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Chapter 2

Circular walls of
constant thickness

2.1 INTRODUCTION

As mentioned earlier, to analyze a circular-­cylindrical shell subjected to


axisymmetrical loading, it is sufficient to consider a typical elemental strip
parallel to the axis of the cylinder. In this chapter, it will be shown that such
an element deflects as a beam on elastic foundation, and the differential
equation relating the load to the deflection will be derived. The solution of
the equation in a closed form for a constant-­thickness wall will also be dis-
cussed here. When the thickness of the wall varies in an arbitrary fashion,
the solution is obtained by numerical procedures discussed in Chapter 3.

2.2 BEAM-­O N-­E LASTIC-­FOUNDATION ANALOGY

An axisymmetrical outward radial loading of intensity q per unit area on


a thin cylindrical shell (Figure 2.1a) causes an outward radial deflection,
w, which represents an increase in the radius of the cylinder, r. A circum-
ferential strain of magnitude w/­r is developed accompanied by hoop force
per unit length

Eh
N= w , (2.1)
r

where r is the radius of the middle surface of the cylinder, h its thickness,
and E the modulus of elasticity. A tensile hoop force is considered positive;
q and w are positive when outward.
Consider a strip of unit width along a generatrix of the cylinder. The
hoop forces on the two sides of the strip have a radial resultant of magni-
tude (Figure 2.1b)

N Eh
q=− = − 2 w . (2.2)
r r

15
16  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

l q q

r r w

(a) Section through axis of cylinder showing positive directions of load


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and deflection

r
N
Resultant
q– = –N/r

Strip 1
width N

(b) Section normal to the cylinder axis

1
Stress caused by
bending moment σ
M Stress caused by
vσ vσ
circumferential
σ bending moment
Mφ = vM
(c) Stresses at any lamina on a vertical strip

Figure 2.1 Circular-­cylindrical wall subjected to axisymmetrical loading.

The minus sign indicates that the resultant acts in the inward direction. The
strip thus behaves as a beam on elastic foundation subjected to external
applied load of intensity q and receives in the opposite direction a reac-
tion of intensity q proportional at any point to the deflection, such that
q = −kw. The value k is the modulus of the foundation (force/­length3)

Eh
k= . (2.3)
r2

When the strip is subjected to positive bending moment M, tensile and


compressive stresses are produced parallel to a generatrix on the outer
and inner faces, respectively. Owing to Poisson’s effect, the two edges of the
strip tend to rotate out from their original radial plane. Because of symmetry,
Circular walls of constant thickness  17

this rotation cannot occur as the sides of any strip must remain in radial
planes; thus as the strip bends the lateral extension is prevented. The
restraining influence is produced by a bending moment M ϕ in the circum-
ferential direction

Mφ = vM , (2.4)

where v is Poisson’s ratio. The stresses at any point on the outer surface of
the shell, or at any lamina, will be as shown in Figure 2.1c, and the strain
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parallel to a generatrix will be (σ/­E) – v(vσ/­E) = σ(1 – v 2)/E. Thus, the effect
of M ϕ is equivalent to an increase in the modulus of elasticity by the ratio
1/(1 – v 2). It follows that a strip of unit width along the generatrix of a cir-
cular cylinder subjected to axisymmetrical load has the same deflection as
that of a beam on elastic foundation for which the foundation modulus is
given by Equation (2.3) and the flexural rigidity of the beam is

Eh3
EI = . (2.5)
12(1 − v 2 )

With the usual assumption in the bending of beams, that is, that plane
cross-­sections remain plane, the moment M and the deflection w at any
point x (Figure 2.1a) are related:

d2w
M = − EI . (2.6)
dx2

The intensity q* of the resultant transverse load at any position is equal


to the algebraic sum of the external applied load and the elastic founda-
tion reaction:

q* = q + q = q − kw . (2.7)

The shearing force V, the bending moment, and the load intensity q* are
related:

dM d  d2w 
V= =− EI 2  , (2.8)
dx dx  dx 

dV d2M
q* = − =− . (2.9)
dx dx2
18  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

Substituting Equations (2.6) and (2.7) into Equation (2.9) gives the dif-
ferential equation relating the deflection of a beam on elastic foundation to
the intensity of the external applied load:

d2  d2 w 
EI 2  + kw = q . (2.10)
dx2  dx 

When the beam has a constant flexural rigidity, the differential equation
of the elastic line is
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d4 w
EI + kw = q . (2.11)
dx4

2.3 GENERAL SOLUTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL


EQUATION OF THE DEFLECTION OF A
WALL OF CONSTANT THICKNESS

Consider a beam on elastic foundation, with EI and k constants, subjected


to a concentrated load P, a couple C, and a distributed load of intensity q
(Figure 2.2).
It can be shown1 that the deflection at any point of the portion AG
(between the left end and the first external applied load) is

θ0 M V
w = w0Y1 + Y2 − 2 0 Y3 − 3 0 Y4 . (2.12)
β β EI β EI

xE
xD
xG
P q ML
Deflection C Deflection
M A B X
at A = w0 0 at B = wL
Slope V0 G D E F Slope
Vl
at A = θ0 at B = θL
u
x
w
l

