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Introduction

thermodynamics, Conduction heat transfer, Convective

heat transfer, Radiative heat transfer.

Objectives

Understand how thermodynamics and heat transfer are related to each other,

Distinguish thermal energy from other forms of energy, and heat transfer from

other forms of energy transfer,

Perform general energy balances as well as surface energy balances,

convection, and radiation, and Fourier's law of heat conduction, Newton's law

of cooling, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law of radiation,

practice,

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-2

Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat

transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium

state to another, and makes no reference to how long the process

will take.

rates of energy that can be transferred from one system to

another as a result of temperature difference.

from one equilibrium state to another. Heat transfer, on the

other hand, deals with systems that lack thermal equilibrium,

and thus it is a nonequilibrium phenomenon.

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-3

Heat Transfer

The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of a

temperature difference.

The second law requires that heat

be transferred in the direction of

decreasing temperature.

transfer.

The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the

magnitude of the temperature gradient in that direction.

The larger the temperature gradient, the higher the rate of heat

transfer.

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-4

Objectives of Heat Transfer Science

To extend thermodynamics analysis through the study of the

modes of heat transfer.

Development of relations to calculate heat transfer rates.

Heat transfer is energy in transit due to a temperature

difference.

How is heat transferred?

Heat is transferred through three modes:

Conduction, Convection and Radiation

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-5

DO NOT confuse or interchange the meanings of Thermal Energy, Temperature

and Heat Transfer

Thermal Energy Energy associated with U or u J or J/kg

microscopic behavior of matter

Temperature A means of indirectly assessing

the amount of thermal energy T K or °C

stored in matter

Heat Transfer Thermal energy transport due to

temperature gradients

Heat Amount of thermal energy

transferred over a time interval Q J

t0

Heat Rate Thermal energy transfer per unit q W

time

Heat Flux Thermal energy transfer per unit q W/m 2

time and surface area

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-6

Modes of Heat Transfer

Conduction: Transmission of heat through a

substance without perceptible motion of the substance.

Metals: flow of free electron

Crystals: lattice vibrations

Fluids: molecular collisions (kinetic theory of gases)

between a surface and a moving fluid when they are at

different temperatures.

Convection associated with a change of phase: boiling,

evaporation, condensation – these processes are often

regarded as distinct heat transfer processes

Surface T1

Thermal radiation q2

Photons, which travels almost unimpeded through q1 Surface T2

air from one surface to another

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-7

Relevance of Heat Transfer

JUST

Department of Chemical Engineering Heat Transfer – ChE 346 1-8

Conduction

Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic

particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a

result of interactions between the particles.

liquids, or gases

In gases and liquids conduction is due to

molecules during their random motion.

In solids conduction is due to the

combination of vibrations of the

molecules in a lattice and the energy

transport by free electrons.

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-9

Conduction

Physical mechanism: based on atomic and molecular activity

Conduction can be viewed as transfer of energy from the more energetic to

less energetic particles of a substance due to interaction between particles

(kinetic energy)

Consider a gas occupy the two

surfaces shown in the drawing with

no bulk motion at any point:

Energy T

T Kinetic energy Molecular energy

collisions of neighbouring molecules q(x)

T(x)

Transfer of energy from more energetic to less energetic T

energy is related to the random translation of motion of x

internal energy + vibrational motion of the molecules T(x)

q(x)

T

Thus, energy transfers in the direction of

decreasing temperature x

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-10

Rate equation for quantification of conduction – Fourier’s law (1822)

Assumptions: 1. Homogeneous medium

2. One-dimensional heat flow (what does it mean?)

Consider steady heat conduction through a large plate wall of

thickness x = L and surface area A.

Experimentally, it was shown that the rate of heat transfer, q, through

the wall is doubled when T across the wall or A normal to the

direction of heat transfer is doubled, but halved when the wall

thickness L is doubled. That is:

Or, T

q k

" Where k, thermal conductivity of the material, a measure of

x

x the ability of a material to conduct heat; q” is heat flux

In the limiting case of x 0, the above equation reduces to the differential form:

dT

q"x k Fourier’s law of heat conduction

dx Heat rate: q x q "x A

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-11

Remarks

Area (A) is perpendicular to the vector of heat flow; thickness (L) is parallel to the

vector of heat flow.

First step in heat conduction problem: evaluate A and L properly.

