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Anisotropic Polymers

Leigh-Ann Scott

Department of Mathematics

University of Strathclyde

Glasgow, U.K.

July 2007

degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Science.

The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the United

Kingdom Copyright Acts as qualified by University of Strathclyde Regulation

3.50. Due acknowledgement must always be made of the use of any material in,

or derived from, this thesis.

Abstract

In this thesis a one-dimensional model of a 1-3 composite piezoelectric transducer

which includes elastic loss is described. This extends the Linear Systems Mod-

elling (LSM) approach by incorporating frequency dependent elastic loss into

the polymer phase. The operating characteristics of a device are presented for a

range of passive phase materials including an anisotropic material. A compari-

son with finite element simulations is also reported. Elastic loss is incorporated

into a three dimensional plane wave expansion model (PWE) of these transduc-

ers. A comparison with experimental and finite element data is conducted and

a design to damp out these lateral modes is investigated. Scaling and regulari-

sation techniques are introduced to the PWE method to reduce ill-conditioning

in the large matrices which can arise. The identification of the modes of vibra-

tion is aided by examining profiles of the displacements, electrical potential and

Poynting vector. The dispersive behaviour of a 2-2 composite transducer with

high shear attenuation in the passive phase is examined. The model shows that

the use of a high shear attenuation filler material improves the frequency band

gap surrounding the fundamental thickness mode. The plane wave expansion

model is utilised to investigate the behaviour of a transducer with a self-similar

architecture. The Cantor set is utilised to design a 2-2 configuration, and a 1-3

configuration is investigated with a Sierpinski Carpet geometry. It was found

that by increasing the fractal generation level, the bandwidth surrounding the

main thickness mode will increase, but there will be a corresponding reduction

in the sensitivity amplitude.

i

Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Outline of Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.2 Linear Systems Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.2.1 Transmission Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.2.2 Receiving Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.3 1-3 Composite Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

with an SBS Passive Phase 41

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3.2 Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.3 SBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

3.4 Comparison to Finite Element Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

3.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

pansion Method 63

ii

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.2 Formulation of the method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

4.2.1 The Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

4.2.2 The Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

4.3 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

4.4 The Admittance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

4.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

4.5.1 Modal Analysis of Device A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

4.5.2 Modal Analysis of Device B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

4.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Method 102

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

5.2 Frequency Dependent, Elastic Loss Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

5.3 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

5.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

5.4.1 Modal Analysis of Device C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

5.4.1.1 Thickness Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

5.4.1.2 The first antisymmetrical Mode . . . . . . . . . 116

5.4.1.3 Rayleigh Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

5.4.1.4 Intra-Pillar Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

5.4.2 Damping of Unwanted Lateral Modes . . . . . . . . . . . 128

5.5 Comparison with Finite Element Modelling and Experimental Data135

5.6 Inclusion of an Anisotropic Passive Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

5.7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

iii

6.2 The Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

6.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

6.3.1 The Cantor Set Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

6.3.2 The Sierpinski Carpet Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

6.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

7 Conclusions 174

iv

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Background

In 1880, Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered that within certain crystalline

minerals, when subjected to a mechanical force, the crystals became electrically

polarized. Conversely, by applying an electric field to these materials, a me-

chanical deformation would occur. This behaviour was named the piezoelectric

effect from the Greek word piezein, meaning to press or squeeze. Piezoelectric

materials have been tailored to suit an impressive range of applications, such

as sensing (force or displacement sensors), actuation (motors and devices that

precisely control positioning) and sonic and ultrasonic signal generation. The

20th century introduced more powerful metal oxide-based piezoelectric ceramics

and man-made materials which enabled designers to develop more applications

for piezoelectricity. Manufacturing of these materials was relatively inexpensive

and ceramics could be easily created for a specific requirement. The most widely

used piezoelectric ceramics are ”PZT” ceramics, which are manufactured from

formulations of lead zirconate / lead titanate and exhibit great sensitivity and

can withstand high operating temperatures.

Ultrasonic transducers have found widespread use, particularly in ultrasonic

medical diagnosis and non-destructive testing. Ultrasound imaging is a stan-

dard procedure that catches images inside the body using high-frequency sound

1

2

waves. Since the images are captured in real time, ultrasound examinations

can show blood flowing through blood vessels, as well as the structure and

movement of the body’s internal organs. These devices are used frequently to

diagnose and treat medical conditions due to their affordability, portability and

that they don’t produce ionizing radiation (x-rays). Conventional ultrasound

devices display images in thin, flat sections of the body, though advancements

in technology include four-dimensional (4-D) ultrasound (3-D ultrasound image

in motion). Non-destructive testing is used to detect defects, such as crack or

corrosion, without destroying the object. This is vital in applications such as

rail and bridge inspections. The properties of these transducers dictate the abil-

ity of the transducer to work effectively and have been extensively investigated

over the last 30 years [24, 23, 10, 71, 25, 31, 26, 27, 46, 57, 14, 44, 54, 17].

There are 4 types of transducers which are widely used: monolithic piezoelectric

plate, composite, polyvinyliden difluoride (PVDF) and electromagnetic acoustic

(EMATS) transducers [70]. Piezoelectric transducers are the most common type

of transducer and can be used at higher frequencies than EMAT’s (1-50 MHz)

[34]. By applying an electric field to a transducer a mechanical deformation

occurs and conversely, a mechanical strain leads to an electric field being pro-

duced. Transducers can therefore work in both receiving and transmitting mode.

When the transducer is transmitting a voltage is applied which is converted from

electrical energy to mechanical energy (much like a loudspeaker). In reception

mode a stress wave is sensed by the transducer which is converted into electrical

energy to produce an electrical signal (much like the human ear). Composite

transducers are increasingly becoming the design of choice in biomedical, sonar

and nondestructive testing applications. This is due to the constituent mate-

rials combining to realise better operational characteristics and the availability

of new materials. The most frequently used designs are 1-3 and 2-2 composites

manufactured from piezoelectric ceramic materials. A 1-3 composite transducer

3

(a) (b)

ceramic pillars are in black and the polymer filler is in white, (a) 1-3 topology,

(b) 2-2 topology

is made by dicing the ceramic block into a series of pillars and then filling the

void with a passive phase. Topologically the connectivity is in only one direc-

tion for the ceramic (the black vertical pillars) but in all three directions for the

polymer (the white filler) (see Figure 1.1 (a)). For a 2-2 composite the ceramic

is cut longitudinally in one direction so that there is connectivity in two direc-

tions for both the ceramic and polymer (see Figure 1.1 (b)). The advantage of

these composites is that the combined materials give better electromechanical

coupling and acoustic impedance characteristics [29].

Due to the ability of molecules to support vibrations in solids, a number of

different types of wave modes can be found within a transducer. These wave

modes can be characterized by their oscillatory patterns. A longitudinal mode

is characterised by the motion of the material particles being in the same direc-

tion as the wave is travelling in. A shear wave is characterised by the motion

of the material particles being perpendicular to the direction the wave is trav-

elling in. Elliptical and complex vibrations at the surfaces and interfaces make

other waves possible such as surface and plate waves. A surface (or Rayleigh)

wave travels along the surface of a semi-infinite plate with the material particles

undergoing an elliptical motion. As the wave propagates deeper into the plate,

the particles will move in smaller ellipses until a no-movement depth is reached.

Plate waves only propagate in very thin metals, hence they are very common

4

within ultrasonic transducers. The most frequently found plate waves are Lamb

waves which are complex vibrational waves that travel through the entire thick-

ness of the transducer. Their propagation depends on the material properties

and the transducer thickness. One of the problems with the composite pillar

architecture is the presence of surface waves, which are generated between the

adjacent pillars (inter-pillar modes) or within the pillars (intra-pillar modes), in-

terfering with the piston like behaviour of the main thickness mode. Extensive

experimental observations have highlighted the intricate dependency between

the geometry of the design, the material properties and the operational charac-

teristics of the device. One key to an efficient composite transducer is to arrange

for the two phases to move in concert at the driving frequency. This is aided by

ensuring that the transverse wavelength (the wavelength in the direction per-

pendicular to the thickness direction) in the passive phase is much larger than

the lattice periodicity.

A transducer typically has a backing layer and matching layer and a dis-

crete set of electrodes on the upper face (see Figure 1.2). A backing layer will

damp out unwanted oscillations but reduces the sensitivity of the device and a

matching layer will optimise the amount of energy transferred into the mechan-

ical load. The geometry of a composite transducer is described by the pitch

(period of the polymer and ceramic pillar), the kerf width (the slot that the

blade cuts in the material) and the thickness. Since a piezoelectric ceramic is

anisotropic (the properties are directionally dependent), the physical constants

relate to both the direction of the applied mechanical or electric force and the

directions perpendicular to the applied force (transverse direction). A trans-

ducer can be described by the volume fraction of ceramic and the mechanical

quality factor Q (the ratio of the reactance to the resistance in the series equiv-

alent circuit representing the piezoelectric transducer). Beamforming is a signal

processing technique used with arrays of transmitting or receiving transducers

5

that controls the directionality of, or sensitivity to, a radiation pattern. Elastic

loss (mechanical energy lost in the medium due to heat, friction and deforma-

tion) must be taken into account when modelling these devices in order that

results can be compared to experimental investigations. There are numerous

processing techniques for fabrication of piezoelectric composite transducers such

as dice and fill, injection moulding and lost mold techniques [?]. The dice and

fill method involves performing a series of parallel cuts into a piezoelectric plate,

filling these cuts with an epoxy and slicing the base of the device to reveal a

composite transducer. Once the transducer design is complete, the device must

be electroded with silver paint on the main faces, poled and characterised by

measuring techniques.

As the frequency is increased, the element’s oscillations approach a frequency

at which the impedance is a minimum (maximum admittance). This minimum

impedance frequency approximates the series resonance frequency, the frequency

at which impedance in an electrical circuit describing the element is zero, if re-

sistance caused by mechanical losses is ignored. This is the electrical resonant

frequency (fe ), the frequency at which the ceramic most effectively converts

the electrical energy into mechanical energy and vibrates most readily. As the

frequency is further increased, the impedance increases to a maximum (mini-

mum admittance). The maximum impedance frequency, fm , approximates the

parallel resonance frequency, the frequency at which parallel resistance in the

equivalent electrical circuit is infinite if resistance caused by mechanical losses

is ignored. This is the mechanical resonant frequency (fm ), the frequency at

which the ceramic most effectively converts the mechanical energy into electri-

cal energy.

The composition of the ceramic material and the shape and volume of the

piezoelectric pillars determine the electrical resonant frequency. Generally, a

thicker transducer has a lower fe than a thin transducer.

6

Top electrodes

Piezoelectric Ceramic

V

layer and an applied voltage V .

domain in order that a precise signal can be achieved in the time domain (which

provides a high resolution ultrasound image). This goal is hard to accomplish, so

the aim is to manufacture a transducer which will perform over a wide frequency

range and will have large band gaps (a region where there is no unwanted wave

propagation) around the main thickness mode. The bandwidth is defined as

the range of frequencies where the signal’s Fourier transform has a power above

half the maximum value of the amplitude. The maximum response from the

transducer will be at a point between fe and fm . Early models of these periodic

structures neglected the piezoelectric effect in order to make their dynamic study

7

expansion to describe the solution to the governing elastodynamic equations.

By restricting these expansions to a finite number of terms a modal analysis was

performed. However, due to the computational complexity of these models the

evolution of their transducer design has been chiefly guided by experiments and

empirical models.

Oakley illustrated the advantages of composites by comparing an annular

array composite to a ceramic only transducer using a 1-dimensional equivalent

circuit model [42]. He also investigated how to achieve an optimum design com-

posite by identifying the main parameters which, when varied, have the most

effect. These are the dielectric constant and electromechanical coupling coeffi-

cient of the piezoelectric material, the Lamé coefficients for the isotropic passive

phase and two parameters to describe the geometry such as the volume fraction

and kerf width. Note that the benefits of using an anisotropic filler and the ef-

fects of elastic loss were not considered. Smith and Auld [67] developed a model

which examined thickness mode oscillations for a wide thin 1-3 composite plate

in a homogeneous medium with no loss. The piezoelectric constitutive equations

were reduced to an effective one-dimensional model using a set of simplifying as-

sumptions. The simplicity of the final model makes computation very quick and

permits the use of linear systems modelling for 1-3 transducers [31]. However,

such one-dimensional models cannot comment on unwanted lateral modes.

There has also been some theoretical investigations of composite transduc-

ers using finite element modelling [28, 9]. Such models can incorporate realistic

operating conditions, such as loss, backing and matching layers, mechanical and

electrical loads and electrode patterning. The major drawback is the high com-

putational cost. The method is mainly used in the time domain and so the

modal analysis requires a Fourier analysis of the predicted displacements. This

can be problematic if the mode amplitudes have large variance. Due to the

8

odic boundary conditions is often employed. For regular geometries this does

not present a problem but essentially excludes the study of irregular designs

in three dimensions. However the results do compare well with experimental

results and one-dimensional, effective medium models. Analysis has shown that

a wide bandwidth transducer is associated with high loss, or low Q value, ma-

terials. It has also been shown that Lamb wave propagation is responsible for

the inter element crosstalk and has a detrimental effect on beam forming and

the transducer sensitivity [29]. It has been suggested that a passive filler with

high shear loss may aid the damping of these unwanted Lamb waves.

Vasseur et al. [73] used a plane wave expansion method to study the modal

behaviour of an anisotropic passive material consisting of a regular array of uni-

directional cylindrical fibres embedded in an epoxy matrix. They found several

large frequency band gaps and that a marked contrast between the two con-

stituent material parameters provides the best opportunities for realising such

gaps. Shui et al. [66] also studied striated non-piezoelectric composite mate-

rials although they restricted their attention to 2-2 geometries. The dynamic

equations were formulated in each phase and a set of interface conditions were

applied. This allowed them to study the effects of varying the volume fraction

of each constituent on the lateral resonant frequencies. These typically provide

the upper and lower limits of any stop band gap which encompasses the main

thickness mode. The boundary effects, as well as loss, were neglected in their

modelling. Geng and Zhang [21] used partial wave expansion methods to expand

the material properties in a finite thickness plate with the periodic structure of

a 2-2 composite. The dynamic equations were solved in each material domain

and then a set of interface conditions were imposed. For a plate consisting of

a half-space the dispersion curves in the complex wave vector space were ob-

tained and loss was included in the thickness direction. The physical properties

9

of the passive phase were varied and the effect on these dispersion curves dis-

cussed. For the finite thickness plate they found that if the thickness resonant

frequency is lower than the lateral mode, then there will be a frequency near the

ceramic thickness mode where both constituents vibrate in phase. Their analy-

sis also predicted the modes which occur due to the periodicity of the structure.

They also studied the role that the pillar aspect ratio has on the surface profile.

One deficiency in their model is that no loss mechanisms in the materials were

incorporated into the finite thickness case.

Certon et al. [13] studied the lateral modes using an infinitesimally thin

(membrane model) 1-3 composite with no piezoelectric effect. Again the dy-

namical equations were constructed in each material and a set of periodic in-

terface conditions imposed. This does simplify the computations but restricts

the model outcomes to stop band gaps in the transverse modes and, by its very

nature, does not permit variations in material parameters in the thickness mode

direction. It was found that a large ceramic width to pitch ratio (ratio of the

pillar width and period) resulted in the largest frequency band gaps. The mem-

brane model was also studied using Bloch wave theory and a truncated Fourier

series to describe the dependent variables [12]. This led to slightly longer com-

putational times but the need for interface conditions was avoided. Again no

loss mechanisms were invoked but one of the benefits of this approach is that

more irregular geometries could be studied.

Geng and Zhang [22] used an ingenious annular unit cell to study a three di-

mensional piezoelectric transducer with a hexagonal symmetry pattern. Within

each material a partial wave expansion solution of the governing dynamical

equations was derived and interface conditions imposed. A cylindrical coor-

dinate system reduced the dimensionality of the problem by one. Mechanical

and dielectric losses were included in both the ceramic and passive phases, and

piezoelectric loss was included in the ceramic. This permitted a study of the

10

mechanical Q value, that is the ratio of the mechanical energy stored to the me-

chanical energy lost in one cycle. They found that the Q value depended on the

two material properties in a non-trivial fashion and that it is not a simple matter

of interpolating between two sets of values. The predicted lateral modes were

identified from the resonant frequencies associated with the kerf widths and the

diagonal lengths in the passive phase. However, the model has a very restric-

tive geometry and the annular unit cell and hexagonal periodic arrangement is

unrealistic.

The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the benefits of using anisotropic, high

shear loss polymer filler materials in composite transducers. To this end all of the

modelling used had to be extended to incorporate elastic loss. For comparison

to the three dimensional modelling Chapter 2 investigates the one-dimensional

linear systems (LSM) model. The piezoelectric equations are defined and the

equations which describe the transmission and reception of a thickness mode

transducer are derived. A model for a 1-3 composite transducer is configured by

using the methods of Smith and Auld [67]. These derivations are also extended

to incorporate anisotropic polymer fillers. The LSM model is then extended

in Chapter 3 to include elastic losses. The effect that this has on the recep-

tion/transmission sensitivity profiles and the effective properties of a composite

transducer with an anisotropic polymer phase is reported. The impedance char-

acteristics are also compared to finite element modelling (FEM) results.

The 3-dimensional plane wave expansion (PWE) model is derived in Chapter

4. The geometry of the transducer is described in terms of a two-dimensional,

spatial Fourier series and then the PWE method and associated boundary con-

ditions are outlined. A comparison of the PWE method with the Rayleigh-Lamb

equation and LSM is made and a mode identification methodology for both 2-

11

vectors and electrical potential are outlined. In Chapter 5 frequency dependent

elastic loss is incorporated into the PWE model. The dispersive behaviour of a

2-2 composite transducer is examined and the effects of introducing high shear

attenuation into the passive phase is investigated. Scaling and regularisation

techniques are introduced and modes are identified by examining profiles of the

displacements, electrical potential and Poynting vector. A new geometrical con-

struction for a transducer using Cantor set and Sierpinski carpet structures is

detailed in Chapter 6. The effects of introducing up to three fractal genera-

tion levels is investigated and a modal analysis is performed to help explain the

characteristics of each fractal device.

The original work in the thesis is stated below:

the volume fraction of the ceramic and the derivation of Smith and Auld

[67] is extended to incorporate anisotropic polymers into their formulation.

quency dependent mechanical loss, a comparison of the reception/transmission

sensitivity profiles with and without loss, the effective properties of a com-

posite transducer with an anisotropic polymer phase and a comparison to

finite element modelling (FEM) using a range of polymer composites.

ing vector, a parameter scaling to reduce ill-conditioning, an admittance

that incorporates a dependency on the electrode spacing, a comparison of

the PWE method with the Rayleigh-Lamb equation and linear systems

modelling, the dependency of the determinant of the harmonic analysis

matrix on the driving frequency and wavenumber and a mode identifica-

tion methodology for both 2-2 and 1-3 composite transducers using profiles

12

mechanical loss in both the piezoelectric and polymer material, associated

scaling and regularisation techniques, a comparison of the PWE results

incorporating loss and a comparison with the LSM model, mode identifi-

cation for a 2-2 composite using profiles of the displacements and Poynting

vectors, the effects of using a high shear loss passive phase and a compar-

ison to FEM modeling and experimental results.

the electrical impedance and admittance characteristics of a self-similar

composite transducer. Electrical impedance characteristics of a Sierpinski

carpet (1-3) and a Cantor set (2-2) composite transducer along with surface

profiles are used to discuss the behaviour of these devices.

Chapter 2

1-3 Composite Transducer

2.1 Introduction

In this chapter a one-dimensional model of a piezoelectric transducer is inves-

tigated. This consists of a plane parallel plate of piezoelectric material, with a

backing material and a front matching layer. A 1-3 composite transducer with a

polymer filler material will also be considered. Polymer composite transducers

combine two or more materials to gain better characteristics than those of a

monolithic piezoelectric crystal. The thickness mode of the device; a piston like

oscillation, is the predominant dynamical behaviour of such devices [70]. The

LSM model is extended here to show the impact of varying the volume fraction

of the ceramic. In later chapters results will be compared to an LSM model

incorporating elastic loss and a plane wave expansion method.

For thickness mode transducers the dynamics can be approximately described

by a one-dimensional model. By coupling the piezoelectric constitutive equa-

tions with the one-dimensional wave equation for the mechanical displacement

13

14

a Linear Systems Model (LSM) can be derived [25]. In a series of papers, the

dependency of both the reception and transmission characteristics of the trans-

ducer on its physical parameters was investigated using a systems block diagram

approach [31, 26, 27]. Previous authors have used this approach to study some

special cases such as, the open-circuit response of a lossless transducer, with a

rigid backing material [59], the short or open-circuit dynamics of a mechanically

free transducer [69] or the form of the transmitted pressure wave when a step-like

charge is applied [20]. In this section the derivation of the equations describing

the transmission and reception of the thickness mode transducer is detailed.

The two unknowns are the mechanical displacement u(x, t) and the electrical

displacement E(x, t). The one-dimensional wave equation for u(x, t) is

∂ 2 u(x, t) ∂ 2 u(x, t)

ρ = Y (2.1)

∂t2 ∂x2

where ρ is the density and u is the particle displacement, subject to the boundary

conditions at x = 0 and x = L of continuity of displacement and force into the

adjacent media. From Gauss’s Law

∂D/∂x = 0, (2.2)

The one dimensional piezoelectric equations are [25]

T = Y S − hD (2.3)

D

E = −hS + (2.4)

where T is the stress, Y is the Young’s modulus, S is the strain, h is the piezo-

electric constant, D is the electrical displacement, E is the electric field and is

the permittivity. The strain is defined as

∂u

S= , (2.5)

∂x

15

V = Edx (2.6)

0

where E is the electric field and L is the thickness of the transducer. The

force at each face of the transducer is F , where F = Ar T and Ar is the cross-

sectional area of the transducer. The transducer typically has a backing material

(subscript 2) and a matching layer, but for simplicity, there is no matching layer

here; the device will simply transmit into a load medium (subscript 1) at x = 0

(see Figure 2.1). At the two interfaces there is continuity and differentiability of

the displacement u; the latter of these corresponding to the continuity of force.

Applying these boundary conditions implies that u(0) = u1 (0), u(L) = u2 (L),

F (0) = F1 (0) and F (L) = F2 (L) where

F = (Y S − hD)Ar . (2.7)

A2 A A1

PSfrag replacements

B B1

x=h

x=0

Figure 2.1: Illustration of the transmitted and received waves within a trans-

ducer.

∂ 2 ū(x, p)

p2 ū(x, p) = v 2 (2.8)

∂x2

16

where the wave speed v is given by v 2 = Y /ρ. Solving equation (2.8) inside the

transducer gives,

p p

ū(x, p) = Ae− v x + Be v x . (2.9)

Zc = ρvAr , (2.10)

∂ ū Zc ∂ ū x x

Y S̄Ar = Y = Zc v = pZc (−Ae−p( v ) + Bep( v ) ). (2.11)

∂x ρv ∂x

x x

F̄ + hD̄Ar = pZc (−Ae−p( v ) + Bep( v ) ).

That is

x x

F̄ = pZc (−Ae−p( v ) + Bep( v ) ) − hQ̄. (2.12)

Z L

D̄

V̄ = −hS̄ + dx

0

Z L

∂ ū Q̄

= −h + dx

0 ∂x Ar

Q̄

= −h(ū(L) − ū(0)) + L.

Ar

That is

Q̄L

V̄ = −h A(e−pξ − 1) + B(epξ − 1) +

, (2.13)

Ar

where ξ = L/v is the transit time of a plane wave through the transducer. The

transducer is placed in parallel with a load impedance Z̄E and the combination

17

PSfrag replacements

Z0

I

V

ZE ZT

Vs IE IT

is placed in series with a load Z̄0 as shown in Figure 2.2. If the input voltage,

V̄s is put into the transducer and the total impedance is Z̄0 + Z̄E Z̄T /(Z̄E + Z̄T ),

then

V̄s

I¯ = Z̄E Z̄T

, (2.14)

Z̄0 + Z̄E +Z̄T

where I is the current and ZT is the electrical impedance of the transducer. The

voltage across the transducer is defined as

V̄ = Z̄E Z̄T

× , (2.15)

Z̄0 + Z̄E + Z̄T

Z̄E +Z̄T

¯ 1 V̄s Z̄E Z̄T

IT = Z̄ Z̄

×

Z̄T Z̄0 + E T Z̄E + Z̄T

Z̄E +Z̄T

V̄s Z̄E

=

(Z̄0 + Z̄E )Z̄T + Z̄0 Z̄E

where ā = Z̄E /(Z̄0 + Z̄E ) and b̄ = Z̄0 Z̄E /(Z̄0 + Z̄E ). Now since I¯T = V̄s /Z̄0 − V̄ /b̄,

the electrical charge Z

Q= IT dt (2.17)

t

18

can be written as

I¯T V̄s V̄

Q̄ = = − . (2.18)

p pZ̄0 pb̄

Ar

Since C0 = L

, where C0 is the (clamped) capacitance of the transducer, equa-

tion (2.13) becomes

V̄s V̄

V̄ = −h A(e−pξ − 1) + B(epξ − 1) +

− ,

pC0 Z̄0 pC0 b̄

which can be written as

V̄s

V̄ = (−h A(e−pξ − 1) + B(epξ − 1) +

)Ū , (2.19)

pC0 Z̄0

where Ū = pC0 b̄/(1 + pC0 b̄). Within each medium, there is a transmitted wave

to the right (amplitude Bi ) and an incoming wave to the left (amplitude Ai )

and it is assumed that the reflected wave within the backing layer is damped

out (B2 = 0) (see Figure 2.1). Applying the boundary conditions for continuity

of displacement implies that ū1 (0) = ū(0) which gives

A1 + B1 = A + B, (2.20)

−p vL

Ae−pξ + Bepξ = A2 e 2 . (2.21)

and

−p vL

pZc (−Ae−pξ + Bepξ ) − hQ̄ = pZ2 (−A2 e 2 ), (2.23)

where Z1 is the mechanical impedance of the front load and Z2 of the backing

material. Hence there are four equations and five unknowns (A1 , B1 , A, B, A2 ).