Figure 2.2 Derivation of Equation (2.16) for the deflection at any point in terms of the
loads and the conditions at the left end of a beam on elastic foundation. M 0,
V0, Ml, and Vl are the bending moments and shearing forces at the two ends,
indicated in their positive directions.
Circular walls of constant thickness  19

This equation, which satisfies the differential Equation (2.11), expresses w


in terms of w 0, θ0, M 0, and V0, which are respectively the deflection, the
rotation (dw/­d x), the bending moment, and the shearing force at the left
end of the beam. The Y’s are functions of the dimensionless variable (βx),
where β is called the characteristic factor of the beam:

 k 
β=4 . (2.13)
 4EI 
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Since β has the dimension length–1, the term (1/β) is called the characteristic
length. The Y-­functions are used by several authors and their values given in
tables for different values of the variable. 2 The functions are defined next:

Y1 = Y1(βx) = cosh βx cos βx ,

Y2 = Y2 (βx) = 12 (cosh βx sin βx + sinh βx cos βx) ,


(2.14)
Y3 = Y3 (βx) = 12 sinh βx sin βx ,

Y4 = Y4 (βx) = 41 (cosh βx sin βx − sinh βx cos βx).

The Y-­functions and their first derivatives are related:

Y1′ = −4βY4 , Y2′ = βY1 , Y3′ = βY2 , Y4′ = βY3 . (2.15)

Successive differentiation results in similar sets of equations for higher


derivatives of the function Y.
The third and fourth terms in Equation (2.12) represent, respectively, the
effect of a couple M 0 and an upward force V0 on the deflection at any point
to the right of A. The couple C and the load P produce similar effects at sec-
tions to the right of their respective points of application. For example, not-
ing that the factor of M 0 in Equation (2.12) is (–1/β2 EI)Y3(βx), the couple
C applied at D should have a modifying effect of (–1/β2 EI)Y3[β(x – x D)] on
the deflection at points where x ≥ x D. The distributed load q can be treated
as if consisting of infinitesimal concentrated forces. The effect of the edge
forces and displacements at edge A together with the applied forces P, C,
and q can be obtained by superposition.
For instance, at any point F, where x E ≤ x ≤ l (l = the total length of
beam), the deflection is
20  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

θ0 M V
w = w0Y1(βx) + Y2 (βx) − 2 0 Y3 (βx) − 3 0 Y4 (βx)
β β EI β EI

C P
− 2 Y3 [β(x − xD)] + 3 Y4 [β(x − xG )] (2.16)
β EI β EI
x
1
+ 3
β EI ∫
xE
qY4 [β(x − u)] du ,
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where u is the distance from the left end to a variable point between E and
F (Figure 2.2). By differentiation of Equation (2.16), the slope, the bend-
ing moment, and the shear at any section can be obtained (see Equations
2.6 and 2.8). For the use of Equation (2.16), the values w 0, θ0, M 0, and
V0 at the left end A must be known. In practical application, two of these
values are known as well as two of the four quantities—wl, θl, Ml, and
Vl —at the right end B. Substituting for x = l in Equation (2.16) and using
the two known quantities at B will give two equations from which the two
unknown values at A can be determined.

2.4 CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS

When the equations in Section 2.3 are used for a circular-­cylindrical wall
of constant thickness, the characteristic factor β is obtained by substituting
Equations (2.3) and (2.5) into Equation (2.13):

4 3(1 − v 2 ) 
β= . (2.17)
(rh)

As discussed earlier, w, θ, M, and V will be the deflection, the slope,


the bending moment, and the shear of a strip of unit width along a gen-
eratrix of the cylinder. The hoop force N can be calculated from w using
Equation (2.1).
For any end conditions and loading, the variation of w, θ, M, and V along
a generatrix of the wall is characterized by the dimensionless parameter

α = βl (2.18a)
or

4 3(1 − v 2 ) 
α=l , (2.18b)
(rh)
Circular walls of constant thickness  21

where l is the length of the cylinder. For concrete structures, Poisson’s ratio
is between 1/6 and 1/5; using the first of these two values,
l
α = 1.3068 (2.18c)
(rh)
or
α = 1.848 η , (2.19)
where
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η = l 2 (dh) (2.20)

and d = 2r is the diameter of the middle surface of the wall.
All cylinders or beams on elastic foundations with the same value of α
and loading have a similar variation of w, θ, M, and V, such that each of
these quantities can be expressed as the product of a coefficient depending
on α and an appropriate multiplier. This fact enabled the preparation of
the design tables in Part II of this book in which the parameter η is used
instead of α. The equivalent values of the two parameters can be calculated
by Equation (2.19), which makes the tables usable for cylinders and more
generally for beams on elastic foundation. This will be discussed further in
Chapter 4, Section 4.8. The tables are prepared using a value of Poisson’s
ratio v = 1/6; varying this value to 1/5 has negligible effect. For a larger
variation in the value of v, the tables are usable but with simple corrections
discussed in Chapter 4, Section 4.7.

