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# Chapter 1

Introduction

## Heat transfer, Physical origins and rate equations,

thermodynamics, Conduction heat transfer, Convective
Objectives
 Understand how thermodynamics and heat transfer are related to each other,

 Distinguish thermal energy from other forms of energy, and heat transfer from
other forms of energy transfer,
 Perform general energy balances as well as surface energy balances,

##  Understand the basic mechanisms of heat transfer, which are conduction,

convection, and radiation, and Fourier's law of heat conduction, Newton's law
of cooling, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law of radiation,

practice,

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-2
Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
 The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat
transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium
state to another, and makes no reference to how long the process
will take.

##  The science of heat transfer deals with the determination of the

rates of energy that can be transferred from one system to
another as a result of temperature difference.

##  Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states and changes

from one equilibrium state to another. Heat transfer, on the
other hand, deals with systems that lack thermal equilibrium,
and thus it is a nonequilibrium phenomenon.

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-3
Heat Transfer
The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of a
temperature difference.
The second law requires that heat
be transferred in the direction of
decreasing temperature.

##  The temperature difference is the driving force for heat

transfer.
 The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the
magnitude of the temperature gradient in that direction.
 The larger the temperature gradient, the higher the rate of heat
transfer.

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-4
Objectives of Heat Transfer Science
 To extend thermodynamics analysis through the study of the
modes of heat transfer.
 Development of relations to calculate heat transfer rates.

## What is heat transfer?

Heat transfer is energy in transit due to a temperature
difference.
How is heat transferred?
Heat is transferred through three modes:

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-5
DO NOT confuse or interchange the meanings of Thermal Energy, Temperature
and Heat Transfer

## Quantity Meaning Symbol Units

Thermal Energy Energy associated with U or u J or J/kg
microscopic behavior of matter
Temperature A means of indirectly assessing
the amount of thermal energy T K or °C
stored in matter
Heat Transfer Thermal energy transport due to
Heat Amount of thermal energy
transferred over a time interval Q J
t0
Heat Rate Thermal energy transfer per unit q W
time
Heat Flux Thermal energy transfer per unit q  W/m 2
time and surface area

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-6
Modes of Heat Transfer
Conduction: Transmission of heat through a
substance without perceptible motion of the substance.
 Metals: flow of free electron
 Crystals: lattice vibrations
 Fluids: molecular collisions (kinetic theory of gases)

## Convection: refers to heat transfer which occurs

between a surface and a moving fluid when they are at
different temperatures.
 Convection associated with a change of phase: boiling,
evaporation, condensation – these processes are often
regarded as distinct heat transfer processes
Surface T1
 Photons, which travels almost unimpeded through q1 Surface T2
air from one surface to another

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-7
Relevance of Heat Transfer

JUST
Department of Chemical Engineering Heat Transfer – ChE 346 1-8
Conduction
 Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic
particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a
result of interactions between the particles.

##  Conduction can take place in solids,

liquids, or gases
 In gases and liquids conduction is due to

## the collisions and diffusion of the

molecules during their random motion.
 In solids conduction is due to the
combination of vibrations of the
molecules in a lattice and the energy
transport by free electrons.
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-9
Conduction
Physical mechanism: based on atomic and molecular activity
 Conduction can be viewed as transfer of energy from the more energetic to
less energetic particles of a substance due to interaction between particles
(kinetic energy)
 Consider a gas occupy the two
surfaces shown in the drawing with
no bulk motion at any point:
Energy  T
  T  Kinetic energy  Molecular energy
  collisions of neighbouring molecules q(x)
T(x)
 Transfer of energy from more energetic to less energetic T
 energy is related to the random translation of motion of x
internal energy + vibrational motion of the molecules T(x)
q(x)
T
 Thus, energy transfers in the direction of
decreasing temperature x
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-10
Rate equation for quantification of conduction – Fourier’s law (1822)
Assumptions: 1. Homogeneous medium
2. One-dimensional heat flow (what does it mean?)
 Consider steady heat conduction through a large plate wall of
thickness x = L and surface area A.
Experimentally, it was shown that the rate of heat transfer, q, through
the wall is doubled when T across the wall or A normal to the
direction of heat transfer is doubled, but halved when the wall
thickness L is doubled. That is:

## Rate of heat conduction  (Area) (Temperature difference)/(Thickness)

Or, T
q k
" Where k, thermal conductivity of the material, a measure of
x
x the ability of a material to conduct heat; q” is heat flux
In the limiting case of x  0, the above equation reduces to the differential form:
dT
q"x  k Fourier’s law of heat conduction
dx Heat rate: q x  q "x A
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-11
Remarks
 Area (A) is perpendicular to the vector of heat flow; thickness (L) is parallel to the
vector of heat flow.
 First step in heat conduction problem: evaluate A and L properly.
 In this course, we will use exclusively SI unit:
q [W (J/s)] Or flux, " [W/m2]; A [m2]; T [K]; L [m]  k [W/m K]
q
 Negative sign is the sequence of fact that heat is transferred in the direction of
decreasing temperature, i.e. q(x) and T(x) are opposite.
• If k is constant and steady state exists, integration of Fourier’s equation from T1 to
T2 gives:
T2  T1
q"x  k
L
Or, T1  T2  Analogy with Ohms law (I = V/R):
q "
x
L/k • Driving force = T1 – T2 (corresponds to V)
• Thermal Resistance = L/k (corresponds to R)

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-12
Example: The wall of an industrial furnace is constructed from 0.15 m thick
fireclay brick having a thermal conductivity of 1.7 W/m.K. Measurements made
during steady state operation reveal temperatures of 1400 and 1150 K at the
inner and outer surfaces, respectively. What is the rate of heat loss through a
wall which is 0.5 m by 3 m on a side?

## Schematic: Always try to provide it

Knowns: Steady state; L = 0.15 m; A = 0.5 × 3 m2;
k = 1.7 W/m.K; T1 = 1400 L; T2 = 1150 K.
Assumptions: 1. Steady state, 2. One dimensional
through the wall, 3. Constant properties

## Analysis: heat transfer by conduction  Use Fouriers’law

T1  T2 (1400  1150) K
q k
"
x  1.7 W/m.K = 2833 W/m2 (Flux)
L 0.15 m
Heat transfer rate: q x  q x A = (0.5 m × 3 m) 2833 W/m2 = 4250 W
"

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-13
Convection
(fluid motion)

##  Convection is the mode of energy transfer between a solid

surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in motion.

##  Convection is commonly classified into three sub-modes:

 Forced convection,

##  Change of phase (liquid/vapor,

solid/liquid, etc.)

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-14
Convection
 The rate of convection heat transfer is expressed by
Newton’s law of cooling as
q"x  hT  Ts 
h is the convection heat transfer coefficient in W/m2°C.

##  h depends on variables such as:

 the surface geometry,
 the nature of fluid motion,
 the properties of the fluid,
 the bulk fluid velocity.

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-15
Natural and Forced Convection:
The forces used to create convection currents in fluids are of two types:
 Natural convection: if the hot
plate exposed to ambient air
without external sources of
motion, i.e. the movement of air is
due to density gradient near the
plate (i.e. difference in density
causes the T in the fluid).

##  Forced convection: If the

currents are set in motion by action
of a mechanical device, such as a
pump or agitator blower. The flow
is independent of the density.
 Boiling and Condensation: grouped as convection.
 energy is convected by latent heat exchange or phase transition
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-16
Generally,
hfree < hforced < hboiling & hcondensation

## Example: Water at 300 K flows

over both sides of a plate of 1 m ×
2 m in area, maintained at 400 K.
If the convective heat transfer
coefficient is 200 W/m2.K,
calculate the heat transfer.
Q  2hA(Ts  T ) Why 2?
Q = (2) (200) (1) (2) (400 – 300)

Q = 80,000 W

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-17
 Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves
as a result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or
molecules.

##  In heat transfer studies we are interested in thermal radiation (radiation emitted

by bodies because of their temperature).

 Although we will focus on radiation from solid surfaces, emissions may also
occur from liquids and gases.

medium.

##  Heat transfer through a vacuum is by radiation only since conduction or

convection requires the presence of a material medium.

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-18
 The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from a surface at a
thermodynamic temperature Ts (in K or R) is given by the Stefan–Boltzmann
law as
Q emit ,max   AsTs4 (W)

##  =5.670X108 W/m2·K4 is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant.

 The idealized surface that emits radiation at this maximum rate is called a
blackbody.
 The radiation emitted by all real surfaces is less than the radiation emitted by
a blackbody at the same temperature, and is expressed as

## Q emit ,max   AsTs4 (W)

0   1
 is the emissivity of the surface (Appendix A)
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-19
Heat transfer at a gas/surface interface involves radiation emission from the surface and
may also involve the absorption of radiation incident from the surroundings (irradiation,
Qincident ), as well as convection.

## : The absorptivity of the surface

Both  and  depend on the temperature and the wavelength of the radiation.
Kirchhoff’s law of radiation: the emissivity and the absorptivity of a surface at a given
temperature and wavelength are equal
=
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-20
 When a surface of emissivity  and surface area As at temperature Ts is completely
enclosed by a much larger (or black) surface at Tsurr separated by a gas that does not
intervene with radiation, the net radiation heat rate between these two surfaces is given
by

But  = :

or

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-21

If :

Then

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-22
It is possible that all three modes of heat transfer are
present; in this case heat conducted through the wall
is removed from the plate surface by a combination

## Energy balance gives:

Surrounding at Tsurr
Qcond  Qconv  Q rad
Q conv
Or, Flow

dT T
kA  hA (T s T  )   A (T s T
4 4
surr ) Ts
dy y 0

## Q cond Heat conducted

through wall
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-23
Example: An insulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and
walls are at 25oC. The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm, and its surface
temperature and emmisivity are 200oC and 0.8, respectively. If the coefficient
associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface to the air is 15
W/m2.K, what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe?
Assumptions:
Schematic and Knowns:
2. Radiation exchange between the pipe and
the room is between a small surface
enclosed within a much larger surface
Analysis: Heat loss from the pipe is by
convection to the room air and
q  h(DL)(Ts  T )   (DL)(Ts4  Tsur
4
)
q / L  15( 0.07)(200  25)  0.8( 0.07)5.67  10 8 (4734  2984 )
= 577 + 421 = 998 W/m
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-24
Relationship to the First Law of Thermodynamics
 The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can
neither be created nor destroyed during a process; it can only
change forms.
Total energy Total energy Change in the
entering the - leaving the = total energy of
system system the system

##  The energy balance for any system

undergoing any process can be
expressed as (in the rate form)
E in  E out  dEsystem dt (W)

## Rate of net energy transfer Rate of change in internal

by heat, work, and mass kinetic, potential, etc., energies
AUS Department of Chemical
Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-25
 In heat transfer problems it is convenient to write a heat
balance and to treat the conversion of nuclear, chemical,
mechanical, and electrical energies into thermal energy as heat
generation.

## Net heat Heat Change in

transfer generation thermal energy
of the system

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-26
Closed System
• Special Cases (Linkages to Thermodynamics)
(i) Transient Process for a Closed System of Mass (M)
Assuming Heat Transfer
to the System (Inflow) and Work Done by the System (Outflow).

## Over a time interval

Q  W  Esttot
For negligible changes in potential or kinetic energy
Q  W  U t
At an instant Internal thermal energy
dU t
q W 
dt

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-27
Open System
(ii)Steady State for Flow through an Open
System without Phase Change or Generation:
At an instant of Time

• •   2

m  ut  pv  V
2 
 gz   q  m  t
u  pv  V  gz  

W 0
2
 2 in  out

## • For an ideal gas with constant specific heat:

iin  iout  c p Tin  Tout 
:
• For an incompressible liquid: • For systems with significant heat transfer:
uin  uout  c Tin  Tout 
 pv in   pv out  0
   
V
2
2 in
 V
2
2 out
0

 gz in   gz out  0

## AUS Department of Chemical Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-28

Engineering
Energy Balance
 Stationary closed For system with one inlet and one exit:
system, no work:
m in  m out  m (kg/s)
Q  mcv T (J)  When kinetic and potential energies
are negligible, and there is no work
interaction
Q  m h  mc
 p T (kJ/s)

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-29
Example 1.4
A long conducting rod of diameter D and electrical resistance per
unit length Re is initially in thermal equilibrium with the ambient air
and its surroundings, This equilibrium is disturbed when an electrical
current I is passed through the rod, Develop an equation that could be
used to compute the variation of the rod temperature with time during
the passage of the current.

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-30
Example 1.6
Large PEM fuel cells, such as those used in automotive applications, often require
internal cooling using pure liquid water to maintain their temperature at a desired
level. In cold climates, the cooling water must be drained from the fuel cell to an
adjoining container when the automobile is turned off so that harmful freezing
does not occur within the fuel cell. Consider a mass M of ice that was frozen while
the automobile was not being operated. The ice is at the fusion temperature (Tf =
0°C) and is enclosed in a cubical container of width Won a side. The container
wall is of thickness L and thermal conductivity k. If the outer surface of the wall is
heated to a temperature TJ > TJ to melt the ice, obtain an expression for the time
needed to melt the entire mass of ice and, in turn, deliver cooling water to, and
energize, the fuel cell.

## AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-31
Try this (Similar Example 1.7)
The hot combustion gases of a furnace are separated from the ambient air and its
surrounding, which are at 25oC, by a brick wall 0.15 m thick. The brick has a
thermal conductivity of 1.2 W/m.K and a thermal emissivity of 0.8. Under
steady-state conditions and out surface temperature of 100oC is measured. Free
convection heat transfer to the air adjoining this surface is characterized by a
convection coefficient h = 20 W/m2.K. What is the brick inner surface
temperature?