Abstract — Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCO) was developing the first wind park
projects in the central and northern parts of Ethiopia. The amount of power output from a Wind
Energy Conversion System (WECS) depends upon the accuracy with which the peak power points are
tracked by the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller of the WECS control system
irrespective of the type of generator used. The influence of control modes on wind turbine efficiency in
maximum wind energy extraction has not received much attention so far. This paper focuses on the
influence of control modes on wind turbine efficiency in maximum wind energy extraction control
based on variable speed wind turbines with Doubly Fed Induction generator (DFIG) and Adaptive
NeuroFuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). ANFIS controller is applied in pitch control to extract
maximum power and rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of a wind
turbine of DFIG. Wind turbine and its control unit are described in details. All power system
components and the ANFIS controller are simulated in Mathlab Simulink software. The Data used for
the comparison was taken from Ashegoda phase one wind farm project. The simulation results show
that the power extraction improves the efficiency by 72.82% when DFIG and ANFIS controller were
used and the grid stability has been also improved substantially.
Key words DFIG, ANFIS, Slip, Controller and Energy loss
energy extraction control based on variable speed
I. INTRODUCTION wind turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generator
(DFIG) (John Wiley, et al) and Adaptive Neuro
As a result of shortage in conventional energy Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) controller. ANFIS
sources and increasing environmental concern, great controller is applied in pitch control to extract
efforts have been made to produce electricity from maximum power and rotor side converter for active
renewable sources, such as wind energy. Ethiopia power control and voltage regulation of a wind
has started to utilize its immense wind potential and turbine of DFIG (Meharrar et al, 2011 and
has recently connected many wind farms Mesemanolis et al, 2013). A wind turbine and its
(Ashegoda, Adama and etc.) with a total capacity of control unit are described in details. All power
171 MW. Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation system components and the ANFIS controller are
(EEPCO) was developing the first wind park simulated in Mathlab Simulink software (R2011).
projects in the central and northern parts of Ethiopia
with a total capacity of 120 MW. Simple, linear, The data used for the comparison was taken from
proportionalintegral (PI) controllers are used in Ashegoda phase one wind farm project. The
these wind mills. The amount of power output from simulation results show that the power extraction
a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) improves the efficiency by 72.82% when DFIG and
depends upon the accuracy with which the peak ANFIS controller were used and the grid stability
power points are tracked by the Maximum Power has been also improved substantially.
Point Tracking (MPPT) controller of the WECS
control system irrespective of the type of generator II. OVERVIEW OF WIND FARM INDUSTRY
used (Mesemanolis et al). But there are many
Wind farms must be controlled in order to generate
factors that influence the wind turbine efficiency, electricity when the wind speeds are sufficient and
such as electrical characteristics of the generator, disconnected for low wind speed or very high wind
aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine blades speed conditions. In addition, the reactive power
and maximum power extraction control strategies demand of the wind farm and the voltage at the
(Abdul Ghani et al). However, the influence of point of common coupling must also be controlled
control modes on wind turbine efficiency in under all operating conditions such as normal, fault
maximum wind energy extraction has not received conditions, overloading operation, and islanding.
much attention so far (Perdana et al, 2004). Generally, wind farms are equipped with wind
turbine control systems and a central automatic
This paper focuses on the influence of control
control system. A wind turbine control system,
modes on wind turbine efficiency in maximum wind
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Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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Vgenerator
Vgrid
Model
coefficients and they represent the mechanical
β Converters
losses by friction in the rotational movement (John
Pitch Control
System
Vconverter Wiley, et al).
Torque &
Reactive
βref
Power Control
The turbine rotational speed and driving torque are
Tem_ref
Qref
expressed in the fast shaft by (2) and (3)
Wind
Turbine Control
Vv Vgrid
Strategy
(2)
Fig.1 Block scheme of a variable speed wind turbine
model (3)
A. Aerodynamic Model Where N is the gearbox ratio
The aerodynamic model represents the power
extraction of the rotor, calculating the mechanical
torque as a function of the air flow on the blades.
The wind speed can be considered as the averaged
incident wind speed on the swept area of the blades
with the aim of evaluating the average torque in the
lower speed axle.
The torque generated by the rotor has been defined
by (1)
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Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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3
Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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value and adjusts the pitch angle to keep the turbine constant DClink voltage. The GSC‘s reactive
at maximum speed and rated power. power generation is not used as the RSC
independently does. But, during the steady state and
E. Pitch System Controller
low voltage periods, the GSC is controlled to take
Pitch System controller is designed for rotating all part in the reactive power generation. The GSC
the blades at the same angle or each of them supplies the reactive current quickly while the RSC
independently. This independent regulation gives results in delays as it passes the current through the
more degrees of freedom to the control system. This machine. These converters can temporarily be
particular operation would reduce the stresses in the overloaded, so that during short circuit periods, the
blades. The independent regulation of blades is an DFIG can make a better contribution to the grid
important innovation that will bring more voltage.
intelligence into the control system of wind
Power flow of the rotor is bidirectional. When
turbines.
, the power flows from the rotor to the
In studying a dynamic control system, a blade pitch power grid and when , the rotor absorbs the
involves many torques and forces. The energy from the power grid. Power electronic
representation of these torques requires modeling converters between the rotor and adjust the grid
the structural dynamics of the blade, the behavior of frequency and amplitude of the rotor voltage. The
the air around the blades, or the inclusion of friction control of the rotor voltage allows the system to
in the bearings. Moreover, regulation of the speed of operate at a variablespeed while still producing
rotation around the longitudinal axis of the blades constant frequency electricity. The mechanical
has a bandwidth much greater than that of the power and the stator electric power output are
control of the angle itself. The most standard computed as in (4.a, b).
approach is to represent the loop control, the rate of
change of pitch angle, and a linear system of first (4.a)
order containing the main dynamics of the actuator
(hydraulic or electric). In fact, when modeling the (4.b)
pitch control, it is very important to model the rate For a lossless generator the mechanical equation is
of change of this angle. Indeed, given the effort
sustained by the blades, the variation of the pitch (5)
must be limited. It is limited to about 100/s during
normal operation and 200/s for emergencies. In steadystate at fixed speed for a lossless generator
is
Regulation of the pitch system is modeled as shown
in Fig.5, by a PI controller that generates a reference (6)
rate of change of pitch. This reference is limited and
a first order system gives the dynamic behavior of (7)
speed control of pitch variation. The pitch angle
itself is then obtained by integrating the variation of
the angle (John Wiley, et al) .
(8)
β* PI dβ* 1 dβ 1 β
+
Controller Tdβs+1 s The slip of the generator.

(9)
Where, Pm is the extracted mechanical power.
Fig.5. Pitch system and control model. Ps is the power from the stator to the grid.
F. Power Flow Pr is the power from the rotor to the grid.
ωr is the rotor rotational speed.
The grid connected DFIG is the most reliable ωs is the synchronous speed.
system to harness the wind power. As the DFIG J is the combined rotor and wind turbine
utilizes the turns ratio of the machine, the converter inertia coefficient.
need not to be rated for the machine‘s full rated
power. The Rotor Side Converter (RSC) controls i. Rotor side converter controller
the active and reactive power of the machine while
the GridSide Converter (GSC) maintains the
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Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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For the RSC controller the daxis of the rotating Fig.6. Rotor side converter controller
reference frame used for dq transformation is
ii. Grid side converter controller
aligned with airgap flux. The actual electrical
output power, measured at the grid terminals of the Vdc_ref
wind turbine, is added to the total power losses Vdc DC Voltage Idgc_ref
(mechanical and electrical) and is compared with 
Regulator
+
wr 
main elements that auxiliary, compatible and
Power
Loss
Pl integrative. ANFIS is also expressed as functional
Igc
adaptive networks unit equivalent to fuzzy inference
system. ANFIS is the combination of neural
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Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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(12)
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Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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Layer 3: It is normalization layer in this also fixed IV. STUDY OF ASHEGODA WIND FARM
node is a circle node labeled N. Ashegoda wind farm site is situated in the northern
Every node in this layer calculates the ratio of the ith Ethiopian highland, about 775 km from Adiss
rule’s firing strength to the sum of all rule’s firing Abeba and 15 km from Mekelle at 13° 25' 31.23"N
strengths. 39° 34' 21.20"E (Latitude / Longitude) and at an
altitude of 2400 m above sea level close to the
(13) descent to the coastal plain. The whole area,
foreseen for the construction of the wind farm, is
Layer 4: It is Defuzzification layer an adaptive covered with small bushes and grass. The land is
node with a node, the output of each node in this mainly used for extensive goat farming, and partly
layer is simply the product of the normalized firing for agricultural use. The geographical terrain
strength and a first order polynomial. conditions can be classified as medium complex at
the highland and complex for descend to the coastal
plain.
