great progress.
According to my brother, I should be more respectful to the elderly.
We should take some stricter precautions, according to the resent results.
According to the critics, the film lacks of a well-organized plot.
According to the law, everybody is equal at the court.
According to the weather forecast, it is going to rain at the weekend.


Bir taraftan öbür tarafa, bir uçtan diğerine, karşı taraf(ta) anlamında;

The tree fell down across the railway line. Mehmet’s house is just across the road from us.
We went across the street/field/the path to sightseeing. He dived in off the river-bank and swam across.
The girl lives across from us. I took the old lady across the street.


a) Belli bir süreden sonra, birini ararken ya da birine isim verirken, ve “arkasından, ardından, peşinden, ya da
devamlı olarak” gibi ifadelerle;

I want you to send me your homework the day after tomorrow.

We will have a meeting on the subject after the meal.
She was after the man who had swindled all her money away.
Who were you named after? Your granny or aunt?
He entered the class after his teacher, and the teacher reproached him.
You should put a period after each sentence.
I am getting more and more excited day after day.
One of your school friends stopped by the door and asked after you.
The police are after me.

b) deyimsel olarak ( all ) ile kullanırken ( her şeye rağmen/unutulmamalıdır ki anlamında);

I think she will understand I was right that night after all
I know he hasn’t finished the work, but after all, he is very busy.


a) Bir şeyden korunmak maksadıyla, karşı, … noktaya yaslanmak/dayanmak, aksi istikamette/yönde;

You should take medicine against any disease in advance. In Iraq, people are fighting against the enemy.
Stealing and smuggling are against the law. They sailed against the wind all day.
He rested his bicycle against the wall. He is against any proposal by that wearing-firm.
I voted against that party, but my friend voted for it.
Women are discriminated against in some underdeveloped countries.
It is about time we insured our house against an earthquake.
I think America intends to wage a war against Iraq for financial reason indeed.
I like leaning against my rocking chair and swinging back and forth.

b) “against” ile yaygın olarak kullanılan fiil ve isimler

align conspire guard insure protect vaccinate

allay defend immunize rebel vote
warn fight inoculate revolt battle bias
insurance prejudice shield conspiracy legislation crime


Baştan sona, kenarında, boyunca, …(karşıdan vs) gelmek, sırasında, (yol vs) üzerinde;

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We walked along the road/the river-bank. His office is along the corridor.
His house is along the road. We walked along the river bank.
Look at the man coming along! I know him by sight.


(together with/in addition to/as well as) (... ile birlikte anlamında)

A group of school children arrived, along with their teacher.

Put this letter in the file, along with the others.
I ate some chocolates along with some fruit.


(except for/with the exception of/aside from/as well as) … nın/nin dışında, haricinde, (anlamca olumsuz
cümlelerde), …nın/nin yanı sıra (anlamca olumlu

I can’t think of anything else apart from getting into university.

Apart from the recent book, he hasn’t still published any book.
Apart from a nice house, he has also bought a speed-car.
Apart from giving harm to the environment, it is also bad for your health.

a) Etrafında, yakınında, civarında

We all sat around the kitchen table. The moon goes around the world.
He has travelled around the world. He put his arm around her.
He lives somewhere around Eskişehir. Let’s go around the town, not through it.
The Earth spins/goes around the Sun in our endless solar system.

b) Yaklaşık olarak, hemen hemen ve “şurda burda” anlamında

They walked around the street. I’ll call you around 8.30 tonight.
The book cost me around thirty pounds. I think his father is around 45.

BEFORE(=in front of)

a) … “-den/-dan önce(süreç anlamında), çok geçmeden” derken;

I saw him the day before Tuesday and he was in a good condition.
Before long, you will find it very easy to get accustomed to living here.

b) Daha önemli konumda olma, ... (konum olarak) önünde ya da başında derken;

Your name comes before mine in the list. The defendant shuddered with fear before the stern judge.
We were having our dinner before the fire. The headmaster congratulated him before the whole school.
A good company should put quality before quantity.


a) –e/-a doğru, gerisinde, arkasında, ya da desteklemek amacıyla arkasında olmak;

The girl stood just behind me when tried to enter the office.
Never say anything behind a person’s back that you wouldn’t say to his face.
Our house is just behind your house. We are all behind you in this decision.

b) …-den/-dan daha az iyi, aşağısında olma, geç kalma ya da zamanın çok gerisinde kalma;

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We are three points behind the team in the first place. He is a long way behind with his work.
His ideas are behind the times. We are a month behind with the rent.


Daha aşağıda (mevkice vs), altında( not; burada “altında” darken temas söz konusu değildir);

A captain is below a general. The temperature today is below freezing point.

In boxing it is a foul to hit below the belt. Write your name in the space below.
He lives on the floor below us.
The climbers stopped 400m below the top of the mountain.
A moment later the sun had disappeared below the horizon.
It is quite interesting to swim below the surface of the water.


a) Aşağıda, altında, üstü kapalı bir şeyin altında (biraz gizlilik anlamı vardır)

The ocean-liner sank beneath the waves. She found pleasure in sitting beneath the trees.
He concealed the money beneath the mattress. He had two pillows beneath his head

b) Seviye ya da kapasite bakımından daha aşağı olma, değmez, önemsiz anlamlarında;

He is far beneath Julia in intelligence. What he said is beneath contempt.


a) Yanında, yanı başında, konu ile ilgisi olmama, alakasız;

The man who delivered the next speech was standing just beside me.
We were sitting beside the river / the sea.
What you have said is unfortunately beside the main point.
What he has said is quite beside the question.

b) ...ile kıyasla,… oranla, kendinden geçme halinde olma;

The sales figures for this year don’t look very good beside last year’s results.
I was absolutely beside myself with furry at her indifference.
He was beside himself with rage.


(yanı sıra, ilaveten, ek olarak, ayrıca anlamında kullanılır.)

I think she has got many good qualities besides being beautiful.
There was only one person besides John who knew the woman.
He knows three other languages besides English.


İki kişi ya da nesne arasında

There is always a regular air service between Ankara and İstanbul

He is sitting between Ali and Tolga over there. Negotiations are being held between the two countries in Spain.

a) (kapasite, zeka, yetenek bakımından) ötesinde,( fiziksel konum olarak) ötesinde, sınırı ihlal ederek;

Our farm is beyond that mountain. The woods go for about two miles beyond the river.
Don’t stay there beyond midnight. The fruit was beyond my reach.
It’s beyond me why she married him. The situation has changed beyond recognition.
What he said was beyond my comprehension.

b) Dışında, bundan başka, ayrıca;

I own nothing beyond the clothes on my back. I can’t tell you anything beyond what you know already.

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(ancak, …-den/-dan başka, … hariç anlamlarında kullanılır.)

There is no one here but me. Who but Michael would have done such a thing.
I haven’t told this secret to anyone but you. I could answer all the questions but one.


a) Yanında, yakınında, bir kimse tarafından, bir şeyi kullanarak ya da vasıtasıyla, tek başına, yalnız olarak;

He was standing anxiously by the window, watching the parade.

Let us have a walk by the seashore, as it is awfully nice today.
The book “David Copperfield” was written by Charles Dickens.
He did all the work by himself without having much difficulty.
A thief does not enter a house by the door, instead, through window.
No one can earn enough money only by writing today.
Sorry, I took your book by mistake yesterday evening.

b) … yanından geçmek, …-e/-a ya kadar, bir kural ya da talimat doğrultusunda, miktar ya da toplam
belirtmek için, ölçü birimleri ile, birbiri peşi sıra, esnasında ya da süresince, … olarak,

The dog seized the thief by the leg. You should be there by 5 o’clock.
By next week, he will have registered to the school. He passed by me without noticing my presence there.
I go by his office every day. Every game should be played by its rules.
They overcharged me by 3 dollars. We need a room 15 feet by 20 feet.
You can’t multiply zero by zero. Sugar is sold by the pound and petrol by the gallon.
You should ask the challenging questions one by one. Cats sleep by day and hunt by night.


(hrough/with the help of/by way of) (Vasıtasıyla, yoluyla anlamında kullanılır.)

They escaped by means of a tunnel.

They crossed the bridge by means of a rope.
Information is gathered by means of a computer.
This is a two-year course taught by means of lectures and seminars.

BY NO MEANS (asla,katiyen,kesinlikle,hiçbir surette)

It’s by no means certain that we will be able to move to our new flat in October.
It’s by no means that you will pass your driving test without studying hard.

CONCERNING(=about/over) (hakkında,ile ilgili olarak, konusunda vs)

He wants to ask your advice concerning one or two questions.

Concerning the point raised by the previous speaker, I can add nothing to what I have already said.
The journalist wrote a number of articles concerning the prisons and prisoners in Turkey.

CONSIDERING(… göz önünde bulundurulursa, … bakıldığı zaman : in view of/with regard to)

Considering the circumstances, this was an important decision for their team.
Considering what you have done for him, I think he should be grateful to you.

DOWN (aşağı doğru, aşağıda, aşağıya vs)

They were running down the street. The bathroom is down those stairs.
They live just down the road. He looked down the pipe.

DURING(Sırasında, esnasında, esnasınca, … boyunca vs)

The sun gives light during the day-time and the moon during the night.
A large numbers of tourists visit our town during the festivals.
He looked after my son during my illness.
During his childhood, he was quite a selfish person.

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EXCEPT ( for ) (=save for/excluding) (dışında, haricinde, …-den/-dan başka/ziyade vs)

He answered all the questions except (for) the last one.

I know nothing about it except (for) what I read in the paper.
Everyone except (for) him answered the last question correctly.

EXCLUDING (…nın/nin dışında vs)

There was everybody at the party excluding the Browns.

Excluding Paris and Germany, the other states of Europe are ill-developed countries.

FOLLOWING(=after) (…-den/-dan sonra, … sonrasında vs)

Following the meeting, we went to a nice restaurant and had a delicious meal.
Following his arrest, there were demonstrations in many parts of the country.
Following the next Tuesday, they flew to America to pay visit to his grandma.


a) …için, amaç belirtmek içim, …nın/nin yerine, adına, yararına, yüzünden, … -den/ - dan dolayı ya da
süresince derken;

The doctor gave her some medicine for her cold. This knife is used for cutting bread.
I hated him for humiliated me in front of everybody there. People some cigarettes for a variety of reasons.
The weather was very bad for several days/ a week. Let me lift that heavy box for you, darling.
The train left for Bursa just now.

b) Göz önüne alındığında, …olarak/niyetine, …-nın/nin karşılığı olarak, ücret veya miktar belirtirken, ile
ilgili/bağlantılı olarak,

She is rather tall for her age. The weather is very warm for November.
What shall we buy her for her birthday present? This medicine is good for a cough.
Turkey is famous for its historical sites.

c) “for” ilgeci ile yaygın olarak kullanılan fill ve sıfatlar;

admiration appreciation dislike explanation need

affection hatred reputation affinity cure
disrespect justification passion appeal demand
enthusiasm love quest contempt reason
adequate conspicuous famous homesick proper
sufficient anxious eager fit liable
qualified suitable appropriate eligible good
necessary responsible useful notorious sorry
bound enough grateful


Başlayarak, …-den/-dan gelmek, …meydana gelmek, hangi memleketten olduğunu söylerken, ayrıcalık, farklılık veya
uzaklık belirtirken, ya da yüzünden/dolayı vs gibi sebeb sonuç ilişkisi ifade ederken kullanılır.

He is blind from birth. My math teacher Güngör is from Adana.

We’re very far from our hometown now. My friend Berrin comes from a notable and rich family.
The shop is open from eight till/until five o’clock ever day. He read the book from the beginning to the end in half
an hour.
Bread is made from flour. I grew those plants from seed.
The siblings are so alike that I can’t tell one from the other. They suffered a lot from cold and hunger during the war.

Uyarı: “from” ilgeci ile yaygın olarak kullanılan fiil ve sıfatlar

abstain benefit date deduce depart

deviate emerge escape diverge infer
recover profit refrain resign result
retire suffer alienate ban bar
borrow derive deter differentiate divert

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discriminate distinguish draw eliminate exclude
hinder prevent


İçinde, içerisinde, kapalı bir mekan olarak;

Put those packages inside the car.

I opened the box slowly and saw a nice gift inside to be given her on her birthday.


a) içine, içeriye doğru, fikir,karakter vs veya yaşam tarzı değiştirirken, bir şeye çarpmada ve bir konuyla

It was heavily raining, so they went into the house. She jumped into the pool all at once.
She got into trouble by saying she knew the main reason for the death. She developed into a beautiful woman.
Could you please, turn this article from Turkish into English? His new car ran into a wall while going to Ankara.
He has given up photography now, and he’s into religion and modern music.

b) “into” ile yaygın olarak kullanılan fiil ve isimler;

incorporate transform classify burst put crash

investigation intrusion insight split come inquiry

IRRESPECTIVE OF(=without considering) (…-e/-a’ya bakmaksızın, göz önüne almaksızın;)

Severe measures will be taken against those responsible for this tragic event irrespective of their rank.
Irrespective of their races, they would help them in every matter.

LET ALONE (…şöyle dursun, bırakın …/ … bile (yapamaz)

Turkey cannot even support its present population let alone cope with the influx of refugees.

LIKE (benzer şekilde, aynı şekilde, …gibi, ve örneğin derken)

When the car is painted it will look like a Mercedes. I can’t speak English like you.
It was like me( typical of ). Don’t look at me like that.
I asked lots of people, like Mr. Jack and Mrs. Brown He was crying like a baby.


a) Ait olma durumunda, …oluşuyor,…-yı/yi içeriyor, bir şeyden yapılmış olma, tarafından derken,
tamlamalarda, ya da bir kimsenin özelliğinden ya da niteliğinden, ile ilgili diye bahsederken;

The results of the experiment were rather shocking. Mrs. Onur is a lady of intelligence and charm.
He is a politician of great integrity. Could you give me a kilo of sugar, please?
He gave me a piece of good advice yesterday afternoon. What do you think about the plays of Shakespeare?
I very muck like the stories of adventure. I think the outcome of the elections will lead to the resignation of him.

b) İle alakalı, ile bağlantılı olarak, tarihlerle, (saatlerde) …-den/-dan önce, esnasında, bir kimsenin yaşı,
süresince gibi ifadelerle;

The doctor cured me of my illness. Yesterday, her uncle died of lung cancer.
We will hold a meeting on the fifth of April. It’s five of two.
He is a man of 50. They always like to go there of an evening

c) “of” ile yaygın olarak kullanılan bazı fiil,sıfat ve isimler;

afraid conscious fearful heedful mindful sure

aware critical neglectful thoughtful capable deserving
fond hopeful negligent careful desirous forgetful
ignorant oblivious tolerant destitute frightened illustrative
positive void certain destructive full innocent
proud wary characteristic devoid glad scared
weary cognizant envious guilty jealous short
worthy approve complain despair dispose know

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beware conceive die dream repent taste
boast consist disapprove hear smell think
accuse convict inform remind suspect acquit
cure notify rob assure deprive relieve


…-den/-dan ayrılmak, uzaklaşmak, bitişiğinde, bir şeye sahip olmama, …-den/-dan uzak durma, … açıklarında, bir
yere giderken;

Turn off the main road here and you will come to the office. The picture fell off the wall.
My house is just 50 meters off Main Street. No one can keep the children off the road here.
The post office is just off High Street. We are getting off the main topic.
He jumped off the bus. There is a nice island off the coast of France.
He is off cigarettes. We are off to İstanbul next week.

OUTSIDE (Kapalı bir yerden, içeriden dışarı doğru, dışarıda derken)

Outside the building, there were a lot of people awaiting for the concert.
No one outside the family knew of the fair.
Art and science are uniquely human actions, outside the range of anything that an animal can do.
ON ACCOUNT OF(=because of/owing to/due to) (…-den/-dan dolayı gibi sebep sonuç ilişkisi ifade eden yapılarla)

The diplomat was expelled on account of his involvement in embezzlement.

On account of his carelessness, we had a terrible accident on the motorway.

ONTO (Üzerine, üstüne derken)

The bird perched onto the curtain rail. She fell back onto the bed.
He threw the books violently onto the floor.

OPPOSITE (Karşıda, karşısında, karşı tarafında)

Our school is opposite the post office.

There is a newly-married couple living opposite.
The man who sat just opposite me kept staring at me.

OTHER THAN (…-nın/-nin dışında, …-den/-dan başka/ziyade)

She thinks I’m rich, but the fact is that I don’t have a thing other than this car.
No one other than his relatives went to his funeral. I know of no famous actress other than Julia Roberts.


İçeriden dışarı doğru, … (insan ya da nesne) arasından, …sırf –den/-dan dolayı, den dolayı, yüzünden ve bir şeyin
yapıldığı orijinal maddeyi belirtmede ya da (para ya da herhangi bir nesnenin) yokluğundan/eksikliğinden söz

He jumped out of bed and went out of the room. We watched them until they were out of sight.
Three out of four people chose this soap. I came here just out of curiosity to see what had happened here.
We are nearly out of money/gasoline. This table is made out of wood.
She has woken up out of a deep sleep when she heard a sudden noise.


a) Üzerinde, … ve üzeri (yaş vs bakımından), … üzerinden, üstünden, ( uzun zaman, yıllar geçtikten) sonra, …-
den fazla/ -den ziyade ötede ve konusunda, hakkında, tekrar tekrar, yanı sıra gibi ifadelerle;

fly over (an ocean) over the table (ran) over the dog
helicopter over (somewhere) over the street over the wall
people who are 18 and over over (forty books) over the years
over (famine) over and over over the fence

b) … nın/nin her tarafında, … üzerinden/vasıtasıyla, yönetimi yada komutası altında olma, her yeri/tarafı,
kapatmak ya da örtmekle ve esnasında, iken ile ilgili ifadelerle;

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over (his) face over dinner/Christmas
over the phone/radio over Europe/ the world

c) “over” ile yaygın olarak kullanılan fiil ve isimler;

agonize come to terms fuss quarrel wrangle argue

disagree grieve puzzle row clash fight
triumph advantage battle controversy grief victory
concern control dispute outcry mastery


a) Baştan sona, bir yandan öbür yana, içinden, arasından geçerek, …yoluyla/vasıtasıyla,
…nedeniyle/sebebiyle/yüzünden-den/-dan dolayı ya da … sonucunda derken;

They walked through the park/woods/forest/field. We drove through the tunnel.

The company lost several orders through production delays. She has had a lot of days off through illness this year.
She climbed in through the window. It was through my brother that I got this post.
It was through your carelessness that we had an accident last month. We walked through the village.

b) …yerden/bir şeyden (sınav vs) geçerek, geçme halinde, boyunca, sonuna dek, iki zaman dilimi arasında ve
bir takım deyimsel ifadelerle;

I walked through a red light. Did you get through your examination?
I don’t think the old man will live through the night. I read right through the book.
He and I worked all through our holidays this summer. We worked Wednesday through Sunday.
The dentist will be in his clinic from 4 o’clock through 7 o’clock.

THROUGHOUT( Tarih vs ) boyunca, ( yer, ülke vs) çapında;

Throughout the country, many people are out of work.

Mathematics is studied throughout the entire undergraduate course of study.
The doctor told us that our child would need medical care throughout his life.
The cancer has spread throughout John’s body.


a) …-e/-a doğru, bir yere/şeye doğru yönelirken;

We stayed there from Monday to Tuesday and we had a lot of fun.

