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General Microbiology Q Bank

1-Which of the following structures is found only in Gram-negative


microorganisms?
A. Cell envelope
B. Exotoxin
C. Peptidoglycan
D. Periplasmic space
E. Teichoic acids
2-Bacterial flagellum:
A. Is made of single protein called flagellin
B. Cannot be removed.
C. Is superficially attached to the bacterial cell wall
D. Is not necessary for motility.
E. Is found exclusively in Gram negative bacteria.
3- All the following concerning Functions of bacterial cell wall are true
EXCEPT:
A. It maintains the characteristic shape of the bacterium.
B. It supports the weak cytoplasmic membrane against the high internal osmotic
pressure.
C. It helps in protein synthesis.
D. It plays an important role in cell division.
E. It is responsible for the staining affinity of the organism.
4- Bacteria which loses its cell wall by the action of penicillin or lysozymes
is called
A. Protoplast bacteria
B. Spheroplast bacteria
C. L – form bacteria
D. capnophilic bacteria
E. Thermopiles bacteria
5-Which of the following is a feature of gram-positive bacteria rather than
gram-negative bacteria?
A. Lipid A-containing lipopolysaccharide
B. Lipoprotein in periplasmic space
C. Outer membrane
D. Peptidoglycan in periplasmic space
E. Thick peptidoglycan cell wall
6-All the following concerned bacterial Ribosomes are true EXCEPT:
A. They are the site of protein synthesis in the cell.
B. They consist of protein and RNA.
C. They have a sedimentation constant of 70S, smaller than the 80S ribosomes of
eukaryotes.
D. They maintain the characteristic shape of the bacterium
E. They are selective target for antibiotic action.
7-A bacterium is examined and is found to lack superoxide dismutase,
catalase, and peroxidase. Which of the following statements best describes
this bacterium?
A. This bacterium is an anaerobe
B. This bacterium will survive in an O2 environment
C. This bacterium is more virulent than one containing the three enzymes
D. This bacterium does not produce superoxide
E. This bacterium does not produce peroxide
8-Bacteria which require reduced oxygen level is called
A. Obligate aerobes
B. Obligate anaerobe
C. Facultative anaerobe
D. Micro-aerophilic
E. Aerotolerant anaerobes

- In logarithmic growth the mass of bacterial cells is significantly increase.


Which of the following are limiting factors in microbial growth?
A. Accumulation of oxygen free radicals
B. Accumulation of peroxide
C. Accumulation of toxic products in the growth medium
D. Oxygen
E. Loss of superoxide dismutase

9- Treatment of the culture with gentamicin, an inhibitor of protein


synthesis, would have maximal effect on which of the phases?
A. Lag phase
B. Log phase
C. Stationary phase
D. Death phase
10- Uptake by a recipient cell of soluble DNA released from a donor cell is
defined as
A. Conjugation
B. Recombination
C. Competence
D. Transformation
E. Transduction
11-Transfer of a donor chromosome fragment by a temperate bacterial
virus is defined as
A. Conjugation
B. Recombination
C. Competence
D. Transformation
E. Transduction
12-Direct transfer of a plasmid between two bacteria is defined as
A. Conjugation
B. Recombination
C. Competence
D. Transformation
E. Transduction
13- Which of the following steps initializes the cloning process?
A. Isolation and fragmentation of source DNA
B. Amplification of source DNA
C. Detection and purification of clones
D. Joining of host DNA to a cloning vector
E. Incorporation of a cloning vector into the host cell
14-All the following are used as Cloning Vectors in genetic recombination
EXCEPT:
A. Plasmids
B. Bacteriophages
C. Cosmids
D. Animal viruses
E. All the above

15- Which of the following may be a factor in bacterial resistance to


antibiotics targeting cell-wall synthesis?
A. Bactoprenol
B. Reverse transcriptase
C. RNA polymerase
D. DNA gyrase
E. Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)
16- In logarithmic growth the mass of bacterial cells is significantly
increase. Which of the following are limiting factors in microbial growth?
A. Accumulation of oxygen free radicals
B. Accumulation of peroxide
C. Accumulation of toxic products in the growth medium
D. Oxygen
E. Loss of superoxide dismutase
17- Which one of the following antibiotics alters membrane permeability?
A. Penicillin
B. Amdinocillin
C. Amphotericin
D. Chloramphenicol
E. Trimethoprim
18- Which one of the following antibiotics attaches to 50S ribosome and
inhibits peptidyl transferase?
A. Penicillin
B. Amdinocillin
C. Amphotericin
D. Chloramphenicol
E. Trimethoprim
19- Which one of the following antibiotics inhibits DNA synthesis?
A. Penicillin
B. Amdinocillin
C. Amphotericin
D. Chloramphenicol
E. Ciprofloxacin
20- Bacterial exotoins are
A. Lipopolysaccharide in nature.
B. Poorly immunogenic
C. Can be converted into toxoid
D. Non diffusible.
E. Stable to temp. above 60°C for several hours
21- Bacterial endotoxins are:
A. Protein in nature
B. Integral part of the cell wall of Gram-negative organisms liberated upon cell
disintegration
C. Highly antigenic.
D. Can be converted into toxoid
E. Unstable to temp. above 60°C
22-Which of the following is used in sterilization of surgical dressings?
A. Irradiation
B. Filtration
C. Autoclave
D. Hot air oven
E. Pasteurization
23-Which of the following chemical disinfectants are used as antiseptics?
A. Biguanides (chlorhexidine).
B. Phenol-containing preparations (phenolics)
C. Chlorine-active compounds e.g. Hypochlorite or household bleach
D. Peracetic acid
E. Glutaraldehyde