The total average power production for 2013 is
(14) 45803MWh and the total yearly calculated power
Layer 5: It is summation neuron a fixed node which production is 89693MWh and the total year energy
computes the overall output as the summation of all loss is 43890MWh as listed in TABLE I.
incoming signals. Table I. 2013 YEARLY POWER PRODUCTIONS VS.
MONTHLY WIND SPEED
(15)
Avg. Energy Cal. wind Cal. Energy
wind productio power (kw) Energy loss
There are two methods that ANFIS learning Mon
power n(MW) productio (MWh)
employs for updating membership function (KW) n(MWh)
th
parameters: Jan. 5454.136 3916 9564.295 7115.835 3199.835
Feb. 7288.306 4647 15026.47 10097.79 5450.79
1. Back propagation for all parameters (a Mar. 6114.866 4012 15886.31 11819.42 7807.418
steepest descent method). Apr. 7287.709 4943 12084.71 8700.989 3757.989
2. A hybrid method consisting of back may 4812.807 3447 7399.643 5505.334 2058.334
Jun. 3235.454 2263 5480.95 3946.284 1683.284
propagation for the parameters associated
Jul. 7079.414 5108 12036.42 8955.095 3847.095
with the input membership functions and Aug
least squares estimation for the parameters . 1933.481 1403.75 3810.931 2835.333 1431.583
associated with the output membership Sep. 2051.519 1439.32 3856.49 2776.673 1337.353
Oct. 5315.232 3857.63 9767.885 7267.307 3409.677
functions. Nov
. 7560.536 5381.93 14269.1 10273.75 4891.824
In order to improve the training efficiency, a hybrid
Dec. 7349.967 5384.674 13976.93 10398.83 5014.16
learning algorithm is applied to justify the Total 65483.43 45803.3 123160.1 89692.64 43889.34
parameters of input and output membership
functions. In this way a twostep process is used for In November month, from 30 wind turbines the
the learning or adjustment of the network maximum power generated is 300KW at wind speed
parameters. In the first step, the premise parameters of 7.66m/s.
are kept fixed and the information is propagated The total power production for this month is
forward in the network to Layer 4, where the 5,382MWh and the total calculated power
consequent parameters are identified by a least production is 10,274MWh and the total energy loss
squares estimator. In the second step, the backward for this month is 102745382=4,892MWh as listed
pass, the consequent parameters are held fixed while in TABLE II.
the error is propagated and the premise parameters
are modified using a gradient descent algorithm. Table II. EEPCO Ashegoda Production Data For The
The only userspecified information is the number Month Of November
of membership functions for each input and the Turbin
e No.
Avg.
wind
Avg.
wind
Energy
production
Cal. wind
power
Cal.
Energy
Energy
loss
input–output training information (Meharrar et al, speed power (MWh) (kw) production (MWh)
(m/s) (KW) (MWh)
2011) . 1 8.04 251.781 180.7769 619.6587 446.1543 265.3774
2 7.51 272.7587 189.1838 505.0149 363.6108 174.4269
3 7.51 282.1987 202.8979 505.0149 363.6108 160.7128
4 7.66 295.9555 210.2051 535.8839 385.8364 175.6313
5 7.62 283.7299 203.8989 527.5326 379.8235 175.9246
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V. SIMULATION MODEL
A 6 MW wind farm consisting of six 1 MW wind
turbines connected to a 33 kV distribution system
exports power to a 230 kV grid through a 15 km, 33
kV feeder is considered. A 500 KW resistive load is
connected at the 690 V generation bus. Wind
turbines using a doublyfed induction generator
consist of a wound rotor induction generator and an
AC/DC/AC IGBTbased PWM converter. The
Fig.9. Simulation model of wind farm connected to a
switching frequency is chosen to be 2 kHz. The
distribution system
stator winding is connected directly to the 50 Hz
grid while the rotor is fed at variable frequency
through the AC/DC/AC converter. The DFIG A. ANFIS Controller Design
technology allows extracting maximum energy from
the wind for low wind speeds by optimizing the After wind power generation system is
turbine speed, while minimizing mechanical stresses commissioned, electrical output magnitudes become
on the turbine during gusts of wind. The optimum very important with regard to system productivity
turbine speed producing maximum mechanical and reliability. If the power obtained from the wind
energy for a given wind speed is proportional to the power generation system is desired to be high
wind speed. quality, output voltage and frequency must be
within operation limit values. For this purpose, to
obtain electrical power in desired quality from the
power generation system, operation voltage,
frequency and power has been controlled with
ANFIS.
In the modeling and feedback control of any
dynamical system, a controller is a must for the
plant as it takes care of all the disturbances and
brings back the system to its original state in a
couple of second.
To start with, we design the controller using ANFIS
scheme. The model considered here is based on
Takagi Sugeno fuzzy inference model. The block
diagram of the proposed ANFIS control scheme is
shown in Fig.10.
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Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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+ ANFIS WIND
CONTROLLER TURBINE
Reference

Measured
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Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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(a)
10
Optimizing Wind Power Extraction Using ANFIS: Case Study with Ashegoda Wind Farm
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Fig.18. Simulation result of the ANFIS controller Fig.19. Wind power production improvement
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REFERENCES
1. A.John Wiley & Sons, “Doubly fed induction
machine: Modelling and control for wind energy
generation,” ISBN 9780470768655.
2. A. Meharrar , M. Tioursi, M. Hatti, & A.
Boudghène Stambouli, 2011, “A variable speed wind
generator maximum power tracking based on
adaptive neuronfuzzy inference system” available at
12
Power Flow Analysis Using A Unified Power Flow Controller
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Abstract  This paper presents the power flow control in electric power systems by use of an
improved steady state mathematical model of unified power flow controller embedded in a power
system. The main characteristic of the approach is that an equivalent mathematical model is
developed based on the concept of injected powers in which the operational losses can be taken into
account. The model is quite suitable in load flow studies, since it accepts employing conventional
techniques such as a Newton Raphson method. The model is validated by embedding it in IEEE 14 bus
system and then carrying out the load flow studies using MATLAB. The results of load flow analysis
show the effectiveness of the model.
