Circular walls of
constant thickness
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Eh
N= w , (2.1)
r
where r is the radius of the middle surface of the cylinder, h its thickness,
and E the modulus of elasticity. A tensile hoop force is considered positive;
q and w are positive when outward.
Consider a strip of unit width along a generatrix of the cylinder. The
hoop forces on the two sides of the strip have a radial resultant of magni
tude (Figure 2.1b)
N Eh
q=− = − 2 w . (2.2)
r r
15
16 Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition
l q q
r r w
and deflection
r
N
Resultant
q– = –N/r
Strip 1
width N
1
Stress caused by
bending moment σ
M Stress caused by
vσ vσ
circumferential
σ bending moment
Mφ = vM
(c) Stresses at any lamina on a vertical strip
The minus sign indicates that the resultant acts in the inward direction. The
strip thus behaves as a beam on elastic foundation subjected to external
applied load of intensity q and receives in the opposite direction a reac
tion of intensity q proportional at any point to the deflection, such that
q = −kw. The value k is the modulus of the foundation (force/length3)
Eh
k= . (2.3)
r2
this rotation cannot occur as the sides of any strip must remain in radial
planes; thus as the strip bends the lateral extension is prevented. The
restraining influence is produced by a bending moment M ϕ in the circum
ferential direction
Mφ = vM , (2.4)
where v is Poisson’s ratio. The stresses at any point on the outer surface of
the shell, or at any lamina, will be as shown in Figure 2.1c, and the strain
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parallel to a generatrix will be (σ/E) – v(vσ/E) = σ(1 – v 2)/E. Thus, the effect
of M ϕ is equivalent to an increase in the modulus of elasticity by the ratio
1/(1 – v 2). It follows that a strip of unit width along the generatrix of a cir
cular cylinder subjected to axisymmetrical load has the same deflection as
that of a beam on elastic foundation for which the foundation modulus is
given by Equation (2.3) and the flexural rigidity of the beam is
Eh3
EI = . (2.5)
12(1 − v 2 )
With the usual assumption in the bending of beams, that is, that plane
crosssections remain plane, the moment M and the deflection w at any
point x (Figure 2.1a) are related:
d2w
M = − EI . (2.6)
dx2
q* = q + q = q − kw . (2.7)
The shearing force V, the bending moment, and the load intensity q* are
related:
dM d d2w
V= =− EI 2 , (2.8)
dx dx dx
dV d2M
q* = − =− . (2.9)
dx dx2
18 Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition
Substituting Equations (2.6) and (2.7) into Equation (2.9) gives the dif
ferential equation relating the deflection of a beam on elastic foundation to
the intensity of the external applied load:
d2 d2 w
EI 2 + kw = q . (2.10)
dx2 dx
When the beam has a constant flexural rigidity, the differential equation
of the elastic line is
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d4 w
EI + kw = q . (2.11)
dx4
θ0 M V
w = w0Y1 + Y2 − 2 0 Y3 − 3 0 Y4 . (2.12)
β β EI β EI
xE
xD
xG
P q ML
Deflection C Deflection
M A B X
at A = w0 0 at B = wL
Slope V0 G D E F Slope
Vl
at A = θ0 at B = θL
u
x
w
l
Figure 2.2 Derivation of Equation (2.16) for the deflection at any point in terms of the
loads and the conditions at the left end of a beam on elastic foundation. M 0,
V0, Ml, and Vl are the bending moments and shearing forces at the two ends,
indicated in their positive directions.