Substituting equation (2.20) in equation (2.22) gives

19

hQ̄

A(Zc + Z1 ) − B(Zc − Z1 ) = 2A1 Z1 − , (2.25)

p

and then

Zc − Z 1 Zc + Z 1 + Z 1 − Z c hQ̄

A−B = A1 − , (2.26)

Zc + Z 1 Zc + Z 1 (Zc + Z1 )p

so that

hQ̄

A − RF B = A1 (1 − RF ) − , (2.27)

(Zc + Z1 )p

where RF = (Zc − Z1 )/(Zc + Z1 ) is the reflection coefficient at the front face of

the transducer. Multiplying equation (2.21) by pZ2 , and adding it to equation

(2.23) gives

hQ̄

Bepξ (Zc + Z2 ) − Ae−pξ (Zc − Z2 ) = , (2.29)

p

so that

pξ hQ̄ Zc − Z 2

Be = + Ae−pξ . (2.30)

(Zc + Z2 )p Zc + Z 2

Hence B can be expressed as

hQ̄e−pξ

B= + Ae−2pξ RB , (2.31)

(Zc + Z2 )p

the transducer. Substituting equation (2.31) into (2.27) gives

RF hQ̄e−pξ hQ̄

A − Ae−2pξ RF RB = + A1 (1 − RF ) − , (2.32)

(Zc + Z2 )p (Zc + Z1 )p

A= . (2.33)

1 − e−2pξ RF RB

20

RF hQ̄e−pξ hQ̄

(Zc +Z2 )p

+ A1 (1 − RF ) − (Zc +Z1 )p hQ̄

− RF B = A1 (1 − RF ) − , (2.34)

1− e−2pξ R F RB (Zc + Z1 )p

and then

RF hQ̄e−pξ RF RB hQ̄e−2pξ

(Zc +Z2 )p

+ A1 (1 − RF )(RF RB e−2pξ ) + (Zc +Z1 )p

RF B = , (2.35)

1 − e−2pξ RF RB

so that

(−hQ̄)/((Zc + Z2 )p) − A1 (1 − RF )(RB e−pξ ) − (RB hQ̄e−pξ )/((Zc + Z1 )p) −pξ

B= −e .

1 − e−2pξ RF RB

(2.36)

Hence, substituting equations (2.33) and (2.36) into equation (2.19) gives

h(1 − e−pξ ) hQ̄RF e−pξ hQ̄

V̄ = + A 1 (1 − R F ) −

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z2 )p (Zc + Z1 )p

pξ hQ̄e−pξ −2pξ hQ̄RB e−2pξ V̄s

− e + A1 (1 − RF )(RB e )− + Ū ,

(Zc + Z2 )p (Zc + Z1 )p pC0 Z0

(2.37)

and therefore

h(1 − e−pξ ) −pξ hQ̄(1 − RB e−pξ )

V̄ = A 1 (1 − R F )(1 − R B e ) −

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z1 )p

hQ̄(1 − RF e−pξ ) V̄s

− + Ū , (2.38)

(Zc + Z2 )p pC0 Z0 h

so that

hQ̄ K̄B hQ̄ V̄s

V̄ = h K̄F Ā1 (1 − RF ) − − + Ū , (2.39)

p(Zc + Z1 ) p(Zc + Z2 ) pC0 Z0

where K̄F = ((1−e−pξ )(1−RB e−pξ ))/(1−RF RB e−2pξ ) and K̄B = ((1−e−pξ )(1−

RF e−pξ ))/(1 − RF RB e−2pξ ).

When the transducer is transmitting there is no force incident on the front face

of the transducer from the load medium and so A1 = 0. Hence

∂u

F̄F = pZc (0) − hQ̄,

∂x

= pZc (−A + B) − hQ̄. (2.40)

21

pZc hQ̄(1 − RF )e−pξ hQ̄(1 + RB e−2pξ ) hQ̄(1 − RF RB e−2pξ )

F̄F = + − ,

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z2 )p (Zc + Z1 )p pZc

hQ̄Z̄c 2Z̄1 Z̄c e−pξ Zc + Zc RB e−2pξ

= +

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z2 )(Zc + Z1 )Zc (Zc + Z1 )Zc

Zc + Z1 − (Zc − Z1 )RB e−2pξ

− ,

(Zc + Z1 )Zc

= (1 + R B )e − 1 − R B e ,

(1 − RF RB e−2pξ )(Zc + Z1 )

hQ̄K̄F Z1

= − .

Zc + Z 1

(2.41)

∂u

F̄B = pZc (L) − hQ̄,

∂x

= pZc (−Ae−pT + BepT ) − hQ̄, (2.42)

22

pZc hQ̄(1 − RF e−2pξ ) hQ̄(1 + RB )e−pξ hQ̄(1 − RF RB e−2pξ )

F̄B = + − ,

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z2 )p (Zc + Z1 )p pZc

hQ̄Z̄c Z̄c − Z̄c RF e−2pξ 2Z̄c e−pξ

= +

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z2 )Zc (Zc + Z2 )(Zc + Z1 )Zc

Zc + Z2 − (ZC − Z2 )RF e−2pξ

−

(Zc + Z2 )Zc

hQ̄Z̄2

= (1 + RF )e−pξ − 1 − RF e−2pξ ,

(1 − RF RB e −2pξ )(Zc + Z2 )

hQ̄K̄B Z2

= − .

Zc + Z 2

(2.43)

Since A1 = 0,

h(1 − e−pξ ) hQ̄RF e−pξ hQ̄

V̄ = −

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z2 )p (Zc + Z1 )p

pξ hQ̄RF e−pξ hQ̄RB e−2pξ Q̄

− e − + ,

(Zc + Z2 )p (Zc + Z1 )p C0

−h(1 − e−pξ ) hQ̄(1 − RB e−pξ ) hQ̄(1 − RF e−pξ ) Q̄

= + + .

1 − RF RB e−2pξ (Zc + Z1 )p (Zc + Z2 )p C0

(2.44)

Hence the voltage response of the transducer given by equation (2.39) can be

expressed as

K̄F hQ̄ K̄B hQ̄ Q̄

V̄ = −h + + ,

p(Zc + Z1 ) p(Zc + Z2 ) Co

Q̄ 2 (K̄F TF + K̄B TB )

= 1 − h Co ,

Co 2pZc

(2.45)

23

2Zc 2Zc

where TF = Zc +Z1

and TB = Zc +Z2

.

The electrical impedance of the device ZT , defined as Z̄T = V̄ /I¯T , provides

useful information on its operating characteristics. The electrical impedance can

be obtained by substituting equation (2.18) into equation (2.45) to get

1 2 (K̄F TF + K̄B TB )

Z̄T = 1 − h Co , (2.46)

pCo 2pZc

where p = iω and ω = 2πf . A dimensional analysis of equation (2.46) shows that

h2 C0 /pZc , defined as the square of the electromechanical coupling coefficient k̄t ,

is dimensionless [25]. Since K̄F , K̄B , TF and TB are O(1) then it is required that

k̄t is also O(1) so that the two additive terms in equation (2.46) are of similar

order and resonant behaviour can then occur. In transmitting mode a voltage

V̄s is put into the transducer to produce a force at the front face (F̄F ). Equation

(2.16) can be substituted into equation (2.41) along with Q̄ = I¯T /p to obtain

F̄F hāAF K̄F

=− (2.47)

V̄s 2p(Z̄T + b̄)

where AF = 2Z1 /(Zc + Z1 ). To maximize F̄F it is best that Z̄T is as small as

possible and this occurs at the electrical resonant frequency (fe ). The general

transfer function relating the stress wave generated into the load medium to

the input voltage can be obtained by substituting equation (2.46) into equation

(2.47) to get

F̄F hāĀF K̄F

= − ,

V̄s 2p((1/pC0 ) (1 − h2 C 0 (K̄F TF + K̄B TB )/2pZc ) + b̄)

hā(ĀF /2)K̄F

= − (2.48)

(1/C0 )(1 + C0 pb̄ − h2 C0 (K̄F TF + K̄B TB )/2pZc)

Equation (2.48) is then rearranged to give the transmission sensitivity;

F̄F −1

= −hā(AF /2)Ȳ K̄F 1 − h2 Ȳ (K̄F TF + K̄B TB )/2pZc

(2.49)

V̄s

where Ȳ = C0 /(1 + pC0 b̄). If the transducer was in vacuum with no backing or

matching layer, true resonance would occur. In this model energy is lost since the

24

wave transmitted into the backing layer is not reflected back to the piezoelectric

layer, therefore the amplitude of the transmission sensitivity is finite (this also

applies to the reception sensitivity). The aim is to have the transducer perform

efficiently over a range of frequencies. This range of frequency can be quantified

by the bandwidth. For a unimodal function A(ω), with a local maximum, Amax ,

at ωmax and A(ω) = Amax /2 at ωL and ωR , the bandwidth is defined as ωR − ωL .

The percentage bandwidth is then given by (ωR − ωL )/ωmax × 100. The band-

width can also be defined in terms of decibels (dB). Since decibels are defined

as the logarithm of a ratio of power, and since power is proportional to voltage

squared, then a voltage change from V1 to V2 is calculated as 20 log10 (V2 /V1 )

dB. In the bandwidth calculation V2 = Vmax ,V1 = 21 Vmax and so the equivalent

change in decibels is 20 log10 1VVmax

max

= 20 log10 2 ≈ 6 dB.

2

F̄F

Ā1 = − , (2.50)

pZ̄1

and, since there is no initial load (Z0 ), equation (2.39) becomes

hQ̄ K̄B hQ̄

V̄ = h K̄F Ā1 (1 − RF ) − − Ū . (2.51)

p(Zc + Z1 ) p(Zc + Z2 )

Substituting equation (2.50) and Q̄ = −V̄ /pZ̄E into equation (2.51) gives

−hF̄F K̄F (1 − RF )Ū /pZ1

V̄ = ,

1 − h2 ( ZcK̄+Z

F

1

+ K̄B

Zc +Z2

)Ū /p2 Z̄E

= . (2.52)

Zc − h2 ( ZK̄cF+Z

Zc

1

+ K̄B Zc

Zc +Z2

)Ū /p2 Z̄E

Equation (2.52) is then rearranged to give the reception sensitivity; the ratio of

the received voltage to the magnitude of the incident force

V̄ −hTF K̄F Ū /pZc

= . (2.53)

F̄F 1 − h (K̄F TF /2 + K̄B TB /2)Ū /p2 Zc Z̄E

2

25

When in response mode the aim is to maximize the voltage Vmax resulting from a

force at the front face (F̄F ), and this occurs at the mechanical resonant frequency

fm .

elastic constant c11 Nm−2 12.72 × 1010

elastic constant c12 Nm−2 8.02 × 1010

elastic constant c13 Nm−2 8.47 × 1010

elastic constant c33 Nm−2 11.74 × 1010

dielectric constant 33 - 1.70 × 103

dielectric constant 11 - 1.47 × 103

Piezoelectric constant h V m−1 2.60 × 109

Specific Mechanical impedance Zc Rayls 7 × 106

density ρb kg m−3 7.50 × 103

Piezoelectric stress coefficient e33 C m−2 23.30

Piezoelectric stress coefficient e31 C m−2 −6.50

Cross sectional area Ar m2 10−4

load impedance ZE Ω 106

load impedance Z0 Ω 50

Young’s modulus Y kg m−1 s−2 1.57 × 1011

Transducer thickness L m 2 × 10−4

Backing material impedance Z1 Rayls 2 × 106

Front material impedance Z2 Rayls 1.5 × 106

In Figure 2.3 the reception sensitivity of the device, given by equation (2.53),

is plotted as a function of the driving frequency, with reflection and transmis-

sion coefficients RF = 0.65, RB = 0.52, TF = 1.65 and TB = 1.52. The backing

material is rubber and the front material is water. Looking at Figure 2.3 the

first peak has a maximum reception sensitivity at 11.3 MHz with a 6dB per-

26

V̄

F̄F

(Zc /(h33 Co b))

1

0.75

0.5

0.25

PSfrag replacements

f

1 2 3 4

(V̄ /F̄F )(Zc /(h33 Co b)) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for a piezoelectric ce-

ramic transducer (see Tables 2.1 and 2.2 for material properties).

ZT

20

15

10

5

PSfrag replacements

f

1 2 3 4

Figure 2.4: Electrical impedance ZT (kΩ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for

a piezoelectric ceramic transducer.

centage bandwidth of 14%. Figure 2.4 shows a graph of equation (2.46) for the

same transducer. The location of the first minimum in this plot is the electrical

resonant frequency fe and the location of the first maximum is the mechanical

resonant frequency fm . For a transducer to be most effective it will transmit

at the electrical resonant frequency and receive at the mechanical resonant fre-

quency. In this case the mechanical resonant frequency is fm = 11.4 MHz with

27

F̄F

V̄

/(h33 Co )

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

PSfrag replacements 0.1

f

1 2 3 4

((F̄F )/V̄ )/(h33 Co ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for a piezoelectric ceramic

transducer.

MHz with an electrical impedance of 0.95kΩ. The graph of equation (2.49) (the

transmission sensitivity) for the same PZT5H ceramic transducer is shown in

Figure 2.5. The maximum peak is at 9.8 MHz, with a percentage bandwidth of

18%.

Figure 2.6: Illustration of a 1-3 composite transducer where the ceramic is black

and the polymer is white.

28

characteristics than conventional single phase transducers [28]. They have there-

fore found widespread use particularly in ultrasound imaging within medicine

and nondestructive evaluation [28]. 1-3 transducers are typically manufactured

by slicing the piezoelectric ceramic into a bristle block of vertical pillars and

then filling the inter-pillar space with a passive polymer. The ceramic has a

connectivity in only one direction whilst the polymer has connectivity in all

three directions. This topology is therefore described as 1-3 (see Figure 2.6).

The linear systems model in the previous section is based on a transducer whose

active layer is a single material. In order to utilise this model here the effective

properties of the 1-3 composite transducer must be derived [67]. This starts

with the general form for equations (2.3) and (2.4). Hookes’ law for an elastic

material states

Ti = cij Sj (2.54)

where Ti is the stress tensor, Si is the strain tensor and cij is the elastic modulus

tensor [11]. For a cubic crystal polymer the elastic modulus tensor is

c11 c12 c12 0 0 0

c12 c11 c12 0 0 0

p

c12 c12 c11 0 0 0

cij =

0 0 0 c 44 0 0

0 0 0 0 c44 0

0 0 0 0 0 c44

and for a tetragonal ceramic

cc11 cc12 cc13 0

0 0

cc12 cc11 cc13 0 0 0

c

cc13 cc13 cc33 0 0 0

cij = c

.

0 0 0 c44 0 0

0 0 0 0 cc44 0

0 0 0 0 0 cc66

From Beyer and Letcher [11]

29

where Di is the electric displacement, eij = him mj are the piezoelectric stress

coefficients, ij is the permittivity and Ej is the electric field. In an isotropic,

passive polymer epij = 0 and

11 0 0

pij = 0 11 0 ,

0 0 11

where 11 is the isotropic permittivity of the polymer. In a typical ceramic such

as PZT (lead zirconate titanate) [11]

0 0 0 0 e15 0

ecij = 0 0 0 e15 0 0 ,

e31 e31 e33 0 0 0

and

c11 0 0

cij = 0 c11 0

0 0 c33

since the ceramic is poled in the direction of the pillars. So the piezoelectric

equations for the polymer phase are

(2.56)

and

Dic = ecij Sjc + cij Ejc . (2.58)

posite. In order to do this six assumptions are utilised as listed below:

30

1. The electric field and the strain are assumed to be functions of z only,

where z is directed along the pillar length (the vertical direction in Figure

2.6).

there is symmetry in the x-y plane, i.e. T1 = T2 and S1 = S2 .

3. The ceramic and polymer move together in the z direction so that S3p =

S3c = S̄3 .

4. The electric field is the same in both phases, hence E3p = E3c = Ē3 .

5. Lateral stresses are equal in both phases so that T1p = T1c = T̄1 . In order

that the composite as a whole is laterally clamped (since the composite

is normally placed in a rigid container that prevents any lateral motion

at its extremities) it is assumed that the lateral strain in the ceramic is

compensated by a complementary strain in the polymer to give

to capture the local clamping of the ceramic pillars by the polymer in

the average sense [67]. Equations (2.56), (2.57) and 2.58 have now been

reduced to

31

1

S1p = (cc11 + cc12 )S1c + (cc13 − c12 )S̄3 − e31 Ē3 .

(2.66)

(c11 + c12 )

c

S1 = ψ̃ (2.67)

ψ(c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃(cc11 + cc12 )

where ψ̃ = 1 − ψ and

S1p =ψ (2.68)

ψ(c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃(cc11 + cc12 )

for the ceramic and the polymer, respectively. From equations (2.60) and

(2.68)

T̄1 = c̄13 S̄3 − ē31 Ē3 (2.69)

where

ψcc13 (c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃c12 (cc11 + cc12 )

c̄13 = , (2.70)

ψ(c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃(cc11 + cc12 )

and

ψe31 (c11 + c12 )

ē31 = . (2.71)

ψ(c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃(cc11 + cc12 )

In a similar way equations (2.67) and (2.68) can be substituted into the

expressions for T3p , T3c and D3c .

6. If the lateral periodicity is sufficiently fine then the effective total stress

T̄3 and electric displacement D3 are given by volume averaging

and

D̄3 = ψD3c + ψ̃D3p . (2.73)

32

and

D̄3 = ē33 S̄3 + ¯33 Ē3 (2.75)

where

!

2ψ̃(cc13 − c12 )2

c̄33 = ψ cc33 − + ψ̃c11 , (2.76)

ψ(c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃(cc11 + cc12 )

!

2ψ̃e31 (cc13 − c12 )

ē33 = ψ e33 − , (2.77)

ψ(c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃(cc11 + cc12 )

and

!

2ψ̃(e31 )2

¯33 = ψ c33 + + ψ̃11 . (2.78)

ψ(c11 + c12 ) + ψ̃(cc11 + cc12 )

T̄3 = c̄D

33 S̄3 − h33 D̄3 (2.79)

where cD 2

33 = c̄33 + (ē33 ) /¯

33 , h33 = ē33 /¯

33 and β33 = 1/¯

33 . The density is

defined

ρ̄ = ψρc + ψ̃ρp (2.81)

where ρc is the density of the ceramic and ρp is the density of the polymer.

For the case when the polymer phase is anisotropic (transversely isotropic) the

expressions for the effective properties must be altered slightly from those in

Equations (2.76), (2.77) and (2.78) to

c̄33 = ψ(cc33 − 2(1 − ψ)(cc13 − c13 )2 /(ψ(c11 + c12 ) + (1 − ψ)(cc11 + cc12 ))) + (1 − ψ)c11 ,

(2.82)

ē33 = ψ(e33 − 2(1 − ψ)e31 (cc13 − c13 )/(ψ(c11 + c12 ) + (1 − ψ)(cc11 + cc12 ))), (2.83)

33

and

¯33 = ψ(c33 + 2(1 − ψ)e231 /(ψ(c11 + c12 ) + (1 − ψ)(cc11 + cc12 ))) + (1 − ψ). (2.84)

A measure of the efficiency with which the transducer converts electrical energy

to mechanical energy is given by the electromechanical coupling coefficient k̄t .

Rewriting the nondimensional term discussed with regard to equation (2.46)

p

(Co = Ar ¯33 /L, p = 1/ξ = v/L, v = cD

33 /ρ̄ ) an expression is obtained for the

h̄33 ē33

k̄t = p =p . (2.85)

cD33 β 33 c D

33

¯ 33

This value can be compared with the thickness electromechanical coupling con-

stant for a freely vibrating piezoelectric ceramic rod given by

dc33

k33 = √ (2.86)

εc33 sc33

where scij = (ccij )−1 is the elastic compliance constant, dcij = scij ecij and εcij =

ecij scij ecji + cij [1]. The specific acoustic impedance Z̄c (equation (2.10)) is now

given by

q

Z̄c = cD

33 ρ̄ (2.87)

s

cD

33

v̄ = . (2.88)

ρ̄

impedance Z̄c matches, as well as is possible, the acoustic impedance of the

load medium Z2 . A closer acoustic impedance matching with the load medium

reduces internal wave reflection at the front face of the transducer. Typically the

load medium has a far lower impedance than the piezoelectric ceramic. How-

ever, the inclusion of the polymer in the 1-3 composite serves to reduce the

value of Z̄c . A plot of Z̄c versus ceramic volume fraction ψ, as given by equation

34

Zc

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

PSfrag replacements 0.5

ψ

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

tion ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer (see Tables 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 for material

properties).

(2.87) is shown in Figure 2.7, where the polymer filler is the hardset material

HY1300/CY1301 [48] and the piezoelectric ceramic is the same as in the previous

section.

Shear modulus (real part) G0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 1.57 × 109

Young’s modulus (real part) E 0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 4.28 × 109

Shear Velocity Vs (m s−1 ) 1.17 × 103

Longitudinal Velocity Vl (m s−1 ) 2.51 × 103

Density ρ ( kg m−3 ) 1.15 × 103

Dielectric constant 4

Elastic constant c11 7.19 × 109

Elastic constant c44 1.57 × 109

Frequency of measurement f0 (Hz) 5.00 × 105

[48].

(2.85), is shown in Figure 2.8. Note that ψ = 1 corresponds to pure ceramic

and there is an optimal value for the volume fraction (of around ψ = 0.6) that

35

k̄t

0.6

0.5

0.4

PSfrag replacements

ψ

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

fraction ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer.

ceramic rod (k33 = 0.752) [45]. It is also important to have a reasonably large

¯

0

1500

1250

1000

750

500

PSfrag replacements 250

ψ

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Figure 2.9: Dielectric constant ¯/0 against ceramic volume fraction ψ for a 1-3

composite transducer.

large enough to produce a measurable reception sensitivity (see equation (2.53))

and a reasonable transmission sensitivity (see equation (2.49)). Again the 1-3

composite transducer can achieve the desired magnitude for ¯ (see Figure 2.9).

36

V̄

F̄F

(Zc /(h33 Co b))

1

0.75

0.5

0.25

PSfrag replacements

f

1 2 3 4

(V̄ /F̄F )(Zc /(h33 Co b)) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for a piezoelectric ce-

ramic transducer (dashed line) and a 1-3 composite transducer (full line).

ZT

20

15

10

5

PSfrag replacements

f

1 2 3 4

Figure 2.11: Impedance ZT (kΩ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for a piezo-

electric ceramic transducer (dashed line) and a 1-3 composite transducer (full

line).

Figure 2.10 shows the reception sensitivity against frequency for a monolithic

transducer and a 1-3 composite transducer with the hardset material as the

passive phase and ceramic volume fraction ψ = 0.7. Comparison of the peaks

show that the 1-3 composite will resonate around 2 MHz lower than the mono-

lithic transducer and that the peak amplitudes have increased by around 15%.

37

F̄F

V¯s

/(h33 Co )

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

PSfrag replacements

0.1

f

1 2 3 4

(F̄F /V¯s )/(h33 Co ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for a piezoelectric ceramic

transducer (dashed line) and a 1-3 composite transducer (full line).

0

0.25

0.5 ψ

0.75

1

PSfrag replacements

f /

(V̄ /F̄F (Zc )/(h33 Co b)) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 and volume fraction

ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer.

The inclusion of a polymer phase within the transducer will give a reduction in

velocity which denotes an increase in impedance. This also indicates that the

transit time ξ has increased, hence the transducer will resonate at a lower fre-

quency since ω = 2πf = 1/ξ. In addition, the percentage bandwidth has nearly

doubled to 24%. In Figure 2.11 the electrical impedance of each device is plot-

38

0

0.25

ψ 0.5

0.75

1

PSfrag replacements ZT

1 2 3 4

f

Figure 2.14: Electrical impedance log ZT (kΩ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107

and volume fraction ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer.

kt

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.35

PSfrag replacements

ψ

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

fraction ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer using equation (2.89).

ted. For the 1-3 composite, the mechanical resonant frequency is fm = 9.8 MHz

with an electrical impedance of 12.2 kΩ and the electrical resonant frequency is

fe = 7.2 MHz with associated electrical impedance of 1.3 kΩ. It is clear that by

using a 1-3 composite transducer the thickness mode response has significantly

improved.