Key words  FACTS, UPFC, power flow analysis
true representation of them in a computational
I. Introduction environment. Converters are modeled as
controllable voltage sources, while the effects of the
The power transmitted over an AC transmission line transformers are modeled as pure inductances
is a function of the line impedance, the magnitude connected to the lines and real power loses in
of sendingend and receivingend voltages, and the UPFC.
phase angle between these two voltages. There is a
need for new power flow controllers capable of
increasing transmission capability and controlling II. SteadyState UPFC Representation
the parameters affecting the power flow in the The conceptual hardware configuration of UPFC is
transmission line (Gyugyi, 1992). Flexible AC shown in Fig. 1. Converters labeled as “series
transmission system (FACTS) devices give more converter” and “shunt converter” are operated from
flexibility of control for secure and economic a common DC link voltage provided by DC storage
operation of power systems. Among FACTS capacitor. Two coupling power transformers are
devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) also required to isolate UPFC and the transmission
is emerging as a promising solution for improving line, and to match the voltage levels between the
power system characteristics for its high degree of power network and voltage produced by the
controllability of many power system variables. converters. This arrangement can be functionally
UPFC can control simultaneously or selectively, all treated as an ideal AC to AC power converter in
parameters affecting power flow in the transmission which the magnitude and phase shift of the AC
line, i.e. voltage, impedance and phase angle. It can output voltages of both converters can be controlled
also independently control both real and reactive at any desired value, assuming that the controlled
power flow in the transmission line, besides that it voltage source in series with the transmission line
has the capabilities of improving transient stability, can be controlled without restriction. This means
mitigating system oscillations and providing voltage that the phase angle of the series injected voltage
support. Performance analysis of UPFC in load flow can be chosen independently of the line current.
studies requires its steady state modeling (Nabavi Eventually as seen in Fig. 1, the real power can
Niaki, 1996; AmbrizPerez & FuerteEsquivel, freely flow in either direction between ac terminals
2000). In FuerteEsquivel (1997), UPFC is of the two converters and each converter can also
represented by two ideal voltage sources with series generate or absorb reactive power independently at
source impedances, connected in series and parallel its own AC output terminals. The series converter
with the transmission line, representing the output performs the main functions of UPFC, while the
voltages of series and shunt branches of UPFC. shunt converter is used to provide real power
Because UPFC employs two voltage source demanded by the series converter and the losses in
converters and two coupling transformers, the UPFC.
mathematical model proposed here is based on the
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Power Flow Analysis Using A Unified Power Flow Controller
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The UPFC can be represented in steady state by the Fig. 3. Phasor diagram
two voltage sources with appropriate impedances as The related phasor diagram of the concerned
shown in Fig. 2. The voltage sources can then be parameters in (1) and (2) is drawn in Fig. 3.
represented by the relationship between the voltages
and amplitude modulation ratios, and phase shifts of In Fig. 3, voltage of bus i, Vi is assumed to be
UPFC. In this model, the shunt transformer
reference vector i.e vi vi 00 . The power
impedance and the transmission line impedance
including the series transformer impedance are injection model can be obtained by replacing the
assumed to be constant. The mathematical model is voltage source Vse by a current source Ise in parallel
constructed by representing the AC output terminals with the transmission line as shown in Fig. 4.
of the two converters with two ideal voltage sources,
I se jbseVse (3)
Vse and Vsh respectively in series with the
reactance’s Xse, and Xsh, denoting the leakage Where bse 1/ X se
reactance of the two coupling transformers
respectively in Fig. 2. IL represents transmission line
current having a phase angle of IL
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Power Flow Analysis Using A Unified Power Flow Controller
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IV. SIMULATION
1.11
1.1
VOLTAGE (P.U)
1.09
The performance of the UPFC injection model is 1.08
1.05
1.02
V. CONCLUSIONS
16
80
60
1<0 0.91<10 0.96<15 0.94<20 0.95<25 0.95<30 0.92<35 0.91<40 0.89<45
UPFC variables
Power Flow Analysis Using A Unified Power Flow Controller
ICAST2017
6. C.R.A. FuerteEsquivel E.; “Unified power flow 7. Ned Mohan, Power Electronics: Converters,
controller: a critical comparison of NewtonRaphson Applications, and design, New York: Wiley, 1995
UPFC algorithms in power flow studies”, IEEE
proceedings on Generation, Transmission and
Distribution, Vol. 144, No. 5, pp. 437444, 1997.
Table I. Load Flow Results Of Ieee 14Bus System Without And With Upfc
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Power Flow Analysis Using A Unified Power Flow Controller
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18
On Board Charging Interface for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) in Smart Grid Environment
ICAST2017
Abstract — The developments in the power grid and advancements in vehicle technology made
Vehicle to Grid (V2G) a reality. The concept of connecting a group of electric vehicles (EV) to the grid
for power transaction is called V2G. Vehicle to Grid is used for peak shaving, valley filling, meet the
time varying load demand and helps in maintaining grid stability for a shorter duration of time.
electric vehicles need a bidirectional charger to either draw or inject power to the grid. In this abstract
On board charging for V2G in Smart Grid environment is proposed. In this abstract an architectural
framework of Onboard V2G Integrator is proposed. A single phase on board charger with low
complexity control scheme is presented for EV power transaction. The system designed for voltage
rating of 230V and the simulations is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK and obtained results
comply with IEEE 1547 standard.
Key words On board charger, EV, V2G, Smart Grid
state error and also the limited bandwidth hinders
I. INTRODUCTION the response time. The DCDC converter employed
has both the capability of stepping up (boost) the
The concept of connecting a group of electric DC link voltage during V2G operation and stepping
vehicles (EV) to the grid for power transaction is down (buck) the DC link voltage during G2V
called Vehicle to Grid (V2G). V2G plays a operation in comparison to battery voltage.
prominent role in fulfilling the grid requirements
and meet the load demand. EVs also support the
ancillary services like load leveling, voltage
regulation, frequency regulation and balancing. EVs
need a bidirectional charger to sell or buy power
from the grid. Farther the bidirectional charger has
the direct current (DC) link capacitor which is
inherently able to provide the reactive power to
support the power grid. The state of charge (SOC)
of the EV battery plays a key role in V2G operation
and promotes the concept of VehicletoHome
(V2H), VehicletoVehicle (V2V) and V2G (Liu et
al., 2013; Pinto et al, 2014). The architectural and
conceptual framework of V2G is shown in Fig. 1.
The EV can be connected to the home grid or other
interface using the OnBoard or OffBoard
bidirectional charger or V2G integrators. In this Fig.1. Conceptual framework of V2G
abstract an architectural framework of Onboard
V2G integrator is proposed. A single phase on II. PROPOSED ON BOARD V2G INTEGRATOR
board charger with low complexity control scheme
is presented for EV power transaction. The system Fig.2 shows the topology diagram of the proposed
designed is also suitable for V2H as the charger system consisting of cascaded power converters. It
considered is designed for voltage rating of 230 V. consists of two power stages. The first stage is
The DCAC bidirectional converter is made to bidirectional DCDC converter and the second stage
operate at unity power factor injecting or drawing is a bidirectional DCAC converter. The direction of
the grid current with low harmonic distortion. The power flow is dictated by the operating mode. The
control scheme employed consists of a PR active power flows from the batteries to the dc link
controller for grid current control as an alternative and then to the grid during V2G mode of operation.
to the widely used PI controller for both V2G and The power flow from and to the grid is processed
G2V operation (Teodorescuet al, 2006). The low gain using two stage cascaded converters consisting of a
of PI controller at grid frequency leads to steady bidirectional DCDC and DCAC converters. The
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On Board Charging Interface for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) in Smart Grid Environment
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LCL filter is used as an interface between DCAC
converter and the grid to attenuate the grid current Table I. Specification of the Proposed On Board Charger
harmonics. A proportionalresonant (PR) controller
Parameter Value Unit
is employed for the control of grid current and to
enable the unity power factor operation of the DC Grid voltage
230 V
AC converter. (RMS)
Grid frequency 50 Hz
Maximum input
35 A
current (RMS)
Maximum input
Fig.2.Topology of the proposed on board charger. 8 KVA
power
The setbacks associated with conventional
proportional integral (PI) controller for single phase Output voltage 190
system is elevated by employing PR controller. The V
range (DC) 270
power electronic interface for the power transaction
from V2G and G2V may involve one or more Maximum output
stages. Most of the EV chargers are of conductive 30 A
type, where there is an electrical contact between current (DC)
the vehicle and the utility. Bidirectional converter
topologies are to be used chargers for V2G Inductor L1 0.3 mH
operation. In addition to traction batteries the
auxiliary battery used for lighting, wipers needs to Inductor L 2 0.5 mH
be charged. A reconfigurable battery charger in
which the auxiliary battery is charged by the main Capacitor C f 2 F
traction battery is proposed in (Yilmaz & Krein, 2013
;Teodorescuet al, 2006). Capacitor C b 800 F
A. Three level bidirectional DCAC converter Table II. Parameters of various controllers
control
KP KI
In grid connected operation, the converter operates
in a current controlled mode as the voltage across it PI controller 1 0.3 2
is maintained by the infinite grid. Thus, for proper
operation, synchronization with the grid voltage is PI controller 2 0.75 5
mandatory. This is achieved using a phase locked
loop (PLL) which generates an in phase component PR controller 3 10000
of the grid voltage and eliminates any harmonics
present.
