Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 85

INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Internship Training Report

On

Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited


REACH - 2 EXTN.

Guide
Mr. Dhananjayan Murthy
Deputy Chief Engineer, Phase-2, Reach-2, Extn.
Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited

R. BHARATH DHARMESH (103114016)


BHERJAS MUHAMMAD .P .P (103114017)
Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 1


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This is a Technical report summarizing the summer internship carried out from 24-05-2017 to
24-07-2017 under guidance of Mr. Dhananjayan Murthy (Dy. CE) at Bangalore Metro Rail
Corporation Limited. We would like to thank Mr. Pradeep Singh Kharola (Managing
Director) and Mr. M. Srinivas (CE) for giving us the opportunity to pursue an intern at
BMRCL. We would like to express our deep gratitude towards Mr. Dhananjayan Murthy,
Deputy Chief Engineer, for his valuable support and guidance. We are also thankful towards all
other engineers who have shared their knowledge, despite their busy schedule, with us.

We would like to express our sincere thanks to HOD, Dr. Samson Mathew, Head of The Civil
Engineering Department for his support. We are also thankful to all other staff members of the
department for their kind cooperation and help. Lastly, we would like to thank our family
members and friends for providing the much needed support and encouragement.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 2


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROJECT…………………………………………………04


2. PILE…………………………………………………………………………………08
3. PILE CAP …………………………………………………………………………..16
4. PIER………………………………………………………………………………...17
5. PIER CAP………………………………………………………………………......20
6. CRASH BARRIER …………………………………………………………………22
7. PEDESTAL………………………………………………………………………....22
8. BEARING…………………………………………………………………………...23
9. SEGMENTS…………………………………………………………………………24
10. I GIRDERS…………………………………………………………………………..45
11. PARAPETS………………………………………………………………………….50
12. METRO STATIONS………………………………………………………………...52
13. CASTING YARD …………………………………………………………………...60
14. PLANT & MACHINERY…………………………………………………..62
15. QUALITY……………………………………………………………………………68
16. BAR BENDING SCHEDULE ………………………………………………………83
17. IS CODES…….….…………………………………………...………….84
18. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………...85

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 3


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

1.HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROJECT

A full plan of the proposed Namma Metro Project


INTRODUCTION:

Metro Rail is a Mass Rapid Transit System used in constructed in urban areas for the
public transport. It is a convenient, fast, efficient, reliable, modern, pollution-free,
comfortable and affordable mode of transport. This mode of transport reduces the
heavy traffic in the cities enabling it as user friendly. A metro can be either
underground or elevated.

Metro is classified based on there capacity as:

• Heavy capacity - 60— 90,000 phpdt.

• Medium capacity - 40— 50,000 phpdt.

• Light capacity - 25 — 30,000 phpdt.

*phpdt – Peak hour peak direction traffic.

The Bangalore metro, also known as Namma metro is currently the second largest
operational metro network in India and also contain first underground metro line in
South India. The metro rail is constructed with Standard Gauge (1435mm), and the
power output is supplied by 750V DC through Third Rail. The metro network is
constructed in mainly two phases.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 4


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Phase 1, which is the currently operating network consist of two color-coded line
Green line and Purple Line with a total length of 42.3km and 41 stations. In which
length of 8.82km is underground and length of 33.48km is elevated, with 7
underground and 33 elevated stations and one station at grade.

LINE Total Length Elevated (km) Underground No. of Stations


(km) (km)

Purple Line 18.22 13.1 4.8 17

Green Line 24.20 20.2 4 24

Phase 1 has one interchange at Kempegowda Station and two corridors:The two corridors
intersect at Kempegowda station which is a two level interchange station. A commuter who
intends to travel from a station in one line(say Trinity in Purple line) to a station in another line
(say Peenya in Green line) will have to change the train at Kempegowda Interchange station,
Majestic without coming out of paid area. The commuter can buy a single token for the complete
journey.

 North-South corridor is named Green Line Nagasandra to


Yelanchahalli

 East-West corridor is named Purple Line Mysore Road -


Bayappanahalli

Phase 2, consist of total length 72.095km in which 13.79km is underground, 57.825km


is elevated and 0.48km is at grade. It has 61 stations out of which 12 stations are
underground.

The construction include extension of two corridors of phase 1 and construction of two
new lines. North end of Green line will be extended from Nagasandra to Bangalore
International Exhibition Centre, South end will be extended from Yelanchahalli to
Anjanapura Township, East end of Purple line will be extended from
Baiyyappanahallito Whitefield, West end will be extended from Mysore road station to
Kengeri. The new lines will be from Gottigere to Nagawara with a length of
21.25km and from RV Road to Bammasandra with a length of 18.82km.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 5


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

The various reaches in the current running metro line

Reach 2 Extension:

This Internship is done over Reach 2 Extension which consists of West end
extention from Mysore Road to Kengeri with a total length of 8.81km and 6 Stations.
Reach 2 Extension is divided into two regions and given contract to IL& FS and
SOMA Constructions. The first 4 stations and Viaduct with a length of 3.945km is
given as contract to IL&FS, the next two stations and Viaduct construction is given as
contract to SOMA Constructions.

The 6 Stations are:

1) Nayandahalli Station
2) Rajarajeshwari Nagar Station
3) Jnanabharathi Station
4) Pattanagere Station
5) Mailasandra Station
6) Kengeri Station.

Reach-2 Extn. Plan

Mailasandra Station is a terminal Station with two basements for parking facilities in
addition to Concourse Level and Platform Level. This is the only Station in Bangalore
Metro project which is being constructed using Raft Foundation since space is
available and is economical than Pile foundation.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 6


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

The Main Structural Components constructed in this extension are:

1) Foundation:-
a) End Bearing Pile
b) Open Foundation
c) Raft Foundation
2) Pile Cap
3) Pier
4) Crash Barrier
5) Pier Cap
6) Pedestal
7) Segments
8) I girders
9) Plinth Beam
10) Parapet Walls
11) Beams
12) Columns
13) Floating Columns
14) Slab

The project uses both Precast and Cast-in-situ structures. Segments, I girders, Parapet
Walls are Precasted from the Casting Yard. There are two Casting yards, one for Soma
Constructions at Srinivasapura and one for IL&FS at Kanmanike.

The Salient features of the Projects

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 7


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

2. PILE

The construction of Bored Cast-in-situ end bearing piles shall be completed with Hydraulic
Piling rig with suitable attachments. The area in which piling rig is working shall be suitably
leveled, compacted and made secure with barricading boards. Necessary services such as service
crane, Trailer, Tippers Dumpers, Loader, Welding generators, Lighting arrangements, Transit
mixtures, etc., shall be provided to complete the piling works. Storage area for steel
reinforcement, cages and attachments shall be provided close to the Rig working location. Max
length of Pile 30m, Diameter of Pile 1.2m,

The work shall include the following construction activities.

a) At Site:

a) Layout of Structure

b) Aligning the Piling Rig

c) Boring of Pile in soft Strata

d) Installation of Temp/Guide casing

e) Boring of Pile in Hard Strata

f) Termination of Bore

g) Cleaning of Bore

h) Placing & Lowering of Rebar Cage

i) Lowering of Tremie Pipe Concreting of Bore hole

j) Removal of Guide casing

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 8


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

2.1 Piling Procedure:

AUGER BUCKET

I) At Site:

A. Layout of Structure: Construction of Piling shall start after carrying out survey for
alignment and levels in accordance with approved drawings. Grid pillars shall be
constructed at regular intervals and reference for construction shall be taken from these
grid pillars. The same shall be duly checked and reviewed by Engineer. Then each pile
location shall be marked at ground before starting the piling work for the location

B. Aligning the Piling Rig: Piling Rig shall be mobilized to the pile location and Rig shall
be positioned by keeping Kelly bar true to vertical at the piling location.