Looking at Figure 2.12, which shows the graph of the transmission sensitivity

39

against frequency, it can be seen that the 1-3 composite has a maximum peak

at fm = 7.3 MHz with a percentage bandwidth of 33%. By comparing this

bandwidth to the monolithic plate, it is found that there is a twofold increase in

the transmission sensitivity bandwidth. Figure 2.13 shows the variation in the

reception sensitivity profile as the volume fraction of the ceramic (ψ) is varied

and Figure 2.14 shows the variation in the electrical impedance profile as ψ is

varied. As the ceramic volume fraction decreases the mechanical impedance

decreases, hence the wave velocities decrease along with the associated resonant

frequencies. It can also be seen that as the polymer phase is slowly introduced

to the pure ceramic (ψ = 1) the magnitude of the reception sensitivity decreases

and the resonant frequencies increase. In the electrical impedance frequency

profile, it can be seen that an ideal profile (low amplitude at the electrical

resonant frequency, high value at the mechanical resonant frequency) is achieved

at an intermediate ceramic volume fraction. As the volume fraction diminishes

the resonant behaviour vanishes and the device acts like a simple capacitor.

Figure 2.15 illustrates how the impedance graph (Figure 2.14) can also be

used to define an alternative electromechanical coupling coefficient using the

expression [1] v

π fe

u

u

2 fm

kt = t . (2.89)

u

π fe

tan 2 fm

Comparing the results to Figure 2.8 both curves are of similar shape and mag-

nitude. However k̄t is generally of larger magnitude with a long plateau at

intermediate values of the ceramic volume factor and a less well pronounced

maximum.

40

2.4 Conclusions

A linear systems model has been derived and used to model a PZT5H ceramic

transducer. The methods of Smith and Auld (1991) were then introduced to

develop a model for a 1-3 transducer with polymer filler HY1300/CY1301. Re-

ception sensitivity, transmission sensitivity and impedance curves were produced

to compare a piezoelectric plate transducer and a 1-3 composite transducer. The

composite transducer was found to have better operational characteristics than

the piezoelectric plate. Importantly the derivation and subsequent use of the

linear systems model does not incorporate any loss mechanisms. The model will

therefore be extended in the next chapter to include elastic losses.

Chapter 3

lossy 1-3 Composite Transducer

with an SBS Passive Phase

3.1 Introduction

In this chapter the LSM model will be developed to include elastic losses. The

method is extended here to include expressions for frequency dependent mechan-

ical loss, and a comparison of the reception/transmission sensitivity profiles for a

transducer with and without loss is made. The effective properties of a composite

transducer with an anisotropic polymer phase are investigated and a comparison

to a finite element model (FEM), using a range of polymer composites conducted.

A disadvantage of composite transducers is that there is crosstalk between the

active ceramic pillars which reduces the electromechanical coupling efficiency

[29]. To address this disadvantage the use of an anisotropic polymer filler is in-

vestigated here. Obviously a one-dimensional model such as the linear systems

model cannot predict these lateral modes. This investigation will be done in

Chapter 5 using the three dimensional plane wave expansion (PWE) method.

However, it will prove useful to compare the output from the LSM with the PWE

and FEM. The range of polymer fillers that will be compared are a standard

41

42

(SBS) polymer. The SBS polymer is anisotropic with effective styrene-like prop-

erties in the thickness direction and polybutadiene characteristics in the lateral

directions. These characteristics of the material should maintain the piston-like

behavior of the transducer whilst reducing crosstalk between the ceramic pil-

lars. For the hardset material the performance of the transducer with no loss

mechanisms and that with loss will be compared [52].

3.2 Loss

Smith and Auld [67] do not explicitly have loss within their effective medium

model but in any real transducer there will always be wave attenuation. Elastic

damping depends on the temperature, frequency of vibration and the physi-

cal properties of the materials. Acoustic losses can be described by a viscous

damping term [7] and in this section it is shown how mechanical losses can be

introduced into the formulation. The mechanical loss for the shear modulus G

is calculated using the relaxation equation [40]

G = G0 + iG00 (3.1)

where

(Gu − Gr )ω 2 τ 2

G0 = G r + , (3.2)

1 + ω2τ 2

(Gu − Gr )ωτ

G00 = , (3.3)

1 + ω2τ 2

angular frequency and τ is the shear relaxation time. Loss can be included in

the Bulk and Young’s moduli in a similar fashion. Although dielectric loss is

not considered here, it can also be included in the dielectric constant , via

= 0 − i00 (3.4)

43

where

(r − u )ω 2 τE2

0 = u + ,

1 + ω 2 τE2

(r − u )ωτE

00 = ,

1 + ω 2 τE2

τE is the dielectric relaxation time. The degree of loss is usually expressed in

terms of a dimensionless loss tangent tan δ [40], or attenuation coefficient α [35].

For example,

G00

tan δ = (3.5)

G0

for the mechanical shear loss. Hence equation (3.1) can be written as

s

G

vs = . (3.7)

ρ

However

ω ω ω/k 0 c

vs = = = = , (3.8)

k k − iα

0 1 − iα/k 0 1 − iα/k 0

where c is the measured shear wave velocity and the imaginary part of the

wavenumber k is the attenuation coefficient. Combining equations (3.7) and

(3.8) with equation (3.6) gives

s

G0 c

(1 + i tan δ) = , (3.9)

ρ 1 − iα/k 0

p

which, by using c = G0 /ρ, can be rearranged to give

1

c(1 + i tan δ) 2 = c(1 − iαc/ω)−1 . (3.10)

44

can be expressed as

ω

α= tan δ, (3.11)

2c

To find τ , Gu and Gr , the attenuation coefficient α and the (measured/real

part) wave speed c must be measured at a certain frequency ωI , and then the

associated G0I is calculated. The frequency where tan δ achieves its maximum

ωmax [40] is also required. Substituting equations (3.2) and (3.3) into equation

(3.5) then differentiating with respect to ω gives

2

(Gu − Gr )τ (Gr + Gu ωmax τ 2 ) − 2Gu ωmax τ 2 (Gu − Gr )ωmax τ

2

= 0. (3.12)

(Gr + Gu ωmax τ 2 )2

2

Gr + Gu ωmax τ 2 − 2Gu ωmax

2

τ 2 = 0, (3.13)

r

Gr 1

ωmax = . (3.14)

Gu τ

Substituting equations (3.2) and (3.3) into equations (3.5) and (3.11) yields the

expression

(Gu − Gr )ωI τ 2cα

2 2

= , (3.15)

G r + G u ωI τ ωI

so that

Gu (ωI2 τ − 2cαωI2 τ 2 ) = Gr (2cα + ωI2 τ ), (3.16)

Gr ω 2 τ (1 − 2cατ )

= I . (3.17)

Gu 2cα + ωI2 τ

2 ωI2 τ (1 − 2cατ )

ωmax τ2 = (3.18)

2cα + ωI2 τ

45

ωI2 ωmax

2

τ 2 + 2cα(ωI2 + ωmax

2

)τ − ωI2 = 0. (3.19)

p

−cα(ωI2 + ωmax

2

) + c2 α2 (ωI2 + ωmax

2 )2 + ωI4 ωmax

2

τ= . (3.20)

ωI2 ωmax

2

which simplifies to

Gu = . (3.24)

ωI2 τ

The attenuation coefficient is often given in dB/m and equation (3.5) requires a

value in Nepers/m. A straightforward conversion factor can be derived however.

Consider the decay in the spatial component of a voltage, expressed in terms of

an attenuation coefficient via V (x) = V0 e−αx . This can be rearranged for α to

give, α = 1/x ln(Vo /V ) Nepers/m. Alternatively logarithms to base 10 can be

taken to give α = 1/(x log10 (e)) log10 (V0 /V ). To state this in decibels per metre

a multiplication of 20 log10 (e) ≈ 8.686 is then needed [7]. The calculated values

46

for the materials in this Chapter are presented in Table 3.1. Due to to the lack

of information on ωmax for these materials in the available literature estimates

were used. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to gauge the effect that

this approach had on the parameters Gu , Gr and τ . This concluded that the

effects were minimal and that these estimates were reasonable. Equations (3.20),

(3.24) and (3.25) use the data in Table 3.1 to calculate a frequency dependent

shear modulus via equation (3.1) (that is, the Lamé coefficient c44 ) [10]. Similar

equations are used for the Young’s modulus (the Lamé coefficient c12 ). Note that

if the imaginary part of c12 turns out to be small and negative, it is set equal to

zero. Also note that it is assumed that the ceramic has frequency independent

viscoelastic losses of the form c11 = c11 (1 + i tan δ).

V̄

F̄F

(Zc /(h33 Co b))

1

0.75

0.5

0.25

PSfrag replacements

f

1 2 3 4

(V̄ /F̄F )(Zc /(h33 Co b)) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for a 1-3 composite

transducer for the hardset material HY1300/CY1301 with frequency dependent,

viscoelastic loss (full line) and no loss (dashed line) (see Tables 2.1, 2.2 and 3.1

for material properties).

equation (2.53), is plotted as a function of the driving frequency; the passive

phase is the hardset material HY1300/CY1301 (see Table 3.1) and the volume

fraction is ψ = 0.7. The effect of incorporating frequency dependent loss into the

47

ZT

20

15

10

5

PSfrag replacements

f

1 2 3 4

for a 1-3 composite transducer with the hardset material HY1300/CY1301 with

frequency dependent, viscoelastic loss (full line) and no loss (dashed line).

F̄F

V¯s

/(h33 Co )

0.6

0.4

0.2

PSfrag replacements

f

1 2 3 4

(F̄F /V¯s )/(h33 Co ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for a 1-3 composite trans-

ducer with the hardset material HY1300/CY1301 with frequency dependent,

viscoelastic loss (full line) and no loss (dashed line).

model can be seen by comparing the no loss case (dashed line) with the loss case

(full line). The addition of the elastic loss does not affect the profile except at

the main peaks where they are reduced by around 5 per cent. This reduction in

amplitude gives rise to a slight increase in the percentage bandwidth from 24%

48

k̄t

0.6

0.5

0.4

PSfrag replacements

ψ

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

ume fraction ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer with the hardset material

HY1300/CY1301 with frequency dependent, viscoelastic loss (full line) and no

loss (dashed line).

kt

0.5

0.45

0.4

PSfrag replacements

0.35

ψ

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

ume fraction ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer with the hardset material

HY1300/CY1301 with frequency dependent, viscoelastic loss using equation

(2.89).

to 25% MHz. Figure 3.2 shows that the electrical impedance has a mechanical

resonant frequency of fm = 9.7 MHz and an electrical resonant frequency of

fe = 7.3 MHz. It can be seen that introducing loss for these materials has

had very little effect on the profile except at the mechanical resonant frequency.

49

0

0.25

0.5 ψ

0.75

1

PSfrag replacements

f

(V̄ /F̄F )(Zc /(h33 Co b)) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 and volume fraction

ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer for the hardset material HY1300/CY1301 with

frequency dependent, viscoelastic loss.

0

0.25

0.5 ψ

0.75

1

PSfrag replacements ZT

1 2 3 4

f

Figure 3.7: Electrical impedance log ZT (kΩ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107

and volume fraction ψ for a 1-3 composite transducer with the hardset material

HY1300/CY1301 with frequency dependent, viscoelastic loss.

although its frequency (the mechanical resonant frequency) remains constant.

In Figure 3.3 the associated transmission sensitivity, given by equation (2.49)

50

is plotted. Again the addition of the viscoelastic loss does not affect the profile

except at the main peaks where they are slightly reduced and the percentage

bandwidth increases by 1% to 34%.

In Figure 3.4 the electromechanical coupling coefficient, given by equation

(2.85), is plotted as a function of the volume fraction of the ceramic phase. It can

be seen that the frequency dependent loss reduces the efficiency across the full

range of volume fractions. From a design perspective the highest efficiency (of

around k̄t = 0.65) occurs at a ceramic volume fraction of around ψ = 0.6. The

diagram also highlights the benefits of using a composite design. The coefficient

has risen by around 30 per cent from k̄t = 0.5 for the pure ceramic (ψ = 1) to

the optimum ceramic volume fraction of around ψ = 0.6. The low permittivity

value in the polymer phase ensures that the piezoelectric constant h33 has a high

value for even low volume fractions of ceramic. This in turn leads to a reasonably

high electromechanical coupling coefficient at low ceramic volume fractions. This

results in the reception and transmission characteristics of the device being near

optimal across a wide range of ceramic volume fractions. Figure 3.5 shows the

electromechanical coupling coefficient calculated using equation (2.89) and the

impedance data in Figure 3.7. Comparing this to the no loss case in Figure 2.15

shows that both curves are very similar.

In Figure 3.6 the nondimensionalised reception sensitivity frequency profile

is plotted against the ceramic volume fraction. As the ceramic volume fraction

decreases the resonant frequencies decrease. Since the mechanical impedance

decreases as the volume fraction of the polymer increases, then the wave ve-

locities decrease along with the associated resonant frequencies. It can also be

seen that the magnitude of the reception sensitivity decreases as the polymer

phase is slowly introduced to the pure ceramic (ψ = 1). This behaviour is main-

tained over a wide range of ceramic volume fractions since the low permittivity

in the polymer keeps the piezoelectric constant at a reasonable level (and the

51

In Figure 3.7 the electrical impedance frequency profile is plotted as a function

of the ceramic volume fraction. Here it can be seen that an optimum profile

(low amplitude at the electrical resonant frequency, high value at the mechani-

cal resonant frequency) is achieved at an intermediate ceramic volume fraction.

As the volume fraction diminishes the resonant behaviour ultimately vanishes

and the device acts like a simple capacitor.

3.3 SBS

In this section the transmission and response characteristics of a 1-3 composite

transducer, with a passive phase consisting of a styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)

polymer are investigated. The effective elastic and dielectric properties of the

SBS are derived here. In a series of papers Pethrick and co-workers have studied

the mechanical response of this material to ultrasonic stimulus [5, 4]. They

studied the effects of the volume fraction of styrene and the temperature on

the longitudinal wave speed and loss tangent at a fixed frequency [16]. Scanning

electron microscope images clearly showed the anisotropic nature of the material.

In the direction parallel to the extrusion process the material is striated whereas,

perpendicular to this, the material resembles styrene columns randomly set in

a polybutadiene matrix [56]. Velocity measurements were only presented for

longitudinal propagation on compression moulded samples as the experimental

equipment did not have a large enough angular aperture to cope with the critical

angle for shear wave propagation. This work was extended to examine the

frequency dependence of the attenuation [5] and looked at how phase separation

affects the viscoelastic properties of the composite [4]. In this section a linear

systems model of the SBS 1-3 composite transducer is constructed using the

analysis of the previous sections. The mechanical loss for the Young’s (Y ) and

shear (G) moduli are calculated independently for both the polystyrene and

52

scattering approach is used to calculate the effective bulk (Be ) and shear (Ge )

moduli [10] of the SBS material where [72]

Be = , (3.26)

3Bb + 4Gp − 3pBb + 3φBp

Ge = ,

Bp (6Gb (φ − 1) − 3Gp (3 + 2φ)) − 4Gp (−3Gb (φ − 1) + Gp (2 + 3φ))

(3.27)

Bp , Bb , Gp , Gb are the Bulk and Shear moduli for the polystyrene and the polybu-

tadiene respectively and φ is the volume fraction of polybutadiene within the

SBS polymer. The effective elastic tensor elements for the polymer are then

given by [11]

Note that if there is only experimental data for the shear and Young’s moduli

then

G(2G − Y )

c12 = (3.29)

Y − 3G

can be used to calculate the bulk modulus [11]. The effective dielectric constant

is [72]

p (2p + b + 2φ(b − p ))

e = . (3.30)

2p + b − φ(b − p )

53

V̄

F̄F

(Zc /(h33 Co b))

1

0.75

0.5

f

1 2 3 4

(V̄ /F̄F )(Zc /(h33 Co b)) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for an SBS 1-3 com-

posite transducer with frequency dependent, elastic loss (full line) and no loss

(dashed line) (see Tables 2.1, 2.2 and 3.1 for material properties).

ZT

20

15

10

PSfrag replacements 5

f

1 2 3 4

(Hertz)×107 for an SBS 1-3 composite transducer with frequency dependent,

elastic loss (full line) and no loss (dashed line).

54

F̄F

V¯s

/(h33 Co )

0.6

0.4

f

1 2 3 4

(F̄F /V¯s )/(h33 Co ) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 for an SBS 1-3 composite

transducer with frequency dependent, elastic loss (full line) and no loss (dashed

line).

The composite model detailed in Section 2.3 is then used to calculate the

effective properties of the 1-3 transducer for use in the linear systems model.

Figure 3.8 shows the reception sensitivity against frequency of the SBS 1-3 com-

posite transducer and Figure 3.9 shows its electrical impedance.

0

0.25

0.5 ψ

0.75

PSfrag replacements 1

f

(V̄ /F̄F )(Zc /(h33 Co b)) against frequency f (Hertz) ×107 and volume fraction

ψ for an SBS 1-3 composite transducer.

55

0

0.25

ψ 0.5

0.75

PSfrag replacements 4

1

3

ZT 2

1

0

2 4 6

f

Figure 3.12: Absolute value of the Electrical impedance log ZT (kΩ) against

frequency f (Hertz) ×107 and volume fraction ψ for an SBS 1-3 composite

transducer.

Zc

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

ψ

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

an SBS 1-3 composite transducer with frequency dependent, elastic loss (full

line) and no loss (dashed line).

56

kt

0.72

0.7 ψ

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.68

0.66

PSfrag replacements 0.64

0.62

0.6

for an SBS 1-3 composite transducer with frequency dependent, elastic loss (full

line) and no loss (dashed line).

The volume fraction of ceramic in Figures 3.8 and 3.9 is the same as that

used in Figures 2.10 and 2.11. The volume fraction (φ) of the polybutadiene

in all the SBS Figures is 0.69. In Figure 3.8 the nondimensionalised reception

sensitivity profile for such a device is shown. Due to the high attenuation in

this polymer there is a marked reduction in amplitude when the loss is included.

Figure 3.9 shows that the electrical impedance has a mechanical resonant fre-

quency of fm = 9.1 MHz, and an electrical resonant frequency of fe = 6.5

MHz. The nondimensionalised transmission sensitivity frequency response in

Figure 3.9 shows a minor decrease in amplitude and a frequency shift. At this

volume fraction of polybutadiene (φ = 0.7) the material has lower values for its

moduli than the hardset material discussed in the previous section. However,

the anisotropy, incorporated into the method through Equations 2.82, 2.83 and

2.84, leads to a similar amplitude for the peak transmission sensitivity.

In Figure 3.11 the nondimensionalised reception sensitivity frequency re-

sponse is shown as a function of the ceramic volume fraction. As before, the

addition of the polymer serves to increase the amplitude of the main lobe. As

57

Shear modulus (real part) G0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 1.36 × 109 6.61 × 107 1.57 × 109

Young’s modulus (real part) Y 0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 3.63 × 109 1.96 × 107 4.28 × 109

tan δ Maximum fmax (Hz) 3.15 × 105 3.15 × 105 3.15 × 105

Frequency of Interest fI (Hz) 5 × 105 5 × 105 5 × 105

0

G Attenuation Coefficient αG (Np/m) 33 1718 41

0

Y Attenuation Coefficient αY (Np/m) 4 13 16

Density ρ (kg m−3 ) 1.04 × 103 0.91 × 103 1.15 × 103

Dielectric constant 2.4 4 4

elastic constant c11 5.58 × 109 1.62 × 109 7.25 × 109

elastic constant c44 1.36 × 109 6.61 × 107 1.57 × 109

Calculated Values

Unrelaxed shear modulus Gu (kg m−1 s−2 ) 1.38 × 109 8.24 × 107 1.60 × 109

Relaxed shear modulus Gr (kg m−1 s−2 ) 1.30 × 109 4.27 × 107 1.50 × 109

Shear relaxation time τG (s) 5.27 × 10−7 3.82 × 10−7 4.88 × 10−7

Unrelaxed Young’s modulus Yu (kg m s ) 3.64 × 109

−1 −2

1.97 × 108 4.35 × 109

Relaxed Young’s modulus Yr (kg m−1 s−2 ) 3.60 × 109 1.92 × 108 4.11 × 109

Young’s relaxation time τY (s) 5.27 × 10−7 5.24 × 10−7 4.91 × 10−7

[55] and HY1300/CY1301 [48]

the volume fraction of the ceramic decreases the main peak disappears and the

device no longer displays the desired resonant behaviour. The frequency shift

in the resonant modes is more pronounced than in Figures 3.9 and 3.10 and

this is further highlighted in the electrical impedance frequency profile shown

in Figure 3.12. Figures 3.13 and 3.14 show the mechanical impedance (Zc ) and

the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k̄t ) (calculated using equation (2.85))

against ceramic volume fraction ψ respectively. This efficiency is also exhibited

by the electromechanical coupling coefficient shown in Figure 3.14. The peak

value of around k = 0.73 is achieved at a volume fraction of polymer of ψ = 0.55.

The high attenuation leads to a clearer separation between the loss/no loss pro-

files.

58

G0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 6.5 × 108 3.38 × 108

E 0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 1.84 × 109 9.68 × 108

Vs (m s−1 ) 747 549

Vl (m s−1 ) 2000 1605

ρ ( kg m−3 ) 1.16 × 103 1.12 × 103

4 4

c11 1.66 × 109 2.89 × 109

c44 6.50 × 108 3.38 × 108

α0s (db/m) 6063 21281

α0l (db/m) 825 565

f0 (MHz) 0.5 0.5

G (kg m−1 s−2 )

0

2.76 × 108 2.30 × 108 4.35 × 108

E 0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 7.95 × 108 6.66 × 108 1.20 × 109

Vs (m s−1 ) 538.6 498 676

Vl (m s−1 ) 1635 1584 1533

ρ ( kg m−3 ) 0.95 × 103 0.93 × 103 0.95 × 103

4 4 4

c11 2.55 × 109 2.33 × 109 2.24 × 109

c44 2.7 × 108 2.30 × 108 4.35 × 108

s

α0 (db/m) 10388 10388 7062

α0l (db/m) 87 104 80

f0 (MHz) 0.5 0.5 0.5

examining the impedance characteristics of a range of 2-2 composite transduc-

ers, all with thickness 3.83 × 10−3 m. A 2-2 composite is made by cutting the

ceramic longitudinally in one direction so that there is connectivity in two direc-

tions for both the ceramic and polymer. The finite element (FE) derived data

59

are produced from a 2-dimensional model of the 1-3 piezoelectric composite us-

ing the PZFlex code [58], the model represents a slice through the transducer

structure and is configured with a boundary of void elements, equivalent me-

chanically and acoustically to vacuum, in order to represent the transducer as

a freely vibrating structure. In order to accurately represent the propagating

wave fronts, the spatial discretisation of the model was 15 elements per wave-

length at the highest frequency of interest, 5MHz in this case. The mechanical

excitation was provided by an impulsive load at one end of the transducer struc-

ture, the mechanical propagation field was allowed to evolve and temporally

and spatially sampled along the width dimension. The data was then processed

using a 2D fast Fourier transform [29, 30] to obtain the behaviour plotted in

Figure 3.15 Plot (a) shows the response when using a standard hardset polymer

which has a low shear attenuation (see Table 2.3). The oscillations in the electri-

cal impedance at the lower frequencies represent the undesirable low frequency

modes which interfere with the piston-like motion of the device. Because of the

high computational cost of FEM, simulations are run in short duration. Due

to the short simulation times, these lower frequency modes are only sampled in

the time domain over relatively few cycles, therefore the fast Fourier transform

of this signal is less accurate and noisy at these lower frequencies. It is neces-

sary to use a higher dimensional model, such as the FEM used here, to display

these modes; the one-dimensional LSM method has a smooth impedance curve

at these frequencies. However, the two methods do agree on the magnitude and

trend of the curve in this region. As the frequency increases the two methods do

differ substantially. The LSM prediction of the electrical impedance magnitude

at the first peak (the mechanical resonant frequency) is much lower than that

given by the FEM, and a larger bandwidth results. The location of this peak

is also slightly shifted to a higher frequency. In plot (b) a softset polymer filler

is used which has high shear and longitudinal attenuation (see Table 3.2). This

60

has damped out the unwanted, low frequency modes but there may well be a

decoupling of the ceramic and polymer phases. This would subsequently inhibit

its ability to transfer energy into the load medium and help explain the drop

in the peak electrical impedance that can be seen. There is better agreement

between the two methods on the magnitude of the first peak impedance, al-

though the frequency discrepancy remains. In plot (c) a material with a very

high shear attenuation and a relatively low longitudinal attenuation is modelled

(see Table 3.2, material HP20). This material should be able to damp out the

unwanted shear modes which propagate through the polymer whilst having suf-

ficient stiffness in the thickness direction to remain in phase with the ceramic

pillars. Both methods are in agreement over the form of the electrical impedance

profile with the FEM approach predicting a far lower value at the electrical res-

onant frequency. Plots (d) and (e) show the electrical impedance curves for

SBS1 and SBS2 in Table 3.3. These materials are similar to HP20, having high

shear attenuation and low longitudinal attenuation, although they are slightly

less stiff and the attenuation coefficients are smaller. Both plots show reasonable

agreement between the two methods. SBS4 has a reduced degree of attenuation

from these materials but it is slightly stiffer (see Table 3.3). Although there

is still good agreement between the two methods around the resonant modes,

this is less true at the lower frequencies. The FEM predicts a lowering of the

impedance in the lower frequency range and this is probably due to the polymer

and ceramic phases oscillating independently.