Circular walls of constant thickness 19
k
β=4 . (2.13)
4EI
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Since β has the dimension length–1, the term (1/β) is called the characteristic
length. The Yfunctions are used by several authors and their values given in
tables for different values of the variable. 2 The functions are defined next:
θ0 M V
w = w0Y1(βx) + Y2 (βx) − 2 0 Y3 (βx) − 3 0 Y4 (βx)
β β EI β EI
C P
− 2 Y3 [β(x − xD)] + 3 Y4 [β(x − xG )] (2.16)
β EI β EI
x
1
+ 3
β EI ∫
xE
qY4 [β(x − u)] du ,
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where u is the distance from the left end to a variable point between E and
F (Figure 2.2). By differentiation of Equation (2.16), the slope, the bend
ing moment, and the shear at any section can be obtained (see Equations
2.6 and 2.8). For the use of Equation (2.16), the values w 0, θ0, M 0, and
V0 at the left end A must be known. In practical application, two of these
values are known as well as two of the four quantities—wl, θl, Ml, and
Vl —at the right end B. Substituting for x = l in Equation (2.16) and using
the two known quantities at B will give two equations from which the two
unknown values at A can be determined.
2.4 CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS
When the equations in Section 2.3 are used for a circularcylindrical wall
of constant thickness, the characteristic factor β is obtained by substituting
Equations (2.3) and (2.5) into Equation (2.13):
4 3(1 − v 2 )
β= . (2.17)
(rh)
α = βl (2.18a)
or
4 3(1 − v 2 )
α=l , (2.18b)
(rh)
Circular walls of constant thickness 21
where l is the length of the cylinder. For concrete structures, Poisson’s ratio
is between 1/6 and 1/5; using the first of these two values,
l
α = 1.3068 (2.18c)
(rh)
or
α = 1.848 η , (2.19)
where
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η = l 2 (dh) (2.20)
and d = 2r is the diameter of the middle surface of the wall.
All cylinders or beams on elastic foundations with the same value of α
and loading have a similar variation of w, θ, M, and V, such that each of
these quantities can be expressed as the product of a coefficient depending
on α and an appropriate multiplier. This fact enabled the preparation of
the design tables in Part II of this book in which the parameter η is used
instead of α. The equivalent values of the two parameters can be calculated
by Equation (2.19), which makes the tables usable for cylinders and more
generally for beams on elastic foundation. This will be discussed further in
Chapter 4, Section 4.8. The tables are prepared using a value of Poisson’s
ratio v = 1/6; varying this value to 1/5 has negligible effect. For a larger
variation in the value of v, the tables are usable but with simple corrections
discussed in Chapter 4, Section 4.7.
The solution discussed in the previous section is used to derive the stiffness
and the flexibility matrices for a cylindrical wall or a beam on elastic foun
dation corresponding to the four coordinates in Figure 2.3a or Figure 2.3b.
The displacement at the four coordinates can be expressed in terms of w;
using Equation (2.12) and noting that Y1(0) = 1 and Y2(0) = Y3(0) = Y4(0)= 0,
D1 (w)x=0 1 0 0 0 w0
dw
D2 0 α /l 0 0 − θ0l
dx x=0 α ,
= =
M l2
D3 (w)x=l y1 y2 y3 y4 − 20
α EI
dw 3
D4 − V0l
−4αy4 l αy1 l αy2 l αy3 l 3
dx
x=l α EI
(2.21)
22 Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition
x
4 4
3 3
1 1
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w
2 r r 2
(a) Circular wall: The four arrows represent the positive directions of
uniformly distributed forces {F} or displacements {D} at the edges
l
2 4
x
1 3
w
D2 = 1
S22 = SAB A S42 = t
B
S12 S32
(c) End forces corresponding to the deflected configuration with
D2 = 1 and D1 = D3 = D4 = 0
where yi = Yi(α) are the values of the Yfunctions at x = l (see Equation 2.14).
Equation (2.21) may be written in short form:
where [C] and {B} are the 4 × 4 and 4 × 1 matrices on the righthand side
of Equation (2.21).
Circular walls of constant thickness 23
Similarly, the forces {F} at the four coordinates are related to the shearing
force and the bending moment at the two ends; thus using Equations (2.12),
(2.8), and (2.6),
F1 −(V )x=0 0 0 0 α3 l 3
F2 (M)x=0 0 0 −α 2 l 2 0
= = El 3 3 3 3 3 3
{B} (2.23)
F3 (V )x=l 4α y2 l 4α y3 l 4α y4 l −α y1 l 3 3
4α 2 y l 2 −4α 3y l 2 α 3y l 2 2
F
4 − (M ) x=l α y2 l 2
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3 4 1
or
where [G] is the product of EI and the square matrix in Equation (2.23).