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On Board Charging Interface for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) in Smart Grid Environment
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An LCL filter acting as an interface between the gain at fundamental frequency, H 1 j would have
DCAC converter and the grid reduces the harmonic
a unity gain. The control structure of a PR controller
distortion in the grid current being injected. As the
is given in equation (4).
filter is of order three, the amount of attenuation
K i 2 o s
provided over high frequency range is more even Gc s K p
with a smaller value of passive components. s 2 o s 02
2
(4)
However the filter poses a significant problem due
to its low or zero impedance at the resonant where o 2 fo , K i is the fundamental
frequencies makes the design of current controller harmonic gain, and is the damping factor.
complicated. A general approach to damp the
resonance oscillations is to add a damping resistor The control block diagram of the bidirectional DC
in series with the filter capacitor. Even though the AC & DCDC converter is shown in Fig.3.The gain
method seems to be effective in stabilizing the of around 82 dB at the grid frequency (50 Hz) leads
overall filter characteristics, it suffers from the to zero steady state error in tracking of the reference
increased power loss. current generated. The converter DC link voltage
should be greater than the peak value of the grid
As an alternative to passive damping, approach to voltage, so that the power can be transferred from
introduce the same effect using feedback of the EVs to the grid. Assuming that the sinusoid current
parameters which can serve as a damping term is being pumped into the grid, the DC link voltage
known as active damping. For an application with a will have a second harmonic component. This leads
stiff grid, a passive damping method is often to control system instability if it is not filtered out
preferred for its simplicity and low cost. The control before using for control purpose. Thus, band stop
of DCAC converter is achieved through two loops
filter (BSF) is used to remove 100 Hz component in
with outer loop as voltage control loop and with
Vdc. The unipolar pulse width modulation scheme
inner loop as a current control loop. Various
controllers like stationary frame control, dq frame is employed for gating the power switches.
control and abc frame controllers are employed to
maintain the grid current to be sinusoidal with lower
harmonic distortion. In this abstract a proportional
resonant (PR) compensator is used to track a
sinusoidal current reference signal with zero steady
state error as the controller introduces an infinite
gain theoretically at the grid frequency.
s 2 L1Cd sCd Rd 1
I g s Gp s Vg Vinv
sCd Rd 1
(1)
AS, the magnitude and phase response of
Fig.3. Control block diagram of the bidirectional DCAC
s L1Cd sCd Rd 1
2
& DCDC converter.
are 0 dB and 0o at the
sCd Rd 1
B. Bidirectional DCDC Converter Control
fundamental frequency of the grid. Therefore,
equation (1) can be simplified to the equation The DC link voltage is maintained constant by
the DCAC converter and the DCDC converter
I g s Gc s Vinv Vg acts as a buck converter during this mode
(2)
(G2V). As per the recommendation by the EV
The relationship between the input and the output of manufacturer generally a constant current
the current loop can be derived as:
charging is done first till the battery voltage
I g s H1 s I g* s H 2 s Vg s reaches the recommended maximum value and
(3) then followed by a constant voltage charging. A
To successfully track the ig* t signal without proportional integral controller (PI) is used for
regulating both the DC link voltage and the
steady state errors, the magnitude of H 1 j has current (charging/discharging) current from the
to be equal to 1 at the fundamental frequency of EV battery.
ig* t . Thus, it is clear that if Gc j has infinite
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On Board Charging Interface for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) in Smart Grid Environment
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IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To demonstrate and validate the feasibility of on
board Integrator, simulation was carried out using
MATLAB/SIMULINK. Fig. 4, Fig.5 and Fig.6
show the regulated DC link voltage, battery voltage
and the battery current during V2G operation. The
bidirectional DCDC converter acts as a boost
converter during this mode. Fig.4 shows the grid
voltage and the sinusoidal current being injected to
the grid. It can be seen that the current injected is in
phase with the grid voltage ensuring the unity power
factor operation. The battery is supplied with a
constant active power (P = 6 kW) and zero reactive Fig.5. Active and reactive power.
power (Q = 0) as shown in Fig.5. The harmonic
level in the grid current being drawn is found to be
2%. The harmonic spectrum of the grid current is
shown in Fig.6.
VI. CONCLUSION
A low complexity onboard charger for EVs has
been presented. The proposed system allows the
integration of EV battery to the grid through power
processing stages. The power flows from vehicle
battery to grid during V2G mode of operation. The
grid current being injected/absorbed is maintained
to have a power factor of unity and low harmonic
distortion. Design details of the current controller
are discussed and simulation results are presented.
Simulation is carried out using the MATLAB /
SIMULINK platform and the result showing the Fig.6. Harmonic spectrum of grid current (2% THD).
harmonic analysis of the grid current is found to be
within the prescribed power quality limits of IEEE. REFERENCES
1. Liu, K., Chau, D., Wu., S. Gao.(2013). Opportunities
and challenges of vehicletohome, vehicleto
vehicle, and vehicletogrid technologies.
Proceedings of the IEEE, 101(2013), 2409– 2427.
2. J. Pinto., V. Monteiro., H. Gon¸calves., J. L.
Afonso.(2014). Onboard reconfigurable battery
charger for electric vehicles with tractionto
auxiliary mode. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
Technology, 63(2014), 1104–1116.
3. M. Yilmaz., P. T. Krein.(2013). Review of the
impact of vehicletogrid technologies on
distribution systems and utility interfaces. IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, 28(2013),
5673–5689.
Fig.4. Grid voltage and current.
4. R. Teodorescu., F. Blaabjerg., M. Liserre., P. C.
Loh.(2006). Proportionalresonant controllers and
filters for gridconnected voltagesource converters.
IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications,
153(2006), 750–762.
5. K. Thirugnanam., T. E. R. Joy., M. Singh., P.
Kumar.(2014). Modeling and control of contactless
based smart charging station in V2G scenario. IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid 5(2014), 337–348.
6. M. A. Khan., I. Husain., Y. Sozer.(2012). A bi
directional dcdc converter with overlapping input
22
On Board Charging Interface for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) in Smart Grid Environment
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and output voltage ranges and vehicle to grid energy
transfer capability. Proceedings of IEEE
International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC),
2012, 1–7.
7. S. Kumar., U. R. Yaragatti., S.
Manasani.(2014).Modeling and architectural frame
work of offboard V2G integrator for smart grid.
International Journal of Renewable Energy
Research (IJRER) 4(2014), 831–836.
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On Board Charging Interface for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) in Smart Grid Environment
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24
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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Abstract — The development of wind energy technologies had several significant trends in the past
fifteen years, like the size and capacity of the wind turbines grow rapidly, and making the price also
continuously reduced. With stricter power grid integration requirements, the power electronics
converters are changing from partial rated power to full rated power, and playing a more and more
important role in the whole generation system. As it is troublesome to connect only one power
semiconductor switch directly, a multilevel power converter structure has been introduced. To obtain a
quality output voltage with minimum amount of ripple content, they require high switching frequency
along with advance pulse width modulation strategies. As a result, a multilevel power inverter
structure has been introduced as an alternative in high power applications. In this paper, phase shifted
carrier pulse width modulation based multilevel converter configuration for 1.5 MW wind turbines
are proposed, designed and compared. Here performance analyses the phase shifted carrier pulse
width modulation techniques applied to multilevel converters. Concepts of pulse width modulation
techniques are presented and their performances are analyzed. Due to harmonics present in the
inverter, the total harmonic distortion is very high and output voltage is very low. To reduce total
harmonic distortion value and to maximize output voltage, phase shifted carrier pulse width
modulation techniques are proposed. Finally, to achieve 3.84% THD and enhance the 5% output
voltage using phase shifted carrier based multilevel inverters for 1.5MW wind turbine.