2.5 STIFFNESS AND FLEXIBILITY MATRICES

The solution discussed in the previous section is used to derive the stiffness
and the flexibility matrices for a cylindrical wall or a beam on elastic foun-
dation corresponding to the four coordinates in Figure 2.3a or Figure 2.3b.
The displacement at the four coordinates can be expressed in terms of w;
using Equation (2.12) and noting that Y1(0) = 1 and Y2(0) = Y3(0) = Y4(0)= 0,
      
 D1   (w)x=0  1 0 0 0   w0 
   dw     
 D2     0 α /l 0 0   − θ0l 
   dx  x=0     α  ,
 = = 
M l2

 D3   (w)x=l   y1 y2 y3 y4  − 20 
       α EI 
    dw     3 
D4       − V0l 
    −4αy4 l αy1 l αy2 l αy3 l   3 
   dx 
x=l   α EI 
(2.21)
22  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

x
4 4
3 3

1 1
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w
2 r r 2

(a) Circular wall: The four arrows represent the positive directions of
uniformly distributed forces {F} or displacements {D} at the edges

l
2 4
x
1 3
w

(b) Beam on elastic foundation

D2 = 1
S22 = SAB A S42 = t
B

S12 S32
(c) End forces corresponding to the deflected configuration with
D2 = 1 and D1 = D3 = D4 = 0

Figure 2.3 Coordinate system corresponding to the stiffness and flexibility matrices in


Equations (2.27) and (2.28), and Tables 12.16 and 12.17.

where yi = Yi(α) are the values of the Y-­functions at x = l (see Equation 2.14).
Equation (2.21) may be written in short form:

{D} = [C]{B}, (2.22)

where [C] and {B} are the 4 × 4 and 4 × 1 matrices on the right-­hand side
of Equation (2.21).
Circular walls of constant thickness  23

Similarly, the forces {F} at the four coordinates are related to the shearing
force and the bending moment at the two ends; thus using Equations (2.12),
(2.8), and (2.6),

     
 F1   −(V )x=0   0 0 0 α3 l 3 
 F2   (M)x=0   0 0 −α 2 l 2 0 
 =  = El  3 3 3 3 3 3
 {B} (2.23)
 F3   (V )x=l   4α y2 l 4α y3 l 4α y4 l −α y1 l  3 3

    4α 2 y l 2 −4α 3y l 2 α 3y l 2 2 
F
 4  − (M ) x=l  α y2 l 2 
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 3 4 1

or

{F} = [G]{B}, (2.23a)

where [G] is the product of EI and the square matrix in Equation (2.23).
Solving for {B} from Equation (2.22) and substituting into Equation
(2.23a),

{F } = [G][C ]−1 {D}. (2.24)

Putting

[ S ] = [G][C ]−1, (2.25)

Equation (2.24) takes the form [S]{D} = {F}, where [S] is the required stiff-
ness matrix. Likewise, solving for {B} from Equation (2.23a) and substitut-
ing into Equation (2.22), the latter equation takes the form [f]{F} = {D},
where

[ f ] = [C ][G]−1 (2.26)

is the flexibility matrix. Performing the matrix operations in Equations


(2.25) and (2.26) gives the stiffness matrix of a circular wall or a beam on
elastic foundation corresponding to the coordinate system in Figure 2.3a
or Figure 2.3b:
24  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

[ S ] = EI ×
 
 symmetrical 
 3 
  α (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 )  12 
  12(y3 − y2 y4 )  l |
2 3

 
 | 
 
  α 2 (y22 − y1y3)  6  α(y2 y3 − y1y4 )  4 
  2  2  2  
  6(y3 − y2 y4 )  l |  4(y3 − y2 y4 )  l |
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 
 | | 
 3 2

  α y2  12  α y3 6 
 −  12(y32 − y2 y4 )  l 3 |  6(y32 − y2 y4 )  l 2 
 
 | 3
 α (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 )  12 
  2  3

 |  12(y3 − y2 y4 )  l | 
 
 | | 
 2 2 2

  α y3 6  αy4  2  α (y2 − y1y3)  6  α(y2 y3 − y1y4 )  4 
  6(y32 − y2 y4 )  l 2 |  2(y32 − y2 y4 )  l |  6(y32 − y2 y4 )  l 2 |  4(y32 − y2 y4 )  l 
 
 | | | 

(2.27)
and the flexibility matrix

l3
[f ] = ×
4α 3EI (y32 − y2 y4 )

 
 y2 y3 − y1y | | symmetrical 
 −α(y22 − y1y3)/ll | α 2 (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 ) / l 2 | .
 