Solving for {B} from Equation (2.22) and substituting into Equation
(2.23a),
Putting
Equation (2.24) takes the form [S]{D} = {F}, where [S] is the required stiff
ness matrix. Likewise, solving for {B} from Equation (2.23a) and substitut
ing into Equation (2.22), the latter equation takes the form [f]{F} = {D},
where
[ f ] = [C ][G]−1 (2.26)
[ S ] = EI ×
symmetrical
3
α (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 ) 12
12(y3 − y2 y4 ) l 
2 3

α 2 (y22 − y1y3) 6 α(y2 y3 − y1y4 ) 4
2 2 2
6(y3 − y2 y4 ) l  4(y3 − y2 y4 ) l 
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3 2
α y2 12 α y3 6
− 12(y32 − y2 y4 ) l 3  6(y32 − y2 y4 ) l 2
 3
α (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 ) 12
2 3
 12(y3 − y2 y4 ) l 
 
2 2 2
α y3 6 αy4 2 α (y2 − y1y3) 6 α(y2 y3 − y1y4 ) 4
6(y32 − y2 y4 ) l 2  2(y32 − y2 y4 ) l  6(y32 − y2 y4 ) l 2  4(y32 − y2 y4 ) l
  
(2.27)
and the flexibility matrix
l3
[f ] = ×
4α 3EI (y32 − y2 y4 )
y2 y3 − y1y   symmetrical
−α(y22 − y1y3)/ll  α 2 (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 ) / l 2  .
− y4  αy3 / l y2 y3 − y1y4
−αy3 /l α 2 y2 / l 2 α(y22 − y1y3) / l  α 2 (y1y2 + 4 y3y4 )

(2.28)
these eight values are known and one of these two equations can be solved
to find the other four (e.g., see Figure 1.6 and Figure 1.7). When D1, D 2 ,
F, and F 2 are determined, the variation of w, θ, M, and V can be found by
using Equation (2.12) and its derivatives, noting that D1 = w 0, D 2 = θ0,
F 1 = –V0, and F 2 = M 0:
w Y1  (Y2 /α)l  (Y4 /α 3)(l 3 /EI)  −(Y3 /α 2 )(l 2 /EI) D1
θ −4αY4 l  Y1  (Y3 /α 2 )(l 2 /EI)  −(Y2 /α)(l /EI) D2 .
=
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2 2
M 4α Y3EI l  4αY4 EI l  −(Y2 /α)l  Y1 F1
3 3 2 2 F
V
4α Y2 EI l  4α Y3 EI l  −Y1  −4αY4 l 2
(2.29)
2.6 ENDROTATIONAL STIFFNESS
AND CARRYOVER FACTOR
The end rotational stiffness and the carry over moments used in the
method of moment distribution were defined in Chapter 1, Section 1.7.1.
Figure 2.3c shows a beam on elastic foundation for which a unit angular
displacement is introduced at end A while end B is fixed. The magnitudes
of the end forces to hold the beam in this deflected shape are equal to the
elements of the second column of the stiffness matrix corresponding to the
coordinates in Figure 2.3b. The two end moments at A and B are the end
rotational stiffness and the carryover moment; thus
t = S42 , (2.31)
where S 22 and S 42 are elements of the stiffness matrix (Equation 2.27). The
carryover factor
The values of C AB are given in Table 2.1 for various values of the char
acteristic parameter η = l2 /(dh). It can be seen that C AB becomes very small
when η ≥ 3.0 (or βl ≥ 3.2).