Key words Wind turbines, phase shifted carrier pulse width modulation, multilevel inverter
In this paper, phase shifted carrier pulse width
I. INTRODUCTION modulation based cascaded multilevel converter
Wind energy is the fastest growing energy configuration for 1.5 MW wind turbines are
technology in terms of percentage of yearly growth proposed, designed and compared. Here
of installed capacity per technology source. As wind performance analyses the phase shifted carrier pulse
energy is increasingly integrated into power width modulation techniques applied to multilevel
systems, the stability of already existing power converters. To reduce total harmonic distortion
systems is becoming a concern of utmost value and to maximize output voltage, phase shifted
importance. Also, network operators have to ensure carrier pulse width modulation techniques are
that consumer power quality is not deteriorated proposed. The evaluation criteria will mainly aim
(Blaabjerg et al., 2004). Hence, the Total Harmonic at the utilization and thermal performances of power
Distortion (THD) should be kept as low as possible, switching devices.
improving the quality of the energy injected into the
electric grid. The new technical challenges II. MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS FOR WIND
emerging due to increased wind power penetration, TURBINE
dynamic stability and power quality imply research
As the interface between the wind turbine generator
of more realistic and accurate models for wind
and the power grid, the wind power converter has to
energy systems (Chen et al., 2009). satisfy the requirements on the both sides, as
Powerelectronic converters have been developed summarized in Fig. 1.
for integrating wind power with the electric grid
(Blaabjerg et al., 2004). The use of powerelectronic
converters allows not only for variablespeed
operation of a wind turbine, but also for
enhancement on power extraction. In a recent
overview of different wind generator systems, it is
shown that variablespeed conceptions equipped
with powerelectronic converts will continue to
dominate and be very promising technologies for
large wind farms (Polinder et al., 2006). Fig.1. Wind power converter system
25
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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For the generator side: The current flowing in the III. DESIGN CRITERIA
generator’s stator should be controlled to adjust the
In order to conduct evaluation of each converter
rotating speed. This will contribute to the active
candidate, the parameters of the generator and basic
power balance during grid faults and help to extract
design for converters are needed.
the maximum power from the wind turbines.
Moreover, the converter should have the ability to
handle the variable fundamental frequency and
Table.I. Design Parameter For 1.5 Mw Wind Turbine
voltage amplitude of the generator’s output.
WT parameter Value
From the grid side: The converter must comply with
Wind power capacity 1.5MW
the grid codes regardless of the wind speed. That
means it should have the ability to control the Generator voltage 2200V
injected/absorbed reactive power Q, and perform a Generator current 852A
fast active power P response. The fundamental Multilevel inverter rating 2MVA
frequency as well as voltage amplitude on the grid Input voltage 3110V (DC)
side should be almost fixed under normal operation, Input current 1204A (DC)
and the total harmonic distortion of the current must Fundamental frequency 50Hz
be maintained at a low level. Switching frequency 5000Hz
IGBT voltage rating 3.3KV
Inherently, the converter needs to satisfy both the
generator side and grid side requirements with a IGBT current rating 1.5KA
cost effective and easy maintenance solution. That Regarding the parameters of the converter, all of the
requires a high power density, reliability, power switching devices have the commutated
modularity of the whole converter system. voltage at 3.3 kV in order to utilize the available and
Moreover, the wind power converter may need the dominant 4.5 kV highpower IGCT/IGBT on the
ability to store the energy, and boost up the voltage market (Blaabjerg et al., 1995). For simplicity of
from generator side to the grid side. According to analysis, the power grid is considered as three 20
the overall demands, multilevel converter kV/50 Hz, ideal AC voltage sources, the resistance
configurations for 1.5 MW wind turbines are in the generator and the cables is not taken into
proposed. account, DC bus capacitance is assumed high, and
Generally, multilevel converters can be classified in the transformers are assumed ideal.
to three categories: Neutral point, diode clamped A. Design of grid side converter
and cascaded multilevel structures (Rodriguez et al.,
According to the commutated voltage of power
2010). In order to get a cost effective design and
devices (3.3 kV), the DC bus and maximum output
less complexity cascaded multilevel converters are voltage of each configuration can be determined.
better performances (Bruckner et al., 2005). 5LHB The equivalent switching frequency fs of the grid
BTB: This configuration is composed of two back side converter is designed at 5000 Hz in order to get
toback five level Hbridge converters (Holtz & an acceptable switching loss of the power devices.
Oikonomou , 2010). In this wind power system The output filter inductance is designed to limit the
generator side five level converter and grid side also maximum current ripple to 25% of the rated
five level converters can be used (Kouro et al., maximum current amplitude, and the filter
2010). 5LHB BTB can achieve fivelevel output capacitance is not taken into account.
voltage and doubled voltage amplitude.
Table.II. Parameters Of Grid Side Converter At
Different Wind Speeds
Wind speedVW 3 6 9 11
(m/s)
Generator 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.5
powerPG (MW)
Primary side 2200V
voltage (Vrms)
Fundamental 50
frequency (Fg)
Switching 5000
frequency (Fs)
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Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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Where, Voi is the output voltage of cell i, and Ton is same output level. The PSCPWM frequency spectrum is
the time interval, determined by the comparison
between the reference and the carrier signals.
The three phase sinusoidal modulating signals are
generated by using a phase shift oscillator. This
signal is compared with (n1) phase shifted carrier
waves and PWM pulses are generated. These PWM
pulses are applied to three phase five level inverter.
28
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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REFERENCES
1. F. Blaabjerg, Z. Chen, S.B. Kjaer. (2004) Power
Electronics as Efficient Interface in Dispersed Power
Generation Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power
Electronics, 19 (4), 11841194.
29
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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30
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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Abstract This paper presents the stateof theart on blind signal detection and spectrum sensing
techniques that are used to solve some of the major practical issues and design challenges in signal
detection and spectrum sensing. Specifically, the paper reviews multipleantenna based blind
spectrum sensing algorithms that work without apriori knowledge of the primary user's signaling
scheme, the propagation channels, and the variance of the noise seen at the secondary users. The
performance of these blind spectrum sensing algorithms are analysed through simulation for spatio
temporal correlation condition. The results show that the performance of these detectors are very
good and they are blind(robust) that work well without a priori knowledge of the PU signal, noise
variance and channel gains.
Keywords:Dynamic Spectrum Access, Cognitive Radio, Spectrum Sensing
and CR users, it is often compromised by factors
such as hidden terminal problem,multipath fading,
I. INTRODUCTION
shadowing and receiver uncertainty, and other
Nowadays, the need for higher data rates is issues (Yucek and Arslan, 2009, Akylidiz et.al,
increasing as a result of the rapid evolutions of new 2011; Zeng et al, 2010) as shown in Figure 1.To
wireless services and applications. However, the mitigate the impact of these issues, cooperative
radio frequency spectrum allocation and spectrum sensinghas been seen as an effective
management is still based on the traditional method toimprove the detection performance by
techniques from the early day of wireless exploiting spatialdiversity. The main idea of
communication (Mitola and Maguire,1999). cooperative spectrum sensing is to enhance the
sensing performance by exploiting the spatial
This static frequency allocation schemes cannot
diversity in the observations of spatially distributed
meet the requirements of these increasing demands
CR users. By cooperation, CR users can share their
(Mitola and Maguire,1999).This inefficiency in the
sensing information to make a combined decision
spectrum usage and allocation necessitates a new
more accurate than the individual decisions
communication paradigm to effectively explore and
(Hykin,2005). Cooperative spectrum sensing is used
exploit the radio frequency spectrum opportunities.
to avoid hidden terminal problems, improve
Hence, Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is
detection performance and relaxed sensitivity
proposed in(Mitola and Maguire, 1999; Hykin,
requirements, and reduce the sensing time which
2005) which allows wireless devices to operate
intern used to improve the throughput performance
opportunistically in spectrum opportunities by
of the network (Akylidiz,et.al,2011,Zeng,et al,2010).
controlling the harmful interference and overheads
incurred on the licensed users.