She threw the ball to me. She wants a room to herself.

b) (bir kimseye vs) karşı, (zaman ifadelerinde ya da toplama işlemlerinde kala) derken, … nın/nin üzerine, her
bir için derken;

He is rather kind to the people around her. They live next door to me.
Let’s drink to his success. It is ten to 23:00.
We went to Istanbul to visit the old and historical places there. There are 100 cents to the dollar.

c) diğer ifadelerle;

We must set to work on that job as soon as possible. No more sugar; please, it is exactly to my liking.
I prefer this book to that one.


a) Yönünde, -e/-a doğru, yönelik olarak, fazla geçmeden, belli bir zaman diliminden once;

She was walking toward town when I met her. The pilgrims headed toward Mecca.
Toward the end of the afternoon, it began to rain. My feelings towards her have changed over the years.
Our students lose their interest in virtually all subjects towards the end of the term.

b) Bir ödemeden yapılan kesinti, gelir söz konusu olunca;

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We save 25 dollars a week toward our trip to London.I’ll pay you something toward what I owe you.


a) Birinin kontrolü ya da emir altında olmak, ... aşağısında/altında, … nın/nin idaresi altında/sırasında darken;

He has three engineers under his control. I did those all under orders.
Children under 18 shouldn’t drink alcohol. You cannot sign that contract, as you are under age.
Turkey under Atatürk was a fast-developing country unlike its condition now.

b) …(fiziksel mekan olarak) altında, … sınıfından/sınıflandırma, değişik durum ve hallerde, (inşaat vs)
yapılmakta, (görüş, fakir ya da konu) ilgilenmekte ya da tartışılmakta diye derken;

You are not under obligation to pay for the damage to his car. The situation is still not under control.
More hospitals are under constructions. Investigation is under way.
The main road and the highway forward are still under repair. Rabbits come under “Animals” in the list.
This topic has still been under discussion for a long time The proposal is now under consideration.
Under no circumstances can you leave me here alone tonight. What are you wearing under your coat?

UNDERNEATH(=under)(Altında, alt tarafında)

He swept the dirt underneath the rug. The insect crept underneath the door.

İeride, yukarıda, üzerinde, karşı yönde, aksi istikamette, yukarıya, yukarıda, yukarı doğru;

They live just up the road. Hang your hat up here.

You cannot swim up the running water. Is the elevator going up or down?

UP AND DOWN (Yukarı aşağı, ileri geri, … boyunca)

Why are you climbing up and down the ladder?

His eyes moved up and down the rows of people, looking for his son.
The prisoners usually walk up and down.

UNTIL(Kadar, değin anlamında)

I cannot wait until tomorrow.

Keep driving straight until you get the school, and then turn the left, you will see the house.
We waited outside the class until (till) the teacher finished his lecture.

UPON (Üzerinde, …-den/-dan sonra anlamında)

All eyes were upon me, so naturally I felt a bit embarrassed.

You can never place enough emphasis upon the importance of safety.
Upon completing his job, he left for a summer vacation.
Upon arrival, you should register at the information desk.


a) İle beraber, sahip olma, … vasıtasıyla, … ile kaplı, ile örtülü, … yoluyla,… kullanarak;

Have you brought up all your money with you?

A man with plenty of money has plenty of friends?
After the heavy rain, almost everywhere was covered with mud.
His heart was filled with excitement when he saw his girlfriend after years of her absence.
What do you think to do with the money you have inherited your grandma?
I see with my eyes, hear with my ears and smell with my nose.

b) Destekleyerek, destek olmak, … ile aynı doğrultuda, istikamette, aynı oranda/zamanda, karşı olarak, karşı,
…-e/-a rağmen, …-den/-dan dolayı, yüzünden , …ile ilgili, durumunda derken;

I am with you no matter what may happen to us both, so what about you?
It is very easy to sail with the wind.
The achievement of a student improves with time.

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In Independence War, the Turks had to fight with nearly 6 nations for defending their country.
With all his faults, I still like him very much.
With excitement and less concentration, I almost failed the exam.

WITHIN (İçeride, içinde, geçmeden, aşmadan, (zaman vs için) içerisinde derken)

When the house was on fire, there were many people within the building.
They will arrive within an hour.
You should always keep within the law.
I will be back within a few minutes.

WITHOUT (…olmaksızın, …sız/siz, …sızın/sizin, (do without)…sız/siz yapamamak)

Don’t go out without a coat in winter. I had a night without sleep so I feel sleepy now.
I have been here without money for days. I cannot do without you, as I love you much.
If we cannot afford a new car, we will have to do without it

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