In this course, we will use exclusively SI unit:

q [W (J/s)] Or flux, " [W/m2]; A [m2]; T [K]; L [m] k [W/m K]

q

Negative sign is the sequence of fact that heat is transferred in the direction of

decreasing temperature, i.e. q(x) and T(x) are opposite.

• If k is constant and steady state exists, integration of Fourier’s equation from T1 to

T2 gives:

T2 T1

q"x k

L

Or, T1 T2 Analogy with Ohms law (I = V/R):

q "

x

L/k • Driving force = T1 – T2 (corresponds to V)

• Thermal Resistance = L/k (corresponds to R)

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-12

Example: The wall of an industrial furnace is constructed from 0.15 m thick

fireclay brick having a thermal conductivity of 1.7 W/m.K. Measurements made

during steady state operation reveal temperatures of 1400 and 1150 K at the

inner and outer surfaces, respectively. What is the rate of heat loss through a

wall which is 0.5 m by 3 m on a side?

Knowns: Steady state; L = 0.15 m; A = 0.5 × 3 m2;

k = 1.7 W/m.K; T1 = 1400 L; T2 = 1150 K.

Assumptions: 1. Steady state, 2. One dimensional

through the wall, 3. Constant properties

T1 T2 (1400 1150) K

q k

"

x 1.7 W/m.K = 2833 W/m2 (Flux)

L 0.15 m

Heat transfer rate: q x q x A = (0.5 m × 3 m) 2833 W/m2 = 4250 W

"

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-13

Convection

Convection = Conduction + Advection

(fluid motion)

surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in motion.

Forced convection,

solid/liquid, etc.)

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-14

Convection

The rate of convection heat transfer is expressed by

Newton’s law of cooling as

q"x hT Ts

h is the convection heat transfer coefficient in W/m2°C.

the surface geometry,

the nature of fluid motion,

the properties of the fluid,

the bulk fluid velocity.

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-15

Natural and Forced Convection:

The forces used to create convection currents in fluids are of two types:

Natural convection: if the hot

plate exposed to ambient air

without external sources of

motion, i.e. the movement of air is

due to density gradient near the

plate (i.e. difference in density

causes the T in the fluid).

currents are set in motion by action

of a mechanical device, such as a

pump or agitator blower. The flow

is independent of the density.

Boiling and Condensation: grouped as convection.

energy is convected by latent heat exchange or phase transition

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-16

Generally,

hfree < hforced < hboiling & hcondensation

over both sides of a plate of 1 m ×

2 m in area, maintained at 400 K.

If the convective heat transfer

coefficient is 200 W/m2.K,

calculate the heat transfer.

Q 2hA(Ts T ) Why 2?

Q = (2) (200) (1) (2) (400 – 300)

Q = 80,000 W

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-17

Radiation Heat Transfer

Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves

as a result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or

molecules.

by bodies because of their temperature).

Although we will focus on radiation from solid surfaces, emissions may also

occur from liquids and gases.

medium.

convection requires the presence of a material medium.

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-18

Radiation - Emission

The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from a surface at a

thermodynamic temperature Ts (in K or R) is given by the Stefan–Boltzmann

law as

Q emit ,max AsTs4 (W)

The idealized surface that emits radiation at this maximum rate is called a

blackbody.

The radiation emitted by all real surfaces is less than the radiation emitted by

a blackbody at the same temperature, and is expressed as

0 1

is the emissivity of the surface (Appendix A)

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-19

Radiation - Absorption

Heat transfer at a gas/surface interface involves radiation emission from the surface and

may also involve the absorption of radiation incident from the surroundings (irradiation,

Qincident ), as well as convection.

Both and depend on the temperature and the wavelength of the radiation.

Kirchhoff’s law of radiation: the emissivity and the absorptivity of a surface at a given

temperature and wavelength are equal

=

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-20

When a surface of emissivity and surface area As at temperature Ts is completely

enclosed by a much larger (or black) surface at Tsurr separated by a gas that does not

intervene with radiation, the net radiation heat rate between these two surfaces is given

by

But = :

or

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-21

For combined convection and radiation:

If :

Then

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-22

It is possible that all three modes of heat transfer are

present; in this case heat conducted through the wall

is removed from the plate surface by a combination

of convection and radiation.