The key enabling technology for DSA is the
cognitive radio (CR) that is built on a software
defined radio which involves dynamic spectrum
access in which a set of unlicensed users occupy
spectrum holes without causing significant
degradation of performance to the incumbent
users(Mitola and Maguire,1999,Hykin,2005). The
first fundamental step in CR networks is spectrum
sensing which aims to learn the radio environment
in order to adapt the CR transmission. Thus, reliable
and efficient signal detection and spectrum sensing
techniques are needed in order to detect and explore
the presence of radio frequency spectrum holes and Fig. 1. Multipath fading, shadowing and receiver
vacant spaces. Even if the detection performance in uncertainty in spectrum sensing (Akylidiz, et.al,
spectrum sensing is very crucial for both licensed 2014).
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Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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Thus, facing all these design challenges, design and the transmitted signal (Zeng and Liang,2009, Lim,
development of robust signal detection and et.al,2008). For this, we consider the system model
spectrum sensing techniques that assist to mitigate (shown in Figure 2) of a cognitive radio receiver or
some or all of the above problems has been of great detector with M≥1 antennas that receive PU signal
interest in the study of cognitive radio via multipath fading channels. It is assumed that a
networks. This paper specifically reviewed and central unit is available for combining and
analyzed blind(robust) multiple antenna based processing the signals from all the antennas.
cooperative spectrum sensing algorithms that are
Spectrum sensing is a hypothesis testing problem
capable to mitigate the noise uncertainty problem
based on binary hypotheses (H0; H1), where H0
and work at hostile wireless channel
indicates the primary signal is absent; and H1
conditions(Zeng and Liang,2008,Lim, et.al,2008).
indicates the primary signal is present. Based on the
These spectrum sensing algorithms work well
above system model, the received signal at
without apriori knowledge of the PU signaling
antenna/receiver i can be formulated as;
scheme, the wireless channel, and the noise
variances.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: In
section II, the system model for multiple antenna
where i=1,2,…, M, wi(n) is noise at the receive
based cooperative spectrum sensing is shown.
antennas, si(n) is the received source signal at
Section III formulates the test statistics for
receiver i , assuming that it is the received signal
Eigenvalue based detection algorithms for multiple
after passing through the fading and multipath
antenna based cooperative spectrum sensing.
propagation channels, it can be given by;
Section IV shows simulation results and analysis.
Finally conclusion is given in Section V.
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Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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4. Sort and obtain the maximum and minimum i. The largest eigenvalue converges to;
eigenvalues of the covariance matrix.
5. Calculate the detection threshold from equation
(23)
6. Calculate the test statistics as : ii. The distribution of the largest eigenvalue
7. Decision: If TMME>τ, the primary user signal is converges to;
existed (decide in favour of H1), otherwise the
primary user is off.
(23)
Where denotes the inverse of the
cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the
TracyWidom distribution of order 2. The
(28)
numerical table for the TracyWidom
distribution of order 2 is given below (Chiani,
2012) 3. The Spherical Test Detector (STD)
This detector is specifically useful for spectrum
Table 1: Numerical table for the TracyWidom sensing when the primary user covariance matrix is
distribution of order 2. unknown and when there are multiple primary
users. A GLRT procedure is applied to the problem,
x 1.80 1.32 0.59 0.23 0.48 1.31
which finds unstructured estimate of the sample
F2(x) 0.50 0.70 0.90 0.95 0.99 0.999 covariance matrix (Rx), which is equivalent
to under H1,and under H0. The
ii. Detection Threshold for BCED resulting detector computes the Arithmetic to
Geometric Mean (AGM) of the eigenvalues of
The test statistics for the BCED detector in equation
sample covariance matrix and compares the result
(13) can be written in the form as ;
with predefined threshold. The test statistics for
spherical test detector is given by (Lim,et.al,2008);
where,
Now for large N, and ML , the value of The detection threshold is determined from a give
can be approximated by [19,20], thus ; probability of false alarm. Compared with the
multichannel energy detector with inaccurate
knowledge of the noise variance, the spherical test
detector is found to obtain improved spectrum
sensing performance when the noise variance is
By using this, the test statistics in equation (24) can be unknown (Lim,et.al,2008).
approximated as 4. John’s Detector (JD)
A test statistics that is optimal for detecting small
deviations from H0 is John's detector. The criterion
under which John's detector is derived is known as
Under , the probability of false alarm for the the Locally Best Invariant (LBI) criterion
test in equation (24) is given by (Wie,et.al,2013). Unlike the GLR criterion, the LBI
criterion often leads to detectors that perform
particularly well in the low SNR regime. The
performance of this detector is also very good for
multiple primary user detection (Wie,et.al,2013).
The test statistics for John's detector is formulated
as;
PDF
are considered to evaluate the performances of 200
PDF
probability increases with SNR. Covariance 200
Absolute Value based Detection (CAVD) is
included as reference. 100
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Test(T)
Under H0
Under H1
b.
Fig. 4. Histograms of the test statistics for MMED with:
ROC Curve
1
0.8
3. Yucek& H. Arslan (2009). A Survey of Spectrum 17. Alamgir , M. Faulkner , J. Gao and P. Conder(2008).
Sensing Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Signal Detection for Cognitive Radio Using Multiple
Applications. IEEE Communications Surveys and Antennas", Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Wireless
Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 116–130, First Quarter. Commun. System.
5. Digham, M.S. Alouini, & M.K. Simon(2007). On 19. Chiani(2012). Distribution of the largest Eigenvalue
the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals Over for Real Wishart and Gaussian random Matrices and
Fading Channels. IEEE Transactions on a Simple approximation for the TracyWidom
Communications 55, 21–24. distribution. CoRR, vol. abs/1209.3394.
6. Zeng, Y.C. Liang, A. T. Hoang, and R. Zhang 20. Kay (1998). Fundamentals of Statistical Signal
(2010). A Review on Spectrum Sensing for Processing, Volume 2: Detection theory Prentice
Cognitive Radio: Challenges and Solutions. Hall PTR.
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal
Processing, vol., pp.115, January 2010. 21. Wei, P. Dharmawansa and O. Tirkkonen(2013,May).
Multiple Primary User Spectrum Sensing in the
7. Liang, Y. H. Zeng, E. Peh and A. T. Hoang (2008). Low SNR Regime. IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61,
Sensing–Throughput Tradeoff for Cognitive Radio no. 5, pp. 17201731.
Networks. IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications.
vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 13261337.
39
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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II. SYSTEM COMBINATION STRATEGIES III. SPECTRAL ENHANCEMENT FOR
DEREVERBERATION
As depicted in Fig.1, system (I) is based on a
minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimator as The observed reverberant speech signal can be
preprocessor in each of the input channels of the treated as the mixture of early reflections and the
beamformer. In this scenario, the late reverberation late reverberation, expressed in the STFT domain
spectral variance (LRSV) estimation is carried out as,
for the individual channels separately. Since the
preprocessor does not change the phase of the , (1)
signal, the spatial information for the beamformer where is the frame index and is the frequency
will not be affected. System (II) uses an bin. The early reflections are composed of
independent beamformer to get an enhanced the direct signal and early reflections, which are
spatially filtered signal followed by a single usually set to 2080 ms (Kuttruff, 2000). As well,
microphone dereverberation system. Since the early reflections play an important role for
LRSV and the MMSE estimators use this spatially enhancing the speech intelligibility. In contrast, late
filtered signal, the computational complexity is less. reverberation degrades the signal quality
The spatial filtering may, however, cause (Habets, 2007; Loizou, 2013). In this paper the
distortions to these estimator inputs due to the noise is neglected since the focus is to remove the
spatial correlation between microphone signals. To late reverberation. In order to suppress the late
avoid the spatial correlation effect on the LRSV reverberation effect, a spectral weighing function
estimators (Habets, 2007) in system (II), system determined by a parameterized MMSE
(III) uses a spatially averaged LRSV estimate estimator (Breithaupt et al., 2008) which shows
obtained from all the microphone signals refined by superior performance compared to the Wiener filter
the minimum variance distortionless response in our pilot experiments, is applied to the magnitude
(MVDR) beamformer. System (IV) illustrates a of the reverberant spectral variance in (1), resulting
LRSV in (Lebart, 2001),
MMSE (2)
MVDR LRSV
beamformer where is a lower bound of the weighting
MMSE
MVDR function. The apriori early reflection to late
beamformer MMSE
reverberation energy rationecessary in (2) to
LRSV (I) (II) calculate is estimated by the decision
directed (dd) approach (Ephraim & Malah, 1984)
(III) (IV) which performs slightly better than the temporal
MVDR MVDR cepstrum smoothing technique used in (Xiong et al.,
beamformer MMSE MMSE
beamformer
2014) for dereverberation in our pilot experiments.
PostFiltering By this the LRSV estimation is required for
LRSV (2) as also shown in Fig. 1. A generalized statistical
d LRSV reverberation model (Habets et al., 2009) is used
here which separates the direct path from Polack’s
room impulse response (RIR) model (Lebart, 2001),
Fig. 1: Four different system combinations (I)(IV) resulting in the spectral variance of the RIR in
consisting of the MVDR beamformers and the MMSE the STFT domain as
estimators, as well as the respective LRSV estimators.
multichannel MMSE enhancement scheme (3)
(Simmer et al., 2001), which can be decomposed
into an MVDR beamformer followed by a single where the decay coefficient is related to the
channel Wiener filter. Here the MMSE estimator is reverberation time by . and
actually a postfilter (. McCowan & Bourlard, 2003; denote the variances of the direct path and the
Zelinski,1988). reverberant part and represents the STFT frame
shift, i.e. the hop size. The direct signal to
reverberation ratio ( ) can then be expressed as
(Habets et al., 2009)
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Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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Simmer, 2001) or by the identity matrix for the
(4) delay and sum (DS) beamformer. A postfiltering
approach is used to calculate the coefficients in
The is related to the clarity index due to the system (IV) (McCowan & Bourlard, 2003) which
frame shift (Kuttruff, 2000). Now the can be expressed as an MVDR beamformer with a
reverberation variance can be obtained using (4) as postfilter with the post filter
(Ephraim & Malah, 1984) (ignoring the frequency transfer function (Zelinski,1988) expressed by
index for simplicity)
(5)
(9)
where is calculated from the in (4),
constraint inthe range of (0, 1]. Then, the LRSV is with being the autocorrelation of the speech
given by signal in microphone channel . In order to alleviate
speech distortions in ASR systems, a lower bound
, (6) is introduced. The early reverberation variance
where denotes the number of frames which (the cross correlation term) can be estimated as
corresponds to the duration of early reflections of (McCowan & Bourlard, 2003)
the RIR. An instantaneous estimate of the input
reverberant spectral variance in (5) can be
obtained by a smoothed version of as
, (7)
(10)
where the smoothing constant is calculated by where calculates the real part of a complex
. According to (Habets, 2007), in signal. A time alignment is required for when
order to improve the tracking performance of the calculating (10) (McCowan & Bourlard, 2003),
reverberant speech onset, shall be set to be lower which can be achieved by the steering vector as
seen in Fig. 1 (IV). In (10) a firstorder recursive
than when . Note that such an
LRSV estimator requires apriori information of update of the auto and crosscorrelation
and DRR or clarity index at least in fullbandmode, calculations is applied and a maximal threshold is
which in practice can be estimated by (Eaton et al., introduced to avoid the denominator being non
2013; Xiong et al., 2013). positive. The LRSV coherence matrix in (8) can
also be replaced by the LRSV coherence
estimated from the received microphone signals.
IV. DEREVERBERATION BY MULTI
MICROPHONE BEAMFORMING AND POST
FILTERING V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
When multiple microphones are available, The WSJCAM0 British English corpus (Robinson
beamforming and postfiltering techniques can be et al., 1995) was used as database of clean
used for the purpose of dereverberation (Allen et. (anechoic) speech utterances. It contains 7861
al. 1977; Marro et al., 1998; Jeub & Vary, 2010; utterances for training and another 742 for testing at
Westermann et al., 2013). The MVDR beamformer a sampling rate of 16 kHz. 18 realworld RIRs
which performs best in diffuse interference fields is recorded by a circular microphone array (M = 8)
used here. This beamformer minimizes the output with 20 cm diameter from the REVERB Challenge
power while keeping a unity gain in the desired (Kinoshita et al., 2013) were used for multi
direction and its coefficients can be derived as, condition training mode and another 6 RIRs
(Kinoshita et al., 2013) for generating various test
, (8) sets (denoted by T1T6 in the following) with
where is the Hermitian transpose and is the different T60 and DRR values, as listed in Tab. 1.
steering vector. In order to vary the beamformer The STFT was computed using a Hanning window
used, the coherence matrix of the interfering signals with two different analysis window lengths, 32 ms
is replaced by a diffuse interference field for with 1/8 overlap (short term) and 96 ms with 1/2
the superdirective (SD) beamformer (Bitzer & overlap (long term). A white noise gain constraint
41
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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of 10 dB was selected for the MVDR beamformer improve the ASR output, with the SD beamformer
in (8). The weighting factor of 0.5 was used in the showing lower WERs of approximately 4%
dd approach. was chosen as in (7). in compared to the single microphone MMSE
(2) was set to 10 dB as a good value to the ASR estimator.
performance. in (9) was chosen as 0.1 and the Table 1. Characteristics of all test sets T1T6 with mean
smoothing factor of the firstorder recursive filter DRR and T60 values (from all 8 channels).
was 0.875 in (10). Directly from the RIRs in full
band mode, DRR or was calculated
Test T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
accordingly and was determined by using
Schroeder’s method (Schroeder, 1965). Room Small Small Mediu Mediu Large Large
m m
The framework for the ASR experiments was
Positio
implemented based on the Hidden Markov Model n Near Far Near Far Nea Far
Toolkit (HTK) (Young et al., 2009). Overlapping DRR
speech segments of 25 ms duration and 10 ms shift (dB) 17.73 4.56 11.42 0.25 10.40 1.70
were used for the calculation of melfrequency T60
cepstral coefficients with delta and doubledelta (ms) 218.29 229.9 500.06 519.44 719.3 747.3
coefficients as well as cepstral mean and variance 1 2 8
normalization. Contextdependent triphone hidden The performances of system (I) and the MVDR
Markov models with 3 states per model were only system show very similar results. For test sets
applied together with 12 Gaussian mixture models T1, T3 and T5, i.e. the nearposition tests, higher
per state and a language scaling factor of 14.0 for WERs can be observed when compared to the SD
the 5kwordbigram language model. beamformer alone. This may be caused by the
Fig. 2 shows the word error rate (WER) results of distortions of the diffuse field because of the front
our systems under test with 32 ms STFT analysis MMSE estimators. Compared to system (I), 1%
window length. The baseline results come from the WER improvement can be obtained by system (II).
multicondition training with the original A more accurate LRSV estimate is employed in
reverberant speech signal from the first microphone, system (III) which results in a slightly better
i.e. i=1. For singlemicrophone scenarios, the performance than system (II). This indicates that,
MMSE estimator is applied to the first channel. For the spatial correlation introduced by the
comparison, the results with beamformers alone beamformer blurs the MVDRfiltered RIR in
(either with SD or DS) are presented. The rest are system (II) so that it cannot exactly extract the true
the system combination outputs (cf. Fig. 1). Both late reverberation.
the MMSE and the beamformer alone scenarios
35 baseline (reverb)
MMSE only
DS only
30 MVDR only
(I)
(II)
25
WER %
(III)
(IV) with MVDR
(IV) with LRSV
20
15
10
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Test Sets
Fig.2 WERs of the dereverberation strategies with 32 ms STFT analysis window length and 1/8 hop size.