 − y4 | αy3 / l y2 y3 − y1y4 
 −αy3 /l α 2 y2 / l 2 α(y22 − y1y3) / l | α 2 (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 ) 
    | 
(2.28)

Each element of the stiffness matrix in Equation (2.27) includes a dimen-


sionless term between square brackets; its value tends to unity when the
foundation modulus k tends to zero (or each of β and α → 0). The stiffness
matrix will then be reduced to that of an unsupported prismatic beam;
hence [S] becomes singular and cannot be inverted to obtain [f].
The equation [S]{D} = {F}, or its inverse, [f]{F} = {D}, relates the values
of four end forces to the corresponding four displacements. Usually, four of
Circular walls of constant thickness  25

these eight values are known and one of these two equations can be solved
to find the other four (e.g., see Figure 1.6 and Figure 1.7). When D1, D 2 ,
F, and F 2 are determined, the variation of w, θ, M, and V can be found by
using Equation (2.12) and its derivatives, noting that D1 = w 0, D 2 = θ0,
F 1 = –V0, and F 2 = M 0:

    
w   Y1 | (Y2 /α)l | (Y4 /α 3)(l 3 /EI) | −(Y3 /α 2 )(l 2 /EI)   D1 
 θ   −4αY4 l | Y1 | (Y3 /α 2 )(l 2 /EI) | −(Y2 /α)(l /EI)  D2  .
 =  
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2 2
M  4α Y3EI l | 4αY4 EI l | −(Y2 /α)l | Y1   F1 
   3 3 2 2  F 
V
   4α Y2 EI l | 4α Y3 EI l | −Y1 | −4αY4 l  2 
(2.29)

2.6 END-­ROTATIONAL STIFFNESS
AND CARRY-­OVER FACTOR

The end-­ rotational stiffness and the carry-­ over moments used in the
method of moment distribution were defined in Chapter 1, Section 1.7.1.
Figure 2.3c shows a beam on elastic foundation for which a unit angular
displacement is introduced at end A while end B is fixed. The magnitudes
of the end forces to hold the beam in this deflected shape are equal to the
elements of the second column of the stiffness matrix corresponding to the
coordinates in Figure 2.3b. The two end moments at A and B are the end-­
rotational stiffness and the carry-­over moment; thus

SAB = S22 , (2.30)

t = S42 , (2.31)

where S 22 and S 42 are elements of the stiffness matrix (Equation 2.27). The
carry-­over factor

CAB = S42 S22 . (2.32)

The values of C AB are given in Table 2.1 for various values of the char-
acteristic parameter η = l2 /(dh). It can be seen that C AB becomes very small
when η ≥ 3.0 (or βl ≥ 3.2).

Table 2.1  Carry-­over factor for circular-­cylindrical wall of constant thickness


η 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 3.0 4.0
CAB = CBA 0.5000 0.4785 0.4214 0.3459 0.2681 0.1983 0.0763 0.0160
26  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

2.7 FIXED- ­E ND FORCES

The solution discussed in Section 2.3 is used next to derive equations for
the fixed-­end forces, the variation of the deflection w [or the hoop force
N = (Eh/­r)w], and the bending moment M for a circular-­cylindrical wall or
a beam on elastic foundation subjected to cases of loading frequently used
in practice.

2.7.1 Uniform or linearly varying load


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The four fixed-­end forces (Figure 2.4a or Figure 2.4b) are given by

q1 
{F } = [ H ]   , (2.33)
q0 − q1 

where q 0 and q1 are the load intensities at x = 0 and x = l, respectively (force


per unit area for the cylinder or force per unit length for the beam); and [H]
is a 4 × 2 matrix for which the elements are

 y y − y + 4 y3y4   l 
H11 = H31 =  1 2 2 2   −  (2.34)
 2α(y3 − y2 y4 )   2 

 3(y y − y + 4 y42 )   l 2 
H 21 = − H 41 =  12 3 2 3   −  (2.35)
 α (y3 − y2 y4 )   2 

 α −1(y1y3 − y22 − y3) + y1y2 + 4 y3y4   7l 


H12 =    − 20  (2.36)
 1.4α(y32 − y2 y4 ) 

 α −1(y1y4 − y2 y3 − y4 ) + y1y3 + 4 y42   l 2 


H 22 =    − 20  (2.37)
 0.2α 2 (y32 − y2 y4 )  

H32 = H11 − H12 (2.38)

H 42 = H 22 − H 21 . (2.39)

Each element of [H] includes a dimensionless term written between


square brackets in Equations (2.34) to (2.37); each of these terms tends to
unity when the foundation modulus k tends to zero (or when β or α tends
to zero). The elements in the first and second columns of [H] will then
Circular walls of constant thickness  27

x
F4 ql ql F4
q0
F3 F3 ql
x
l F2 F4
F1 F3
w
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F1 F1
w l
F2 F2
q0 q0
(a) Pressure normal to wall surface (b) Linearly varying load
of linearly varying intensity

x
F4 F4
b c
F3 B F3 c P
P P F2 A B F4
l D x
b D
F1 F3
F1 A F1 w
w
l

F1 F2
(c) Uniform radial load of intensity P per (d) Concentrated load P
unit length of perimeter

x
F4 F4
b c
F3 B F3 c
C C C F4
l D F2 A B
x
b
F1 D F3
F1 A F1
w l
w
F2 F2

(e) Uniformly distributed radial moment of (f ) Couple C


intensity C per unit length of perimeter

Figure 2.4 Fixed-­end forces for a circular-­cylindrical wall and for a beam on elastic
foundation.
28  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

respectively be equal to the fixed-­end forces for an ordinary prismatic beam


(without elastic foundation) subjected to a uniform load of unit intensity
and to a triangular load of unit intensity at x = 0 and zero at x = l.
The deflection and the bending moment at any point are given by