C. Boring of pile in soft Strata: After aligning the piling rig in position boring in the top soil
shall be commenced with soil barrel buckets/soil augers up to the non-collapsible
depth.During boring the verticality of the drilled hole shall be constantly checked and
also the position of the bore shall be cross checked with the reference points.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 9


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

D. Installation of Guide/Temporary Casing: While boring through the soft strata the
stability of the bore is the most important to arrest any collapse of the soil into the bore
and making the shaft in to the constant dia. MS Liner/casing shall installed up to the
bottom of the soft strata with the help of Boring rig.

E. Boring of pile in soft strata or & Hard Strata after installation of Guide casing: After
installation of Guide casing boring in to the soft strata shall be advanced further with soil
barrel bucket or soil auger till to the design depth or up to the hard strata, if the
hardstrata is encountered after 7m then chiseling is done to find the socketing depth. To
find the socketing depth, a chisel of weight 3.6T (1.5*dia. Of pile to be driven) is
dropped at a height of 1.5m, which is considered as a blow, like this 900 blows are given
in an hour and the depth of boring is found out, then the following conclusions are made
for the socketing depth. If depth of penetration<200mm, it is hard rock so socketing
depth is 1D, if 400mm> depth of penetration>200mm it is soft rock so socketing depth is
2D. Once the socketing depth is found out the chiseling is carried out till the socketing
depth.If Hard Rock strata is encountered within 7m then socketing depth is adopted as
1.5D. Boring has to be done in weak strata,POLYMER may be used after due
consultation with the Engineer to avoid collapse of bore sides, the properties of polymer
shall be as per the technical specification.

Tripod with chiseling 3.6 ton chisel

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 10


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

F. Use of Polymer: Use of Polymer slurry in stabilising sides of the pile borehole may also
be necessary together With temporary or permanent casing wherever sub soil and ground
water conditions are likely to cause mud flows or instability of pile bore or sand boiling.
In such situations the properties of Polymer used & quality control shall be as per
requirement given below. Before mixing Poly- Fluid, fresh water is to be treated with
sodium hydroxide/soda ash at a dosage of 0.5kg/m3 to regulate the pH to 10-12. Poly —
Fluid polymer is then slowly mixed directly in the flow of water at a dosage of 0.8 to
1kg/m3 of water. Mixing shall be done for 30 mins. Viscosity of the slurry after adding
recommended dosage of Poly — Fluid will range from 55-70 sec (API Marshall Cone
Method) and density of the polymer should be between 1.04 g/cc to 1.2 g/cc. The Poly-
Fluid slurry can now be used for Piling. Prepared Poly- Fluid slurry is pumped to the
excavation to stabilize the bore. A minimum of 3m of overhead pressure to be
maintained during the boring all the time. If hard material is encountered during boring
use chisel or rock tools to penetrate in to the hard stratum with the help of Conventional
Rig.

ECO Polymer Polymer Tank

G. Termination of Borehole: After reaching the bore hole the designed depth the same shall
be offered to Engineer for inspection and review. The comments and suggestions of
Engineer shall be attended promptly. Borehole shall be terminated only after inspection
of Engineer.

H. Cleaning of Bore Hole: After attending the comments and suggestions given by Engineer
after the inspection cleaning of the base of the bore hole shall be carried out with a
cleaning bucket.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 11


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

I. Placing & Lowering of reinforcement cage: Specially fabricated reinforcement cage


brought to the site shall be checked for the intact &
dimensions, Cover blocks, etc., and are appropriate to the
intended pile. Sufficient preventive care shall be taken for
the handling disturbances. Then the cage shall be hoisted
with the service crane and gently lowered in to the bore
hole. The cage shall be anchored to the guide casing with
the help of Rebars, If any additional length is to be added to
form the required length, then the second cage shall be
hoisted with the help of service crane and brought to the
location and positioned on top the anchored cage. Then the
two cages shall be welded together as per required lap
length and the full cage shall be hoisted to the service crane.
Anchoring arrangements shall be removed and the full cage
shall be lowered up to the pile base.

J. Lowering of Tremie pipe: After placing the reinforcement Cage tremie of appropriate dia
i.e. 200mm tremie pipe and its length is approx. 1.2m with hopper shall be lowered in to
the bore hole. Before lowering the pipe it will be ensured that the joints are water tight
and intact. The gap between the base of pile and bottom of the tremie shall be kept
150mm if the bore hole is wet and if it is dry bore the gap between base of pile &tremie
shall be maintained less than 1.5m. A plug is also placed on the hopper for the first
charge.

Setting of Tremmie Pipe inside Bore Hole

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 12


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

K. Concreting of Bore hole: I. Concreting in Dry hole condition: An Indent for the concrete will
be sent to the Centralised batching plant in charge after approval of the borehole for
concreting. Concrete produced as per the approved design mix in centralised batching plant
at casting yard shall be brought to the site through transit mixers along with the docket
specifying the mix details, qty of concrete, bathing time, initial slum, temperature, etc. After
receiving the docket the concrete shall be sampled for the slum, temperature and cube
casting. After the site QC Engineer certifies the concrete, the concrete shall be discharged
directly in to the hopper of the tremie. When concrete has reached above cut-off- level stop
the concreting works. It shall be ensured the sound concrete has reached above the cut-off-
level (Cut-Off Level is the level which
is 75mm below pile cap bottom).
Concreting in Wet hole Conditions: An
Indent for the concrete will be sent to
the centralised batching plant in charge
after approval of the bore hole for
concreting .Concrete produced as per
the approved design mix in centralised
batching plant at casting yard shall be
brought to the site through transit
mixers along with the docket specifying
the mix details, qty of concrete, bathing
time, initial slum, temperature , etc.
After receiving the docket the concrete
shall be sampled for the slum,
temperature and cube casting. After the
site QC Engineer certifies the concrete,
the concrete shall be discharged directly in to the hopper of the tremie. It shall be ensured
that the gap between Base of the Pile and bottom of the tremie shall be of 300mm. The plug
shall be placed in the tremie before charging the tremie with concrete. After filling the
hopper with concrete then the plug shall be removed with the help of service crane. Then
after concrete shall he poured in to hopper continuously. It shall be ensured that the end of
tremie shall be in concrete minimum of 2 meteres. With draw tremie pipe as Concrete rises
upwards. When concrete has reached above cut-off- level stop the Concreting works. It shall
be ensured the sound concrete has reached above the cut-off-level. Extract the
Guide/Temporary casing from the bore hole upon completion of concreting works. It shall
be ensured that the guide casing shall be extracted vertically and no disturbance to the
concrete and mixing of soil with the concrete.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 13


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

A picto-graphical representation of the piling

2.2 OPEN FOUNDATION


If the hard rock is found within 4m from ground level, then open foundation is used
instead of pile foundation.

Steps:

 The soil is excavated till the hard rock for required breadth and length and an
additional 800mm is excavated in the hard rock for the Footing bottom level.
 Holes of 50mm diameter are drilled at a spacing of 500mm centre to centre
below the footing bottom level.
 Steel bars of 25mm diameter re embedded in the drilled holes and grouted
with non shrink grout of M35 grade.
 Top parts of the steel bars are embedded with reinforcement of the footing
and Concreted.
 Pedestal is casted above the footing top level to a height 500mm below the
ground level. The Pier is casted above the pedestal whose reinforcement is
embedded with pedestal reinforcement.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 14


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Various Drawings and Layout of Open Foundation

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 15


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

3. PILE CAP
The pile cap distributes the load from the superstructure, equally, to all the piles below it. As per
NHAI (National Highways Authority of India) the pile cap top level should be at a depth of
minimum 0.5m from the Ground Level. This 0.5m will be used to lay the flexible pavement
layers such as sub-grade, sub-base layers etc. The pile reinforcement should be embedded inside
the pile cap reinforcement up to a height of 1m and strictly no lapping is permitted in pile cap
reinforcements however couplers can be used, these instructions were provided in GFC (Good
for Construction) Drawings. A cover of 75mm is provided for pile cap as similar to that for piles.
The grade of concrete used for pile cap is similar to that of pile which is M35 grade. Before
concreting the pile cap the ground is leveled and a 75mm thickness of PCC (Plain Cement
Concrete) is laid.