2.7 FIXED E ND FORCES
The solution discussed in Section 2.3 is used next to derive equations for
the fixedend forces, the variation of the deflection w [or the hoop force
N = (Eh/r)w], and the bending moment M for a circularcylindrical wall or
a beam on elastic foundation subjected to cases of loading frequently used
in practice.
q1
{F } = [ H ] , (2.33)
q0 − q1
y y − y + 4 y3y4 l
H11 = H31 = 1 2 2 2 − (2.34)
2α(y3 − y2 y4 ) 2
3(y y − y + 4 y42 ) l 2
H 21 = − H 41 = 12 3 2 3 − (2.35)
α (y3 − y2 y4 ) 2
H 42 = H 22 − H 21 . (2.39)
x
F4 ql ql F4
q0
F3 F3 ql
x
l F2 F4
F1 F3
w
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F1 F1
w l
F2 F2
q0 q0
(a) Pressure normal to wall surface (b) Linearly varying load
of linearly varying intensity
x
F4 F4
b c
F3 B F3 c P
P P F2 A B F4
l D x
b D
F1 F3
F1 A F1 w
w
l
F1 F2
(c) Uniform radial load of intensity P per (d) Concentrated load P
unit length of perimeter
x
F4 F4
b c
F3 B F3 c
C C C F4
l D F2 A B
x
b
F1 D F3
F1 A F1
w l
w
F2 F2
Figure 2.4 Fixedend forces for a circularcylindrical wall and for a beam on elastic
foundation.
28 Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition
Y4 F1l 3 Y3 F2l 2 1 − Y1 ql l 4
w= − +
α 3 EI α 2 EI 4α 4 EI
(2.40)
4
1 − (x l) − Y1 + (Y2 α) (q0 − ql )l
+
4α 4 EI
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and
Y2 Y Y − (Y α)
M=− F1 l + F2Y1 − 32 ql l 2 − 3 24 2
(q0 − q1)l . (2.41)
α α α
2.7.2 Concentrated load
A uniformly distributed outward radial force of intensity P per unit length
acting on a circularcylindrical wall (Figure 2.4c), or a concentrated load
P on a beam on elastic foundation (Figure 2.4d) produces the following
fixedend forces:
For F 3 and F4, use Equation (2.42) and Equation (2.43), respectively, replac
ing c by b and changing the sign of the righthand side in the latter equation.
The deflection and the bending moment at any point between A and D,
0 ≤ x ≤ b, are
Y4 F1l 3 Y3 F2l 2
w= − , (2.44)
α 3 EI α 2 EI
Y2
M=− F1l + F2Y1, (2.45)
α
Circular walls of constant thickness 29
Y2 Y [α(x − b) l ]
M=− F1l + F2Y1 − 2 Pl . (2.47)
α α
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2.7.3 Couple
An external applied moment of intensity C per unit length applied in radial
planes on a circularcylindrical wall (Figure 2.4e), or a couple C on a beam
on elastic foundation (Figure 2.4f) produces the following fixedend forces:
For F4, use Equation (2.49), replacing b by c. The deflection and the bend
ing moment at any point between A and D, 0 ≤ x ≤ b, are given by Equations
(2.44) and (2.45) with F 1 and F 2 as in Equations (2.48) and (2.49). For
part DB (Figure 2.4f or Figure 2.4e),
Y2
M=− F1l + F2Y1 + {Y1[α(x − b) l ]}C . (2.52)
α
2 A B x
1 x=∞
x
B
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A
1 1 w
2 2
r r
Figure 2.5 Coordinate system used for the derivation of Equations (2.53) to (2.58).
4β2 2β
[ S ] = βEI (2.53)
2β 2
and
1 2 −2β
[f ] = . (2.54)
4β3EI −2β 4β2
Circular walls of constant thickness 31
w Z1 Z2 /β
θ −2βZ
2 Z3 D1
= 2 = (2.55)
M
2β EIZ 3 2βEIZ4 D2
V −4β3EIZ4 −2β2EIZ1
or
w Z4 /(2β3EI) − Z3 /(2β3EI)
θ
2
− Z1 /(2β EI) Z4 /(βEI) F1
= = , (2.56)
M − Z2 /β Z1 F2
V − Z3 −2βZ2
where the Z’s are functions3 of the variable (βx), defined as follows:
Z2 = Z2 (βx) = e − βx sin βx ,
(2.57)
− βx
Z3 = Z3 (βx) = e (cos βx − sin βx),
The four functions are shown graphically in Figure 2.6, which also rep
resent the shape in which w, θ, M, and V vary with x when a unit force
32 Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition
π π
32
0 2 π 2π
βx
3π 7π
2 4
0
Z1
1.0
(a)
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π 2π
0
Z2
1.0
(b)
π 5π
4 4
Z3
1.0
(c)
π 3π
2 2
0
Z4
1.0
(d)
Figure 2.6 The Zfunctions (defined by Equation 2.57) representing the shape of varia
tion of w, θ, M, or V of a semiinfinite beam or cylinder due to forces or
imposed displacements at the lefthand edge.
can be applied with negligible error. For “short” beams or cylinders hav
ing the characteristic parameter α = βl ≤ π, the deflection and the internal
forces due to forces or displacements introduced at one end are affected by
the conditions at the other end, so that the equations in Section 2.8 should
not be used.
Hetényi4 considers beams having the characteristic parameter α > π as
“long” and suggests that, if greater accuracy is required, the limit may be
changed to 5. The corresponding values of η = l2 /(dh) for cylinders are 2.9
and 7.3, respectively (see Equation 2.19).
2.10 EXAMPLES
Examples of the use of the force and displacement methods for the analy
sis of circular walls are presented here. The equations in this chapter are
used to calculate stiffness and flexibility coefficients and fixedend forces,
although some of these values are available from the design tables in Part II
of this book.
EXAMPLE 2.1
Circular Wall, Hinged at the Bottom
A circular wall of constant thickness hinged at the bottom edge and
free at the top is subjected to hydrostatic pressure of intensity γl at the
bottom and zero at the top (Figure 2.7a); wall height = l, radius = 3l,
and thickness = l/15. Find the reaction at the bottom edge and derive
an equation for the hoop force and the bending moment at any point.
Poisson’s ratio = 1/6.
This example is conveniently solved by the force method as follows:
ws = γ lr 2 (l − x) (lEh) , (2.59)
34 Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition
B
h = l/15 Liquid h
Free level 1
B A
l (b) Released structure and coordinate
Hinged γl A system (Example 2.1)
r r = 3l B
sliding
Sliding
Partial prevented
restraint (Ex. 2.1)
B
(Ex. 2.2) A
Free 10 20
sliding Multiplier: 10–3γl 3
Partial (d) Bending moment M
restraint
(Ex. 2.2) Sliding
Wall center
prevented
Inner line
(Ex. 2.1)
face
A
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 A
Bearing pad
Multiplier γl r
(c) Hoop force N (e) Detail at A for wall of
Example 2.2
N s γ lr(l − x) l
{ As } = = .
Ms 0
r2 (3l)2 γ l2
D1 = γ l = γl = 135 .
Eh E(l /15) E
l − x
N γ lr − Y1 + 0.9924Y2 − 1.982
26Y4
{ A} = = l .
M 3
γ l [ −0.1171 Y3 + 0.1162Y 4 + 0.0580Y2 ]
EXAMPLE 2.2
Circular Wall, on Bearing Pads
Solve Example 2.1 assuming that the wall is supported on bearing pads
that behave as continuous elastic support providing uniform radial
horizontal reaction in the direction opposite to the deflection. The
stiffness of the elastic support is 0.5 × 10 –3 E (force per unit length of
the perimeter per unit deflection = force/length 2), where E is the modu
lus of elasticity of the wall material.
The solution is based on the same steps as in Example 2.1 modified
as follows:
The redundant force is represented by a pair of opposite arrows
(Figure 2.7e), which also indicate the relative movement of the
wall and the top of the pads in the released structure. The flexibil
ity coefficient in this case is equal to the sum of the deflection of
the wall and that of the pads due to two equal and opposite radial
forces of intensity unity applied at coordinates 1:
796.03 1 2796.03 .
f11 = + =
E 0.5 × 10−3 E E
F 135γ l 2
F1 = f11−1(− D1) = −
2796.03 E
= 0.0483γ l 2 = −0.0161γ lr .