Y4 F1l 3 Y3 F2l 2  1 − Y1  ql l 4
w= − +
α 3 EI α 2 EI  4α 4  EI
(2.40)
4
 1 − (x l) − Y1 + (Y2 α)  (q0 − ql )l
+ 
 4α 4 EI
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and
Y2 Y  Y − (Y α) 
M=− F1 l + F2Y1 − 32 ql l 2 −  3 24 2
 (q0 − q1)l . (2.41)
α α  α

For a uniform load of intensity q, substitute q = ql and (q 0 – ql) = 0 in


Equations (2.33) to (2.41), and for a triangular load of intensity q at x = 0
and zero at x = l, substitute ql = 0 and q = q 0 – ql.

2.7.2 Concentrated load
A uniformly distributed outward radial force of intensity P per unit length
acting on a circular-­cylindrical wall (Figure 2.4c), or a concentrated load
P on a beam on elastic foundation (Figure  2.4d) produces the following
fixed-­end forces:

 y Y (αc l) − y3Y3 (αc l) 


F1 =  2 4  P , (2.42)
 y32 − y2 y4 

 α −1[ y3Y4 (αc l) − y4Y3 (αc l)] 


F2 =   Pl . (2.43)
 y32 − y2 y4 

For F 3 and F4, use Equation (2.42) and Equation (2.43), respectively, replac-
ing c by b and changing the sign of the right-­hand side in the latter equation.
The deflection and the bending moment at any point between A and D,
0 ≤ x ≤ b, are

Y4 F1l 3 Y3 F2l 2
w= − , (2.44)
α 3 EI α 2 EI

Y2
M=− F1l + F2Y1, (2.45)
α
Circular walls of constant thickness  29

and between D and B, b ≤ x ≤ l, are

Y4 F1l 3 Y3 F2l 2 Y4[α(x − b) l ] Pl 3


w= − + , (2.46)
α 3 EI α 2 EI α3 EI

Y2 Y [α(x − b) l ]
M=− F1l + F2Y1 − 2 Pl . (2.47)
α α
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2.7.3 Couple
An external applied moment of intensity C per unit length applied in radial
planes on a circular-­cylindrical wall (Figure 2.4e), or a couple C on a beam
on elastic foundation (Figure 2.4f) produces the following fixed-­end forces:

α[ y3Y2 (αc l) − y2Y3 (αc l)] C


F1 = , (2.48)
y32 − y2 y4 l

y4Y2 (αc l) − y3Y3 (αc l)]


F2 = C , (2.49)
y32 − y2 y4

α[ y2Y3 (αb l) − y3Y2 (αb l)] C


F3 = . (2.50)
y32 − y2 y4 l

For F4, use Equation (2.49), replacing b by c. The deflection and the bend-
ing moment at any point between A and D, 0 ≤ x ≤ b, are given by Equations
(2.44) and (2.45) with F 1 and F 2 as in Equations (2.48) and (2.49). For
part DB (Figure 2.4f or Figure 2.4e),

Y4 F1l 3 Y3 F2l 2 Y3[α(x − b) l ] Cl 2


w= − − , (2.51)
α 3 EI α 2 EI α2 EI

Y2
M=− F1l + F2Y1 + {Y1[α(x − b) l ]}C . (2.52)
α

2.8 SEMI-­I NFINITE BEAM ON ELASTIC


FOUNDATION AND SIMPLIFIED
EQUATIONS FOR LONG CYLINDERS

The analysis of the effect of the edge forces or displacements of a circular-­


cylindrical wall or of a beam on elastic foundation becomes considerably
30  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

2 A B x

1 x=∞

(a) Semi-infinite beam on elastic foundation

x
B
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A
1 1 w
2 2
r r

(b) Long circular-cylindrical wall

Figure 2.5 Coordinate system used for the derivation of Equations (2.53) to (2.58).

simpler when the value of the characteristic parameter α = βl becomes rela-


tively high. For derivation of simplified equations, consider the semi-­infinite
beam or cylinder in Figure 2.5a or Figure 2.5b. It is reasonable to assume
that the effect of forces F 1 and F 2 at edge A dies out gradually as x increases;
in other words as x → ∞, w → 0 and (dw/­dx) → 0. Thus, it is possible to
relate the forces and the displacements at the two coordinates (Figure 2.5)
by the equation [f]{F} = {D} or its inverse [S]{D} = {F}, where

4β2 2β 
[ S ] = βEI   (2.53)
 2β 2

and

1  2 −2β 
[f ] = . (2.54)
4β3EI  −2β 4β2 
Circular walls of constant thickness  31