3.5 Conclusions

Frequency dependent, elastic loss was introduced to the LSM, and an SBS trans-

ducer with high shear loss was compared to an equivalent transducer with a

standard passive filler. By comparing a device with no loss to that with loss in-

corporated, it was shown that the lossy transducer gave very similar results, but

61

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

1

f (MHz) 1

f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

(a) (b)

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

1

f (MHz) 1

f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

(c) (d)

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

f (MHz) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

f (MHz)

(e) (f)

elastic loss transducers with the passive phase materials described in Tables 3.2

and 3.3 using FE modelling (solid line) and the LSM method (dashed line) with

polymer phase (a) hardset, (b) softset, (c) HP20, (d) SBS1, (e) SBS2 and (f)

SBS4 .

was slightly damped. It was found that by using the anistropic SBS filler, the

transducer will perform well over a larger range of frequencies and dampen out

unwanted lateral modes. There was a comparison made between the LSM and

FEM for a range of polymer composite fillers. This confirmed that the LSM was

robust as the thickness mode response matched well for each comparison. The

drawback with the LSM modelling is that it is only a one-dimensional model,

62

hence additional modes which occur in the lateral directions cannot be investi-

gated here. Plane wave expansion methods [74], that incorporate lamina models

[68, 15] of the SBS to describe its anisotropy, will be investigated in Chapter 5.

Chapter 4

Modelling of Composite

Transducers using the Plane

Wave Expansion Method

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter the three-dimensional plane wave expansion (PWE) model of

the 1-3 composite is derived. The geometry of the transducer is described in

terms of a two-dimensional, spatial Fourier series and then the PWE method

and associated boundary conditions are outlined. The derivation of Wilm et

al [74] is extended here to include the Poynting vector, a parameter scaling

to reduce ill-conditioning, an admittance that incorporates a dependency on

the spatial wavelength of the driving voltage, a comparison of the PWE method

with the Rayleigh-Lamb equation and linear systems modelling, the dependency

of the determinant of the harmonic analysis matrix on the driving frequency

and wavenumber, and a mode identification methodology for both 2-2 and 1-3

composite transducers using profiles of the displacements, Poynting vectors and

electrical potential.

Ideally a single longitudinal mode in the thickness direction will drive the

transducer in a piston like fashion. As discussed in Chapter 1, other modes,

propagating in other directions, can interfere with this behaviour. Hence it

63

64

etc. which will provide a large frequency band gap between the desired thick-

ness mode and these other waves. For instance, surface waves will travel along

the boundary between two different media say in a layered design, Rayleigh

waves will propagate near the surface of a semi-infinite solid, Lamb waves will

propagate near both surfaces of a finite thickness plate and bulk waves keep

a constant phase velocity throughout propagation and their energy is evenly

distributed throughout the layer [60]. However these descriptions pertain to

isotropic materials and their use as descriptions of the waves found in heteroge-

neous, piezoelectric and anisotropic layers is to be treated with caution.

4.2.1 The Geometry

PSfrag replacements x2 PSfrag replacements

x1

x2

p2

p2 t

x1

p1

s

s

(a) p1 (b) t

Figure 4.1: (a) Plan view of one period of a 1-3 piezoelectric transducer in the

x1 -x2 plane and (b) three-dimensional geometry (the x3 axis is in the vertical

direction) over a few periods of the 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric transducer.

The model is configured for periodic 2-2 and 1-3 composites with thickness

in the x3 direction (see Figure 4.1). By using the periodicity of the structure in

the x1 − x2 plane, the material constants, M (r), can be expanded as a Fourier

series where M represents either the density ρ, the elasticity tensor cijkl , the

65

piezoelectric stress tensor eijk , or the permittivity tensor ij . For the 1-3 com-

posite structure shown in Figure (4.1) the material constants only depend on x1

and x2 . Denote by p1 the period of the geometry in the x1 direction and by p2

the period of the geometry in the x2 direction. The width of the ceramic pillar

in the x1 and x2 direction is denoted by s and t, respectively. That is

−p1

θ, if 2

< x1 < 2s and −p2 2 < x2 < −t

−s

θ, if

2 2

M (x1 , x2 ) = θ, if −s

2

< x1 < 2s and t

2

< x2 < p22 (4.1)

θ, if s

< x1 < p21 and −p2 2 < x2 < p22

2

φ, if −s

< x1 < 2s and −t < x2 < 2t

2 2

where θ and φ are the passive and the ceramic phase respectively. They satisfy

the periodicity relationship M (x1 + p1 a, x2 + p2 b) = M (x1 , x2 ), ∀ a, b Z. A

Fourier series representation for this geometry can be written,

∞ ∞

−( 2πm x1 + 2πn x2 )

X X

M (x1 , x2 ) = Mmn e p 1 p 2 . (4.2)

m=−∞ n=−∞

Multiplying both sides by e(2πn/p2 )x2 and integrating with respect to x2 from

−p2 /2 to p2 /2 then multiplying by e(2πm/p1 )x1 and integrating with respect to

x1 from −p1 /2 to p1 /2 gives

Z p1 Z p2

2 2

( 2πm x1 + 2πn x2 )

M (x1 , x2 )e p

1 p 2 dx2 dx1 = p1 p2 Mmn , (4.3)

p1 p2

− 2

− 2

since

Z pi

2

−( 2πb xi ) 0, for b Z, b 6= 0

e pi dxi = (4.4)

−

pi pi , for b = 0.

2

Z p1 Z p2

2 2

−( 2πm x1 ) −( 2πn x2 )

p1 p2 Mmn = θ e p 1 dx1 e p 2 dx2

p1 p2

− 2

− 2

Z s Z t

2 2

−( 2πm x1 ) −( 2πn x2 )

+ (φ − θ) e p1 dx1 e p2 dx2 (4.5)

− 2s − 2t

66

(φ − θ)t πms

Mm0 = sin( ) m = ±1, ±2, ... (4.6)

p2 πm p1

(φ − θ)s πnt

M0n = sin( ) n = ±1, ±2, ... (4.7)

p1 πn p2

(φ − θ) πms πnt

Mmn = 2

sin( ) sin( ), m, n = ±1, ±2, ... (4.8)

π mn p1 p2

Note that M00 = θ + (φ − θ)st/p1 p2 and this can be expressed as

where ψ = st/p1 p2 is the volume fraction of φ. So, as expected, the first Fourier

coefficient is the simple mixing rule average of the two materials. This double

subscript notation can be simplified by ordering the Fourier coefficients as shown

in Figure 4.2.

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

67

(4.10)

so that if

s 2π s,1 2π s,2

G = H , H ,0 , (4.11)

p1 p2

then (4.2) can be rewritten for a finite number of terms (N in direction x1 and

M in direction x2 ) as

L

s

X

M (x1 , x2 ) = M s e−G .r . (4.12)

s=1

s,i th

where H is the i component of element s of H and L = (2N + 1)(2M + 1).

The 2-2 geometry is described in this framework by setting t = p2 and M = 0.

In a similar way the Floquet theorem states that all fields F (r, t), for in-

stance displacements or stresses, propagating within periodic structures can be

approximated as the series

L

s ·r)

X

F (r, t, k, ω) = F s (k, ω)e(ωt−k·r−G (4.13)

s=1

is the wave vector [39].

The piezoelectric constitutive equations together with Newton’s second law and

Gauss’s law for dielectric media are [1]

68

∂ 2 uj

ρ = Tij,i (4.16)

∂t2

Di,i = 0. (4.17)

These constitute 16 equations in the 16 unknowns which are the stresses Tij , the

displacements uk , the electric potential φ and the electrical displacements Di .

Denote the generalized displacement field by u where u = (u1 , u2 , u3 , u4 = φ)

and the generalized stress vectors by ti = (Ti1 , Ti2 , Ti3 , Di ). Substituting the

expansions (4.12) and (4.13) into equation (4.14) and (4.15) yields

L L X

L

p r +Gt )·r

X X

Tijp e−G ·r = −(kl + Grl )(ctijkl urk + etlij ur4 )e−(G (4.18)

p=1 r=1 t=1

and

L L X

L

p r +Gt )·r

X X

Dip e−G ·r = −(kl + Grl )(etikl urk − til ur4 )e−(G . (4.19)

p=1 r=1 t=1

p ·r

Now multiply equations (4.18) and (4.19) by eG and integrate over one

period (from −p1 /2 to p1 /2 in x1 and −p2 /2 to p2 /2 in x2 ); this essentially

p

equates the coefficients of e−G ·r . Obviously only certain combinations of Gr

and Gt on the right hand side of these equations will combine to equate to a

Gp term on the left hand side. This restriction is captured by V p,q which, for

a given Fourier term H p , describes the Fourier terms H q which survive on the

69

right hand side of (4.18) and (4.19) after integration. It transpires that

L+1 L+1

p,1 q,1

p + 2 − q, if 1 ≤ p + 2 − q ≤ L, |H − H | ≤ N

p,q

V = and |H p,2 − H q,2 | ≤ M (4.20)

0, otherwise

p,q

where, for example, cVijkl = 0 if V p,q = 0. Using equation (4.20), equations

(4.18) and (4.19) can now be written

L

p,q p,q

X

Tijp = −(kl + Gql )(cVijkl uqk + eVlij uq4 ) (4.21)

q=1

and

L

p,q p,q

X

Dip = −(kl + Gql )(eVikl uqk − ilV uq4 ). (4.22)

q=1

In terms of the generalized stress vectors, (4.21) and (4.22) combine to give

L

X

tpi = (kl + Gql )Ap,q

il u

q

(4.23)

q=1

where

cVi11l cVi12l cVi13l eVli1

V p,q V p,q V p,q p,q

ci21l ci22l ci23l

eVli2

Ap,q

il =

cV p,q cV p,q cV p,q eV p,q

.

(4.24)

i31l i32l i33l li3

V p,q V p,q V p,q p,q

ei1l ei2l ei3l −Vil

The same analysis can be carried out for equations (4.16) and (4.17) to obtain

the expression

L

X

(ki + Gpi )tpi = ω 2 Rp,q uq , (4.25)

q=1

where

70

p,q

ρV

0 0 0

p,q

p,q

0 ρV 0 0

R = V p,q

.

0 0 ρ 0

0 0 0 0

T T

Now let Ti = t1i , . . . , tpi , . . . , tLi , U = u1 , . . . , uq , . . . , uL ,

1,1

Aij A1,2 ij . . . A 1,L

ij

A2,1 A2,2 . . . A2,L

ij ij ij

Aij = . , (4.26)

. . .

.. .. .. ..

AL,1

ij AL,2

ij . . . AL,L ij

and

R1,1 R1,2 . . . R1,L

R2,1 R2,2 . . . R2,L

R= .. .. .. . (4.27)

..

. . . .

RL,1 RL,2 . . . RL,L

Equations (4.23) and (4.25) can then be written compactly as

and

ω 2 RU = Γi (Ti ) (4.29)

where

(ki + G1i )I4 0 ... 0

0 (ki + G2i )I4 . . . 0

Γi = .. .. .. . (4.30)

..

. . . .

0 0 . . . (ki + GLi )I4

Multiplying equation (4.28) by Γi and using equation (4.29) gives

ω 2 RU = BU + C1 k3 U + k3 (T3 ) (4.32)

and

k3 (T3 ) = k3 (C2 + Dk3 )U (4.33)

71

P P P

where B = i,j=1,2 Γi Aij Γj , C1 = i=1,2 Γi Ai3 , C2 = j=1,2 A3j Γj and D = A33 .

These are combined to give the generalised eigenvalue problem

2

ω R−B 0 U C1 I U

= k3 (4.34)

−C2 I T3 D 0 T3

(r)

(r) U

in the 8L eigenvalues k3

and corresponding eigenvectors . Solving

T3

equation (4.34) and introducing the relative amplitudes A(r) gives

L 8L q

(r) !

u(r, t) X q ·r

X (r) u

= e(ωt−k1 x1 −k2 x2 ) e−G A(r) e −k3 x3

. (4.35)

tq3 (r, t) tq3

q=1 r=1

Energy distribution within the transducer can be used to clarify particular types

of modes in conjunction with examining the profiles of the displacements, stresses

and electric potential (see the detailed discussion on waves in Section 1.1). The

energy in the device can be examined using the Poynting vector which is defined

as

Pj = −Tij ui,t + φDj,t . (4.36)

Pj = −(cijkl uk,l + elij φ,l )ui,t + φ(ejkl uk,l − jl φ,l ),t . (4.37)

Since for m = 1, 2

L 8L

!

(r)

−Gq ·r q,(r)

X X

uk,m = e(ωt−k1 x1 −k2 x2 ) −(km +Gq,m )e A(r) e −k3 x3

uk , (4.38)

q=1 r=1

and for m = 3,

L 8L

!

(r)

−Gq ·r (r) q,(r)

X X

uk,3 = e(ωt−k1 x1 −k2 x2 ) e −k3 A(r) e −k3 x3

uk (4.39)

q=1 r=1

q,(r)

then uk,t = ωuk and (uk,l )t = ωuk,l. The notation uk denotes the entry in

the r th eigenvector pertaining to the q th element of the displacement u in the xk

direction. Hence the Poynting vector can now be written as

72

Pj = −ω(cijkl uk,l + elij φ,l )ui + ωφ(ejkl uk,l − jl φ,l ). (4.40)

The method is sufficiently general to cope with a wide range of boundary con-

ditions but for simplicity the mechanical boundary conditions of a stress free

plate are considered. From equation (4.35),

L 8L

!

(r)

−Gq ·r q,(r)

X X

(ωt−k1 x1 −k2 x2 ) (r) −k3 x3

T3i = e e A e T3i . (4.41)

q=1 r=1

L 8L

!

(r)

q q,(r)

X X

0= e−G ·r A(r) e−k3 h T3i . (4.42)

q=1 r=1

q ·r

Equation (4.42) is then multiplied by eG and integrated over one period x1 ×

x2 −p2 1 , p21 × −p2 2 , p22 to get

8L

(r)

q,(r)

X

0= A(r) e−k3 h T3i , q = 1, . . . , L. (4.43)

r=1

the stress free boundary condition at the lower face (x3 = 0) is applied to obtain

8N

q,(r)

X

0= A(r) T3i , q = 1, . . . , L (4.44)

r=1

For the electrical boundary conditions the electrical potentials at the top and

bottom of the transducer are prescribed. The lower surface is a monolithic plate

with zero electrical potential. The upper plate has a set of electrodes which

follow the periodicity of the underlying composite. If νi is the wavelength of the

73

“ ”

ωt− 2π x1 − 2π x2

φ(x1 , x2 , t) = V0 e ν 1 ν 2 . (4.45)

The voltage is sinusoidal in time and the device has a discrete set of electrodes on

the upper face (see Figure 4.3). In order to describe this as a boundary condition

in our continuum, the electrode spatial distribution is described as a continu-

ous sinusoid. Hence the wavelength of this sinusoid achieves its minimum value

when the voltage at adjacent modes is precisely 180o out of phase. The electrical

Top electrodes

Voltage

Figure 4.3: The top electrode spacing and an example applied voltage when

γ1 = k1 p1 /(2π) = 1/2.

alised parameter γi = ki pi /2π = pi /νi (i = 1, 2) is used to investigate the effect

that the electrical potential periodicity has on the mode distribution. At one

extreme, γi = 0, this denotes infinitesimally close electrodes or that all the elec-

trodes are in phase. At the other extreme, γi = 1/2, the adjacent electrodes

are precisely 180o out of phase which corresponds to a half wavelength electrode

spacing (see Figure 4.3). From equation (4.35) and (4.45),

L 8L ““ ” “ ” ”

q ·r (r) k1 − 2π x1 + k2 − 2π x2

X X

e−G A(r) φq,(r) e−k3 h

= V0 e ν

1 2ν

(4.46)

q=1 r=1

74

q

at x3 = h. Equation (4.46) is then multiplied by eG ·r and integrated over the

h i h i

p1 p1 p2 p2

spatial electrode period x1 × x2 − 4γ ,

1 4γ1

× − ,

4γ2 4γ2

. Since

p2 p1

p1 p2

Z Z

4γ2 4γ1 q q

e−G ·r eG ·r dx1 dx2 = , (4.47)

p

− 4γ2

p

− 4γ1 4γ1 γ2

2 1

and Z p2 Z p1

4γ2 4γ1

e((k1 +2π/p1 (H ) dx dx

q,1 −γ q,2 −γ

1 ))x1 +(k2 +2π/p2 (H 2 ))x2

1 2

p p

− 4γ2 − 4γ1

2 1

" # 4γp1 " # 4γp2

(k1 +2π/p1 (H q,1 −γ1 ))x1 1 (k2 +2π/p2 (H q,2 −γ2 ))x2 2

e e

=

(k1 + 2π/p1 (H q,1 − γ1 )) p

(k2 + 2π/p2 (H q,2 − γ2 )) p

− 4γ1 − 4γ2

1 2

p1 p2

! !

−2 sin(k1 + 2π/p1 (H q,1 − γ1 )) 4γ 1

−2 sin(k2 + 2π/p2 (H q,2 − γ2 )) 4γ 2

=

(k1 + 2π/p1 (H q,1 − γ1 )) −(k2 + 2π/p2 (H q,2 − γ2 ))

p1 p2 q,1 p1 q,2 p2

= sinc (k1 + 2π/p1 (H − γ1 )) sinc (k2 + 2π/p2 (H − γ2 )) .

4γ1 γ2 4γ1 4γ2

(4.48)

8L

X

(r) q,(r) −k3 h

(r) p1 q,1

A φ e = V0 sinc (k1 + 2π/p1 (H − γ1 ))

r=1

4γ1

q,2 p2

× sinc (k2 + 2π/p2 (H − γ2 )) q = 1, . . . L.

4γ2

(4.49)

At x3 = 0, V0 = 0 and so

8L

X

A(r) φq,(r) = 0 q = 1, . . . L. (4.50)

r=1

unknowns A(r) . Hence this system of linear equations can be solved and the

displacements, stresses etc. can be examined using equation (4.35).

In the first instance the short circuit situation given by V0 = 0 (at x3 = h)

is examined to derive the dispersion curves showing the resonant modes of the

75

transducer. This gives rise to a system of equations in the form XA(r) = 0,where

X is an 8L×8L matrix. The modes are then determined by identifying where the

determinant of X is equal to zero. Unfortunately the matrix X is ill-conditioned

[38]. To help obviate this problem the matrix entries are balanced by scaling the

parameters of the model (see Table 4.1). Each of the parameters is made O(1)

by a judicious choice of the scalings α, β, γ and ϕ so that 5 equations in four

unknowns must be satisfied. This is done by scaling the thickness h by specifying

β, scaling the density ρ by specifying α, scaling the piezoelectric stress tensor

eijk by specifying ϕ, scaling the elasticity tensor cijkl by specifying γ and this

results in an appropriate scaling for the permittivity tensor ij .

cijkl N m−2 M L−1 T −2 αβ −1 γ −2

ij F m−1 C M −1 T 2 L−3

2 2 −1 2 −3

φα γ β

eijk Cm−2 CL−2 φβ −2

ρ kgm−1 M L−1 αβ −1

h m L β

Table 4.1: Dimensions and scaling parameters for the material properties.

The admittance expresses the ease with which an alternating current flows

through the transducer and the electrical resonant modes are signified by max-

ima in the real part of the admittance. This is a useful alternative method of

investigating the dispersive characteristics of a device. To derive an expression

for the admittance an alternative electrical boundary condition of continuity in

the electrical potential at the front face of the device is employed,

76

∇2 φair = 0 (4.52)

∂φair

D3air = −0 . (4.53)

∂x3

substrate substrate substrate

∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ

=− 2 − 2 . (4.54)

∂x23 ∂x1 ∂x2

L “ ” 8L

!

(k1 + 2π H q,1 )x1 +(k2 + 2π H q,1 )x2 (r)

X −

X

φsubstrate = eωt e p1 p2

A(r) e −k3 x3

φq,(r)

q=1 r=1

(4.55)

so that, at x3 = h, Equation (4.54) can be rewritten as

L 8L

!

(r)

−Gq ·r (r)

X X

e(ωt−k1 x1 −k2 x2 ) e −(k3 )2 A(r) e−k3 h φq,(r)

q=1 r=1

L

q ·r

X

(ωt−k1 x1 −k2 x2 )

= e e−G

q=1

8L !

X 2π q,1 2 2π q,2 2 (r)

× (k1 + H ) + (k2 + H ) A(r) e−k3 h φq,(r) .

r=1

p1 p2

(4.56)

(r)

From equation (4.56) it can be seen that k3 = ±|κq | where

2 2

q 2 2π 2π q,2

(κ ) = k1 + H q,1 + k2 + H . (4.57)

p1 p2

(r)

For bounded solutions in equation (4.35) it is required that −k3 < 0, that is

(r)

k3 = |κq |. (4.58)

77

Now, by using equations (4.51) and (4.58), equation (4.53) can be written as

∂φ substrate

D3air |x3 =h = −0 |x3 =h

∂x3

L 8L

!

X q

X (r)

(ωt−k1 x1 −k2 x2 )

= e e−G ·r 0 |κq |A(r) e −k3 h

φq,(r) .

q=1 r=1

(4.59)

The difference between the normal electrical displacement in the material and in

air is the charge distribution at the interface of the transducer. The admittance

is then given by the ratio of the current I to the voltage V , both averaged

over the transducer surface. Utilising the electrical periodicity of the device

architecture then gives

∂

R ν42 R ν41

∂t −

ν2

−

ν1 D3substrate − D3air dx1 dx2

4 4

Y = ν2 R ν41 “ ” |x3 =h . (4.60)

R ωt− 2π x1 − 2π x2

V0 4

ν

− 42 −

ν1 e ν 1 ν 2 dx1 dx2

4

Now

Z ν2 Z ν1 “ ”

4 4 2πγ 2πγ

ωt− p 1 x1 − p 2 x2

V0 e 1 2 dx1 dx2

ν2 ν1

− 4

− 4

" 2πγ1 # 4γp1 " 2πγ2 # 4γp2

− x1 1 − x2 2

ωt e p1

e p2

= V0 e

− 2πγ

p1

1

p − 2πγ

p2

2

p

− 4γ1 − 4γ2

1 2

! !

− π2 π2 − π2 π2

e −e e −e

= V0 eωt

− 2πγ

p1

1

− 2πγ

p2

2

! !

ωt −2 −2

= V0 e

− 2πγ

p1

1

− 2πγ

p2

2

p1 p2

= V0 eωt . (4.61)

π 2 γ1 γ2

78

Using equations (4.59) and (4.35) the current can be written as,

L Z p2 Z p1 “ ”

4γ2 4γ1

− (k1 + 2π H q,1 )x1 +(k2 + 2π H q,1 )x2

X

ωt

I = ωe e p 1 p 2 dx1 dx2

p p

q=1 − 4γ2 − 4γ1

2 1

8L

!

(r)

q,(r)

X

× A(r) e −k3 h

D3 − 0 |κq |φq,(r) . (4.62)

r=1

L

π2

X 2π q,1 p1 2π q,2 p2

Y = ω sinc (k1 + H ) sinc (k2 + H )

q=1

16V 0 p 1 4γ 1 p 2 4γ2

8L

(r)

q,(r)

X

× A(r) e−k3 h

D3 − 0 |κq |φq,(r) . (4.63)

r=1

include a dependency on the electrode spacing. To find the amplitudes A(r) the

system of equations (4.43), (4.44), (4.49) and (4.50) is solved but with V0 set to

a non-zero input voltage.

4.5 Results

The methodology presented in the previous section is utilised here to investi-

gate the modal behaviour of a 2-2 composite transducer (Section 4.5.1) and a

1-3 composite transducer (Section 4.5.2) both composed of PZT5H ceramic and

HY1300/CY1301 polymer. For piezoelectric transducers the resonant frequency

is dictated by the thickness of the transducer, therefore in NDT applications

(1 − 10 MHz) the thickness required are in hundreds of microns. The thick-

ness of the transducer is also central to the choice of scaling parameters and a

thickness of 200µm is chosen here to illustrate the operational characteristics of

the transducer. This scaling allows essentially any thickness to be adequately

simulated. The 2-2 topology is described by setting t = p2 and the wave number

k2 to zero.

79

Device A B

Composite type 2-2 1-3

Ceramic PZT5H PZT5H

Polymer HY1300/CY1301 Hardset HY1300/CY1301 Hardset

Thickness (mm) (h) 0.2 0.2

Kerf (mm)(p1 − s) 0.06 0.06

Saw pitch (mm) (p1 ) 0.2 0.2

elastic constant c11 Nm−2 12.72 × 1010

elastic constant c12 Nm−2 8.02 × 1010

elastic constant c13 Nm−2 8.47 × 1010

elastic constant c33 Nm−2 11.74 × 1010

dielectric constant 33 - 1.70 × 103

dielectric constant 11 - 1.47 × 103

Piezoelectric constant h V m−1 2.60 × 109

density ρb kg m−3 7.50 × 103

Piezoelectric stress coefficient e33 C m−2 23.30

Piezoelectric stress coefficient e31 C m−2 −6.50

To obtain the dispersion curves the short circuit boundary conditions are

used (V0 = 0 in equation (4.49)) to give a system of equations of type XA(r) = 0.

The absolute value of the determinant of the matrix X is then calculated over

a selected range of frequencies and k1 values. Taking the logarithm of this

determinant, as shown in Figure 4.4, highlights the minima which correspond

to the modes where these boundary conditions are satisfied. It is the relative

magnitude of the determinant that is significant and it is important that this

surface is sufficiently smooth so that the ridges (modes) in Figure 4.4 can be

easily identified in an automated search algorithm. To identify the dispersive

80

Shear modulus (real part) G0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 1.57 × 109

Young’s modulus (real part) E 0 (kg m−1 s−2 ) 4.28 × 109

Shear Velocity Vs (m s−1 ) 1.17 × 103

Longitudinal Velocity Vl (m s−1 ) 2.51 × 103

Density ρ ( kg m−3 ) 1.15 × 103

Dielectric constant 4

Elastic constant c11 7.19 × 109

Elastic constant c44 1.57 × 109

Frequency of measurement f0 (Hz) 5.00 × 105

[48].

matrix X over a selected frequency range, for a selected range of k1 values. A

search is then performed and the k1 and ω that correspond to each minima are

stored. This procedure gives rise to the dispersion curves presented in Figure

4.5. The type of vibration represented by each dispersion curve in Figure 4.5

needs to be identified. Ideally the Rayleigh-Lamb modes, the lateral modes and

any bulk modes should be as far as possible from the thickness mode to prevent

any interference which could reduce the efficiency of the transducer and cause

poor beam formation.

81

ω

0 5 10

0

0.2

k 1 p1

2π

0.4

PSfrag replacements

-70

-75

log |Det X| -80

Figure 4.4: The determinant of the matrix of coefficients arising from the short

circuit boundary conditions versus the driving frequency ω (MHz) and the nondi-

mensionalised parameter k1 p1 /2π for device A as described in Table 4.2 (see

Tables 4.3 and 4.4 for material properties).

calculate the frequency at which the device will resonate (see Chapter 2 ). From

the impedance characteristics in Figure 2.11, the device is expected to resonate

around 7 MHz. The bulk waves (see Figures 4.7, 4.8 and 4.9) and the first

anti-symmetrical Lamb wave (a0 ) (see Figures 4.10, 4.11 and 4.12) are at the

lower frequencies of Figure 4.5 and the isolated mode at around f = 6 MHz

is the thickness mode (see Figures 4.13, 4.14 and 4.15). The surface skimming

(SS) bulk mode, which is a transverse surface acoustic wave that propagates on

the surface of a piezoelectric crystal (see Figures 4.16, 4.17 and 4.18), normal

to the vertical plane [60], is also present in Figure 4.5. Due to the architecture

of piezoelectric composites, surface waves are generated between the adjacent

82

ω

2π

10

Mode b

8

6 Thickness Mode

First Anti-Symmetrical

Lamb Mode

PSfrag replacements 4

Mode a

2

k 1 p1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 2π

nondimensionalised wavenumber).

pillars (intra-pillar modes) and within the pillars (inter-pillar modes). These

unwanted modes normally occur at a higher frequency than the thickness mode.

To help identify the symmetric and anti-symmetric Lamb modes the dispersion

relationship for a homogeneous, isotropic, non-piezoelectric and lossless material,

the Rayleigh-Lamb equation, can be used. It is defined as [29]

p p !

tan((ωh/2) (c2 − c22 )/c22 c2 ) 4 ((c/c1 )2 − 1)((c/c2 )2 − 1)

± = 0, (4.64)

(2 − (c/c2 )2 )2

p

tan((ωh/2) (c2 − c21 )/c21 c2 )

velocity, c2 is the shear velocity and h is the thickness. By solving equation (4.64)

it is found that the first anti-symmetrical Lamb mode is at a lower frequency

83

vp (kms−1 )

10

8 a1

s1

6 s0

PSfrag replacements

4

a0

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

f × h (kHzm)

Figure 4.6: Phase velocity (vp ) versus frequency (f ) × thickness (h) product for

device A using the PWE method (dotted lines) and the Rayleigh-Lamb equation

(solid lines).

than the thickness mode. These results are presented in Figure 4.6 where the

Rayleigh-Lamb equation is compared to the homogenised form of the PWE

method (N, M = 0). It is clear from Figure 4.6 that both methods predict the

first anti-symmetrical Lamb mode (a0 ) and the first symmetrical mode (s0 ) to

have the same form but the results of each method do not match quantitatively.

This is to be expected since the PWE method is for a piezoelectric, heterogeneous

and anisotropic material and the Rayleigh-Lamb equation is for an isotropic

material.

Since the lateral dimension of the ceramic pillar (s) is smaller than the thick-

ness (h) the intra-pillar mode will be at a higher frequency than the thickness

mode [29], but it can be confused with inter-pillar modes and other high fre-

quency modes. Hence a modal analysis involving the variations in the displace-

ment, electrical potential and Poynting vector is used to properly identify each

mode.

For example, the results for k1 = 500m−1 and f = 0.41 MHz are shown

in Figure 4.7. To classify the modes the relative magnitudes of the Poynting

84

P1 P3

x3 -6

50 100 150 200 8·10

0.95

-6

6·10

0.9

PSfrag replacements 4·10-6

PSfrag replacements 0.85

-6

0.8 P1 2·10

P3

x3

P3 0.75 50 100 150 200

PSfrag replacements x3

x3 P1 u3

u1

P1 P3

x3

P3 50 100 150 200 P3 0.06

P3 0.8

0.05

0.6 u1 0.04

0.8 0.03

0.4

0.6 0.02

0.2 0.4 0.01

0.2

x3

50 100 150 200

PSfrag replacements

(c) x3 (d)

P1

P3 φ

P3 1

0.8

u1

0.8 0.6

0.6 0.4

0.4

0.2 0.2

u3

x3

50 100 150 200

(e)

Figure 4.7: Characteristics of mode a within device A (k1 = 500 m−1 and

f = 0.41 MHz). (a) Normalised Poynting vector P1 (W/m2 ), (b) normalised

Poynting vector P3 (W/m2 ), (c) displacement in the x1 direction u1 (µm), (d)

displacement in the x3 direction u3 (µm) and normalised electrical potential φ

(V) against x3 (µm).

vector and displacement in each direction is important, therefore each mode has

been normalised independently. The plots are all nearly symmetric about the

midplane in the thickness direction x3 . In plot (a), the Poynting vector P1 has

maxima at x3 = 24.5µm and 175µm with thickness h = 200µm. By investigating

the displacements it is found that u1 in plot (c) has its maximum displacement

in the midplane of the transducer and is significantly larger than u3 , which

85

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

-4 4

x1

P3 -2 2

(a)

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

-4 4

x1

P3 -2 2

(b)

Figure 4.8: The real part of the in-plane displacement of mode a within device

A (k1 = 500 m−1 and f = 0.41 MHz) in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0 where (a) is at

time t0 and (b) is at time t0 plus half the period. The thick regions bounded by

the black lines represent the ceramic pillars and the thin regions represent the

polymer.

(d)). The plots of P3 and P1 indicate that the wave energy is mainly at the

top and bottom face with the component parallel to these transducer surfaces

dominant. By investigating the displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0 in

Figure 4.8 the displacement is dominant in the x1 direction and there is very

little movement in the thickness direction. The x1 axis is in arbitrary units

and the amplitude of the oscillations has been exaggerated in both directions so

that the ’particle’ motion can be seen. Figure 4.9 illustrates a material particle

charting its evolution over time. Each dot is plotted at regular time intervals.

The displacements have been exaggerated by equal scaling in both directions

86

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0

x1

-2 -1 1 2

(a)

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0

x1

0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75

(b)

Figure 4.9: Displacement (real part) (u) of a bulk wave within device A (k1 = 500

m−1 and f = 0.41 MHz) during excitation. Plot (a) illustrates the movement

of specific points within the ceramic as time is varied and (b) illustrates the

movement of specific points over time within the polymer (x1 is in arbitrary

units).

87

in order to clarify the particle’s motion. The general motion of the particle is

elliptical, with the particle periodically returning to its original position. The

curved arrows indicate whether the motion is clockwise or anti-clockwise. It is

also clear in Figure 4.9 that the displacement is dominant in the x1 direction,

which is indicative of this being a bulk longitudinal wave or the first symmetrical

Lamb wave.

P1 P3

1

0.2

0.8

0.15

0.6

0.1

PSfrag replacements 0.4 PSfrag replacements

PSfrag replacements 0.05

0.2

x3

P 1

x3 P1 x3

P3 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200

P3

(a) (b)

u1

u1 u3

1 50

0.005

PSfrag replacements 200

0.8

x3 0.004

150

P1 0.6 100

PSfrag replacements 0.003

P3 50

0.4 x3

P1 0.002

0.2

u3 P3

x3 x3

50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200

u1

(c) u3 (d)

50

200 φ

150 1

100 0.8

50

0.005 0.6

0.004 0.4

0.003

0.002 0.2

x3

50 100 150 200

(e)

Figure 4.10: The first anti-symmetrical Lamb mode for device A (k1 = 5500 m−1

and f = 1.93 MHz). (a) Normalised Poynting vector P1 (W/m2 ), (b) normalised

Poynting vector P3 (W/m2 ), (c) displacement u1 (µm), (d) displacement u3 (µm)

and normalised electrical potential φ (V) against x3 (µm).

To find the first anti-symmetrical Lamb wave, equation (4.64) is used to give

88

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

x1

P3 -4 -2 2 4

(a)

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

x1

P3 -4 -2 2 4

(b)

Figure 4.11: The real part of the in-plane displacement of the first anti-

symmetrical Lamb mode for device A (k1 = 5500 m−1 and f = 1.93 MHz)

in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0 where (a) at time t0 and (b) at time t0 plus half

the period. The thick regions bounded by the black lines represent the ceramic

pillars and the thin regions represent the polymer.

a qualitative form for the mode and the PWE method is then used to pinpoint

it more precisely. The point k1 = 5500m−1 and f = 1.93 MHz is investigated.

Looking at Figure 4.10 the Poynting vector in the x1 direction dominates. Most

of the energy is concentrated at the transducer faces, although this persists

for at least a couple of wavelengths into the interior of the transducer. The

displacement is also predominantly in the x1 direction with any movement re-

stricted to two wavelengths from the transducer faces. Figure 4.11 illustrates

that the wave is anti-symmetric and Figure 4.12 shows elliptical motion in the

anti-clockwise direction at the bottom face, elliptical motion in the clockwise

direction at the top face but only motion in the x3 direction in the middle of

89

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0

x1

-0.2 -0.1

5 -0.1 -0.0

5 0.05 0.1 0.15

(a)

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1

(b)

Figure 4.12: Displacement (real part) (u) of the first anti-symmetrical Lamb

mode for device A (k1 = 5500 m−1 and f = 1.93 MHz) during excitation. Plot

(a) illustrates the movement of specific points within the ceramic as time is

varied and (b) illustrates the movement of specific points over time within the

polymer (x1 is in arbitrary units).

90

the transducer for both materials. This mode clearly has most of its energy and

displacement at the faces of the transducer therefore it can be categorised as the

first anti-symmetrical Lamb mode.

P1 P3

1

0.00012

0.0001 0.8

0.00008 0.6

0.00006

PSfrag replacements 0.00004 PSfrag replacements 0.4

0.00002 0.2

x3 P1

50 100 150 200 x3

P3 50 100 150 200

(a) (b)

u1 u3

0.0006 1

0.0005

PSfrag replacements PSfrag replacements 0.8

0.0004

x3 x3 0.6

P1 0.0003 P1

0.4

P3 0.0002 P3

0.0001 0.2

x3 u1

50 100 150 200 x3

u3 500 100 150 200

(c) (d)

φ

1

PSfrag replacements

0.8

x3

P1 0.6

P3

0.4

u1 0.2

u3

x3

50 100 150 200

(e)

Figure 4.13: The thickness mode for device A (k1 = 500 (m−1 ) and f = 6.84

MHz). (a) Normalised Poynting vector P1 (W/m2 ), (b) normalised Poynting

vector P3 (W/m2 ), (c) displacement u1 (µm), (d) displacement u3 (µm) and

normalised electrical potential φ (V) against x3 (µm).

The thickness mode at k1 = 500m−1 and f = 6.84 MHz shown in Figure 4.13

shows that all the displacements, energy and electrical potential are symmetric

in the thickness direction. The Poynting vector in the x1 direction has very little

energy compared to P3 which has energy distributed throughout the transducer,

91

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

x1

P3 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4

(a)

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

x1

P3 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4

(b)

Figure 4.14: The real part of the in-plane displacement of the thickness mode

for device A (k1 = 500 (m−1 ) and f = 6.84 MHz) in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

where (a) is at time t0 and (b) is at time t0 plus half the period. The thick

regions bounded by the black lines represent the ceramic pillars and the thin

regions represent the polymer.

x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0 in Figure 4.14 it can be seen that the transducer is moving

up and down with very little motion in the x1 direction. Figure 4.15 verifies this

and also shows that both the ceramic and polymer are moving in a clockwise

motion at the top and middle of the transducer and are moving anti-clockwise

at the bottom.

At the point k1 = 1.4 × 104 m−1 and f = 11.81 MHz (see Figure 4.16) the

Poynting vector in the x3 direction dominates. Most of the energy is concen-

trated at the transducer faces, although this only persists for a small distance

into the interior of the transducer. The displacement is predominantly in the x1

92

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0

x1

-0.0

5 -0.0

4 -0.0

3 -0.0

2 -0.0

1 0.01

(a)

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

0.94 0.96 0.98 1 1.02

(b)

Figure 4.15: Displacement (real part) (u) of the thickness mode for device A

(k1 = 500 (m−1 ) and f = 6.84 MHz) during excitation. Plot (a) illustrates

the movement of specific points within the ceramic as time is varied and (b)

illustrates the movement of specific points over time within the polymer (x1 is

in arbitrary units).

93

P1 P3

0.6 1

0.5 0.8

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.2 PSfrag replacements 0.4

PSfrag replacements 0.1 0.2

P1

x3 x3

50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200

(a) (b)

u1 u3

30

1.2

25

PSfrag replacements PSfrag replacements 1

20

x3 x3 0.8

P1 15 P1 0.6

P3 10 P3 0.4

5 0.2

u1

x3 x3

u3 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200

(c) (d)

φ

1

PSfrag replacements

0.8

x3

P1 0.6

P3

0.4

u1 0.2

u3

x3

50 100 150 200

(e)

Figure 4.16: Characteristics of mode b for device A (k1 = 1.4 × 104 m−1 and

f = 11.81 MHz). (a) Normalised Poynting vector P1 (W/m2 ), (b) normalised

Poynting vector P3 (W/m2 ), (c) displacement u1 (µm), (d) displacement u3 (µm)

and normalised electrical potential φ (V) against x3 (µm).

direction and distributed evenly throughout the transducer. The in-plane com-

ponents of the displacement in Figure 4.17 show the ceramic being stretched

and squashed at opposite sides of the transducer and being mainly stationary

within the transducer. Figure 4.18 shows motion in the anti-clockwise direction

at the top face, motion in the clockwise direction at the bottom face and less

motion in the anti-clockwise direction near the middle of the transducer for both

materials. This mode clearly has most of its energy at the faces of the trans-

94

ducer and therefore it could be identified as a surface skimming bulk wave (or

Bleustein-Gulyaev wave) or a Rayleigh wave.

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

x1

P3 -4 -2 2 4

(a)

x3

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements 1

0.5

x1

P3 -4 -2 2 4

(b)

Figure 4.17: The real part of the in-plane displacement of mode b for device A

(k1 = 1.4 × 104 m−1 and f = 11.81 MHz) in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0 where (a) is

at time t0 and (b) is at time t0 plus half the period. The thick regions bounded

by the black lines represent the ceramic pillars and the thin regions represent

the polymer.

95

Resonant frequencies are also given by the maxima of the electrical con-

ductance. By examining the conductance plot in Figure 4.19, the thickness

mode can be identified as the central ridge of the plot at around 6.5 MHz. The

lower frequency maxima correspond to the first symmetrical Lamb wave passing

through the path of the bulk waves whilst the intra-pillar mode is the first set

of peaks to the right of the thickness mode at around 10 MHz. Figure 4.19

is in good agreement with the modes identified in Figure 4.5. The advantages

of plotting the conductance is that the relative ampiltude of each mode can

clearly be seen and any spurious points found in the dispersion diagram can be

eradicated. There is a reasonable band gap around the thickness mode which

indicates that the transducer should perform efficiently. Figure 4.20 shows the

surface displacements for the thickness mode over three periods of the structure.

The displacement in the x3 direction dominates with the ceramic and passive

phase moving in phase, although the profile is not ideally flat.

0.1

0.2 k 1 p1

2π

0.3

0.4

2

1.5

PSfrag replacements

1 Y

0.5

0

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

f

the nondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions of the wave-

length) and the driving frequency ω (MHz) for device A.

96

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0

x1

-0.0

6 -0.0

4 -0.0

2 0.02

(a)

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

0.975 0.98 0.985 0.99

(b)

Figure 4.18: Displacement (real part) (u) of mode b for device A (k1 = 1.4 × 104

m−1 and f = 11.81 MHz) during excitation. Plot (a) illustrates the movement

of specific points within the ceramic as time is varied and (b) illustrates the

movement of specific points over time within the polymer (x1 is in arbitrary

units).

97

u1 u3

0.4 9

0.3 7

PSfrag replacements

0.2 5

PSfrag replacements

0.1

3

u1

x1 x1

-100 100 200 300 400 500 -100 100 200 300 400 500

(a) (b)

Figure 4.20: The displacements at the surface x3 = h for the thickness mode

for device A (k1 = 500 m−1 and f = 6.84 MHz). (a) in-plane displacement u1

versus x1 at x2 = 0, (b) out-of-plane displacement u3 versus x1 at x2 = 0. The

thick regions bounded by the dashed lines represent the ceramic pillars and the

thin regions represent the polymer.

The modal behaviour for a 1-3 composite transducer using PZT5H ceramic and

HY1300/CY1301 polymer can also be examined. The corresponding determi-

nant plot is shown in Figure 4.21. Additional modes will arise in the 1-3 compos-

ite since there is now cross-coupling in both the x1 and x2 direction (see Figure

4.22).

98

ω

0 5 10

0

0.2

k 1 p1

2π

0.4

PSfrag replacements

20

10

0 log|Det X|

Figure 4.21: The determinant of the matrix of coefficients arising from the

short circuit boundary conditions versus the driving frequency ω (MHz) and

thenondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π for device B as described in Table

4.2 (see Tables 4.3 and 4.4 for material properties).

By examining the conductance plot in Figure 4.23, the thickness mode can be

identified as the central ridge of the plot at around 6.5 MHz. The lower frequency

maxima (the low amplitude peaks to the left of the main ridge) correspond to

a bulk wave and the first symmetrical Lamb wave passing through the path of

the thickness mode whilst the inter-pillar mode is the first set of peaks to the

right of the thickness mode at around 9 MHz. Figure 4.23 is in good agreement

with the modes identified in Figure 4.22.

99

ω

2π

10

PSfrag replacements

k 1 p1

γ1 = 2π

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Figure 4.24 shows the surface displacements for the thickness mode over three

periods of the structure of a 1-3 composite transducer. The displacement in the

x3 direction dominates with the ceramic and passive phase moving in phase,

although again the surface is somewhat uneven.

100

0.1

0.2 k 1 p1

2π

0.3

0.4

2

1.5

1 Y

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

ω

the nondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions of the wave-

length) and the driving frequency ω (MHz) for device B.

u1 u2

0.06 0.02

0.015

0.04 PSfrag replacements

0.01

PSfrag replacements

0.02

0.005

u1

x1 x1

-100 100 200 300 400 500 -100 100 200 300 400 500

(a) (b)

u3

1

0.6

u1

u2 0.4

x1

-100 100 200 300 400 500

(c)

Figure 4.24: The displacements of the surface x3 = h for the thickness mode

for device B (k1 = 500 m−1 and f = 6.99 MHz). (a) in-plane displacement u1

versus x1 at x2 = 0, (b) in-plane displacement u2 versus x1 at x2 = 0,(c) out-

of-plane displacement u3 versus x1 . The thick regions bounded by the dashed

lines represent the ceramic pillars and the thin regions represent the polymer.

101

4.6 Conclusions

The plane wave expansion method has been derived in this Chapter and extended

to provide a more complete analysis of the supported waves. Results have been

presented using this model for both 2-2 and 1-3 composite transducers made from

PZT5H ceramic and the standard hardset material HY1300/CY1301. Disper-

sion curves were produced and particular modes on these curves were identified

using the Poynting vector, electrical potential and the displacement. Admit-

tance curves were also produced which helped to clarify the important modes.

Ill-conditioning is present in the matrix inversion procedure used to find the

amplitudes of each mode, particularly for 1-3 configurations. Regularisation

techniques such as Tikhonov and truncated singular value decomposition can be

used to address this issue and will be discussed in the next chapter. Validation

of the model will be shown by comparison to finite element modelling in the

next chapter and the model will also be extended to incorporate elastic losses.

Chapter 5

into the Plane Wave Expansion

Method

5.1 Introduction

In this chapter, frequency dependent viscoelastic loss is incorporated into the

three-dimensional plane wave expansion model (PWE). The dispersive behaviour

of a 2-2 composite transducer will be examined and the effects of introducing

high shear attenuation into the passive phase will be investigated. The aim

is to increase the frequency band gap between the thickness mode and other

parasitic waves to obtain a higher transmission bandwidth. Scaling and regular-

isation techniques are introduced to reduce ill-conditioning in the large matrices

which arise in the PWE method. The identification of the modes is aided by

examining profiles of the displacements, electrical potential and Poynting vector

[49, 50, 51].

In Chapter 4 the PWE method was used to investigate dispersion relation-

ships for both 1-3 and 2-2 composite transducers but this analysis did not in-

clude any loss mechanisms. Loss is vital for reducing crosstalk between adjacent

ceramic pillars in the transducer. In addition the PWE method cannot be com-

pared to experimental results until loss is incorporated into the model. An

102

103

can incorporate realistic operating conditions, such as viscoelastic loss, backing

and matching layers, mechanical and electrical loads and electrode patterning.

The major drawback is the high computational cost. FE modelling can be used

in the frequency domain [6] but for the modelling of periodic composite trans-

ducers the method is often used in the time domain [58]. In the time domain

approach the harmonic analysis requires a numerical Fourier transform of the

predicted displacements, which can be problematic if the mode amplitudes have

a large variance. Due to the computational cost, a quarter symmetry of a unit

cell with appropriate periodic boundary conditions is often employed. For reg-

ular geometries this does not present a problem but essentially excludes the

study of irregular designs in three dimensions. FE modelling has recently shown

that Lamb wave propagation is responsible for inter-element crosstalk and has a

detrimental effect on beam forming and transducer sensitivity [29]. It has been

suggested that a passive filler with high shear loss may aid the damping of these

unwanted Lamb waves [47]. The method is extended here to include mechani-

cal loss in both the piezoelectric and polymer material, associated scaling and

regularisation techniques, a comparison of the PWE method with elastic loss to

that with no loss mechanisms and the LSM model, mode identification for a 2-2

composite using profiles of the displacements and Poynting vectors, the effects

of using a high shear loss passive phase and a comparison to FEM modeling and

experimental results. Note that dielectric and other loss mechanisms are not

included here.

As discussed in Chapter 3, the degree of mechanical loss is usually expressed

in terms of a dimensionless loss tangent tan δ [40], or an attenuation coefficient

α [35]. There are lots of different mechanisms and models [11] and this is the

104

model we have chosen. Frequency dependent loss can be introduced into the

ceramic via

ω

tan δ = tan δ(ωI ), (5.1)

ωI

where ω is the angular frequency, tan δ(ωI ) is the measured loss tangent and ωI

is the angular frequency at which tan δ is measured. Equation (5.1) is used to

obtain the imaginary parts of the elastic constants within the ceramic at a given

frequency using

cijkl = cijkl (1 + tan δ). (5.2)

If the polymer phase is assumed to be isotropic then the elastic constants are

expressed in terms of the complex Lamé coefficients µ and λ, defined as

s s

µ + µ

0 00 (λ0 + 2µ0 ) + (λ00 + 2µ00 )

vs = , vl = , (5.4)

ρ ρ

where vs is the shear velocity, vl is the longitudinal velocity and ρ is the density.

The loss is however usually expressed for these materials in terms of a longitu-

dinal attenuation coefficient (αl ) and a shear attenuation coefficient (αs ). These

can be related to tan δ via equation (3.11),

tan δs = and tan δl = . (5.5)

ω ω

The frequency dependency can be included via the attenuation coefficients using

0

αl/s = αl,s (ω/ω0 )2 , where αl/s

0

is the experimentally measured attenuation coef-

ficient at frequency ω0 . Using Equations (5.4) and (5.5), the imaginary parts of

the Lamé coefficients are then given by

v s !

u

u 8α4 µ04 ρ 2ω4

µ00 = t 4s 4 1 + 1 + 4 04 (5.6)

ω ρ 4αs µ

105

and v

u s !

u 8α4 (λ0 + 2µ0 )4 ρ2 ω 4

λ00 = t l 4 4 1+ 1+ 4 0 − 2µ00 . (5.7)

ω ρ 4αl (λ + 2µ0 )4

0

So given αl,s , ω0 , λ0 , µ0 , ρ and ω, equations (5.6) and (5.7) can be used to give

the complex valued elasticity tensor in equation (4.14) and associated Fourier

coefficient in equation (4.18). The degree of shear loss can be varied by mul-

tiplying the shear attenuation coefficient αs by a parameter ζ. The change in

loss is then incorporated into the model through the imaginary parts of the

Lamé coefficients. The effect that changing from low shear attenuation to high

shear attenuation has on the frequency band gap surrounding the fundamental

thickness mode of the transducer will be investigated in section 5.4.2.