36 Circular storage tanks and silos, third edition
EXAMPLE 2.3
Circular Wall, with Thickness Change
Figure 2.8a is a crosssection of a circular wall with sudden change in
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thickness at midheight. The top edge is free while the bottom edge is
totally fixed. Find the values of the bending moment at A and B and
the hoop force at B and C due to axisymmetrical triangular loading as
Outer 4*
3*
C face C
4 C
l 3
30
l/2 B
B2 γl/ 2 1*
B 2 B 2* 4*
B1 1 γl/ 2
3*
l B
15 l/2
γl γl A
A A 1*
Radius
r = 2l 2*
Figure 2.8 Circular wall with sudden change in thickness analyzed in Example 2.3.
Circular walls of constant thickness 37
shown. (Wall height = l; radius = 2l; wall thicknesses = l/15 and l/30;
Poisson’s ratio = 1/6.)
The solution is obtained by using the five steps of the displacement
method as follows:
{ A} = {MA , MB1 , N B1 , N B2 , NC } .
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−202.49l 2 −76.23l 2
γ −15.60l 3 γ −5.06l 3
{Fr* } AB = {Fr* }BC = .
1000 −152.76l 2 1000 −27.28l 2
+13.53l 3 +3.05l 3
{
{F } = 10−3 γ −228.99l 2 , 8.47l 3 , −27.28l 2 , 3.05l 3 .}
With the displacements artificially restrained, the values of the
five actions to be calculated are
{
{ Ar } = 10−3 γ −15.60l 3 , −13.53l 3 , 0, 0, 0 . }
As usual, the bending moment is considered positive when it pro
duces tension at the outer face of the wall.
3. Using Equation (2.5),
5417.3 symmetrical
815.6l 221.7l 2
[ S* ]AB = 10−6 E
−1470.5 −491.9l 5417.3
2
491.9l 87.9l 2 −815.6l 221.7l
1661.5 symmetrical
165.4l
33.2l 2
[ S* ]BC = 10−6 E .
63.3 −30.2l 1661.5
2
30.2l 7.3l 2 −165.4l 33.2l
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7078.8
−650.2l
254.9l 2 .
[ S ] = 10−6 E
63.3 −30.2l 1661.5
2
30.2 7.3l −165.4l 33.2l
−491.9l 87.9l 2 0 0
815.6l −221.7l 2 0 0
−6 33333.3
[ Au ] = 10 E 0 0 0 .
16666.7 0 0
0
0 0 16666.7 0
{
{D} = (γ /E) 39.38l 2 , 71.18l , 3.89l 2 , − 123.78l . }
5. The superposition Equation (1.3) gives
{
{ A} = 10−3 γ −28.71l 3 , 2.81l 3 , 656.33lr , 328.17lr , 32.42lr . }
Circular walls of constant thickness 39
2.11 GENERAL
and the Zfunctions for short and long beams (or cylinders), respectively
(Equations 2.14 and 2.57). With the use of programmable calculators or
computers, the use of the functions can be considered for practical compu
tations with or without employment of tabulated values of the functions.
In the following two chapters numerical solution using finite differences
is used to prepare tables for the analysis of cylinders of varying thickness
(see Part II of this book), with the special case of constant thickness treated
in the same way and included in the tables. Some engineers may prefer to
use the tables even for constantthickness walls rather than use the ana
lytical solutions in this chapter. Although the values given in the tables are
accurate enough for all practical applications, they involve the approxi
mation inevitable with numerical solutions. The closedform mathematical
solutions in this chapter may be used by the reader who wishes to verify or
assess the error involved in the tables. They are also useful to the engineer
who wants to incorporate the equations in his or her own computer pro
grams, and, of course, to derive values or solutions for cases not included
in the tables.
NOTES
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