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Solar Heat Pump Electrical

Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

Thermal Solar Collectors

High Pressure Aqueous


Hot Ammonia Ammonia Condenser Ammonia
Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


Vapor pump
condenses
Ammonia at increases

Water Output
Vapor high pressure
and pressure/temperature
Water and Ammonia
are
generates steam. is
separated High Pressure
injected/
Hot Water Preheater Anhydrous
absorbed
in water Ammonia
Storage
High Pressure Cold Water
Generator
Steam Turbine Condenser

r
to
ra
pi
As
Steam Turbine Generator Wind
Turbine
Pump

Heat
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

The target location in this example is


Western Canada.

For the summer daytime cycle, assume


that the ambient air temperature is 20°C
and the shallow earth is 3°C.

The solar collectors would be concentrated


solar trough or similar system capable of
temperatures >400°C.

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

Anhydrous Ammonia
(NH3) is stored as a
liquid under pressure
at ambient
temperature.
Anhydrous
Ammonia
Storage (400psi/2700kPa)

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

The NH3 pressure is


used to drive an
expansion engine
attached to a fan.
There is a pressure
drop in the engine
as the NH3
expands.
Anhydrous
Ammonia (~150psi/1300kPa)
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

The fan forces air


through the heat
exchanger
increasing it’s
pressure and
temperature. The
air is compressed
to (20psi/150kPa)
Anhydrous
Ammonia and the
Storage temperature rises
to 35°C.

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

The NH3 is then


completely
expanded to a low
pressure in a heat
exchanger
(evaporator) and it
boils at -33°C.
Anhydrous
Ammonia
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

The heat from the


air (at the increased
temperature) is
transferred into the
evaporating
ammonia.
Anhydrous
Ammonia
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

The water
vapor in the
air condenses
as it is cooled
and is
captured.
Anhydrous
Ammonia
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

Anhydrous
Ammonia
Storage

The NH3 vapor is at a


low pressure and
contains the heat from
the ambient air.

(<14psi/100kPa) 30°C

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


Ammonia
is
injected/
Anhydrous
It is then absorbed into absorbed
Ammonia
in water
cool water. The Storage
absorption is
exothermic and the
resulting aqueous
ammonia liquid
contains the heat from
the ambient air.

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

Aqueous
Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


A pump pressurizes pump
increases
the aqueous ammonia pressure
liquid to Ammonia
400psi(2700kPa) is
injected/
absorbed Anhydrous
in water Ammonia
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

This is a liquid and not Aqueous


compressible and the Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


pump
required power to increases
increase the pressure pressure
is relatively low. Ammonia
is
injected/
absorbed Anhydrous
in water Ammonia
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

This pump is very Aqueous


similar in action to the Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


pump
feed water pump in a increases
Rankine cycle. pressure

Ammonia
is
injected/
absorbed Anhydrous
in water Ammonia
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

A thermal oil and Thermal Solar Collectors


secondary heat
exchanger would be used
and is removed for
simplification.

The pressurized Aqueous


aqueous ammonia Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


pump
solution is then heated increases
with concentrated pressure
solar heat. Ammonia
is
injected/
400psi(2700kPa) absorbed Anhydrous
Ammonia
400°C in water
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

Thermal Solar Collectors

High Pressure Aqueous


Hot Ammonia Ammonia
The ammonia boils out of

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


Vapor pump
Ammonia the aqueous ammonia increases
pressure
Vapor
and solution well below the
Water boiling point of water. Ammonia
are is
separated injected/
absorbed Anhydrous
This is fractional distillation. in water Ammonia
Storage
400psi(2700kPa)
400°C

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

Thermal Solar Collectors

High Pressure Aqueous


Hot Ammonia Ammonia Condenser Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


Vapor pump
Ammonia
increases
Vapor pressure
and
Water Ammonia
are is
separated injected/
The ammonia vapor is absorbed Anhydrous
Ammonia
condensed in a heat in water
Storage
exchanger and the heat is
transfered.

400psi(2700kPa)
20°C

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

High Pressure
Hot Ammonia Ammonia Condenser The condensed and cooled
Vapor
ammonia liquid is returned to
Ammonia
Vapor pressurized storage.
and
Water
are
separated
400psi(2700kPa)
20°C Anhydrous
Ammonia
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

Thermal Solar Collectors

Aqueous
Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


pump
Ammonia
increases
Vapor pressure
and
Water Ammonia
are is
separated High Pressure
injected/
Hot Water Preheater Anhydrous
absorbed
in water Ammonia
Storage
High Pressure Cold Water

r
The water is cooled in a heat

to
ra
pi
exchanger and the pressurized

As
cold water travels though an
aspirator creating a vacuum
which draws the ammonia
vapor.

The pressure drops to 200psi


through the aspirator, this
pressure drop is maintained by
the aqueous ammonia pump
intake.
Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007
Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

High Pressure
Hot Ammonia Ammonia Condenser The heat from
Vapor
the hot water
Ammonia
Vapor and the
and
Water
ammonia
are
separated High Pressure condensation is
Hot Water Preheater used to drive a
steam turbine
which produces
electricity.
Steam Turbine Condenser

Steam Turbine Generator

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

High Pressure
Hot Ammonia Ammonia Condenser
Vapor
Ammonia Cold water
Vapor
and
cools the
Water steam turbine
are
separated High Pressure and the heat
Hot Water Preheater is transferred
to
underground
thermal
Steam Turbine Condenser
storage.
Steam Turbine Generator

Pump

Heat
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Generation System
Ammonia Absorption
(Day Time Cycle)

The air pressure


drops as it exits the
heat exchanger and
the much colder and
dryer air is denser
than ambient and
negative buoyancy
forces it down the
convection tower.

A wind turbine
generates electricity. Generator

Wind
Turbine

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007


Solar Heat Pump Electrical
Expansion Engine
Generation System uses ammonia pressure to
Ammonia Absorption force and compress air
(Day Time Cycle)

Thermal Solar Collectors

High Pressure Aqueous


Hot Ammonia Ammonia Condenser Ammonia
Ammonia

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum


Vapor pump
condenses
Ammonia at increases

Water Output
Vapor high pressure
and pressure/temperature
Water and Ammonia
are
generates steam. is
separated High Pressure
injected/
Hot Water Preheater Anhydrous
absorbed
in water Ammonia
Storage
High Pressure Cold Water
Generator
Steam Turbine Condenser

r
to
ra
pi
As
Steam Turbine Generator Wind
Turbine
Pump

Heat
Storage

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007