24- A young mother takes her baby to the pediatrician for the first time.
The doctor notices the infant's teeth have yellow discolorations. The
antibiotic this mother most likely took during pregnancy
A. inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding "inhibits protein synthesis"
B. inhibits peptidyl transferase
C. interferes with cell wall synthesis
D. is a large, cyclic, lactone-ring structure
E. Inhibits DNA synthesis
25- The rationale for giving prophylactic antibiotics at the beginning of a
surgical procedure can be thought of as an attempt to prevent the bacteria
from entering which of the following growth phases?
A. Death phase
B. Lag phase
C. Log phase
D. Phase of decline
E. Stationary phase
26- An antibiotic, such as penicillin, which modifies cell wall synthesis,
tends to be most effective during which phase of bacterial growth in a
closed system?
A. Lag phase
B. Log phase
C. Phase of decline
D. Stationary phase
27- In a closed system, spores are formed during which of the following
phases of bacterial growth?
A. Decline phase
B. Exponential phase
C. Lag phase
D. Log phase
E. Stationary phase
28- A hospitalized patient develops dysuria and suprapubic pain and is
treated with ciprofloxacin. What is
the mechanism of action of this antibiotic?
A. It inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
B. It inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
C. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30s ribosomal subunit
D. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 50s ribosomal subunit
E. It inhibits topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase)
29- Which of the following best describes a plasmid?
A. A gene within the chromosome
B. Small circular piece of DNA outside the chromosome
C. The genetic material of a bacteriophage
D. Part of bacterial ribosomes
D. A single, linear strand of DNA

30- Which of the following is NOT involved in bacterial conjugation?


A. Bacteriophage
B. F+ cells
C. F- cells
D. Plasmids
E. Sex pili
31- What was one of the first and most useful microscopic tests for
classifying bacteria that is still important today?
A. Gram stain
B. Flagella stains
C. Simple stains
D. Negative stain for capsule
E. Metachromatic granule stain
32- Absence of all life forms:
A. Clean
B. Disinfected
C. Sterile
D. Aseptic
E. Sanitized
33- Which is mismatched?
A. Bacteriostatic = kill vegetative bacterial cells
B. Germicide = kills microbes
C. Viricide = inactivates viruses
D. Sporicide = kills bacterial endospores and fungal spores
E. Fungicide = kills yeasts and molds
34- If you were asked to sterilize a heat sensitive item which of the
following would be most suitable?
A. Steam autoclave
B. Pasteurization
C. Ethylene oxide
D. Ethyl alcohol
E. Hot air oven
35- Which of the following is commonly used to prepare incision sites for
surgery and as a surgical scrub?
A. Ethyl alcohol
B. Hydrogen peroxide
C. Iodophor
D. Glutaraldehyde
E. Lysol
36- The chemical in bleach responsible for antimicrobial activity:
A. Iodine
B. Phenol
C. Chlorine
D. Zinc
E. Glutaraldehyde
37- Which does not pertain to broad-spectrum drugs?
A. Often used when the pathogen has not been identified
B. Can also kill or inhibit the patient’s normal flora
C. Include oral penicillin and tetracycline
D. Can only kill Gram+ bacteria
E. Should not be used if pathogen’s identity is known and a narrow-spectrum
drug is available
38- Which of the following is not true of both natural penicillins and first
generation cephalosporins?
A. Contain a beta-lactam ring
B. Come from molds
C. Damage bacterial cytoplasmic membranes
D. Easily modified
E. Can be inactivated by beta-lactamases
39- Sulfonamides can best be described as:
A. Antimetabolites
B. Antiviral agents
C. Containing a beta-lactam ring
D. Aminoglycosides
E. Inhibiting cell wall synthesis

40- Bacteria spores:


A. Are sensitive to antibiotics
B. Allow the bacteria to multiple in adverse condition
C. Are usually formed by Gram-negative bacteria
D. Can be identified with Gram stains.
E. Are killed by temperature of 1200 for 20 minutes.
41- The cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria:
A. Have a thick layer of peptidoglycan.
B. Are the same as Gram-negative bacteria.
C. Are associated with a periplasmic space.
D. Have an outer membrane
E. Lipid A-containing lipopolysaccharide
42- The lipopolysaccharide of the outer membrane of Gram-negative
bacteria can be toxic and is known as:
A. Toxoid.
B. An exotoxin.
C. A toxoplasma.
D. Neurotoxin
E. Endotoxin.
43- The following about bacterial cytoplasmic membrane are true
EXCEPT:
A. Is a rigid structure at ambient temperature.
B. Is a flexible structure at ambient temperature.
C. Contains phospholipids which are organised in a bilayer.
D. Contains specific protein permeases.
E. May contain respiratory enzymes and ATPase
44- Bacterial pili or fimbriae:
A. Is present on all bacterial cells.
B. Are composed of carbohydrates.
C. Are generally involved in motility.
D. Can be involved in adhesion of the cells to surfaces.
E. Can be associated with the transfer of DNA by transduction
45- Prokaryotes and eukaryotes can be differentiated because of all the
following EXCEPT:
A. Eukaryotes are always multicellular.
B. Prokaryotes do not possess a nuclear membrane eukaryote have a distinct
nucleus with a membrane.
C. Prokaryotes possess 70S ribosomes, eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes.
D. Unlike eukaryotes, prokaryotes do not undergo mitosis.
E. Unlike eukaryotes, prokaryotes do not possess organelles such as
mitochondria
and chloroplasts.
46- A microorganism will grow in the temperature range -2 to 22 C under a
normal atmosphere - the microorganism is:
A. A pyschrophile.
B. A mesophile.
C. A thermophile.
D. A strict anaerob
E. Microaerophile
47- Bacterial spores will be killed by the microbial technique of:
A. Autoclaving media for 20 min at 1 bar.
B. Heat fixation of a film on a slide.
C. Flaming an inoculation loop.
D. Flaming the mouth of a culture tube.
E. Swabbing a spillage with ethanol
48- Methods of sterilization should be compatible with the objects to be
sterilized. Autoclaving can be used to sterilize:
A. Powder and oil.
B. A solution of a drug unstable to heat.
C. Disposable plastic syringes.
D. Assembled glass syringes.
E. Hospital surgical instruments.
49- Regarding Penicillin, all the following are true EXCEPT:
A. Is a beta-lactam compound
B. Is bactericidal against susceptible bacteria;
C. Can be given intravenously;
D. Is not active against Gram negative bacteria;
E. Is a useful agent for the therapy of Syphilis.
50- Sterilization may be achieved by the following chemical agents:
A. Glutaraldehyde;
B. Ethanol
C. Chlorhexidine gluconate;
D. Dipicolinic acid;
E. Quaternary ammonium compounds.
51- Antibiotic resistance may be caused by all the following EXCEPT:
A. By transfer of resistance plasmids and selection in an antibiotic containing
environment.
B. By selection of naturally occurring mutants.
C. By increased mutation rates in the presence of antibiotics.
D. In a resistant population by the possession of an enzyme capable of destroying
the antibiotic.
E. In a resistant population by changes in the cell permeability or binding of the
antibiotic.
52- Chromosomes are:
A. Multiple units of genes in linear chains
B. A newly discovered very large eukaryote
C. A type of virus that attacks only prokaryotic cells
D. A type of organelle that secretes material
E. Another name for common yeast

53- Prokaryotic cells generally range is size:


A. From 2 to 100 micrometers
B. From 100 to 1000 micrometers
C. From 0.5 to 2 micrometers
D. From 2 to 35 micrometers
E. Greater than 600 micrometers
54- The bacterial capsule is:
A. A form of storage granule within the cell.
B. Is a long thin protein rod that is used for attachment.
C. A coating on the exterior of many cells.
D. Is a long thin protein rod that is used for bacterial exchange of genetic material.
E. Always present on a cell that has the ability to form a capsule.
55- A Pilus is:
A. A form of storage granule within the cell.
B. Is a long thin protein rod that is used for adhesion.
C. Generally composed of sugars.
D. Is a long thin protein rod that is used for bacterial exchange of genetic material.
E. Always present on a cell that has the ability to form a capsule.
56- Which of the following materials is NOT a bacterial storage granule:
A. Sulfur
B. Glycogen
C. Phosphorous
D. Ribosomes
E. PHB
57- The proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane do which of the following: If only
one of A-C is correct chose it, otherwise chose either D or E.
A. Make all the proteins in the cell.
B. Act as the sensors of the cells.
C. Regulate the flow of material into and out of a cell.
D. Both B & C
E. Both A & C

Microbiology
1-D
2-A
3-C
4-C
5-E
6-D
7-A
8-D
9-B
10-D
11-E
12-A
13-A
14-E
15-E
16-C
17-C
18-D
19-E
20-C
21-B
22-C
23-A
24-A
25-C
26-B
27-E
28-F
29-B
30-A
31-A
32-C
33-A
34-C
35-C
36-C
37-D
38-C
39-A
40-E
41-A
42-E
43-A
44-D
45-A
46-A
47-A
48-E
49-D
50-A
51-C
52-A
53-C
54-C
55-B
56-D
57-D