The last two equations can be derived by partitioning each of the 4 × 4


matrices in Equations (2.27) and (2.28) into four 2 × 2 submatrices. As α
tends to ∞ the off-­diagonal submatrices become null, indicating uncoupling
of the forces (or of the displacements at the two ends), while the diagonal
submatrices tend to the values in Equations (2.53) and (2.54). (For this
derivation, it should be noted that for large values of α, sinh α ≃ cosh α ≃
e α /2, y1 = (e α cos α)/2 and so on.)
Substitution for F 1 and F 2 in terms of the displacements D1 and D 2 (or
vice versa) into Equation (2.29) results in the following two equations,
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which give the variation of w, θ, M, and V caused by displacements or


forces introduced at the edge of a semi-­infinite beam on elastic foundation
or cylinder (Figure 2.5):

w   Z1 Z2 /β 
 θ   −2βZ 
   2 Z3   D1 
 = 2  =   (2.55)
M
   2β EIZ 3 2βEIZ4  D2 
 V  −4β3EIZ4 −2β2EIZ1 

or

 w   Z4 /(2β3EI) − Z3 /(2β3EI) 
θ  
2
  − Z1 /(2β EI) Z4 /(βEI)   F1 
 =  =   , (2.56)
M   − Z2 /β Z1  F2 
 V   − Z3 −2βZ2 

where the Z’s are functions3 of the variable (βx), defined as follows:

Z1 = Z1(βx) = e − βx (cos βx + sin βx),

Z2 = Z2 (βx) = e − βx sin βx ,
(2.57)
− βx
Z3 = Z3 (βx) = e (cos βx − sin βx),

Z4 = Z4 (βx) = e − βx cos βx.

The four functions are shown graphically in Figure 2.6, which also rep-
resent the shape in which w, θ, M, and V vary with x when a unit force
32  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

π π
32
0 2 π 2π
βx
3π 7π
2 4
0
Z1

1.0
(a)
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π 2π
0
Z2

1.0
(b)
π 5π
4 4

Z3

1.0
(c)
π 3π
2 2
0
Z4

1.0
(d)

Figure 2.6 The Z-­functions (defined by Equation 2.57) representing the shape of varia-
tion of w, θ, M, or V of a semi-­infinite beam or cylinder due to forces or
imposed displacements at the left-­hand edge.

or a unit displacement is introduced at coordinates 1 or 2 (Figure  2.5).


For example, Figure 2.6a,c have the same shapes as the deflection and the
bending moment, respectively, of a semi-­infinite beam with the imposed
displacement D1 = 1 while D 2 = 0.
The end-­rotational stiffness SAB of a semi-­infinite beam is

SAB = 2βEI . (2.58)

This is the value of F 2 when D 2 = 1 and D1 = 0, which is elements S 22 of the


stiffness matrix, Equation (2.53). The carry-­over moment t and the carry-­
over factor C AB are, of course, zero because the effect of D 2 = 1 dies out
before the far end B is reached at infinity.
Circular walls of constant thickness  33

2.9 CLASSIFICATION OF BEAMS ON ELASTIC


FOUNDATION AND CIRCULAR WALLS
AS LONG OR SHORT

Any of the functions plotted in Figure  2.6 has a value at βx = π much


smaller than the maximum value of the function. It can, therefore, be sug-
gested that when a beam on elastic foundation or a cylinder has a length
≥π/­β, forces or displacements at one edge have a negligible effect on the
other end. Such a beam or cylinder is considered here to be “long,” and for
its analysis the equations derived for a semi-­infinite beam in Section 2.8
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can be applied with negligible error. For “short” beams or cylinders hav-
ing the characteristic parameter α = βl ≤ π, the deflection and the internal
forces due to forces or displacements introduced at one end are affected by
the conditions at the other end, so that the equations in Section 2.8 should
not be used.
Hetényi4 considers beams having the characteristic parameter α > π as
“long” and suggests that, if greater accuracy is required, the limit may be
changed to 5. The corresponding values of η = l2 /(dh) for cylinders are 2.9
and 7.3, respectively (see Equation 2.19).

2.10 EXAMPLES

Examples of the use of the force and displacement methods for the analy-
sis of circular walls are presented here. The equations in this chapter are
used to calculate stiffness and flexibility coefficients and fixed-­end forces,
although some of these values are available from the design tables in Part II
of this book.

EXAMPLE 2.1
Circular Wall, Hinged at the Bottom
A circular wall of constant thickness hinged at the bottom edge and
free at the top is subjected to hydrostatic pressure of intensity γl at the
bottom and zero at the top (Figure 2.7a); wall height = l, radius = 3l,
and thickness = l/15. Find the reaction at the bottom edge and derive
an equation for the hoop force and the bending moment at any point.
Poisson’s ratio = 1/6.
This example is conveniently solved by the force method as follows:

1. The released structure is shown in Figure 2.7b, with one coordi-


nate representing one unknown redundant force, the radial reac-
tion at the base.
2. With both edges free, the wall deflects in a straight line,

ws = γ lr 2 (l − x) (lEh) , (2.59)

34  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

B
h = l/15 Liquid h
Free level 1
B A
l (b) Released structure and coordinate
Hinged γl A system (Example 2.1)
r r = 3l B

