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# Lab No.

5
Determination of Principle Stresses on an Open Cylinder and
Closed Cylinder
Introduction:
In mechanics, a cylinder stress is a stress distribution with rotational symmetry; that is,
which remains unchanged if the stressed object is rotated about some fixed axis.
Cylinder stress patterns include:

##  Circumferential stress or hoop stress, a normal stress in the tangential (azimuth)

direction;
 Axial stress, a normal stress parallel to the axis of cylindrical symmetry;
 Radial stress, a stress in directions coplanar with but perpendicular to the symmetry axis
Objectives:
In this lab we will learn about:
1. Principle Stresses
2. Effect of Principle Stresses on Open and Closed Cylinder
3. Axial and Circumferential Stress

Equipment Required:
1. FL-151
FL 151 is a multi-channel measuring amplifier which supplies the strain gauge bridge
circuits with power and processes the received measurement signals. The unit can
only be operated with a computer. The measuring amplifier includes 16 input
channels. The strain gauge measuring points are connected to associated balance
potentiometers either by a 68-pin multiport or 16 (6-pin) single ports.
The multi-channel measuring amplifier is operated via USB using the supplied
software. The measured values can be read and saved on computer (using an
application such as MS Excel).
2. FL-130
The FL 130 experimental unit is used to investigate stresses and strains in a thin-
walled vessel subjected to internal pressure. The oil-filled vessel is closed with a lid at
one end and with a movable piston at the other end. A hand wheel with a threaded
spindle is used to move the piston. Two load cases are presented: biaxial stress state
of a closed vessel such as a boiler tank and uniaxial stress state of an open vessel such
as a pipe. Internal pressure is generated inside the vessel by a hydraulic pump.
A manometer indicates the internal pressure. Strain gauges are attached to the surface
of the vessel to record the strains. The FL 152 measuring amplifier displays the
measured values. The measured values can be imported into the application software
for visualization to assist in the evaluation of the experiment.
3. GUNT Software
The strain gauge measurements are recorded and displayed by means of
the FL 151 measuring amplifier. The measured values can be imported into the
application software for visualization to evaluate the experiment, the PC and the
instruments are connected using data transfer cable.

Procedure:
1. First check if the cylinder is open or closed. If the knob is fully tight then it’s in
open cylinder formation and vice versa.
2. Loosen the Knob below the strain gauge until the readings of the meter becomes
zero.
3. Now get started with the software, first choose the module or the equipment in the
software for that go to Click Edit=>Choose another Unit and click FL-130.
4. In edit menu choose tare.

## 5. Now go to view layout and select closed vessel mode.

6. Now start increasing the pressure using the knob and set it to 20 KSI when it
reaches 20 stop increasing graph and values of the Gunt Software will be deviating
but after sometime they will stabilize then take the reading from the bar.

7. After taking the reading bring the pressure knob to its original value so that the
pressure is again now 0 on the meter.
8. Now tighten the knob and start taking the reading for open vessel.
9. After tare, increase the pressure using the knob up to 20 KSI, it is to be noted that
To increase the pressure do it gently too much pressure too much pressure may
damage the sensors.
Comparison of Strain Values:

Closed Channel

Open Channel

Conclusions: