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# EARTH FAULT – DETECTION METHOD

T
HIGH IMPEDANCE REF PROTCETION - PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

AF
Transformer Data:
General Arrangement
Rating = 1000 kVA
0.415 kV 1600/1 A
Ratio = 11/0.415 kV
R
%Z = 5%
FLA = 52.49 / 1391.25 A
Y
Vector Group = Dyn11
R
Current Transformer Data:
B
Ratio = 1600 / 1 A
Class = PX R
D
Rct = 7.90 ohm @ 75°C
Loop Resistance = 0.27 ohm @ 75°C
N
Makesh Kandan.P
EARTH FAULT – DETECTION METHOD

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HIGH IMP. REF PROT. - PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

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External Fault Condition (No CT Saturation)
0.415 kV 1600/1 A

## R Fault Current Calculation:

Max. Through Fault = FLA / %Z
Y Current @ 415V side
R B
= 1391.25 / 5%
= 27825 A

## Fault Current in terms

R of CT Secondary = 17.39 A
D
N Idiff ≈ 0
No Relay Operation Makesh Kandan.P
EARTH FAULT – DETECTION METHOD

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HIGH IMP. REF PROT. - PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

AF
External Fault Condition (CT Saturation)
0.415 kV 1600/1 A Idiff = 17.39 A ; Relay Operated,
R
I=0 Need to add Stabilizing Resistor to avoid misoperation
Y Stability Limit Checking :
Vs = If (Rct + 2RL) / CT Ratio
R B
Vs = 142 V
Stabilizing Resistor:
Resistance of Relay Circuit, R0 = Vs / Id
R = 2368 Ω (Id = 0.06A)
D
Resistance of Relay, Rr = VA / Id2
= 27.8 Ω
N Stabilizing Resistor, Rst = R0 –Rr
= 2340 Ω Makesh Kandan.P
EARTH FAULT – DETECTION METHOD

T
HIGH IMP. REF PROT. - PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

AF
External Fault Condition (CT Saturation – Stabilizing Resistor Added)
0.415 kV 1600/1 A

Y
R B

R
D
Relay Not Operated
N
Makesh Kandan.P
EARTH FAULT – DETECTION METHOD

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HIGH IMP. REF PROT. - PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

AF
Internal Fault Condition – Relay Operation
0.415 kV 1600/1 A

R Operation Theory:

## If = 200 A Assume fault current, If = 200 A

Fault Setting:
As per ESI, 10-60% of Transformer FLA for Solidly Id = If – CT Ratio* ∗ +
Earthed System. Y = 200 – 92.16
= 107.84 A
POC = ∑ ∗ + + / CT Ratio

Where,
nx = No.of CT’s in Parallel
R
Ix = Magnetising Current @ Set Voltage (0.0142A)
B
Id > Set Current of 96A, Hence Relay Operated

## Voperation = Id / CT Ratio (Rst + Rr)

= 159.6 V
Id = Relay Set Current (0.06A, i.e. 96A) Voperation > Vs, Hence Relay Operated
Im = Metrosil Current (0.0008 A)
Vs = 142 V (i.e Set Voltage)
R Metrosil Requirement:
D
POC = 188.2 A
• Limit the Peak Voltage developed across the high impedance
= 13.5 % of FLA components to safe level below the insulation level of CT,
relay and interconnecting leads.
N • Calculated Peak Voltage > 3kV
Makesh Kandan.P