(a) Cross-section of the circular


wall to be analyzed
Free
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sliding
Sliding
Partial prevented
restraint (Ex. 2.1)
B
(Ex. 2.2) A
Free 10 20
sliding Multiplier: 10–3γl 3
Partial (d) Bending moment M
restraint
(Ex. 2.2) Sliding
Wall center
prevented
Inner line
(Ex. 2.1)
face
A
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 A
Bearing pad
Multiplier γl r
(c) Hoop force N (e) Detail at A for wall of
Example 2.2

Figure 2.7 Circular wall analyzed in Examples 2.1 and 2.2.

where x is the vertical distance from edge A to any point on the


wall. The values of the required actions in the released structure
are the hoop force and the bending moment. Using Equation (2.1),

 N s   γ lr(l − x) l 
{ As } =   =  .
 Ms   0 

The displacement at coordinate 1 is

r2 (3l)2 γ l2
D1 = γ l = γl = 135 .
Eh E(l /15) E

3. The characteristic parameter (Equation 2.18c) is α = 2.9221 and


the flexural rigidity (Equation 2.5) is EI = 25.40 × 10 –6 El3. One
flexibility coefficient is needed; its value is the same as element
f 11 of the matrix in Equation (2.28):
f11 = 796.03/E
Circular walls of constant thickness  35

The deflection and moment at any point caused by F 1 = 1 are


given by Equation (2.29), substituting for D 1 = f 11 = 796.03/E,
D 2 = –2308.24/El (= element f 21 of matrix in Equation 2.28),
F 1 = 1, and F 2 = 0. Thus, using Equation (2.29) in this manner
and noting that N = (Eh/­r)w, the following equation is obtained:

 N u   1 (796.03Y1 − 789.92Y2 + 1578.10Y4 ) 


{ Au } =   =  45 .
Mu   l (0.6905Y3 − 0.6852Y4 − 0.3422Y2 ) 

4. The value of the redundant force (Equation 1.4) is


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F1f11−1(− D1) = −0.169γ l 2 = −0.0565γ lr .

5. By superposition, Equation (1.5) gives

  l − x  
 N   γ lr   − Y1 + 0.9924Y2 − 1.982
26Y4  
{ A} =   =   l   .
M   3 
 γ l [ −0.1171 Y3 + 0.1162Y 4 + 0.0580Y2 ] 

The graphs in Figure 2.7c,d show the variation of N and M.

EXAMPLE 2.2
Circular Wall, on Bearing Pads
Solve Example 2.1 assuming that the wall is supported on bearing pads
that behave as continuous elastic support providing uniform radial
horizontal reaction in the direction opposite to the deflection. The
stiffness of the elastic support is 0.5 × 10 –3 E (force per unit length of
the perimeter per unit deflection = force/­length 2), where E is the modu-
lus of elasticity of the wall material.
The solution is based on the same steps as in Example 2.1 modified
as follows:
The redundant force is represented by a pair of opposite arrows
(Figure  2.7e), which also indicate the relative movement of the
wall and the top of the pads in the released structure. The flexibil-
ity coefficient in this case is equal to the sum of the deflection of
the wall and that of the pads due to two equal and opposite radial
forces of intensity unity applied at coordinates 1:
796.03 1 2796.03 .
f11 = + =
E 0.5 × 10−3 E E

The value of the redundant force (Equation 1.4) is

F  135γ l 2 
F1 = f11−1(− D1) = −
2796.03  E 

= 0.0483γ l 2 = −0.0161γ lr .
36  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

Using superposition as in step 5 of Example 2.1 gives the values of


N and M, which are plotted in Figure 2.7c,d. The figures indicate
the variation of N and M when the base of the wall is free to slide,
or when sliding is prevented (Example 2.1) or partially restrained
by the pads.

EXAMPLE 2.3
Circular Wall, with Thickness Change
Figure 2.8a is a cross-­section of a circular wall with sudden change in
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thickness at midheight. The top edge is free while the bottom edge is
totally fixed. Find the values of the bending moment at A and B and
the hoop force at B and C due to axisymmetrical triangular loading as

Outer 4*
3*
C face C
4 C
l 3
30
l/2 B
B2 γl/ 2 1*
B 2 B 2* 4*
B1 1 γl/ 2
3*
l B
15 l/2

γl γl A
A A 1*
Radius
r = 2l 2*

(a) Cross-section of a (b) Coordinate system (c) Fixed-end forces


circular wall

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 –30 –20 –10 0 10


Multiplier : γlr Multiplier : 103γl3
(d) Hoop force N (e) Bending moment M

Figure 2.8 Circular wall with sudden change in thickness analyzed in Example 2.3.
Circular walls of constant thickness  37

shown. (Wall height = l; radius = 2l; wall thicknesses = l/15 and l/30;
Poisson’s ratio = 1/6.)
The solution is obtained by using the five steps of the displacement
method as follows:

1. The degrees of freedom are represented by the four coordinates


in Figure 2.8b. Five actions are to be calculated:

{ A} = {MA , MB1 , N B1 , N B2 , NC } .
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The subscripts B1 and B2 refer to two points just below and


above B; the bending moments at these two points are equal but
the hoop forces are of different values because of the change in
thickness (see Equation 2.1).
2. The characteristic values for the two cylinders AB and BC are
(using Equation 2.18c): αAB = 1.7894 and αBC = 2.5306. The
fixed-­end forces for the two parts are (see Equation 2.33 and
Figure 2.8c)

−202.49l 2  −76.23l 2 
   
γ  −15.60l 3  γ  −5.06l 3 
{Fr* } AB =   {Fr* }BC =  .
1000 −152.76l 2  1000 −27.28l 2 
 +13.53l 3   +3.05l 3 
   

The subscript r is used to indicate restrained elements. These


end forces are assembled by inspection to give the four forces
necessary to prevent the displacement at the four coordinates in
Figure 2.8b:

{
{F } = 10−3 γ −228.99l 2 , 8.47l 3 , −27.28l 2 , 3.05l 3 .}
With the displacements artificially restrained, the values of the
five actions to be calculated are

{
{ Ar } = 10−3 γ −15.60l 3 , −13.53l 3 , 0, 0, 0 . }
As usual, the bending moment is considered positive when it pro-
duces tension at the outer face of the wall.
3. Using Equation (2.5),

(EI)AB = 25.40 × 10−6 El 3 and (EI)BC = 3.175 × 10−6 El 3 ,

and the stiffness matrices for the individual cylinders (given by


Equation 2.27) are
38  Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition

 5417.3 symmetrical 
 
815.6l 221.7l 2 
[ S* ]AB = 10−6 E 
 −1470.5 −491.9l 5417.3 
 2
 491.9l 87.9l 2 −815.6l 221.7l 

 1661.5 symmetrical 
 165.4l 
33.2l 2
[ S* ]BC = 10−6 E  .
 63.3 −30.2l 1661.5 
 2
 30.2l 7.3l 2 −165.4l 33.2l 
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By inspection, the last two matrices are assembled5 to give the


stiffness matrix of the wall corresponding to the coordinates in
Figure 2.8b:

 7078.8 
 −650.2l 
254.9l 2 .
[ S ] = 10−6 E 
 63.3 −30.2l 1661.5 
 2
 30.2 7.3l −165.4l 33.2l 

The values of the actions due to unit displacements are listed in


the matrix:

 −491.9l 87.9l 2 0 0
 
 815.6l −221.7l 2 0 0
−6 33333.3 
[ Au ] = 10 E  0 0 0 .
16666.7 0 0
 0 
0 0 16666.7 0 

The first two rows representing M A and M B are elements of the


matrix [S*]AB with the sign adjusted to follow the convention
adopted for bending moment. The last three rows of [Au] rep-
resenting the hoop forces are calculated from the deflection w,
using Equation (2.1).
4. The solution of Equation (1.1) gives

{
{D} = (γ /E) 39.38l 2 , 71.18l , 3.89l 2 , − 123.78l . }
5. The superposition Equation (1.3) gives

{
{ A} = 10−3 γ −28.71l 3 , 2.81l 3 , 656.33lr , 328.17lr , 32.42lr . }
Circular walls of constant thickness  39

The variations of N and M are shown in Figure 2.8d,e. These


are obtained by adding the values for each of parts AB and BC
subjected to the external load with its ends free and the effect
of edge forces and displacements of known magnitudes using
Equation (2.29).

2.11 GENERAL

The analytical solutions presented involve the use of the Y-­functions


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and the Z-­functions for short and long beams (or cylinders), respectively
(Equations 2.14 and 2.57). With the use of programmable calculators or
computers, the use of the functions can be considered for practical compu-
tations with or without employment of tabulated values of the functions.
In the following two chapters numerical solution using finite differences
is used to prepare tables for the analysis of cylinders of varying thickness
(see Part II of this book), with the special case of constant thickness treated
in the same way and included in the tables. Some engineers may prefer to
use the tables even for constant-­thickness walls rather than use the ana-
lytical solutions in this chapter. Although the values given in the tables are
accurate enough for all practical applications, they involve the approxi-
mation inevitable with numerical solutions. The closed-­form mathematical
solutions in this chapter may be used by the reader who wishes to verify or
assess the error involved in the tables. They are also useful to the engineer
who wants to incorporate the equations in his or her own computer pro-
grams, and, of course, to derive values or solutions for cases not included
in the tables.

NOTES

1. Hetényi, M. (1946). Beams on Elastic Foundation, University of Michigan


Press, Ann Arbor, p. 6.
2. See, for example, Vlasov, V. Z., 1964, General Theory of Shells and its
Applications in Engineering, translation from Russian, NASA, Washington,
DC, pp. 860–77.
3. Tables for values of the Z-­functions are given by Hetényi, pp. 217–39.
4. See Hetényi, pp. 46–7.
5. See Ghali, A., Neville, A. M., and Brown, T. G., 2009, Structural Analysis: A
Unified Classical and Matrix Approach, 6th ed., Spon Press, London.
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