Pile Cap Reinforcement A concreted Pile Cap

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 16


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

4. PIER
After foundation of pile&pilecap then comesPier. Pier is
nothing but a column. The substructure which supports the
superstructure and transfers loads from the superstructure to the
foundations. Depending upon aesthetics, site, space and
economic constraints various shapes of piers are adopted to suit
to the requirement. Depending on the loading and bearing
articulations, piers may be subjected to bending as well.

4.1 Types:

1.Eccentric pier: This is used where there is a space constrain due to existing condition and built
forms.

An eccentric pier near Deepanjali Nagar Station

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 17


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Concentric pier: This is used where space is available. The centre line of the pilecap,
pier,piercap and deck slab Coincides in one single line.

An Normal/Concentric Pier near upcoming Nayandhalli Station

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 18


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Portal Pier: This is used at intersections where space is not available sufficiently.

A portal pier near Deepanjali Nagar Metro Station

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 19


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

4.2 Pier Starter:


Starter is a small piece of column which is cast before the main column is cast. A shutter box of
internal size exactly matching with columnsize is placed in position. The center lines are checked
and concrete of the specified grade is poured in this mould

Pier Starter

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 20


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

5. PIER CAP
Pier Cap/Headstock is the component which transfers loads from the superstructure to the piers.
Pier cap provide sufficient seating for the Bridge girders and disperse the loads from the bearings
to the Piers.The cement grade used for both pier & pier cap is M50.

A concreted pier cap A pier cap reinforcement

Steps:

1.Reinforcement of the pier

2. Shuttering of the pier

3. Reinforcement and shuttering of pier cap

4.Furnished pier concrete and pier cap

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 21


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

6. CRASH BARRIER
The crash barrier is used to protect the piers during vehicular collision.A typical crash barrier and
its reinforcement is shown below.

7. PEDESTAL
Pedestal is used to transfer load from bearing to pier cap.
The grade of concrete used is M50. Pedestal reinforcement
are of mesh type. An another mesh reinforcement is also
provided very near to this pedestal reinforcement for span
jacks. The level and position of pedestal varies from
location to location

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 22


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

8.BEARING
The bridges are subjected to different types of movements at supports due to temperature
change, shrinkage of concrete deck slab, permanent actions(due to DL and LL), variable actions
(due to traffic loads), settlement of supports, accidental actions(vehicular collision). These
movements can either be
permanent (irreversible) or
transient (reversible). Hence in
order to restrain these different
types of movements bearings are
used. Bearings are also used to
transfer forces from the
superstructure (segments) to the
substructure (piers) at the same time by tolerating or constraining relative movement. The
thickness of the bearing plate and its arrangement is approximately between 60mm to 80mm.
Two types of bearings are used for this project, namely, Pot cum PTFE Bearing and
Elastomeric Bearing. The different types of bearings and their corresponding relative
movements is been tabulated in the table. The elastomeric bearings can restrain longitudinal and
transverse movements, while pot bearings are cable of restraining angular movements also.
Hence, pot bearings are found to be costlier than elastomeric bearings and they are preferred for
curve alignments regions while the former (elastomeric bearing) is mostly widely in all places.
Based on the direction of restraint of the bearing they are classified as Fixed (restricting
movements in all directions), Unidirectional (allowing movement in any one direction {either
longitudinal or transverse} only), Multidirectional (or) Free (allowing movement in all
directions). A typical example of bearing in a straight and in a curve alignment over piers is
being pictographically represented in the figureand also the elevation of bearing and other
bearing plate arrangements is also shown. This bottom of the bearing plate rests over the pedestal
while the top of the bearing plate holds the downstrand of the S1 segment.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 23


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

9. SEGEMENTS
9.1 Pre-STRESSING
Prestressing is the introduction of a compressive force to the concrete to counteract the
stresses that will result from an applied load.This compression is produced by the
tensioning of high-strength "tendons". The essence of prestressed concrete is that once
the initial compression has been applied, the resulting material has the characteristics
of high-strength concrete when subject to any subsequent compression forces, and of
ductile high-strength steel when subject to tension forces. This can result in improved
structural capacity and/or serviceability compared to conventionally reinforced
concrete

The concept of pre stressing

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 24


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

There are two methods of introducing prestressing to a concrete:

 Pre tensioning
 Post tensioning.

Pre-Tensioning:

Pre tensioning happens before the casting of the concrete. This is done by placing
of high tensile steel tendons in a desired profile (straight profile) in which the concrete
is to be cast. When the concrete had reached the required strength, the tendons are
released to introduce a compressive force to the concrete. The concrete will then be in a
permanent state of maintaining prestressed strength.

Post-Tensioning:

Post tensioning is the process of introducing compressive force to the concrete


after the concrete is casted. This is done by placing high tensile steel PC Strand
tendons (normally inside the ducts that were casted into the concrete) in a desired
profile (parabolic profile). And this is usually carried at the same time when other
reinforcing member (rebar) is placed. Concrete is then casted and allowed to cure.
Once the concrete has cured to reach a predetermined strength, the PC strand is then
tensioned using Stressing Jack and Stressing Pump. And locked into prestressed
condition with the help of anchors. Excess strand is then cut away and the duct will be
grouted and covered with concrete for rust prevention. This application introduces
compressive force to the concrete and the concrete can then achieve its required
prestressed strength.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 25


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

9.2 TENDONS
For prestressed concrete members, the high tensile steel used in this project consists of
Strands. The high tensile strength of steel is generally achieved by marginally
increasing the carbon content in steel. High tensile steel contains 0.6 to 0.85% carbon.
The wires are generally available in nominal sizes of 2-8mm diameter. The helical
form of twisted wires in the strand improves the bond strength. In this project a seven
ply strand is made by twisting 5mm wires.

The prestressing steel, as per the code, should be any one of the following types:

 Plain hard-drawn steel wire conforming to IS: 785(Part 1)-1966 and IS: 1785(Part 2)-
1967,
 Cold-drawn indented wire,
 High tensile steel bar conforming to IS: 2090- 1962, and
 Uncoated stress relieved strand conforming to IS: 6006-1970.

A tendon cable

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 26


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Specifications
Area of cross- Youngs Ultimate Tensile
Diameter (mm)
section (mm²) Modulus (MPa) Strength (MPa)
15.2 140 195000 1570

9.3 High Density Polyethylene (HDPE):


HDPE Pipe is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum with a high strength-
to-density ratio. The density can range from 0.93 to 0.97 g/cm³. Due to its high strength
it is used as a duct and for maintaining the cable profile while concreting in post-
tensioning structures. The tendons are laid inside the HDPE Pipe, stressed and then
grouted. Two HDPE Pipes are joined by using couplers.

 HDPE Pipe diameter= 107mm


 HDPE pipe length = 12m
 HDPE Pipe thickness = 2.3mm

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 27


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

9.4 Specification of Segments

The Viaduct portion (between the


piers) is made up of individual S1 Segment
segments.` These segments are of box
type and are pre-casted at the casting
yard, and the number of segments for a
span depends upon the span length
between the piers. In this project, the
different span lengths adopted by
BMRCL for this Reach- 2 stretch are
22m, 25m, 28m and 31m, which
consists of 8, 9, 10 and 11 numbers of segments respectively (see the Figure). [For example, let
us take a 22m span, we know that, S1 segment
S2 Segment
length is 2.00m (approx.) and the length of
other segments are 3.00m, so two numbers of
each S1, S2, S3 and S4 segments together make
a length of 22m (see the Figure)]. Each of
these segments, except the segments of the 31m
span (which has 5 cable ducts), has been
provided with four (4) cable ducts on either
side of the centre line of the segment (see the
Figure), thus making 8 cable ducts for a
segment and 10 for the 31m span. Inside these
cable ducts, tendons (strands) are provided [For
22m span, Cable 1 and Cable 2 have been provided with19 strands (tendons), and Cable 3 and
Cable 4 have been provided with 11 strands]. The
cable profile for cable 1, 2 and 3 is parabolic and S3 Segment
for cable 4 is almost straight, as per design. All the
above furnished details have been summarised in a
tabular form refer Table NO. Additionally, blister
blocks (see the Figure) are provided in S2 and S4
segments, which can be used in case of a stressing
failure like, while stressing if the strands fail to
attain their strength or due to stress relaxation of
the strands (as time goes on, these strands will lose
their strength) or due to any other reasons, if the
segment fails, instead of discarding the segment they can reuse this segment by installing
tendons in those blister block and stressing. An anchor cone is provided in the place of cable

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 28


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

ducts for S1 segments alone, so that the tendons can be easily installed into the cable ducts of
other segments and also for providing a base to mount the hydraulic jack for stressing. For other
technical specifications please refer the Table right the table no.Each adjoining intermediate
segment is then cast by matching with the already cast segment till all the segments in a span are
cast. This method exactly reproduces each span without any scope for errors in span length or
alignment. The procedure adopted for casting is described briefly below:

9.5 CASTING
The segments are casted in special beds (platforms). There are two types of beds, namely, short
bed and long bed. The casting of S1 segments is done in short bed, while all other segments are
casted in the long bed. IL&FS Casting Yard has 4 short beds and 4 long beds (one long bed is
used for straight alignment (non-adjustable beds) and the remaining three long beds are used for
curve alignments (adjustable beds)). The reinforcements for these segments are installed at the
Rebar Gigs (a temporary cage for erecting the reinforcement - refer Figure). Once the
reinforcement is done, the entire cage is lifted and placed in the corresponding bed with the help
of Gantry or Cranes. Now, shuttering works are done, first the Outer Form is placed on the
bottom soffit in such a manner that , and finally the Inner form is pushed inside via a guard
railing. .Once these segments are casted; they are stocked in the stocking yard by GANTRY
machineries. Shuttering- Vibration- shutter vibrators and needle vibrators GI plate, bottom soffit,
outer form bulk head and inner form when S1 is casted, debonding agent is applied on s1 side
where shuttering is not given.Debonding agent is used so that it can be easily separated without
cracks forming on the other segment. The sharpest curve radius is 138.5 Down gradient : radius
is negative. Up gradient: radius is positive.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 29


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Each mould comprises of 3 major components - Outer Shutter, Bottom shutter and Inner shutter.
Bottom shuttering is supported on casting bed Pedestals- Outer shutters are supported on a-Movable
Trolley

The rebar is then be shifted to the respective rebar Jigs where they are tied by using 18 gauge GI
binding wire in the required position as per approved drawings. Typical arrangement of rebar
cage in jigs is shown in Picture

• The HDPE Sheathing (8-10 nos for Pre-stressing cables) is fitted inside therebar cage at the
required position and using suitable chairs and hooks as per the cable profile and the coordinates
measured.

• The rebar cage is then lifted with a structural frame holding the cage in a manner to prevent
any distortion while lifting and placed in position inside the casting mould.

In a typical casting sequence, twopier segments which are cast independently on pier segment
beds are brought and placed at their final locations on both ends of long line bed

• One neighbouring intermediate segment is match cast starting from both ends and this -is
repeated till all intermediate segments are cast. Typical casting arrangement showing casting of
S2 segments on long line bed is shown in Picture

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 30


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

For separation of match-cast segments,, bond breaking material (Concure WB from Forsroc) is
used on the surface of previously cast segment.The middle segment is cast without shuttering
bulkheads; with cast segments on either side acting as formwork support.Shear keys are
provided during casting which also helps in alignment during iinal launching operations.

At bearing locations of end segments, to match with the gradient of the span, rectangular
depressions (Upstands)e soffit of end of size 800x650mm with tapered depth in th segments are
made while casting the segments. The minimum depth of the depression at one end of taper is
maintained as 10 mm. The depth at the other end varied span. up to 32 mm depending on the
gradient of the particular span.For segments in curved spans, the length of outer edge of
intermediate segments has to be suitably increased over the inner length to match the curvature.
Hence, while casting the intermediate segments, wedge plates of suitable shape and size are
prepared and placed at soffit level to match the curvature. Typical wedge arrangement for
casting segments in curved spans

The sequence of concreting of each segment is as given under:

(a) Soffit Slab

(b) 1/3 height of web — Side 1

(c) 1/3 height of web — Side 2

(d) 1/3 to 2/3 height of web — Side 1

(e) 1/3 to 2/3 height of web — Side 2

(f) 2/3 to top of web- Side 1

(g) 2/3 to top of web Side 2

(h) Deck Slab including Cantilever portion on both sides

• Curing of segments is done by water ponding over the horizontal surfaces and sprinklers for
the vertical sides.

• After casting all the segments in one span, the segments after curing are sequentially numbered
spanwise with direction of launching and placed in the stacking yard.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 31


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Reinforcement of Segment

Shuttering of segments

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 32


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

The shuttering and curing of segments

A completed S4 Segment

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 33


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

LAUNCHING GIRDER

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 34


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

9.6 LAUNCHING
After these segments are casted, they are transported to the site via special multi-axle trucks (Owing to its
heavy weight, only one segment can be carried by a truck, at a time). These segments are lifted and placed
in the trucks from the stocking yard by the help of Gantry Machineries, and at the site, they are lifted and
placed in their position with the help of Launching Girders (LG‘s). In this project, IL&FS are using a box
type LG whereas SOMA Enterprises are using a truss type LG, both have their own advantage and
disadvantages which is specified in the ANNEXURE .This LG lifts and holds the segments and these LG‘s
are specially designed to take the same ultimate load as that of the piers, they rest on the pedestals only.
For a box type LG, a counterweight of 44 Tons is needed to hold the entire segment in position. While
lifting of S1 segment, the downstrand of this segment is ensured that it sits comfortably over the pedestal.
2.5% slope counterweight 44 Tons.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 35


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 36


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 37


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 38


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 39


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

9.7 DRY MATCHING


After erection of segments they check whether the front and rear surfaces of adjacent segments
are matching with their corresponding shear grooves (shear keys).. The shear keys are provided
in the front surface and the shear grooves are provided in the rear surface of the segments. A
hydraulic powered jack is used to move the segments and check for matching. If this is
successfully done then gluing of segments is carried out.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 40


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

9.8 GLUING
The chemical used for gluing is Epoxy SIKA, which is a combination of two chemicals namely
SIKA 315BA S03CompA(White Colour – 4 kg) and SIKA 315BA S03CompB (Black Colour -
2KG). These two components are mixed in the ratio of 1:2 with a mixing speed of 600rpm for 2
to 3 minutes. This paste should attain strength 80Mpa in 7 days. The resulting paste will be in
Grey Colour. This paste is to be applied under a temperature of 15 to 35˚C. The density of the
paste should be 1.9kg/l +- 0.1kg/l.

The gluing compound The Gluing Paste Cube Strength

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 41


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

9.9STRESSING
0 are installed in the cable ducts. One end of this tendon is locked (Non-Stressing end) and the
other end is held free so that it can be stretched or pulled (Stressing end) by means of a hydraulic

jack. The strands are locked at the Non-stressing end with the help of Anchor Cone, Bearing
Plate and Live Wedge arrangement. A hydraulic powered jack along with a pulling plate with
master wedges is mounted on the anchor cone on the stressing end (side). This anchor cone holds
these tendons with a bearing plate and live wedge arrangement as in the case of the locking end.
Then the jack is used to stress these strands from the stressing end. At a time, an entire cable is
stressed (in front elevation of the stressing end two cables are stressed simultaneously); Cable 2
is stressed first, followed by Cable 1, 3 and 4. For 25m span, a maximum pressure of 366kg/cm2
is applied to the hydraulic powered jack for Cable 1 and Cable 2, and a pressure of 213kg/cm 2 is
applied for Cable 3 and Cable 4. This pressure is applied in steps of 50kg/cm2and the
corresponding elongation (strain produced) produced is found out. Refer Annexure for the
observation Table.After reaching the desired stress, a Locking stress of 220kg/cm2 is appliedwith
the help of the same hydraulic jack so as to hold the tendons in a stressed condition and to
decrease the factor of stress relaxation. This entire process of stressing is carried out by placing
the whole segment above the span jack (the jack is placed above the jack reinforcement which is
in the pier cap) and not on the pedestal. The stressing of a cable would take roughly about 15
minutes. Thus for an entire span it would take roughly about one day.
BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 42
INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Note: The wedges (live wedge and the master wedge) prevent the strands from getting slipped
while stressing. Thus slip corrections and stress relaxation is taken into account at each stage of
stressing so as to obtain a desired strength of the tendons.

The Stressing machine The Hydraulic Jack used for stressing

9.10 GROUTING
Grouting is done with the help of Grouting Agitator. It has an inlet valve through which the
grouting mix is poured and this mix is pumped out through the outlet valve into the segment to
fill all the voids present in the segment and mainly it is done to seal the gap between the stressed
tendons and the tendon duct. This mix will automatically overflow once it has filled all the gaps
inside, thus once this stage is received one can close the valves.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 43


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Technical
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
Specifications

Grade of M50 (OPC M50 (OPC M50 (OPC M50 (OPC M50 (OPC
Concrete 53), 53), 53), 53), 53),
(Cement Fe500[TMT] Fe500[TMT] Fe500[TMT] Fe500[TMT] Fe500[TMT]
Grade) and
Steel

Length 1.950 m 3.000 m 3.000 m 3.00 m 3.000 m

Width at Top 8.800 m 8.800 m 8.800 m 8.80 m 8.800 m

Width at
3.600 m 3.600 m 3.600 m 3.60 m 3.600 m
Bottom

Width of Web 0.675 m 0.525 m 0.375 m 0.375 m 0.375 m

Width of
0.200 m 0.200 m 0.200 m 0.200 m 0.200 m
Flange at Edge

Width of 0.250 m
Flange at 0.250 m 0.250 m 0.250 m 0.250 m
Centre

Total Depth 2.000 m 2.000 m 2.000 m 2.00 m 2.000 m

Volume of
Concrete (in 13.500 m3 19.000 m3 16.000 m3 15.000 m3 14.7000 m3
m3, approx.)

Total Quantity
of Steel (in 2.651 MT 3.336 MT 2.842 MT 2.980 MT 2.827 MT
MT)

Weight
3.250 T 4.750 T 4.000 T 3.750 T 3.675 T
(approx.)

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 44


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

10. I - GIRDERS
A Girder is a support beam used in construction. It is the main horizontal support of a
structure which supports smaller beams or underneath the deck slab used to transfer the
load to the bearings..A girder is commonly used to build bridges.

I-Girders or I -beam often have a cross section composed of two load-bearing flanges separated
by a stabilizing web.

In Bangalore Metro I-Girders are used in transition span and Stations. It comes in varying
lengths from 13m to 16m. M50 grade concrete is used.

Two types of I-girders are used in the project:

1) Pre- tension I-Girders


2) Post-tension I-Girders

10.1 Pre-tensioning I-Girders


These type of Girders are used in Concourse Level and Platform Level
Constructions in stations where it is subjected to only static loads.
There are two types of Pre-tensioned girders based on the number of Pre-
Stressed Strands :
1) Type 1 :- It is used in Escalator Pit and Lift area
2) Type 2 :- It is used in Platform levels and Concourse Levels.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 45


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

NO.OF TOP STRANDS NO.OF BOTTOM STRANDS

TYPE 1st Layer 2nd Layer 1st Layer 2nd Layer 3rd Layer TOTAL

Type 1 2 2 8 10 12 34

Type 2 2 0 0 10 12 24

Casting:

The reinforcement cage for the Girder is set up in the casting bed as per the
drawings along with the Prestressing Strands which are laid in a straight profile at the
bottom and top without using HDPE Pipe. Pre-manufactured Shutters made from Mild
Steel are used for the shuttering purposes. Then Stressing of the strands are done by
using Mono Jack or Floating Beam by applying desired jack force at one end and
locking at other end as per the drawing.. The Bottom Strands are stressed first then top
Strands are stressed. Concrete of M50 grade is poured after stressing and cured. Once

the concrete achieves the required characteristic strength, the strands are distressed then
girder becomes ready for bearing the load.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 46


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Stressing of I-Girders

10.2 Post-Tensioning I-Girders:

These type of I-Girders are used in the construction of Track Level in Stations and
Transition Spans where it is subjected to Dynamic Load.the concrete used is M50
grade. Stressing is done for 11 strands in the top and 14 strands in the bottom.

Casting:

The reinforcement cage is set up in the casting bed as per the drawings along with
the HDPE Pipe laid in a parabolic profile as designed at the top and bottom which are
used as duct for strands. The reinforcement will be denser at the ends compared to
Pretensioned Girders. Pre-manufactured Shutters made from Mild Steel are used for
the shuttering purposes. Concrete of M50 grade is poured and cured. Once the concrete
achieves the required characteristic strength, the PC Strands are laid in the duct and
stressed by applying required Jack force at one end using Multi Jack and locking at
other end. The Strands are locked applying desired locking stress. The excess Strands
are cut and grouting is done using grouting agitator.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 47


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 48


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Post-Tensioning I-Girders
Total
C/C Total Steel
Length Concrete
bearing Qty (kg)
Qty (m³)
13.525 12.725 2473.909 8.023
14.15 13.35 2520.984 8.373
14.475 13.676 2544.844 8.556
14.675 13.875 2565.485 8.668
15.3 14.5 2612.5 9.019
Pre-Tensioning I-Girder
Total Ste el Qty Concrete
Length (m)
(kg) Qty (m³)
13.95 1066.739 7.64
14.2 1080.739 7.766
14.525 1103.261 7.93
14.575 1110.827 7.955
15.1 1139.919 8.221
15.2 1149.127 8.271
15.725 1178.22 8.536

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 49


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

11. PARAPETS
The Parapets are used normally, as in the case of any other bridges. Their main functions are to
create a safe environment for users (by restricting the fear arising due to height i.e. sky views),
vehicular/pedestrian restraint system (i.e. In case of derailment of the train, the train should not
fall down and increase the severity of the accidents and also not to create a congestion in the road
etc.), and also it acts as a noise barrier (sound absorber). These parapets are panelled with a flute
design as similar to the flute design of piers. The no. of panels depends upon the number of
segments for the span. The wordings ―Namma Metro” logo is inscribed in English and
Kannada in the S4 intermediate segment
parapets irrespective of different span lengths (ie.
Whether it is a 22m span or a 31m span, the
namma metro inscription is there only for the S4
intermediate segment parapet and not for any
other segment parapet). There are provisions
(which are made during casting itself) for
installation of hand rails (guard rails) in all
parapets, and this hand rail runs throughout the
length of the parapet till the end. Interestingly,
these parapets are considerably wide; to allow a
person to walk freely, thus small maintenance work can be done simultaneously with disrupting
the train movements. This footpath is continuous, parallelly running, throughout the length of the
track, till end to end, even in the ramp portion (which connects the underground with the
elevated portions) and even in undergrounds.

Types of Parapets Intermediate Segment Parapet Pier Segment Parapet

Segments S2 - S5 S1

Quantity of Steel (MT) 146.594 98.811

Concrete Quantity (m3) 0.9 0.1

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 50


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Parapets

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 51


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

12. METRO STATIONS


A station is a place where trains regularly stop so that passengers can get on
or off. There are elevated and underground metro stations. There are three types of
stations in the system:
1) Intermediate station serves only one line comprising two tracks, one on
each direction.
2) Interchange stations occur where two line converge, ideally at a single
station, enabling passengers to change there lines. (Kempegowda Station)
3) Terminal stations occur at the end of the line with large parking facilities.
(Mailasandra)
4) Depot is a large station where the trains are stored while not operating,
repairing works are done and complete control signals are operated.
(Baiyyappanahalli Depot)

Station Layout:
A Station has mainly two levels:
1) Concourse Level
2) Platform Level
Deck level and Track level are other levels in a station. Deck level is used for
commercial purposes which is below Concourse level, Track level is where the rails are
laid below Platform Level. Station entrances shall be located with particular reference
to passenger assessing points. The terminal station (Mailasendra) has two basements in
addition to normal stations for parking facilities. The station shall be divided into

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 52


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

public and non-public areas. Public areas shall be further sub-divided into Paid and
Unpaid areas.

12.1 ENTRANCES:
The position of entrances shall be determined by the position of surrounding
buildings, location of roadways, footpaths width, space availability and flow directions
of passenger traffic. The entrances to stations shall have adequate capacity to satisfy
predicted passenger flows and emergency evacuation requirements. Minimum width
of entrance shall be 3000mm. Each entrance shall contain a do sure device for securing
the station during non-operational hour and as a means of crowd control. The preferred
method shall be electricity operated roller shutters or Collapsible gates.

12.2 CONCOURSE LEVEL:


Concourse Level will contain the automatic fare collection system (AFC) in a
manner that divides the concourse into Paid and Unpaid areas. The unpaid areas is
where passengers gain access to the system, obtain travel information and purchase
tickets. On passing through the ticket gates the passengers enters the paid areas which
includes access to the platforms. Ticket machines and AFC gates shall be positioned to
minimize cross flow of passengers and provide adequate circulation space. The level is
equipped with fire rated doors and false ceiling (Linear and Perperated). The level
contains all the controlling rooms such as:
 Auxillary Sub Station (ASS) & Traction Sub Station (TSS)
 UPS room
 Signalling and Equipment Room (SER)
 Telecom Equipment Room (TER)
 Station Manager Room
 Ticket Counters.

12.3 PLATFORM LEVEL:


It is the level where passengers can board and de-board into the train after
accessing to paid area. A 1200mm wide stair shall be provided at each end of the
platform leading to the track bed. The platform nosing shall be at a level of 1090mm
above rail level to achieve the height of train doors of the rolling stock. The slope of
the platform shall be 1:100 for a distance of 3000mm from the edge of platform
towards the back of the platform. Adequate markings and signage shall be provided on
the platform floor in order to guide passengers using metro services. A clearance of
2500mm shall be given for overhanging signage from finished floor level. A clear
height for the passenger‘s movement should not be less then 3000mm from finished
floor level. A landing should be given after maximum of 13 stairs flight. The platform
edge shall have a 600mm wide safety margin with a non-slip surface and a yellow
contrasting texture warning strip of 100mm.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 53


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

12.4STATION STRUCTURE:
A station is divided as 9 grids namely (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8,
P9). The Station Length is 135m. The foundations used in the project are Pile
foundation and Raft foundations.

A plan of the Nayandhalli Station

12.4.a PILE FOUNDATION: The piles are Laid same as for viaducts, but number of
piles in a pile group is more for main columns and small pile groups with trapezoidal
pile cap is also constructed for small columns.

12.4.b RAFT FOUNDTION: In Mailasandra station raft foundation is used since it is


economical than pile foundation and has the space for constructing Raft foundation.
Raft Foundation Procedure is as follows:
 Soil is excavated for a height 9m from ground level. Seacant Piles are
constructed to prevent the collapse of soil. Seacant Piles consists of Soft
pile which doesn‘t have reinforcement and Hardpile which has
reinforcement.
 The Soil Bearing Capacity of soil is checked (15t/m³).
 The soil is treated with Anti Termite which is a mixture of 1% chemical
and 99% water for 5 lit/m³. this treatment prevents the structure from attack
of insects and other creatures.
BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 54
INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

 Then the soil is rolled and compacted by Electronic Compactor.


 A layer of Granular Sub-Base (GSB Layer) is laid In the compacted soil
for a thickness of 250mm. It is a mixture of M Sand and Gravel of size less
than 63mm. The field dry density of Gravels should be equal to 98%.
 Then a layer of PCC of thickness 100mm is laid.
 Water proofing is done above the PCC. The dusts on PCC are removed,
thenCold Stick Primer and a Hyper-plas Membrane (Poly urethrane
membrane) of thickness 4mm is laid.
 Screed Concrete which is a cement paste with fine aggregates M20 grade
of thickness 50mm is laid to act as protection layer.
 The reinforcement for Raft Foundation is placed above the screed layer
and concreted with M35 Concrete. The thickness of raft foundation is
900mm.

Water Proofing of the Raft Foundation

12.4.c BEAM LAYOUT:


The Concourse level and platform level beam comes on the columns. The
Concourse Beams are at a height of minimum 5.5m from the ground level as per IRC.
These beams has an outer bulging known as legges for placing the I girders.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 55


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Track Level Beam of JnanaBharathi Station

12.4.d I GIRDERS:
The Concourse Level and Platform level I
girders are placed on the beams. Pre-tensioned I
girders are used for this. Track level I girders are
placed on beams at Track Level. These I girders
are Post-tensioned.

12.4.e TRUSS AND ROOF:


The Station has truss roof above the Platform
Level

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 56


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Platform Level and Concourse Level Beam of JnanaBharathi Station

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 57


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

12.5 TRANSITION SPAN:


This is the span near the station entrance and exit. Post-tensioned I girders are used
instead of segments as the span length is less and not standard.

Transition Span at Deepanjali Nagar Station

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 58


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

12.6. JOINTS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION


12.6.a Expansion Joint:

An Expansion Joint is a mild-structure separation designed to relieve stress on


building materials caused by building movement induced by heat-induced expansion
and contraction of construction materials, to
absorb vibrations, to allow movement due to
ground settlement or earthquakes. It is used in
construction of stations to divide stations into
three different areas so that the load is divided
and doesnot allow to be transferred to other
area. Materials like Thermocol is used while
concreting to maintain the gap.

The Expansion joint is also used at junction of two spans. The S1 segments of
both spans are placed providing a gap. Manhole is provided at this junction. This gap is
covered using Omega seal. A plinth beam is casted along the edge of segments and are
joined by Omega seal/rubber over which an Aluminum plate is fixed

12.6.b Construction joints:

Construction joints are made where the concrete placement operations end
for the day or where one structural element is cast against previously placed concrete.
These joints allow some load to be transferred from one structural element to another
through the use of keys.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 59


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

13. CASTING YARD


A casting yard is a confined place where all the concrete structures like segments ,parapets,I-
girders etc. manufactured,shifted to their stack yard, cured for the specific period/days and then
shifted to the working site/viaduct after they gain their requires strength.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 60


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 61


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

13.1 Batching plant (IL&FS)

A concrete plant, also known as a batch plant or batching plant or a concrete batching plant, is
equipment that combines various ingredients to form concrete.

Batching plant 2nos with each having 3 silos of 100MT capaciety

1) Quantity of Production: 30cum/hr (CP-30)

2) Quantity of Production: 60cum/hr (M-1)

Raw materials:

1. Cement (OPC – 53 grade in 2 silos of 100MT)

2. GGBS [Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag – a supplementary cementious material] (1-
silo of 100MT)

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 62


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

3. Coarse aggregates of 20mm&12.5m size

4. m-Sand

5. Water

6. Admixture (Fosroc Auromix)

Procedures:

1. Batching plants in IL&FS Casting yard operated with the help of Computer aided software

2. The quantities are filled in the computer and the start key is pressed,the sensors provided near
the gates get in action and according to the load scale value, that match quantity of m-
sand,12.5mm&20mm aggregates filled in bucket

3. When the required quantity of the aggregates are filled the gates get closed automatically and
the bucket is pulled up

4. As the bucket reaches the top, its contents are put into mixing pan,where it get mixed with the
cement,water&admixtures from their separate hoppers.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 63


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

14. PLANT & MACHINERY


The following machineries are used for the ongoing project of Phase II of Namma Metro.

 Back Loader

 Gantry Crane

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 64


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

 Batching Plant (2Nos.)

 Hydra crane

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 65


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

 Power Generator

 Wheel Loader

 Boom Placer

 Concrete Pumper

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 66


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

 Transit Mixer

 Dumper (Tipper)

 Water tanker

 Diesel Tanker

 Piling Machines

 LG (Launching Girder)

 I Girder erection crane

 Grinding welding and bending machine

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 67


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

15. QUALITY

15.1 Quality Lab


A Quality control lab is established at Casting Yard with the following
equipment to test the materials used in concreting.

 Concrete cube testing machine


 Permeability testing equipment
 Standard Sieve test
 Oven and Electronic Weighing scale
 Slump Cone apparatus
 Le Chatelier apparatus
 Impact Testing apparatus
1) Compressive strength Test:

Compressive Strength is tested for every structures while casting. The test
is done using concrete cubes of standard size 150mm*150mm*150mm. The test is
done on a compressive testing machine.Number of cubes tested according to the
volume of structure:

Volume of concrete Number of cubes


(m³)

0-5 6

5-15 9

15-30 12

30-50 15

50100 18

If the volume of concrete is more than 100m³, for every 50m³ extra 3 cubes are tested.
For Segments: Number of cubes tested are below

 For 1 day = 3 cubes


 For 3rd day = 3 cubes
 For 7th day = 3 cubes
 For 28th day = 3 cubes
 Total =12 cubes

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 68


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Cubes of size 150*150*150

For Sika paste used for gluing segments: Number of cubes are below

 For 7th day =3 cubes


 For 28th day = 3 cubes

Daily tests:

1) Moisture correction for batching plant:


The moisture is the amount of water present in the aggregate. Take
a sample weighing 500g (W1) , then keep it in oven for 20 minutes and
weigh (W2).

Moisture content = ((W1-W2)/W2)*100 %

The moisture of aggregates is found and corrected as follows:

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 69


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

The difference between moisture content and water absorption is


calculated and corrected for the quantity of Coarse and Fine aggregate
and amount water is adjusted.

2) Gradation:

Gradation test (Sieve Analysis) is a process used to analyse the particle size
distribution of the aggregates by passing the aggregates through different sizes of
sieves. Sieve analysis is done separately for fine and coarse aggregates using sieves of
different sizes

Sieves used in sieve analysis

Weekly Tests:

1) Impact Test for Aggregates


2) Crushing Test for Aggregates
3) Flakiness and Index of Aggregates
4) All in all Aggregates Test
5) Aggregate Curing Tank
6) Water Permeability Test

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 70


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Accelerated Curing Tank:

This test is used to find the 28th day compressive strength of Concrete using the
value of 1 day strength. The Strength obtained will be approximately equal to the 28th day
strength obtained using cube test. The Cubes are cured at 100 degree Celsius in the tank for one
day. The following formula is used for calculating the 28th day strength:

28th day strength = Ra*1.64+8.09 , where Ra = 1 day strength.

Water Permeability Test:

The water permeability test for concrete is completed by 4 days. Three specimen of
concrete each of 200mm diameter and 120mm height are casted. After 24 hours of casting, the
middle portion of 100mm diameter is roughened and the remaining portion is sealed with cement
paste. The specimens are cured for 28 days and water pressure is applied on the middle
roughened portion so that water can
penetrate inside the concrete. The water
pressure is maintained as given below:

 1 bar pressure for 48 hours.


 3 bars for next 24 hours.
 7 bars for next 24 hours.

After this, the specimens are


split to know the penetration of
water using compression
machine by applying
concentrated load a two
diagonally opposite points
slightly away from central axis.
The average of three maximum values of penetration is calculated. Water
Aggregate Test (IL&FS QC Lab)

INFERENCE:

The depth of penetration of water should not be more than 25mm otherwise
the water gets in contact with the reinforcement and starts corroding.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 71


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Silk Content of Aggregates:

Silk content are particles having size less than 75 microns. It should be limited in
the aggregates as given below:

 M sand< 15% Silk Content


 R Sand < 8% Silk Content

15.2 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test:

This test is done to assess the quality of concrete by ultrasonic pulse velocity
method as per IS: 13311 (Part 1) – 1992. The underlying principle of this test is –

The method consists of measuring the time of travel of an ultrasonic pulse passing
through the concrete being tested. Comparatively higher velocity is obtained when
concrete quality is good in terms of density, uniformity, homogeneity etc.

There are two types of testing:

1) Direct Method:- The Transmitter and receiver will be on opposite sides of the
segment.
2) Indirect Method:- The transmitter and receiver will be on same side of the
segment and should be placed at a distance between 300 -600mm, normally
kept at a distance of 400mm.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 72


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

The test is done for only end segments (S1 segment), if exceptional test is done for
other segments. Reading is taken for 90 testing points in one segment. Grease is
applied on the segments at testing points before attaching the transmitter and receiver
to the segments.

Segments with grease applied at 90 testing points

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 73


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Procedure:

i) Preparing for use: Before switching on the ‗V‘ meter, the transducers should
bconnected to the sockets marked ―TRAN‖ (Transmitter) and― REC‖ (Receiver).

The ‗V‘ meter may be operated with


either:

a) The internal battery,

b) An external battery or

c) The A.C line.

ii) Set reference: A reference bar is


provided to check the instrument zero.
The pulse time for the bar is engraved
on it. Apply a smear of grease to the
transducer faces before placing it on the opposite ends of the bar. Adjust the ‗SET
REF‘ control until the reference bar transit time is obtained on the instrument read-out.

iii) Range selection: For maximum accuracy, it is recommended that the 0.1
microsecond range be selected for path length up to 400mm.

iv) Pulse velocity: Having determined the most suitable test points on the material to be
tested, make careful measurement of the path length ‗L‘. Apply couplant to the
surfaces of the transducers and press it hard onto the surface of the material. Do not
move the transducers while a reading is being taken, as this can generate noise signals
and errors in measurements. Continue holding the transducers onto the surface of the
material until a consistent reading appears on the display, which is the time in
microsecond for the ultrasonic pulse to travel the distance ‗L‘. The mean value of the
display readings should be taken when the units digit hunts between two values.