To derive the anisotropic coefficients for an SBS passive phase, the material

properties of polybutadiene (superscript pb) and polystyrene (superscript ps)

are mixed together using ’laminate’ mixing rules [68]. The coefficient c11 is

calculated from the mixing rule

cps pb

11 c11

c11 = , (5.8)

φcps pb

11 + (1 − φ)c11

which is also used to calculate c13 , c44 and 33 . The coefficient c12 is calculated

using

c12 = φcpb ps

12 + (1 − φ)c12 (5.9)

5.3 Implementation

From section 4.3 the vibrational modes of the transducer must satisfy the system

of equations XA(r) = Q, given by equations (4.43), (4.44), (4.49) and (4.50),

where X(k, ω) is an 8L × 8L matrix and Q(k) is a column vector of length 8L

where L = (2N +1)(2M +1). As the number of Fourier coefficients are increased

within the PWE method, the dimensions of X increase and the determinant

106

becomes too large to be stored. This problem occurs due to the exponential

terms which arise when calculating the boundary conditions at x3 = h. This

term affects the rows between 1 and 3(2N + 1) and 6(2N + 1) + 1 and 7(2N + 1)

in the matrix X. To prevent the problem occuring the row entries are multiplied

00 (r) )h

by a scale factor given by eMaxr (k3 , where k300 (r) is the imaginary part of the

(r)

wavenumber k3 . There are also numerical instabilities as the determinant of

X approaches zero due to ill-conditioning, and Tikhonov regularisation is used

here to circumvent this [41]. To implement this the matrix X is converted to a

real, symmetric form by multiplying it by its complex, conjugate X ∗ . The zero

eigenvalues of X are then translated along the real axis, away from the origin,

by adding a small amount, µ, to give

(X ∗ X + µI)A(r) = X ∗ Q. (5.10)

surface log |X ∗ X + µI| are found, parameterised by the angular frequency, ω,

and complex wavenumbers k1 and k2 . This determinant calculation is performed

by finding the eigenvalues λi and using det(X ∗ X + µI) = Li=1 λi , which can be

Q

P

107

log |X ∗ X + µI|

140

120

100

PSfrag replacements 80

60 (c)

40 (a)

20

(b)

f (MHz)

0.5 1 1.5

Figure 5.1: Determinant of (a) the coefficient matrix X arising from the modal

equations, (b) the real symmetric matrix X ∗ X and (c) the Tikhonov regularised

matrix X ∗ X + µI with µ = 2 × 10−3 versus frequency f (MHz) for device C (See

Tables 2.1, 3.1 and 5.1 for material properties).

The effects of Tikhonov regularisation are shown for a 2-2 composite in Fig-

ure 5.1 for N = 3, M = 0. Ill-conditioning in the determinant calculation is

indicated by the noise in plot (a) which corresponds to no regularisation being

used. A major improvement can already be seen by making the matrix real and

symmetric in plot (b). However the introduction of the small parameter µ re-

sults in the smooth curve in plot (c). Truncated Singular Value Decomposition

[37] was also investigated but proved to be not as robust as Tikhonov regular-

isation in this instance. The algorithm for obtaining a particular mode for the

2-2 composite design sets k1 to a real number (initially) and then searches the

cost function surface in the frequency direction until a number of local minima

are found. These interim minima are used as the initial values for a search in

the direction of the imaginary part of k1 , although here the algorithm stops at

the first local minimum. This orthogonal stepping procedure is then performed

for a range of k1 values.

108

σ6

log |X ∗ X + µI|

σ4

-20

σ1

-25

-35

f (MHz)

0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5

Figure 5.2: Determinant of the coefficient matrix arising from the modal equa-

tions versus frequency f (MHz) for device C.

As can be seen in Figure 5.2 the surface given by log |X ∗ X = µI| has many

local minima. Some of these are very localised and do not represent actual

modes but are an artefact of the numerical computations. To help identify such

modes, the distance σi between adjacent maxima which straddle each minima

(see Figure 5.2) is calculated. Each point can then be shaded in the dispersion

curves according to the size of σ, or alternatively the magnitude of the imaginary

part of k1 can also be used (see Section 5.4.2).

5.4 Results

The effects of incorporating loss into the PWE method are investigated here. Pri-

marily, a comparison is made to the LSM model and the PWE method without

loss for a 2-2 composite (Section 5.4.1) Admittance plots and a modal analysis

using displacement and Poynting vector profiles are used to discuss the operat-

109

high shear loss passive phase is examined by investigating dispersion curves and

the electrical impedance. In Section 5.5 a comparison between the PWE method,

FE modelling and experimentally measured behaviour is reported. Finally, in

section 5.6, transducers incorporating the SBS filler materials are investigated.

Device A B C

Composite type 2-2 1-3 2-2

Ceramic PZT5H PZT5H PZT5H

Thickness (mm) (h) 3.83 2.4 2

Kerf (mm) 0.23 0.2 0.6

Saw pitch (mm) (p) 0.69 0.49 2

The introduction of loss into the PWE method serves to smooth out the

frequency domain response of the transducer and to lessen the effects of ill-

conditioning. Plot (a) in Figure 5.3 highlights the effect of introducing loss

log |ZT | log |ZT |

10

10

8

8

6 6

4 4

f f

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

(a) (b)

Figure 5.3: The logarithm of the absolute value of the electrical impedance ZT

for device C plotted against the driving frequency f (MHz). In Plot (a), the solid

and dashed lines represent the PWE method with and without loss respectively.

In Plot (b), the solid and dashed lines represent the PWE and LSM methods

with loss respectively.

into the PWE method. Both the loss and no loss cases have similar signatures

110

at low frequencies but, as the loss becomes more pronounced, the higher fre-

quency oscillations are damped. The PWE method is then compared to the

LSM method in plot (b) of Figure 5.3. The LSM method predicts the thick-

ness mode response to be in the same region as the PWE method but, since

the LSM method is one-dimensional, no additional Lamb modes or inter/intra

pillar modes are present. Hence the LSM method is a useful tool which can

be used to quickly find where the thickness mode response will occur within

a new transducer, before beginning an extensive investigation using the PWE

method. Extending this analysis to a range of electrical excitation wavenumbers

0 0

k1 p10.2 k1 p10.2

2π 2π

0.4 0.4

5 replacements 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0.5 1 1.5 0 log |ZT | 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 log |ZT |

f f

(a) (b)

Figure 5.4: The logarithm of the absolute value of the electrical impedance ZT

for device C with (a) no loss and (b) loss, plotted against the nondimensionalised

wavenumber k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions of the wavelength) and the driving

frequency f (MHz).

Figure 5.4, where it is clear that the loss attenuates the higher frequency modes

and reduces ill-conditioning. Both methods predict the mechanical resonant fre-

quency (fm ) and the electrical resonant frequency fe to be around 0.8 MHz and

0.7 MHz respectively. The lower frequency maxima correspond to Lamb waves

whilst the inter/intra-pillar modes are the first set of peaks to the right of the

thickness mode at around 1MHz.

111

0.1

0.2

k 1 p1

2π

0.3

0.4

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0.5 1 1.5 0 Y

f

Figure 5.5: The conductance Y for device C (normalised) with loss, plotted

against the nondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions of

the wavelength) and the driving frequency f (MHz).

electrical excitation wavenumber k1 p1 /2π as shown in Figure 5.5, where the

thickness mode can be identified as the central ridge of the plot at around 0.7

MHz. The advantages of plotting the conductance is that it is clear to see the rel-

ative importance of each mode and in this way it eradicates any spurious modes

that can be found in the dispersion diagrams. Having identified these modes,

their classification can now be performed by utilising spatial and/or temporal

plots of the displacement, the Poynting vector and the electrical potential. The

next few subsections show these plots for the thickness mode (section 5.4.1.1),

the first antisymmetric Lamb mode (section 5.4.1.2), a Rayleigh mode (section

5.4.1.3) and an intrapillar mode (section 5.4.1.4).

112

|u1 | |u3 |

1

0.05

0.8

0.04

0.6

0.03 PSfrag replacements

0.4

PSfrag replacements 0.02

0.01 0.2

|u1 |

-1 1

x1 x1

-3 -2 2 3 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

(a) (b)

PSfrag replacements |u3 |

|u1 | 1

PSfrag replacements x1

0.0001 0.8

x1 |u1 |

0.00008

0.6

|u1 | |u3 |

0.00006

0.4

|u3 | 0.00004

0.2

x3 |u1 |

0.5 1 1.5 2

1 1.5

x3

PSfrag replacements 0.5 2

x(c)

1 (d)

|u1 |

x3

|u3 | 2.5

2

x3

1.5

|u1 |

1

|u3 |

PSfrag replacements 0.5

x1 x1

-4 -2 2 4

|u1 | -0.5

|u3 | (e)

x3

x3

|u1 | 2.5

|u3 | 2

1.5

x1

1

x3

0.5

x1

-4 -2 2 4

-0.5

(f)

Figure 5.6: Normalised displacement (ui ) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.65 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the thickness mode.

Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the displacement on the transducer

surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied , (c) and (d) show the components of the dis-

placement as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f) are the real part of the

displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at time t0 and (f) is at time

t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to accentuate the

motion).

113

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

-0.05 -0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01

(a)

x3

2

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

(b)

Figure 5.7: Displacement (real part) (u) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.6478 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the thickness

mode during excitation. Plot (a) illustrates the movement of specific points

within the ceramic as time is varied and (b) illustrates the movement of specific

points over time within the polymer (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion and the scaling in the x1 direction is not identical in each

diagram).

114

displacement compared to u3 , which has a very large displacement at the faces

of the transducer and within the ceramic. The thicker lines in plots (e) and

(f) indicate the boundaries between the alternating ceramic and polymer phases

(the ceramic is located at x1 = 0). Figure 5.7 shows that the ceramic is moving

up and down with very little motion in the x1 direction, however the polymer

is being pulled sideways with no motion in the x3 direction. To examine the

real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0, the Poynting vector

is scaled to make it the same order of magnitude as the x1 and x3 components

(see Figure 5.8). It is clear to see that the energy is distributed throughout the

transducer in the thickness direction. This mode is classified as the thickness

mode due to its symmetrical displacement profile in both directions, the large

amplitude of oscillation and the dominant displacement being in the x3 direction.

115

|P1 | |P3 |

0.7

0.6

0.015

0.5

0.3

PSfrag replacements

0.005 0.2

|P1 | 0.1

x1 x1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

(a) (b)

1

PSfrag replacements x1

0.015 0.8

x1 |P1 |

0.6

|P1 | 0.01 |P3 |

0.4

|P3 |

0.005

0.2

|P1 |

x3 x3

0.5 1 1.5 2 0.5 1 1.5 2

PSfrag replacements

(c) x (d)

1

|P1 | x3

2.5

|P3 |

2

x3 1.5

|P1 | 1

|P3 | 0.5

PSfrag replacements

x1

x1 -4 -2 2 4

-0.5

|P1 |

|P3 | (e)

x3 x3

2.5

|P1 |

2

|P3 |

1.5

x1 1

x3 0.5

x1

-4 -2 2 4

-0.5

(f)

Figure 5.8: Normalised Poynting vector (Pj ) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.6478 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the thickness

mode. Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the Poynting vector on the

transducer surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied, (c) and (d) show the components of

the Poynting vector as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f) are the real part

of the in-plane Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at time t0

and (f) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled

to accentuate the motion).

116

|u1 | |u3 |

x1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3

0.07

0.8

0.06

0.05 PSfrag replacements 0.6

PSfrag replacements 0.04

0.4

0.03 |u1 |

x1 0.2

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3

(a) (b)

PSfrag replacements 0.0175 x1 x3

0.5 1 1.5 2

0.015 0.98

x1 |u1 | 0.96

0.0125

|u1 | 0.01 |u3 | 0.94

0.0075 0.92

|u3 |

0.005 0.9

PSfrag

0.0025 replacements |u1 | 0.88

0.5 1 1.5 2

x3 0.86

x1

(c)|u1 | (d)

|u3 |

x3

2.5

x3

2

|u1 |

PSfrag replacements 1.5

|u3 | 1

x1

0.5

|u1 | x1

-4 -2 2 4

-0.5

|u3 |

x3 (e)

|u1 |

x3

|u3 | 2.5

2

x1 1.5

x3 1

0.5

-4 4

x1

-2 2

-0.5

(f)

and f = 0.1178 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the first

antisymmetrical Lamb mode. Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the

displacement on the transducer surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied, (c) and (d) show

the components of the displacement as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f)

are the real part of the displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at

time t0 and (f) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been

scaled to accentuate the motion).

117

x3

2.5

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0

-0.5 x1

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2

(a)

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements 0

x1

0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

(b)

Figure 5.10: Displacement (real part) (u) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.1178 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the first anti-

symmetrical Lamb mode during excitation. Plot (a) illustrates the movement

of specific points within the ceramic as time is varied and (b) illustrates the

movement of specific points over time within the polymer (the displacements

have been scaled to accentuate the motion and the scaling in the x1 direction is

not identical in each diagram).

118

the ceramic pillars and fairly uniform displacement in the thickness direction.

Figure 5.10 shows elliptical motion in the anti-clockwise direction at the bottom

face, elliptical motion in the clockwise direction at the top face but only motion

in the x3 direction in the middle of the transducer for both materials, leading

to flexural motion. Looking at Figure 5.11 it is found that the Poynting vector

P3 in the x1 direction dominates and the energy is mainly within the polymer.

In fact most of the energy in the x3 direction is concentrated at the transducer

faces. Figure 5.11 (e) and (f) indicate that the energy is mainly within the

polymer. Figure 5.9 (e) and (f), together with the dynamics of Figure 5.10,

suggest that this is the first anti-symmetrical mode.

119

|P1 | |P3 |

0.07 1

0.06

0.8

0.05

0.04 0.6

PSfrag replacements

0.03 0.4

PSfrag replacements

0.02

0.2

0.01 |P1 |

x1 x1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

(a) (b)

|P1 | PSfrag replacements |P3 |

PSfrag replacements 0.05 x1 0.12

x1 0.04 |P1 | 0.1

0.08

|P1 | 0.03 |P3 |

0.06

|P3 | 0.02 0.04

0.01 |P1 | 0.02

x3 x3

0.5 1 1.5 2 0.5 1 1.5 2

PSfrag replacements

(c) x (d)

1

|P1 | x3

2.5

|P3 |

2

x3

1.5

|P1 |

1

|P3 | 0.5

PSfrag replacements

x1

x1 -4 -2 2 4

-0.5

|P1 |

|P3 | (e)

x3 x3

2.5

|P1 |

2

|P3 |

1.5

x1 1

x3 0.5

-4 4

x1

-2 2

-0.5

(f)

Figure 5.11: Normalised Poynting vector (Pj ) of device C using the PWE method

incorporating loss (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and f = 0.1178 MHz) at the first anti-

symmetrical Lamb mode. Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the Poynting

vector on the transducer surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied, (c) and (d) show the

components of the Poynting vector as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f)

are the real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at

time t0 and (f) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been

scaled to accentuate the motion).

120

|u1 | |u3 |

0.15

0.35

0.125

0.3 0.1

PSfrag replacements

0.075

0.25

PSfrag replacements 0.05

x1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 |u1 | 0.025

0.15 -1 1

x1

-3 -2 2 3

(a) (b)

1

PSfrag replacements 0.7 x1

0.6 0.8

x1 |u1 |

0.6

|u1 | 0.5 |u3 |

0.4

|u3 | 0.4

0.3

|u1 | 0.2

x3 x3

0.5 1 1.5 2 0.5 1 1.5 2

PSfrag replacements

(c) x (d)

1

|u1 | x3

2.5

|u3 |

2

x3 1.5

|u1 | 1

|u3 | 0.5

PSfrag replacements

x1

x1 -4 -2 2 4

-0.5

|u1 |

|u3 | (e)

x3 x3

2.5

|u1 |

2

|u3 |

1.5

x1 1

x3 0.5

x1

-4 -2 2 4

-0.5

(f)

Figure 5.12: Normalised displacement (ui ) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.2133 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at a Rayleigh mode.

Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the displacement on the transducer

surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied, (c) and (d) show the components of the displace-

ment as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f) are the real part of the in-plane

displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at time t0 and (f) is at time

t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to accentuate the

motion).

121

x3

2

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1

(a)

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

0.85 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1

(b)

Figure 5.13: Displacement (real part) (u) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.2133 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at a Rayleigh mode

during excitation. Plot (a) illustrates the movement of specific points within the

ceramic as time is varied and (b) illustrates the movement of specific points over

time within the polymer (the displacements have been scaled to accentuate the

motion and the scaling in the x1 direction is not identical in each diagram).

122

motion is predominately in the x3 direction near the top face of the transducer.

Figure 5.13 suggests that the ceramic phase moves anti-clockwise, with essen-

tially only lateral motion near the bottom face, with an increasing x3 component

nearer the top face. The polymer moves anti-clockwise, again predominantly

in the lateral direction, with a switch in the direction of rotation at around

x3 = 0.75 mm. Examination of the Poynting vector in Figure 5.14 shows that

all the energy is near the top face of the transducer and this is symptomatic of

a Rayleigh wave.

123

|P1 | |P3 |

0.08 0.05

0.06 0.04

0.04

PSfrag replacements 0.02

0.02

|P1 | 0.01

x1 x1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

(a) (b)

|P1 | PSfrag replacements |P3 |

0.08 1

PSfrag replacements x1

0.8

x1 0.06 |P1 |

0.6

|P1 | 0.04 |P3 |

0.4

|P3 |

0.02

0.2

|P1 |

x3 x3

0.5 1 1.5 2 0.5 1 1.5 2

PSfrag replacements

(c) x (d)

1

|P1 | 2.5

|P3 | 2

x3 1.5

|P1 | 1

|P3 | 0.5

PSfrag replacements

x1 -4 -2 2 4

x1

x3 -0.5

|P1 |

|P3 | (e)

x3 2.5

|P1 | 2

|P3 | 1.5

x1 1

x3 0.5

x1 -4 -2 2 4

x3 -0.5

(f)

Figure 5.14: Normalised Poynting vector (Pj ) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1

and f = 0.2133 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at a Rayleigh

mode. Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the Poynting vector on the

transducer surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied, (c) and (d) show the components of

the Poynting vector as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f) are the real part

of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at time t0 and

(f) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

124

Investigating the displacements shown in Figure 5.15 it can be seen that the

motion is predominantly in the polymer phase. The overall motion shows the

ceramic phase being stretched and squashed, at alternating faces of the trans-

ducer (i.e. in a flexural motion). Figure 5.16 highlights that the ceramic and

polymer phases move in opposite directions from one another, mainly in the lat-

eral direction. Figure 5.17 shows that the energy is dominant within the ceramic

phases in the lateral direction, away from the surfaces of the transducer. The

evidence all suggests that the motion is being driven by the flexural response of

the ceramic pillar and so this mode is categorised as an intra-pillar mode.

125

|u1 | |u3 |

1

0.4

0.8

0.3

0.6 PSfrag replacements

PSfrag replacements 0.4 0.2

0.2

|u1 | x1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3

-1 1

x1

-3 -2 2 3

(a) (b)

PSfrag replacements x1 0.175

0.00012

0.15

x1 0.0001 |u1 |

0.125

0.00008

|u1 | |u3 | 0.1

0.00006

0.075

|u3 | 0.00004

0.05

0.00002 |u1 | 0.025

PSfrag replacements

0.5 1 1.5 2

x3 x3

0.5 1 1.5 2

x1

(c)|u1 | (d)

|u3 | x3

2.5

x3

2

|u1 |

PSfrag replacements 1.5

|u3 | 1

x1 0.5

|u1 | -4 x1

-2 2 4

-0.5

|u3 |

x3 (e)

|u1 | x3

2.5

|u3 |

2

x1 1.5

x3 1

0.5

x1

-4 -2 2 4

-0.5

(f)

Figure 5.15: Normalised displacement (ui ) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.1.09 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the intra-pillar

mode . Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the displacement on the

transducer surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied, (c) and (d) show the components

of the displacement as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f) is the real part

of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at time t0

and (f) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

126

x3

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

-0.05 -0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01

(a)

x3

2

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

0.85 0.95 1.05 1.15

(b)

Figure 5.16: Displacement (real part) (|u|) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1 and

f = 0.1.09 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the intra-pillar

mode during excitation. Plot (a) illustrates the movement of specific points

within the ceramic as time is varied and (b) illustrates the movement of specific

points over time within the polymer (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion and the scaling in the x1 direction is not identical in each

diagram).

127

|P1 | |P3 |

1

0.03

0.8

0.025

0.6 0.02

PSfrag replacements

0.015

0.4

PSfrag replacements 0.01

0.2

|P1 | 0.005

x1 x1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

(a) (b)

|P1 | PSfrag replacements |P3 |

PSfrag replacements 0.025 x1 0.0175

0.02 0.015

x1 |P1 |

0.0125

|P1 | 0.015 |P3 | 0.01

0.0075

|P3 | 0.01

0.005

0.005

|P1 | 0.0025

x3 x3

0.5 1 1.5 2 0.5 1 1.5 2

PSfrag replacements

(c) x (d)

1

|P1 | 2.5

|P3 | 2

x3 1.5

|P1 | 1

|P3 | 0.5

PSfrag replacements

x1 -4 -2 2 4

x1

x3 -0.5

|P1 |

|P3 | (e)

x3 2.5

|P1 | 2

|P3 | 1.5

x1 1

x3 0.5

x1 -4 -2 2 4

x3 -0.5

(f)

Figure 5.17: Normalised Poynting vector (Pj ) of device C (k1 = 1500 + m−1

and f = 0.1.09 MHz) using the PWE method incorporating loss at the intra-

pillar mode. Plots (a) and (b) show the components of the Poynting vector on

the transducer surface x3 = 0, as x1 is varied, (c) and (d) show the components

of the Poynting vector as x3 is varied (at x1 = 0) and (e) and (f) are the real

part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0. Plot (e) is at time t0

and (f) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled

to accentuate the motion).

128

One of the main problems, which is due to the the architecture of a 1-3 or 2-2

composite transducer, is the presence of parasitic waves. These are generated

between adjacent pillars (inter-pillar modes) or within the pillars (intra-pillar

modes), interfering with the piston like behaviour of the fundamental thickness

mode [24]. Extensive experimental observations have highlighted the intricate

dependency between the geometry of the design, the material properties and

the key operational characteristics of the device. It has been suggested that a

passive material with a low transverse coupling would enhance the transducer’s

efficiency [24, 23]. By introducing high shear loss these parasitic waves will

hopefully be damped and crosstalk within the pillars should be reduced. In this

section the effects of introducing a high shear loss polymer are investigated using

dispersion diagrams and electrical impedance profiles. The model is based on

device C (see Table 5.1), which was discussed in the the previous section, with

a parameter ζ scaling the shear attenuation coefficient αs .

Figures 5.18 and 5.19 contrast the dispersion curves for a passive phase with

low shear loss (ζ = 1) to that with a high shear loss (ζ = 10), for the homoge-

neous case (N=0). Plots (c) and (d) have been coloured according to the size of

the imaginary part of the wavenumber (k1 ) with the red shades corresponding

to the highly attenuated modes. Plots (e) and (f) have been shaded according

to the width (σ) of the minima found in the determinant calculations with the

blue shades being the widest. Plots (c) and (d) suggest that the imaginary part

of k1 for most of the modes are of similar size. Plots (e) and (f) show that σ is

small except for the mode with the lowest phase velocity (highlighted in Figure

5.19). For low shear attenuation in the passive phase the width of the band

gaps around the thickness mode are 0.35 MHz below and 0.42 MHz above at

k1 = 0.106 mm−1 . For high shear attenuation the band gap widens to 0.39 MHz

below and 0.43 MHz above the thickness mode. It can be seen that by intro-

129

f (MHz) f (MHz)

2 2

1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25

1 1

PSfrag replacements 0.75 PSfrag replacements 0.75

0.5 thickness mode 0.5 thickness mode

0.25 0.25

1 4 5

k1 (mm−1 ) 1 4 5

k1 (mm−1 )

2 3 2 3

(a) ζ = 1 (b) ζ = 10

f (MHz) f (MHz)

2 2

1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25

1 1

PSfrag replacements 0.75 PSfrag replacements 0.75

0.5 thickness mode 0.5 thickness mode

0.25 0.25

k1 (mm−1 ) k1 (mm−1 )

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

(c) ζ = 1 (d) ζ = 10

f (MHz) f (MHz)

2 2

1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25

1 1

PSfrag replacements 0.75 PSfrag replacements 0.75

0.5 thickness mode 0.5 thickness mode

0.25 0.25

k1 (mm−1 ) k1 (mm−1 )

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

(e) ζ = 1 (f) ζ = 10

(f ) versus wavenumber (k1 ) for low shear attenuation in the passive phase (ζ =

1) and high shear attenuation in the passive phase (ζ = 10). Plots (a) and (b)

have no colour, (c) and (d) are coloured with respect to the size of the imaginary

part of the wavenumber k1 and (e) and (f) are coloured with respect to the ’size’

of the minima (σ) of the determinant as defined above.

ducing high shear loss many of the modes have been damped so that a larger

band gap is found around the thickness mode.