Surrounding at Tsurr

Qcond Qconv Q rad

Q rad

Q conv

Or, Flow

dT T

kA hA (T s T ) A (T s T

4 4

surr ) Ts

dy y 0

through wall

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-23

Example: An insulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and

walls are at 25oC. The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm, and its surface

temperature and emmisivity are 200oC and 0.8, respectively. If the coefficient

associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface to the air is 15

W/m2.K, what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe?

Assumptions:

Schematic and Knowns:

1. Steady state conduction exist

2. Radiation exchange between the pipe and

the room is between a small surface

enclosed within a much larger surface

Analysis: Heat loss from the pipe is by

convection to the room air and

radiation exchange with the surface:

q h(DL)(Ts T ) (DL)(Ts4 Tsur

4

)

q / L 15( 0.07)(200 25) 0.8( 0.07)5.67 10 8 (4734 2984 )

= 577 + 421 = 998 W/m

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-24

Relationship to the First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can

neither be created nor destroyed during a process; it can only

change forms.

Total energy Total energy Change in the

entering the - leaving the = total energy of

system system the system

undergoing any process can be

expressed as (in the rate form)

E in E out dEsystem dt (W)

by heat, work, and mass kinetic, potential, etc., energies

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-25

In heat transfer problems it is convenient to write a heat

balance and to treat the conversion of nuclear, chemical,

mechanical, and electrical energies into thermal energy as heat

generation.

transfer generation thermal energy

of the system

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-26

Closed System

• Special Cases (Linkages to Thermodynamics)

(i) Transient Process for a Closed System of Mass (M)

Assuming Heat Transfer

to the System (Inflow) and Work Done by the System (Outflow).

Q W Esttot

For negligible changes in potential or kinetic energy

Q W U t

At an instant Internal thermal energy

dU t

q W

dt

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-27

Open System

(ii)Steady State for Flow through an Open

System without Phase Change or Generation:

At an instant of Time

• • 2

m ut pv V

2

gz q m t

u pv V gz

•

W 0

2

2 in out

iin iout c p Tin Tout

:

• For an incompressible liquid: • For systems with significant heat transfer:

uin uout c Tin Tout

pv in pv out 0

V

2

2 in

V

2

2 out

0

gz in gz out 0

Engineering

Energy Balance

Closed systems Steady-Flow Systems

Stationary closed For system with one inlet and one exit:

system, no work:

m in m out m (kg/s)

Q mcv T (J) When kinetic and potential energies

are negligible, and there is no work

interaction

Q m h mc

p T (kJ/s)

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-29

Example 1.4

A long conducting rod of diameter D and electrical resistance per

unit length Re is initially in thermal equilibrium with the ambient air

and its surroundings, This equilibrium is disturbed when an electrical

current I is passed through the rod, Develop an equation that could be

used to compute the variation of the rod temperature with time during

the passage of the current.

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-30

Example 1.6

Large PEM fuel cells, such as those used in automotive applications, often require

internal cooling using pure liquid water to maintain their temperature at a desired

level. In cold climates, the cooling water must be drained from the fuel cell to an

adjoining container when the automobile is turned off so that harmful freezing

does not occur within the fuel cell. Consider a mass M of ice that was frozen while

the automobile was not being operated. The ice is at the fusion temperature (Tf =

0°C) and is enclosed in a cubical container of width Won a side. The container

wall is of thickness L and thermal conductivity k. If the outer surface of the wall is

heated to a temperature TJ > TJ to melt the ice, obtain an expression for the time

needed to melt the entire mass of ice and, in turn, deliver cooling water to, and

energize, the fuel cell.

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-31

Try this (Similar Example 1.7)

The hot combustion gases of a furnace are separated from the ambient air and its

surrounding, which are at 25oC, by a brick wall 0.15 m thick. The brick has a

thermal conductivity of 1.2 W/m.K and a thermal emissivity of 0.8. Under

steady-state conditions and out surface temperature of 100oC is measured. Free

convection heat transfer to the air adjoining this surface is characterized by a

convection coefficient h = 20 W/m2.K. What is the brick inner surface

temperature?

Answer: T1 = 352oC

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-32

HW

1.5; 1.13 ; 1.14 ;

1.20; 1.26 ; 1.40;

1.63 ; 1.67

AUS Department of Chemical

Engineering Heat Transfer – CHE 307 1-33

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