Pulse velocity=(Path length/Travel time)

v) Separation of transducer leads: It is advisable to prevent the two transducer leads


from coming into close contact with each other when the transit time measurements are
being taken. If this is not done, the receiver lead might pick-up unwanted signals from
the transmitter lead and this would result in an incorrect display of the transit time.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 74


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

INFERENCE:

The velocity obtained should be between 4.1- 4.5m/s to make the conclusion
Segment is excellent. If velocity is below 3m/s then segmented should be rejected.

15.3 SITE TEST:

Slump Test:-

The concrete slump test measures the consistency of fresh concrete before it sets. It is
performed to check the workability of freshly made concrete, and therefore the ease
with which concrete flows.

The test is carried out using a metal mould in the shape of a conical
frustum known as a slump cone or Abrams cone, that is open at both ends and has
attached handles. The tool typically has an internal diameter of 100mm at the top and
of 200mm at the bottom with a height of 305mm.The cone is placed on a hard non-
absorbent surface. This cone is filled with fresh concrete in three stages. Each time,
each layer is tamped 25 times with a (600 mm)-long bullet-nosed metal rod measuring
(16 mm) in diameter. At the end of the third stage, the concrete is struck off flush with
the top of the mould. The mould is carefully lifted vertically upwards, so as not to
disturb the concrete cone.

The concrete then slumps


(subsides). The slump of the
concrete is measured by measuring
the distance from the top of the
slumped concrete to the level of the
top of the slump cone

Very dry mixes having slump


0 – 25mm are typically used in road
making, low workability mixes
having slump 10 – 40mm are
typically used for foundations with
light reinforcement, medium
workability mixes with slump 50 – 90mm, are typically used for normal reinforced
concrete placed with vibration, high workability concrete with slump > 100mm is
typically used where reinforcing has tight spacing or the concrete has to flow a great
distance.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 75


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Collapse Shear True

In a collapse slump the In a shear slump the top In a true slump the concrete
concrete collapses completely. portion of the concrete shears simply subsides, keeping more
off and slips sideways. or less to shape.

Other Tests if Cube Test Fails for a structure:

1) Non-Destructive Testing
2) Core Cutter Method
3) Rebound Hammer Test

Equipments of various experiments in QC Lab of IL&FS

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 76


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

15.4 PILE TESTS:

The pile load tests are done to randomly selected piles to assure the pile is
capable to bear the load it has designed for. There are three tests for the pile:

 Routine Load Test


 Dynamic Load Test
 Pile Integrity Test

1) Routine Load Test


The Routine Load Test is done to check the Pile is safe or not.
The working Load of Pile = 600 metric tones
The Load applied in the test = 1.5*Working Load
= 1.5*600
= 900 metric tones
Apparatus:
 3 Beams of 7m span
 3 Hydraulic Jacks with Dial gauge
 Steel Plate
 Strands

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 77


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 78


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Procedure:

 Six holes are drilled at 3m from the pile up to 13m in the hard rock to
which PC Strands are inserted and grouted till hard rock level and kept
for 28 days.
 Three hydraulic jacks
with dial gauges to
measure the penetration
are placed above pile on
a Steel Plate.
 Three Beams of span
7m are set up above one
another on the
hydraulic jack.
 The grouted Strands are
locked with the beam so
that while load is
applied Beam doesn‘t
go up.
 Load is applied at a rate of 20% increase for each half an hour from
zero to 900 metric tonnes.
 Penetration is noted down for each 10 minutes while load is being
applied.
 Once the full load is applied, penetration is observed for 24 hours and

noted for each half an hour.


 After 24 hours the load is released slowly.
BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 79
INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

 Penetration is calculated as the average of readings of three hydraulic


Jacks.

INFERENCE:

The total penetration observed should be less than 6mm, so that we can
conclude pile is safe to take the load.

2) Dynamic Load Test:

The Dynamic Load test is used to check the pile capacity due to an impact
load.

The hammer weight used is 1-2% of the design load = 1000 tonnes
(1.66*600)

Apparatus:

 Hammer
 Steel Helmet with 30mm thickness
 Plywood cushion with 30mm thickness
 Sensor equipped with :
1) Strain gauge to measure Penetration.
2) Accelerometer to measure the impact
force.

Setup:

The plywood cushion of 30mm thickness is placed above the pile above
which steel helmet plate of thickness 30mm is placed. The hammer weighing 1000
tonnes is placed above the steel plate on a frame. The hammer should have a dimension
greater than the diameter of pile and placed properly so that force will be distributed
uniformly over the pile. The hammer is connected to a crane to for lifting and
dropping. Sensor is connected to the pile at a distance of 1.5*diameter of pile (1.5*1.2
= 1.8m) from the top of pile.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 80


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 81


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

Procedure:

 The setup of the test has to be done.


 The hammer is lifted by the crane and dropped at heights of 0.5m,
1.0m, 1.5m, 2.0m, 2.5m, 3.0m, or till 1.5 times the design load is
achieved (1.5*600 = 750 tonnes). If the required load (750 tonnes)
is achieved before 3.0m, test has to be stopped after achieving the
load.
 The sensors display the Impact force and Penetration, which is
noted down.

INFERENCE:

The permitted penetration for the test is 3-4mm per blow. While setting
up the frame and hammer precaution should be taken so that the force is uniformly
distributed onto the pile.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 82


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

16. BAR BENDING SCHEDULE

QUANTITY FORMULA FIGURE


1. Bend 3D
Correction

2. Cut Length Full Length-Bend


correction
3. Lap Length 76D

4. Unit Weight of D*D/162


Bar
5. Hook Length 12D

6. Total Weight Length*Unit Weight


7. Total Length Length*Total No. of
Bars

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 83


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

17.IS CODES
IS 2062 2011 Steel for general structural purposes.

IS 2090 1983 High tensile steel bars used in Pre stressed concrete.

IS 2386 1963 Method of test for aggregate for concrete.

IS 2430 1969 Methods of sampling of aggregates for concrete.

IS 2911 1979 Code of practice for design and construction of Pile foundations

(Part 1) Concrete Piles3

Section 2 Bored cast-in-situ concrete Piles.

(Part 4 ) Load test on Piles.

IS 4925 1968 Concrete Batching and Mixing plant.

IS 4926 1976 Ready Mixed concrete.

IS 5525 1969 Recommmendations for detailing of reinforcements in reinforced

Concrete works.

IS 5892 1970 Concrete Transit mixers and agitators.

IS 7320 1974 Concrete slump test apparatus.

IS 9013 1978 Method of making, curing and determining compressive strength of

Accelerated cured concrete test specimens.

IS 9103 1979 Admixtures for concrete.

IS 10262 1982 Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design.

IS 12269 1987 53 grade ordinary Portland cement.

IS 14268 1995 Uncoated stress relieved low relaxation seven-ply strands for

Pre stressed concrete.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 84


INTERNSHIP TRAINING REPORT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI

18. CONCLUSION

It was a wonderful learning experience at Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. We gained a
lot of insight regarding almost every aspect of site. We were given exposure in almost all the
departments at the site. The friendly welcome from all the employees, sharing their experience
and giving their piece of wisdom is much appreciable. We hope this experience will surely help
us in our future and also in shaping our career.

This training helped us to gain knowledge by experiencing various works taking place in the site.
In this internship training we learned the field works practically apart from text-books. By this
internship training we had the opportunity to witness various situations in the site and practically
and innovatively overcoming in brief. We learned about the new construction technologies and
more importantly we experienced the whole construction and launching of whole structure. This
internship training helped us in clearing various theoretical and practical doubts and made us
somewhat realise the future scope in civil engineering field.

BANGALORE METRO RAIL PROJECT REACH-2 EXTN. Page 85