Figures 5.20 and 5.21 show a similar analysis for the heterogeneous case

(N=3). As before plots (c) and (d) and have been shaded according to the

130

vp (ms−1 ) vp (ms−1 )

6000 6000

5000 5000

4000 4000

PSfrag replacements s0 PSfrag replacements s0

3000 3000

2000 2000

1000 bulk waves 1000 bulk waves

a0 a0

1 1.5

f × h (kHzm) 1 1.5

f × h (kHzm)

0.5 2 2.5 3 0.5 2 2.5 3

(a) ζ = 1 (b) ζ = 10

vp (ms ) −1

6000

5000 vp (ms−1 )

6000

4000 5000

PSfrag replacements s0 PSfrag replacements

3000 4000

3000 s0

2000

2000

1000 bulk waves 1000 bulk waves

a0 a0

f × h (kHzm) f × h (kHzm)

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(c) ζ = 1 (d) ζ = 10

vp (ms−1 ) vp (ms−1 )

6000 6000

5000 5000

4000 4000

PSfrag replacements s0 PSfrag replacements s0

3000 3000

2000 2000

1000 bulk waves 1000 bulk waves

a0 a0

f × h (kHzm) f × h (kHzm)

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(e) ζ = 1 (f) ζ = 10

Figure 5.19: Phase velocity (vp ) versus frequency (f ) × thickness (h) product

for device C (homogenous) with low shear attenuation in the passive phases

(ζ = 1) and high shear attenuation in the passive phase (ζ = 10). Plots (a)

and (b) have no colour, (c) and (d) are coloured with respect to the size of the

imaginary part of the wavenumber k1 and (e) and (f) are coloured with respect

to the ’size’ of the minima (σ) of the determinant as defined above.

size of the imaginary part of the wavenumber (k1 ) whilst plots (e) and (f) have

been shaded according to the width of the minima (σ) found in the determinant

calculations. Plots (c) and (d) indicate that the low frequency modes are more

attenuative than the higher frequency modes such as the thickness mode. Plots

131

f (MHz) f (MHz)

2 2

1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5

1.25 thickness mode 1.25 thickness mode

1 1

PSfrag replacements 0.75 PSfrag replacements 0.75

0.5 0.5

0.25 0.25

k1 (mm−1 ) k1 (mm−1 )

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

(a) ζ = 1 (b) ζ = 10

f (MHz) f (MHz)

2 2

1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5

1.25 thickness mode 1.25 thickness mode

1 1

PSfrag replacements 0.75 PSfrag replacements 0.75

0.5 0.5

0.25 0.25

k1 (mm−1 ) k1 (mm−1 )

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

(c) ζ = 1 (d) ζ = 10

f (MHz) f (MHz)

2 2

1.75 1.75

1.5 1.5

1.25 thickness mode 1.25 thickness mode

1 1

PSfrag replacements 0.75 PSfrag replacements 0.75

0.5 0.5

0.25 0.25

k1 (mm−1 ) k1 (mm−1 )

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

(e) ζ = 1 (f) ζ = 10

(f ) versus wavenumber (k1 ) for low shear attenuation in the passive phase (ζ =

1) and high shear attenuation in the passive phase (ζ = 10). Plots (a) and (b)

have no colour, (c) and (d) are coloured with respect to the size of the imaginary

part of the wavenumber k1 and (e) and (f) are coloured with respect to the ’size’

of the minima (σ) of the determinant as defined above.

(e) and (f) show that σ is large for the thickness mode and small for the lower

frequency modes. The thickness mode is more isolated in Figure 5.20 compared

to Figure 5.18 so it is easily identified. By observing Figure 5.21 to it is difficult

to identify the important modes which were seen clearly in Figure 5.19. This is

132

vp (ms−1 ) vp (ms−1 )

2000 2000

1750 1750

1500 1500

PSfrag replacements 1250 PSfrag replacements 1250

1000 1000

750 750

500 500

a0 a0

250 250

s0 s0

f × h (kHzm) f × h (kHzm)

bulk waves 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 bulk waves 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(a) ζ = 1 (b) ζ = 10

vp (ms )

−1

vp (ms )

−1

6000 6000

5000 5000

4000 4000

PSfrag replacements PSfrag replacements

3000 3000

2000 2000

a0 1000 a0 1000

s0 s0

f × h (kHzm) f × h (kHzm)

bulk waves 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 bulk waves 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(c) ζ = 1 (d) ζ = 10

vp (ms−1 ) vp (ms−1 )

6000 6000

5000 5000

4000 4000

PSfrag replacements PSfrag replacements

3000 3000

2000 2000

a0 1000 a0 1000

s0 s0

f × h (kHzm) f × h (kHzm)

bulk waves 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 bulk waves 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(e) ζ = 1 (f) ζ = 10

Figure 5.21: Phase velocity (vp ) versus frequency (f ) × thickness (h) product

for device C (heterogeneous) with low shear attenuation in the passive phases

(ζ = 1) and high shear attenuation in the passive phase (ζ = 10). Plots (a)

and (b) have no colour, (c) and (d) are coloured with respect to the size of the

imaginary part of the wavenumber k1 and (e) and (f) are coloured with respect

to the ’size’ of the minima (σ) of the determinant as defined above.

due in part to the additional modes which arise in the heterogeneous case caused

by the inter-pillar and intra-pillar length scales. For a low shear attenuation in

the passive phase the width of the band gaps around the thickness mode are

0.18 MHz below and 0.58 MHz above at k1 = 0.406 mm−1 . For high shear

133

attenuation the band gap widens to 0.63 MHz below and more than 0.94 MHz

above the thickness mode. This shows that by introducing a high shear loss

passive phase, the thickness mode operates over a wider bandwidth.

G

0.5

0.3

a0 mode

0.2 interpillar mode

PSfrag replacements

0.1

f (MHz)

0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5

The solid and dash line represent low shear attenuation (ζ = 1) and high shear

attenuation (ζ = 20) respectively (γ = 0.5).

ζ 10

C

WC

15

20

PSfrag replacements 10

7.5

|ZT | 5

2.5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5

f

(kΩ) versus frequency f (MHz) and passive phase shear loss scaling for device

C

134

larly in identifying the guided wave modes of low order. An alternative approach

is to utilise the electrical behaviour of the transducer to plot these curves.

The electrical conductance of the transducer is plotted as a function of fre-

quency in Figure 5.22. Subsequent analysis of the field equations show that the

thickness mode is at f = 0.65 MHz and the first antisymmetric Lamb wave (a0

mode) is at f = 0.12 MHz. When high shear loss is introduced it is apparent

that there is a damping effect on all modes except the thickness mode. In fact

the magnitude of the conductance at the thickness mode has slightly increased

when the high shear attenuation polymer is used. This may be due to unwanted

lateral modes at this frequency being damped out thus allowing the transducer

to more effectively operate in the desired thickness mode. Figure 5.23 shows

the high shear loss gradually taking effect in a plot of the absolute value of the

electrical impedance of the transducer as a function of the driving frequency and

the degree of shear attenuation in the passive phase. The aim is to damp out

any unwanted modes around the electrical resonant frequency fe = 0.65 MHz,

which corresponds to the thickness mode (the mechanical resonant frequency is

fm = 0.85 MHz). From the impedance curve it is clear that as ζ is increased

both the Lamb modes and intra/interpillar modes are being damped.

Note that the thickness mode in Figure 5.20 is predicted to be at a higher

frequency than Figure 5.22. To produce the dispersion diagram in Figure 5.20,

the system of equations XAr = 0 are solved by calculating the determinant of X.

In order to achieve this Tikhonov regularisation (see section 5.3), which shifts the

solution to cope with the numerical instabilities as the determinant approaches

zero, is used. The dispersion diagrams have been shifted and the results give

an approximate representation of where the modes will occur in respect to each

other. However, one advantage of this method is that the imaginary part of

the wavenumber k1 can be calculated. The results in Figure 5.22 are found by

solving a system of equations of the form XAr = Q. This gives an accurate

135

description of where the modes will occur but the imaginary part of k1 has to

be defined.

and Experimental Data

In this section the PWE method is compared with experimental measurements

and FE results. In Figure 5.24 the PWE method is compared to the FE model

described in section 3.4, by examining the impedance characteristics of device

A (see Table 5.1) for a range of polymer phase materials and a half-wavelength

electrode patterning (γ = 1/2) on the top surface. Plot (a) shows the response

when using a standard hardset polymer HY1300/CY1301 [30] (see Table 3.1).

There is good agreement between both methods in the magnitude of the modes

but the PWE method predicts that the location of the mode will be slightly

shifted to a higher frequency. By performing a modal analysis, it is found that

the low frequency modes comprise a bulk mode and anti-symmetrical Lamb

modes. These unwanted lower frequency Lamb modes are typical of low shear

attenuation materials such as a standard hardset and will interfere with the

transducer performance. Plot (b) shows the response when using a standard

softset polymer. There is agreement between both methods on the magnitude

of the thickness response mode, however, again the PWE method predicts that

the location of the mode will be slightly shifted to a higher frequency. Both

methods have agreement that the high shear and longitudinal attenuation have

damped out any unwanted modes, and the magnitude of the thickness mode

response has reduced dramatically due to the decoupling of the ceramic and

polymer phases. The results in plot (c) for the HP20 passive phase show the

PWE method to predict the same location of the thickness mode response as

the FE modelling, but it is of larger magnitude. The PWE method predicts

an additional mode to the right of the main peak, however modal analysis indi-

136

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

f (MHz) f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

(a) (b)

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

f (MHz) f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

(c) (d)

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

f (MHz) f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

(e) (f)

Figure 5.24: Electrical impedance characteristics for device A using the isotropic

PWE method (solid line in plots (a), (c) and (e)), FE modelling (solid line in

plots (b), (d) and (f)) and the anisotropic PWE method (dashed line) with

polymer phase (a) hardset, (b) softset, (c) HP20, (d) SBS1, (e) SBS2 and (f)

SBS4.

cates that this is spurious. The introduction of the SBS material in plots (d),

(e) and (f) demonstrates that these unwanted low frequency Lamb modes can

be damped down whilst maintaining a reasonable fundamental thickness mode

response magnitude. The PWE method has good agreement with the FE mod-

elling on the location of the modes in plots (d), (e) and (f), however the model

overpredicts the magnitude of these modes. Modal analysis found the additional

137

lower frequency mode in plot (f) to be spurious. The important point to note is

that this enhancement of the device performance is predicted in a similar fash-

ion by both modelling techniques. So although the PWE method has difficulty

here in the quantitative prediction of the impedance magnitude, the qualitative

improvements in performance are still evident.

vp (ms−1 )

4000

3000

PSfrag replacements s0

2000

Loadlines

1000

Bulk waves

a0 f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Figure 5.25: Phase velocity (vp ) versus frequency (f ) × thickness (h) product

for device B using the PWE method (triangles), FE modelling (squares) and

experimental data (solid line). The long and short dashed lines represent the

bulk modes and loadlines respectively

138

x3

2.5

1.5

x1

-1 -0.5 0.5 1

(a)

2.5

1.5

PSfrag replacements

0.5

x1

x3 -1 -0.5 0.5 1

(b)

Figure 5.26: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane at

x2 = 0 for the a0 mode of device B. Plots (a) and (b) show the two extremes of

the periodic motion (f = 0.406 MHz)

139

x3

2.5

1.5

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

x1

0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

illustrates the movement of specific points within the transducer as time is varied

(f = 0.406 MHz)

|P |

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

PSfrag replacements

0.1

0.05

x3

0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4

mode (f = 0.406 MHz)

for device B (see Table 5.1) with a HY1300/CY1301 hardset polymer phase [30]

(see Table 3.1). A dispersion diagram showing the dependency of the phase

velocity on the frequency is shown in Figure 5.25. In addition to predicting

the Lamb modes the PWE method also predicts the presence of bulk waves

and interpillar modes. These latter waves are excited by the spacing between

140

adjacent pillars and diagonally opposite pillars, and are displayed as constant

wavelength loadlines in the dispersion diagram. As such the loadlines should

appear as straight lines in this dispersion diagram. The slight deviations from

linearity which occur in Figure 5.25 are indicative of the accuracy of the method

in locating these modes. The deviation is about 5 per cent and this gives a rough

measure of the accuracy of the method. There is good agreement between all

three sets of results although the FE model predicts a larger frequency range

for the a0 mode than was observed experimentally. It should be borne in mind

however that the PWE method is computationally less intensive than the FE

model and its strength lies in providing a fast, qualitative prediction of the

transducer’s characteristics.

The number of Fourier coefficients used in the PWE method plays an analo-

gous role to that of the spatial discretisation used in the FE analysis. The bal-

ance between computational cost and model accuracy can therefore be controlled

in both methods. The accuracy can be gauged by comparison with experimental

data and by examining the convergence of the model predictions as the compu-

tational complexity is increased. A systematic study of the convergence of the

PWE method and its dependency on the number of Fourier coefficients has not

yet been conducted. Comparing the computational cost of the two methods is

difficult at present for the following reasons. The FE analysis conducted used a

commercial code which has been highly optimised for computational efficiency

[58] whereas the PWE method was implemented using a bespoke, suboptimal

coding. The FE analysis is for a transducer of finite lateral dimensions whereas

the PWE method is for a periodic composite of infinite lateral extent. Thus

reflections from the ends of the plate are included in the FE analysis and this

explains some of the differences. A quantitative comparison of the speed of each

method is therefore problematic at present. However, it is clear from these simu-

lations that the PWE method is at least an order of magnitude faster, although

141

The standard classification of the modes is problematic here as the support-

ing medium is heterogeneous, anisotropic, lossy and piezoelectric. As such the

descriptions of the waves in terms of their symmetry, or as Lamb, Rayleigh, bulk

waves etc. are only psuedo-descriptions and the actual behaviour is far more

complex. Identification of modes is aided by spatial and/or temporal plots of the

displacement, the Poynting vector and the electrical potential. To illustrate the

mode identification process, the a0 mode is investigated. Figure 5.26 highlights

the flexural nature of this mode, Figure 5.27 shows the elliptical motion of the

internal dynamics (with the associated reversals in the direction of rotation) and

demonstrates that the energy is predominantly at the plate boundaries. These

are all characteristics of a flexural Lamb wave.

In this section the electrical impedance and admittance characteristics of a 2-2

composite transducer, with a passive phase of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)

are investigated. As mentioned previously, the SBS polymer is anisotropic

with effective styrene-like properties in the thickness direction and polybuta-

diene characteristics in the lateral directions. These characteristics of the mate-

rial should maintain the piston-like behavior of the transducer whilst reducing

crosstalk between the ceramic pillars. The aim is to damp out any unwanted

modes around the fundamental thickness mode.

Figure 5.29 shows the absolute value of the electrical impedance of the

transducer as a function of the driving frequency and the nondimensionalised

wavenumber k1 p1 /2π for an SBS passive phase with 69% polybutadiene. From

plot (a) the thickness mode response is more prominent than any surround-

ing modes. A lateral mode is present near the mechanical resonant frequency

(fm = 0.9 MHz). As k1 p1 /2π increases this lateral mode will shift around 0.2

142

MHz away from the fm and a lower frequency mode is introduced. In addition,

the magnitude of the fm will decrease. The imaginary part of k1 is 0.3 times the

real part, so as k1 increases, the effects of damping become more apparent.

0

0.1

k1 p10.2

2π

0.3

0.4

PSfrag replacements

0.5

log |ZT |

0 0.5 1 1.5

f

(a)

Figure 5.29: The absolute value of the electrical impedance ZT for device C plot-

ted against the nondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions

of the wavelength) and the driving frequency f (MHz).

to an isotropic PWE model and an FE model by examining the impedance

characteristics of device A (see Table 5.1). Comparison to the isotropic PWE

model in plots (a), (c) and (e) shows that there is good agreement between both

methods in the location of the modes (fm = 0.5 MHz) however the anisotropic

PWE model predicts that the magnitude of thickness mode response will be

smaller. By comparing to the FE models in plots (b), (d) and (f) both methods

have good agreement in location and magnitude of the fundamental thickness

mode, particularly plot (d). The anisotropic PWE model is expected to perform

better since the material properties of the passive phase are more realistic.

5.7 Conclusions

The plane wave expansion (PWE) method is a frequency domain approach for

studying the modal behaviour of periodic piezoelectric composite transducers.

143

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

f (MHz) f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

(a) (b)

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

f (MHz) f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

(c) (d)

Z (kΩ) Z (kΩ)

80 80

60 60

40 40

f (MHz) f (MHz)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

(e) (f)

Figure 5.30: Electrical impedance characteristics for device A using the isotropic

PWE model (solid line in plots (a), (c) and (e)), FE modelling (solid line in plots

(b), (d) and (f)) and the anisotropic PWE method (dashed line) with polymer

phase (a) SBS1 , (b) SBS1, (c) SBS2, (d) SBS2, (e) SBS4 and (f) SBS4.

It is shown in this chapter that the method can be extended to incorporate fre-

quency dependent loss in both phases. One advantage of this approach over time

domain methods is that information on low amplitude or high frequency modes

is retained. A strict comparison between the PWE and FE methods in terms

of computational cost and accuracy is difficult at present but it would appear

that the PWE method provides a more qualitative prediction at a fraction of

the computational time. One advantage of investigating piezoelectric compos-

144

the mechanical wave dispersion properties. This approach can complement the

harmonic analysis which relies on searching the frequency/complex wavenumber

parameter space for zeros of the determinant of a large, ill-conditioned matrix.

This chapter has also shown however that the use of scaling and Tikhonov reg-

ularisation greatly improves the conditioning of this latter approach. Although

the standard classification of the modes is difficult, as the supporting medium

is heterogeneous, anisotropic, lossy and piezoelectric, pseudo-descriptions of the

main supported modes of vibrations can be obtained by using spatial and/or

temporal plots of the displacement and the Poynting vector. The validation of

the model is proven by the good agreement between the PWE method, FE anal-

ysis and experimental data. Dispersion characteristics for low and high shear

attenuation in the passive phase were also compared and this showed that the

use of a high shear loss polymer as the passive phase in a 2-2 composite trans-

ducer results in an improved stop bad gap around the fundamental thickness

mode.

Chapter 6

Fractal Transducers

6.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the plane wave expansion model (PWE) is utilised to investi-

gate the behaviour of a transducer with a fractal architecture. The traditional

designs used in ultrasound transducers are very regular and have arisen due to

manufacturing constraints rather than performance optimisation. Many of these

restrictions no longer hold due to new manufacturing processes such as computer

controlled, laser cutting machines, and so there is now freedom to investigate

new types of geometry.

If we look to nature for inspiration then devices with irregular and self-

similar constructions may prove beneficial. Fractals for example are infinitely

complex and have a fine structure with detail at all scales. They are usually

self similar, with an irregular geometry which cannot be described in Euclidean

terms. Various types of fractals have provided an excellent representation of

natural objects such as clouds, snowflakes, mountains, lightning, trees and ferns

[61]. However, their use for ultrasonic transducer and array design has never

been investigated before.

In this chapter two systems which exhibit self-similarity, with their design

being built up iteratively from scaled versions of an original component part, are

investigated for their suitability as new transducer array designs [53]. Firstly

145

146

(a) (b)

ceramic pillars are in black and the polymer filler is in white, (a) 1-3 topology,

(b) 2-2 topology

the Cantor set, which is created by continually deleting the middle third of a set

of line segments in a unit interval, is utilised to design a 2-2 configuration, where

each new fractal generation level will introduce additional ceramic pillars into the

transducer (see Figure ?? (b)). Secondly a 1-3 configuration will be investigated

with a Sierpinski Carpet geometry (see Figure ??(a)). This structure is created

by removing a square of side length one third from the centre of a unit square,

then removing a square of side length one ninth from the remaining eight squares

and so on [18].

Although the analysis of wave propagation in fractal piezoelectric media has

never been attempted, the interest in wave propagation in fractal media has

given rise to various mathematical approaches [33, 36, 75, 63, 62, 64, 65, 18].

For example, previous studies have shown that reaction-diffusion travelling waves

can be supported by Sierpinski gasket pre-fractal lattices [3, 2].

The model is configured for periodic 2-2 and 1-3 composites with the main

thickness mode of vibration in the x3 direction (see Figure 6.1). By using the

periodicity of the structure in the x1 − x2 plane, the material constants, M (x, %),

can be expressed as

φ, if xS%

M (x, %) = (6.1)

θ, otherwise

147

where θ and φ are some physical property pertaining to the polymer and the

ceramic phase respectively, and % is the fractal generation level. This satisfies the

periodicity relationship M (x1 + p1 a, x2 + p2 b, %) = M (x1 , x2 , %), ∀ a, b Z where

p1 is the period of the geometry in the x1 direction and p2 is the period of the

geometry in the x2 direction. A Fourier series representation for the Sierpinski

carpet (1-3 configuration)(see Figure 6.2 can be written as,

∞

X ∞

X

%

M (x1 , x2 , %) = Mmn e−(2πmx1 +2πnx2 ) , (6.2)

m=−∞ n=−∞

% 8 q−1

[ [

S% = [T q (i, 1), T q (i, 1) + (1/3)q ] × [T q (i, 2), T q (i, 2) + (1/3)q ], (6.3)

q=1 i=1

8

(8q−2 )

[ [ 1 1 1

Tq = γi + Tjq−1 + , (6.5)

i=1 j=1

2 2 3

and γ ={(1/6,1/6),(-1/6,1/6),(-1/2,1/6),(-1/2,-1/6),(-1/2,-1/2),(-1/6,-1/2),(1/6,-

1/2),(1/6,-1/6)}. T q corresponds to the co-ordinates of the bottom left hand

corner of each ceramic pillar and the translations of (1/2, 1/2) is used to facili-

tate the contraction of each pre-fractal in the first quadrant. For the Cantor set

geometry (2-2 configuration)(see Figure 6.2) the Fourier series is expressed as

∞

X

M (x, %) = Mn% e−(2πnx) , (6.6)

n=−∞

and S% simplifies to

% 2 q−1

[ [

S% = [T q (i, 1), T q (i, 1) + (1/3)q ], (6.7)

q=1 i=1

where (2q−2

3 )

[ [ 1 1

Tq = γi + Tjq−1 + , (6.8)

i=1 j=1

2 3

148

(a) % = 1 (b) % = 2

(c) % = 3

Figure 6.2: Plan view of one period of the Cantor set transducer design for the

first three generation levels. (The black material represents ceramic pillars and

the white material is the polymer.)

e2πnx2 and integrating with respect to x2 from −1/2 to 1/2 then multiplying by

e2πmx1 and integrating with respect to x1 from −1/2 to 1/2 gives

Z 1 Z 1

2 2

%

M (x1 , x2 , %)e2πmx1 +2πnx2 dx1 dx2 = Mmn , (6.9)

− 12 − 12

since Z 1

2

−2πbxi 0, for b Z, b 6= 0

e dxi = . (6.10)

− 21 1, for b = 0

149

(a) % = 1 (b) % = 2

(c) % = 3

Figure 6.3: Plan view of one period of the Sierpinski carpet transducer design

for the first three generation levels. (The black squares represents ceramic pillars

and the white material is the polymer.)

150

P%

Equation (6.9) is then split into q=1 8q−1 integrals to give for the Sierpinski

carpet

% 8q−1 T q (j,1)+(1/3)q T q (j,2)+(1/3)q

X X Z Z

%

Mmn = (φ − θ)e2π(mx1 +nx2 ) dx

q=1 j=1 T q (j,1) T q (j,2)

% Z 1 Z 1

!

X 2 2

q−1 2π(mx1 +nx2 )

+ 1/ 8 θe dx . (6.11)

q=1 − 12 − 12

Note the last term equals zero unless m = n = 0, in this case it equals

θ 7θ

P% = . (6.12)

q=1 8q−1 8% − 1

Hence the Fourier coefficients at fractal generation level % are given by

% (φ − θ) πm πn

Mmn = sin sin

π 2 mn 3q 3q

q q q q

× e(πm(2T (j,1)+(1/3) )+πn(2T (j,2)+(1/3) )) m, n = ±1, ±2, ..., (6.13)

% (φ − θ) 1 πn q (j,2)+(1/3)q ))

M0n = sin e(πn(2T n = ±1, ±2, ..., (6.14)

πn 3q 3q

% (φ − θ) 1 πm q (j,1)+(1/3)q ))

Mm0 = sin e(πm(2T m = ±1, ±2, ..., (6.15)

πm 3q 3q

and

φ−θ 7θ%

+ M00 =

. (6.16)

32q 8% − 1

For the Cantor set geometry, Equation (6.6) is multiplied on both sides by

e2πnx2 and integrated with respect to x2 from −1/2 to 1/2 to give

Z 1

2

M (x1 , %)e2πnx1 dx1 = Mn% . (6.17)

− 12

P%

Equation (6.17) is then split into q=1 2q−1 integrals to give

% 2q−1 T q (j,1)+(1/3)q

X X Z

Mn% = (φ − θ)e2πnx1 dx1

q=1 j=1 T q (j,1)

% Z 1

!

X 2

+ 1/ 2q−1 θe2πnx1 dx1 . (6.18)

q=1 − 12

151

As before, the last term equals zero unless n = 0, in this case it equals

θ θ

P% = . (6.19)

q=1 2q−1 2% −1

(φ − θ) πn q q

Mn% = sin q

e(πn(2T (j,1)+(1/3) )) n = ±1, ±2, ..., (6.20)

πn 3

and

φ−θ θ

M0% = q

+ % . (6.21)

3 2 −1

6.3 Results

In section 6.3.1 the electrical impedance and admittance characteristics of a

Cantor set composite transducer, with a standard hardset passive phase and

PZT5H ceramic (see Tables 3.1 and 2.1 for material properties ) are investi-

gated. The effects of the fractal generation level will be discussed and a modal

analysis will be performed to categorise any additional modes which arise due to

the fractal geometry. In section 6.3.2 the electrical impedance and admittance

characteristics of a Sierpinski carpet composite transducer using these materials

is similarly investigated. The lateral spatial periodicity is set as p1 = p2 = 1

mm and the thickness of the device is also h = 1 mm.

for the first four fractal generation levels of the Cantor set design. Plot (a)

illustrates generation level one which corresponds to one main ceramic pillar of

width 1/3, plot (b) corresponds to generation level two; a generation one pillar

plus two additional pillars of width 1/9, plot (c) then has four additional pillars

of width 1/27 and plot (d) has a further eight pillars of width 1/81. For the

generation level four pillars to be seen, the number of Fourier coefficients must be

152

time of the model also increases. It also increases the matrix dimensions and

the effects of ill-conditioning. Hence, in the following results, fifteen Fourier

coefficients are used to approximate the geometry of the transducer.

PSfrag replacements PSfrag replacements

ceramic ceramic

1

9

polymer polymer 1 1 2 7

7 1 2

1 9 3 3 9

1

9 3 3

ceramic ceramic

polymer 1 1 2 7

polymer 1 1 2 7

9 3 3 9

1 9 3 3 9

1

(c) % = 3 (d) % = 4

Figure 6.4: Fourier approximation for the first four fractal generation levels of

the Cantor set. Plots (a), (b) and (c) have fifteen Fourier coefficients and plot

(d) has 40.

153

0 0

0.1 0.1

k 1 p1 0.2 k 1 p1 0.2

2π 2π

0.3 0.3

PSfrag replacements

0.4 0.4

PSfrag replacements

0.5

ZT Y

ZT

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3

f f

(a) (b)

Figure 6.5: The absolute value of (a) the electrical impedance ZT (normalised)

and (b) the conductance Y (normalised) plotted against the nondimensionalised

electrode wavenumber k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions of the wavelength) and

the driving frequency f (MHz) with fractal generation level % = 1 for the Cantor

set transducer.

By examining the impedance profile in Figure 6.5 (a), the mechanical res-

onant frequency (fm ) is identified as the central ridge at around 2 MHz and

the electrical resonant frequency (fe ) as the minimum at around 1.5 MHz. The

electrical resonant frequency is also equivalent to the thickness mode within the

conductance plot in Figure 6.5 (b). To gauge the effect of the fractal geometry

on the behaviour of the device a comparison with the one dimensional Linear

Systems Model (LSM) [28] is conducted. Fractal generation level % = 1 corre-

sponds to the regular design shown in Figure 6.1(b). Comparison to the LSM

model in Figure 6.7 shows that there is good agreement between both methods

in the location of the modes (fm = 1.9 MHz) however the PWE model predicts

that the magnitude of the thickness mode response will be slightly smaller. As

the top electrode spacing varies from γ1 = 0 (that is a single, infinitely long top

electrode) to γ1 = 1/2 (each alternate ceramic pillar being excited by a voltage

that is shifted 180◦ out of phase (see Figure 6.6)), there is very little change in

the profile.

154

Top electrodes

Voltage

Figure 6.6: The top electrode spacing and an example applied voltage when

γ1 = k1 p1 /(2π) = 1/2.

ZT

40

30

20

PSfrag replacements

10

f

Figure 6.7: Absolute value of the electrical impedance ZT (kΩ) against fre-

quency f (Hertz) ×106 using the LSM method (dashed line) and the fractal

PWE method (solid line) with fractal generation level % = 1 for the Cantor set

transducer.

155

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.8: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

( k1 = 157 + 15.7 m−1 , fe = 1.46 MHz and % = 1). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion, the dark area is the ceramic and the lighter area is the

polymer). The electrical stimulus from the top electrode has a wavenumber of

k1 = 157 m−1 which corresponds to essentially a single electrode covering all the

ceramic pillars.

it can be seen that at this frequency the transducer is moving in a piston-like

fashion with very little motion in the x1 direction, and the ceramic pillars move

out of phase with the polymer. This is the thickness mode since the mode is

symmetric, u1 is negligible compared to u3 and the amplitude of the displacement

is large. By examining the Poynting vector in the same plane in Figure 6.9 it can

be seen that the energy is distributed across the transducer in the x3 direction

but mainly in the ceramic phase.

156

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.9: The real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 157 + 15.7 m−1 , fe = 1.46 MHz and % = 1). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled to

accentuate the motion, the dark area is the ceramic and the lighter area is the

polymer).

0 0

0.1 0.1

k 1 p1 0.2 k 1 p1 0.2

2π 2π

0.3 0.3

PSfrag replacements

0.4 0.4

PSfrag replacements

0.5

ZT Y

ZT

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3

f f

(a) (b)

Figure 6.10: The absolute value of (a) the electrical impedance ZT and (b)

the conductance Y plotted against the nondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π

(expressed in fractions of the wavelength of the electrical excitation) and the

driving frequency f (MHz) for fractal generation level % = 2 for the Cantor set

transducer.

Figure 6.10 shows the absolute value of the electrical impedance and con-

ductance of the transducer as a function of the driving frequency and the nondi-

mensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π for fractal generation level two. It is found

that as the spatial wavelength of the electrical excitation decreases (as k1 p1 /2π

increases), an additional mode is introduced. When k1 p1 /2π is small the top

157

neous medium. As k1 p1 /2π increases, the heterogeneities in the medium start

to affect its behaviour.

ZT

40

30

20

PSfrag replacements

10

f

Figure 6.11: Absolute value of the electrical impedance ZT (kΩ) against fre-

quency f (Hertz) ×106 using the LSM method (dashed line) and the fractal

PWE method (solid line) for fractal generation level % = 2.

Comparison with the LSM model in Figure 6.11 suggests that the mechanical

resonant frequency is the second peak at 2 MHz.

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.12: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983+298.3 m−1 , fe = 1.08 MHz and % = 2). Plot (a) is at time t0 and (b)

is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to accentu-

ate the motion). Here the wavenumber for the electrical excitation corresponds

to each alternate generation level 1 ceramic pillar being phase opposed.

158

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.13: The real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , fe = 1.08 MHz and % = 2). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

By investigating the real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane

x2 = 0 in Figure 6.12 for the lower frequency mode (fe = 1.08 MHz) it is found

that the level alternate % = 1 pillars are out of phase and the level % = 2

pillars, which arise from the new fractal generation level, are in phase with

the neighbouring level % = 1 pillar. The spatial periodicity in the electrical

excitation (k1 = 2983 m−1 ) corresponds to the generation level % = 1 pillars

being spaced at half the wavelength of this excitation. This accounts for the

adjacent level % = 1 pillars being phase opposed. The motion at the top and

bottom of the transducer is predominantly in the x3 direction, with only lateral

motion in the middle of the transducer. As the large pillars become tall and thin,

the smaller pillars are squashed inwards and as they become short, the smaller

pillars are pushed outwards. Figure 6.13 indicates that most of the energy is

spread throughout the pillar and polymer sections which arise from the second

generation level.

159

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.14: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , fe = 1.72 MHz and % = 2). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.15: The real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , fe = 1.72 MHz and % = 2). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

Modal analysis of the higher frequency mode ( the second minimum in Figure

6.11 at fe = 1.72 MHz) also shows a motion that is mainly in the vertical

direction. In contrast to the previous case, as the large pillars become tall, the

smaller pillars are now pushed outwards. Figure 6.15 indicates that the energy

is mainly at the faces of the transducer, particularly at the top face. It can be

seen that as x1 increases, damping will increase since the imaginary part of the

wavenumber is positive. Both of these modes show characteristics of a thickness

mode and the presence of two thickness modes has arisen due to the inclusion

160

0 0

0.1 0.1

k1 p10.2 k1 p10.2

2π 2π

0.3 0.3

0.4 0.4

PSfrag replacements PSfrag replacements

0.5

ZT ZT

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3

f f

(a) (b)

Figure 6.16: The absolute value of (a) the electrical impedance ZT and (b)

the conductance Y plotted against the nondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π

(expressed in fractions of the wavelength) and the driving frequency f (MHz)

for % = 3 for the Cantor set transducer.

ation level % = 3 is plotted as a function of frequency and the nondimensionalised

wavenumber k1 p1 /2π in Figure 6.16. By introducing another fractal generation

level, there are now 4 modes present in each plot. There are two additional

lower frequency modes within the impedance plot and as the wavelength of the

electrical excitation decreases (k1 p1 /2π increases) the main lobe around 2 MHz

is damped out.

ZT

40

30

20

PSfrag replacements

10

f

Figure 6.17: Absolute value of the electrical impedance ZT (kΩ) against fre-

quency f (Hertz) ×106 using the LSM method (dashed line) and the fractal

PWE method (solid line) with % = 3 (γ1 ≈ 0).

161

Comparison with the LSM method when k1 p1 /2π is small shows that there is

good agreement away from the resonant regions where there are now two modes

present in the PWE method.

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.18: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 0.63 MHz and % = 3). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.19: The real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 0.63 MHz and % = 3). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

Figure 6.16 (b) (k1 p1 /2π =0.5 and f = 0.63 MHz), it is found that the mode is

antisymmetric. The pillars are stretched and squashed at opposite faces of the

transducer and the energy (see Figure 6.19) is predominantly at the faces of the

162

although it has to be borne in mind that this is a pseudo-description, given that

the medium is heterogeneous, piezoelectric, anisotropic and lossy.

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.20: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 1.14 MHz and % = 3). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.21: The real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 1.14 MHz and % = 3). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the Poynting vector has been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

Figure 6.20 illustrates the displacement of the second peak in Figure 6.16

(b). It is clear that the large pillars are out of phase from the small pillars and

that the mode is symmetric. As the large pillars become small the additional

pillars are shifted apart in the middle and squashed inwards at the faces of the

163

the energy is distributed throughout the transducer. Since the displacement is

mainly in the x3 direction, the mode is classified as a thickness mode.

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.22: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 1.46 MHz and % = 3). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.23: The real part of the Poynting vector in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 1.46 MHz and % = 3). Plot (a) is at time t0

and (b) is at time t0 plus half the period(the Poynting vector has been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

1.5 MHz in Figure 6.16(b) is mainly vertical, although the pillars are slightly

stretched and squashed at opposite faces. This mode is anti-symmetric, the

level % = 1, 2 and 3 neighbouring pillars move as one, and each alternating set

164

of these is 180o out of phase. Figure 6.23 shows that, once again, the energy

is mainly at the faces, though there is energy throughout the higher generation

level pillars. By investigating the displacements shown in Figure 6.24 it can

be seen that the overall motion shows the ceramic phase being stretched and

squashed, at alternating faces of the transducer (i.e. in a flexural motion). Here

the largest pillars are out of phase from the two higher fractal generation level

pillars. Figure 6.25 shows that the energy is distributed along the top face of the

transducer.It appears that the motion is being driven by the flexural response

of the large ceramic pillar and so this mode can be categorised as an inter-pillar

mode.

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.24: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 2.43 MHz and % = 3). Plot (a) is at time t0 and

(b) is at time t0 plus half the period (the displacements have been scaled to

accentuate the motion).

165

x1 x1

x3 x3

(a) (b)

Figure 6.25: The real part of the in-plane displacement in the x3 -x1 plane x2 = 0

(k1 = 2983 + 298.3 m−1 , f = 2.43 MHz and % = 3) (the Poynting vector has

been scaled to accentuate the motion).

Y

1

0.8

0.6

0.2

f

Figure 6.26: Absolute value of the Electrical conductance YT (kΩ) against fre-

quency f (Hertz) ×106 using the fractal PWE method. The small dashed, large

dashed and full lines represent fractal generation % = 1, % = 2, and % = 3

respectively of the Cantor set transducer.

quency in Figure 6.26. When using only one fractal generation level, the ampli-

tude of the conductance is found to be 0.6 and the 6 dB percentage bandwidth

is 6%. By introducing another fractal generation level (% = 2), the amplitude

decreases to 0.44 but the bandwidth has increased to 7%. Increasing the fractal

generation level to 3 gives rise to a double lobed thickness mode with amplitude

0.17 and bandwidth 65%. Clearly the inclusion of extra pillars has increased the

frequency range but as a result the amplitude of the thickness mode has been

166

compromised.

In this section the Sierpinksi carpet (1-3 configuration) device shown in Fig-

ure ??(a) is investigated. Figure 6.27 illustrates the Fourier approximation

(N = M = 4) of an arbitrary material property for the first two fractal gener-

ation levels of the Sierpinski Carpet transducer where the height of the surface

represents the magnitude of the particular property. Plot (a) illustrates gener-

ation level one which corresponds to one central square ceramic pillar of side

length 1/3, plot (b) corresponds to generation level two; a generation one pillar

plus eight additional pillars of side length 1/9.

polymer polymer

ceramic

ceramic

PSfrag replacements PSfrag replacements

(a) % = 1 (b) % = 2

Figure 6.27: Fourier approximation for one spatial period of the first two fractal

generation levels of the Sierpinski Carpet transducer in the x1 − x2 plane (M =

N = 4).

167

0 0

0.1 0.1

k 1 p1 0.2 k 1 p1 0.2

2π 2π

0.3 0.3

PSfrag replacements

0.4 0.4

PSfrag replacements

0.5 0.5

ZT Y

ZT

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3

f f

(a) (b)

Figure 6.28: The absolute value of (a) the electrical impedance ZT and (b)

the conductance Y plotted against the nondimensionalised electrode spacing

k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions of the wavelength) and the driving frequency f

(MHz) with fractal generation level % = 1 for the Sierpinski Carpet transducer.

to a standard 1-3 design, as there is a single ceramic pillar of side length 1/3 in

each spatial period. Examining the impedance profile in Figure 6.28 (a), the me-

chanical resonant frequency (fm ) can be identified as the central ridge at around

1.8 MHz and the electrical resonant frequency (fe ) as the minima at around 1.4

MHz (fe is also equivalent to the thickness mode within the conductance plot

in Figure 6.28 (b)). It is clear that as k1 p1 /2π increases the main lobes in each

plot are damped.

168

Figure 6.29: Surface displacement for fractal generation level % = 1 for the

Sierpinski Carpet transducer over one period in time (k1 = 3140 + 314 m−1 and

fe = 1.24 MHz )(the displacements have been scaled to accentuate the motion).

6.29 it can be seen that the transducer is moving in a piston-like fashion with

very little motion in the x1 direction. The ceramic pillars appear to move out of

phase with the polymer but this is due to the ceramic pillars stretching and, due

to continuity at the interface between the phases, this draws the polymer phase

out in the lateral directions thus reducing the height of the polymer phase. The

mode is symmetric and the displacement in the lateral directions (u1 and u2 )

are negligible compared to those in the vertical direction (u3 ).

169

0 0

0.1 0.1

k 1 p1 0.2 k 1 p1 0.2

2π 2π

0.3 0.3

PSfrag replacements

0.4 0.4

PSfrag replacements

0.5 0.5

ZT Y

ZT

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3

f f

(a) (b)

Figure 6.30: The absolute value of (a) the electrical impedance ZT and (b) the

conductance Y for device C plotted against the nondimensionalised wavenumber

k1 p1 /2π (expressed in fractions of the wavelength of the electrical excitation)

and the driving frequency f (MHz) for fractal generation level % = 2 for the

Sierpinski Carpet transducer.

Introducing the next generation of ceramic pillars into the design we now

consider the generation % = 2 transducer. Figure 6.30 shows the absolute value

of the electrical impedance and conductance of the transducer as a function of the

driving frequency and the nondimensionalised wavenumber k1 p1 /2π. Once again

it is found that by introducing an extra fractal generation level an additional

mode is introduced, although the mode appears at a lower frequency (f < 1

MHz) and resembles a Lamb mode.

170

Figure 6.31: Surface displacement for fractal generation level % = 2 for the

Sierpinski Carpet transducer over one period in time (k1 = 3140 + 314 m−1 and

fe = 1.37 MHz )(the displacements have been scaled to accentuate the motion).

mode it is found that the mode is symmetric and the level % = 1 pillars are in

phase, together with their neighbouring % = 2 pillars. The motion is predomi-

nantly in the x3 direction. As the large pillars become tall and thin, the smaller

pillars are squashed inwards and as they become short, the smaller pillars are

pushed outwards. The introduction of the generation level % = 2 pillars has

created a structure whose surface is more in phase than generation level % = 1

and gives rise to a greater amplitude of displacement in the x3 direction. The

171

addition of the thin ceramic pillars in the heart of the polymer phase helps to

maintain the vertical displacement in these regions.

Figure 6.32: Surface displacement for fractal generation level % = 2 for the

Sierpinski Carpet transducer over one period in time (k1 = 3140 + 314 m−1 and

fe = 0.48 MHz )(the displacements have been scaled to accentuate the motion).

that the motion is mainly in the lateral directions and that the displacement

is fairly uniform in the thickness direction. The mode is symmetrical and in

the body of the transducer the displacement of individual points is elliptical

near the top and bottom face, with only lateral motion in the vertical midplane

of the transducer. This behaviour suggests that this is the first symmetrical

172

Lamb mode (s0 ). Higher generation levels of the Sierpinski carpet design could

in theory be investigated using the same methodology. However, in order to

resolve the horizontal dimensions of the ceramic pillars the number of Fourier

coefficients grows exponentially. This in turn leads to very large matrices and

prohibitively long computation times.

6.4 Conclusions

In general, ultrasonic transducers composed of a periodic piezoelectric compos-

ite realise better operational characteristics than single phase designs. The most

frequently used designs are manufactured by dicing the ceramic into a series of

pillars and then filling the void with a passive polymer phase. The architecture of

these devices are very regular and have arisen due to manufacturing constraints

rather than performance optimisation. However, many of these restrictions no

longer hold due to new manufacturing processes such as computer controlled,

laser cutting machines, and so there is now freedom to investigate new types of

geometry. Hence, in this chapter, devices with self-similar constructions have

been investigated. It has been shown that the plane wave expansion model

(PWE) can be utilised to investigate the behaviour of a composite piezoelectric

transducer with a fractal architecture. Of course, from a manufacturing per-

spective, it will only be possible to build fractal devices over a limited number

of generation levels. The effects of introducing up to three fractal generation

levels have been investigated for a Cantor set geometry transducer and a modal

analysis was performed to help explain its characteristics. It was found that

by increasing the fractal generation level, the bandwidth surrounding the main

thickness mode will increase, but there will be a corresponding reduction in the

displacement amplitude. The PWE method was also used to investigate the

effects of using a transducer with a Sierpinski Carpet geometry. It was found

in both fractal architectures (1-3 and 2-2 configurations) that by introducing

173

more fractal generation levels, additional modes will occur although those can

be isolated from the main thickness mode. The investigation of surface profiles

suggests that the inclusion of more fractal generation levels will minimise oscilla-

tion within the passive filler of the transducer. This will optimize the piston like

behaviour of the device. We have developed a model to examine the behaviour

of these devices and the next stage would be to use this model to optimise the

device performance in terms of the aspect ratio, the materials, the side length of

the ceramic pillar at each generation level and indeed other fractal geometries.

Chapter 7

Conclusions

mer phase provide better electromechanical coupling and acoustic impedance

characteristics than conventional single phase transducers. Ideally a single lon-

gitudinal mode in the thickness direction will drive the transducer in a piston

like fashion, however other parasitic modes, propagating in other directions, can

interfere with this behaviour. Hence it is of interest to theoretically predict the

design criteria that will provide a large frequency band gap between the desired

thickness mode and these other waves. One possibility is to use polymers that

are highly attenuative to shear waves in order to reduce the cross-talk between

the ceramic pillars.

In Chapter 2 a linear systems model (LSM) was derived and used to model

a PZT5H ceramic transducer. A model for a 1-3 transducer with polymer

HY1300/CY1301 using the methods of Smith and Auld [67] was then intro-

duced and reception sensitivity, transmission sensitivity and impedance curves

were produced to compare a piezoelectric plate transducer and a 1-3 composite

transducer. It was found that composite transducers provide better electrome-

chanical coupling and acoustic impedance characteristics than conventional sin-

gle phase transducers.

In Chapter 3 frequency dependent, elastic loss was introduced to the LSM,

174

175

phase was compared to an equivalent transducer with a standard passive filler.

The effective properties of the SBS passive phase were calculated using mixing

rules for parallel and series arrangements. The impedance profiles were affected

by the inclusion of loss via the reduction in the amplitude and the broadening of

the response at the mechanical resonant frequency. The damping of unwanted

lateral modes could not be investigated at this stage since LSM model is only

one-dimensional. The anisotropy in the SBS passive phase does affect the calcu-

lation of the effective material properties, particularly because of the high shear

attenuation. This led to a relatively large reduction in the impedance amplitude

when the loss was included. There was also a slight shift in the mechanical

resonant frequency to a lower value. The anisotropy in the polymer also led to a

higher electromechanical coupling coefficient than the standard isotropic filler.

The LSM model was then compared to a finite element model (FEM) by ex-

amining the impedance characteristics of a range of high shear attenuation, 2-2

composite transducers. The two methods showed reasonable agreement in all

the cases considered. The FEM showed that the use of a high shear attenuation

polymer damps out the unwanted, low frequency modes whilst maintaining a

reasonable impedance magnitude.

The plane wave expansion (PWE) method is a frequency domain approach

for studying the modal behaviour of periodic piezoelectric composite transduc-

ers. It is shown in this thesis that the method can be extended to incorporate

frequency dependent loss in both phases. One advantage of this approach over

time domain methods is that information on low amplitude or high frequency

modes is retained. A strict comparison between the PWE and the FEM methods

in terms of computational cost and accuracy is difficult at present but it would

appear that the PWE method provides a more qualitative prediction at a fraction

of the computational time. One advantage of investigating piezoelectric compos-

176

the mechanical wave dispersion properties. This approach can complement the

harmonic analysis which relies on searching the frequency/complex wavenumber

parameter space for zeros of the determinant of a large, ill-conditioned matrix.

In Chapter 4 The plane wave expansion method was derived and extended to

provide a more complete analysis of the supported waves. Results have been pre-

sented for both 2-2 and 1-3 composite transducers made from PZT5H ceramic

and the standard hardset material HY1300/CY1301. Dispersion curves were

produced and particular modes on these curves were identified using the Poynt-

ing vector, electrical potential and the displacement. Admittance curves were

also produced which helped to clarify the important modes. The ill-conditioning

that is present in the matrix inversion procedure used to find the amplitudes of

each mode was circumvented using matrix balancing via parameter scaling and

Tikhonov regularisation.

In Chapter 5 the PWE method was extended to incorporate frequency de-

pendent loss in both phases. One advantage of this approach over time domain

methods is that information on low amplitude or high frequency modes is re-

tained. A strict comparison between the PWE and FE methods in terms of

computational cost and accuracy is difficult at present but it would appear that

the PWE method provides a more qualitative prediction at a fraction of the

computational time. One advantage of investigating piezoelectric composites is

that the electrical characteristics provide an additional means of inferring the

mechanical wave dispersion properties. This approach can complement the har-

monic analysis which relies on searching the frequency/complex wavenumber

parameter space for zeros of the determinant of a large, ill-conditioned matrix.

This chapter also showed however that the use of scaling and Tikhonov regu-

larisation greatly improves the conditioning of this latter approach. Although

the standard classification of the modes is difficult, as the supporting medium

177

main supported modes of vibrations were obtained by using spatial and/or tem-

poral plots of the displacement and the Poynting vector. It was shown that

there was good agreement between the PWE method, FE analysis and exper-

imental data. Dispersion characteristics for low and high shear attenuation in

the passive phase were also compared and this showed that the use of a high

shear loss polymer as the passive phase in a 2-2 composite transducer results in

an improved stop band gap around the fundamental thickness mode.

In chapter 6 the plane wave expansion model (PWE) was used to investigate

the behaviour of a transducer with a fractal architecture. The effects of intro-

ducing up to four fractal generation levels were investigated for a Cantor set

geometry transducer (2-2) and a modal analysis was performed to help explain

the device characteristics. It was found that by increasing the fractal genera-

tion level, the bandwidth surrounding the main thickness mode increased, but

there was a corresponding reduction in the displacement amplitude. The PWE

method was also used to investigate the effects of using a transducer with a

Sierpinski Carpet geometry (1-3). It was found from both fractal architectures

(1-3 and 2-2 configurations) that by introducing more fractal generation levels,

additional modes will occur. However the thin ceramic pillars embedded in the

polymer phase helps to maintain a more piston-like displacement profile across

the surface of the transducer. A greater aspect ratio in the design of the ceramic

pillars may well give a clearer frequency separation between the thickness mode

and the unwanted lateral modes whilst retaining the benefits of the additional

ceramic pillars in the polymer phase.

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