42
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
ICAST2017
26
(II) 32 ms 1/8 hop
24
(II) 96 ms 1/2 hop
18
16
14
12
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Test Sets
Fig.3 WERs of system (II) and (III) with two different frame lengths, i.e. short and long term STFT analysis window
length. Male, Far
4
reverb
MMSE
MVDR
3.5
(I)
(II)
(III)
3
PESQ
(IV) (MVDR)
(IV) (LRSV)
2.5
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Test Sets
Fig.4 PESQ scores from the output of different systems; a male utterance from the test data is employed and the
respective clean (anechoic) speech is used as the reference signal.
Overall, average WER reduction of 6.17% is that the 32 ms with 1/8 hop window improves the
obtained by system (III) with the SD beamformer WER by 4.18% and 3.57% compared to the 96 ms
compared to the baseline. Such improvements window with 1/2 overlap window with systems (II)
become more obvious for the farposition testsets and (III) respectively.
such as T4 and T6 than the nearposition test sets
A perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ)
such as T3. A similar trend can be observed for
(ITUT, 2001) has also been conducted. Fig. 4
system (IV), for which the SD beamformer still
shows the PESQ scores of the different proposed
performs best. It can also be observed that the
systems with one male test utterance. The
results degrade when the beamformer in (1) uses the
performance of multimicrophone dereverberation
LRSV coherence matrix. A possible explanation is
strategies in PESQ tests is much better than that of
that the late reverberation behaves nonstationary
singlemicrophone approaches. Here system (III)
and its coherence actually does not match the
shows the best results compared to all other
diffuse property, especially for the nearposition test
scenarios, which is in consilience with the WERs
sets T1, T3 and T5 as discussed in (Xiong et al.,
results in Fig. 2.
2015).
Fig. 3 compares the WERs of the two best VI. CONCLUSION
performing systems (II) and (III) with two different
STFT analysis window sizes. Using shorter frame This work explored possible combination
sizes benefits in reducing WERs. The results shows architectures for dereverberation by (single
microphone) spectral enhancement schemes and
43
Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
ICAST2017
(multimicrophone) beamforming with the aim of Filterbank for Feature Extraction,”REVERB
improving ASR performance in various reverberant challenge, Florence, 2014.
environments. Results indicate that all the combined 9. E.A.P. Habets, “Single and MultiMicrophone
systems are able to provide benefits for ASR Speech Dereverberation using Spectral
systems and specifically, the system (III) combining Enhancement,”Ph.D. thesis, University of
the SD beamformer and the MMSE estimator with Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, Jun. 2007.
the LRSV refinement by the MVDR beamformer
coefficients achieves nearly 30% average relative 10. K.U. Simmer, J. Bitzer, and C. Marro, “Microphone
Arrays”, Chapter “PostFiltering Techniques,” pp.
WER improvement compared to the baseline, as
39–60, M. Brandstein and D. Ward (Eds.), Springer,
well as 15% average relative PESQ boost (from one
Berlin, Heidelberg, May 2001.
example) compared to the first channel reverberant
speech signal. As well, short STFT analysis window 11. I.A. McCowan and H. Bourlard, “Microphone Array
length provides better ASR performance than a PostFilter based on Noise Field Coherence,” IEEE
longer window length. Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, vol.
11, no. 6, pp. 709–715, Nov. 2003.
5. M.L. Seltzer, B. Raj, and R.M. Stern,“Likelihood 15. K. Lebart, J.M. Boucher, and P.N. Denbigh,“A New
Maximizing Beamforming for Robust HandsFree Method based on Spectral Subtraction for
Speech Recognition,”Speech and Audio Processing, Speech,”ActaAcusticaunited with Acustica,
IEEE Transactions on, 12(5):489–498, 2004. 87(3):359–366, 2001.
6. T. Yoshioka, A. Sehr, M. Delcroix, K. Kinoshita, R. 16. Y. Ephraim and D. Malah, “Speech Enhancement
Maas, T. Nakatani, and W. Kellermann,“Making using a Minimum MeanSquare Error ShortTime
Machines Understand Us in Reverberant Rooms: Spectral Amplitude Estimator,” IEEE Transactions
Robustness Against Reverberationfor Automatic on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing, vol. 32,
Speech Recognition,”IEEE Signal Processing no. 6, pp. 1109–1121, Dec. 1984.
Magazine, 29(6):114–126,2012. 17. E.A.P. Habets, S. Gannot, and I. Cohen, “Late
7. K. Kinoshita, M. Delcroix, T. Yoshioka, T. Reverberant Spectral Variance Estimation based on
Nakatani, E. Habets, R. HaebUmbach, V. Leutnant, a Statistical Model,” IEEE Signal Processing
A. Sehr, W. Kellermann, R. Maas, S. Gannot, and B. Letters, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 770–773, Sep. 2009.
Raj,“The Reverb Challenge: A common Evaluation 18. J. Eaton, N.D. Gaubitch, and P.A. Naylor, “Noise
Framework for Dereverberation and Recognition of Robust Reverberation Time Estimation using
Reverberant Speech. IEEE Workshop on Spectral Decay Distributions with Reduced
Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Computational Cost,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on
Acoustics (WASPAA), 2013. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP),
8. F. Xiong, N. Moritz, R. Rehr, J. Anemüller, B.T. Vancouver, Canada, May 2013, pp. 161–165.
Meyer, T. Gerkmann, S. Doclo, and S. 19. F. Xiong, S. Goetze, and B.T. Meyer, “Blind
Goetze,“Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments Estimation of Reverberation Time based on Spectro
using Temporal Cepstrum Smoothing for Speech Temporal Modulation Filtering,” in IEEE Int. Conf.
Enhancement and an Amplitude Modulation on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
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(ICASSP), Vancouver, Canada, May 2013, pp. 443– D. Povey, V. Valtchev, and P. Woodland, “The HTK
447. Book (for HTK Version 3.4),”Cambridge University
Engineering Department, Cambridge, 2009,
20. J.B. Allen, D.A. Berkley, and J. Blauert, “Multi
http://htk.eng.cam.ac.uk/.
microphone Signal Processing Technique to Remove
Room Reverberation from Speech Signals,” J. 28. F.Xiong, B.T. Meyer, and S. Goetze, “ A Study on
Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 912–915, 1977. joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for
Robust Speech Recognition in Reverberant
21. C. Marro, Y. Mahieux, and K.U. Simmer, “Analysis
Environments,” in IEEE Int.Conf. on Acoustics,
of Noise Reduction and Dereverberation Techniques
Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Brisbane,
based onMicrophone Arrays with Postfiltering,”
Australia, Apr. 2015.
IEEE Trans. Speech and Audio Processing, vol. 6,
no. 3, pp. 240–259, May 1998. 29. ITUT, “Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality
(PESQ): An Objective Method for EndtoEnd
22. M. Jeub and P. Vary, “Binaural Dereverberation
Speech Quality Assessment of NarrowBand
based on A DualChannel Wiener Filter with
Telephone Networks and Speech Codecs,” Feb.
Optimized Noise Field Coherence,” in IEEE Int.
2001.
Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
(ICASSP), Dallas, TX, USA, Mar. 2010, pp. 4710–
4713.
23. A.Westermann, J.M. Buchholz, and T. Dau,
“Binaural Dereverberation based on Interaural
Coherence Histograms,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol.
133, no. 5, pp. 2767–2777, 2013.
24. J. Bitzer and K.U. Simmer, “Microphone Arrays,
chapter Superdirective Microphone Arrays,” pp.
19–38, M. Brandstein and D. Ward (Eds.), Springer,
Berlin, Heidelberg, May 2001.
25. T. Robinson, J. Fransen, D. Pye, J. Foote, and S.
Renals, “WSJCAM0: A British English Speech
Corpus for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech
Recognition,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics,
Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Detroit,
Michigan, USA, May 1995, pp. 81–84.
26. M.R. Schroeder, “New Method of Measuring
Reverberation Time,” J. Acoust.Soc. Amer., vol. 37,
no. 3, pp. 409–412, 1965.
27. S. Young, G. Evermann, M. Gales, T. Hain, D.
Kershaw, X.A. Liu, G. Moore, J. Odell, D. Ollason,
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Joint Beamforming and Spectral Enhancement for Robust ASR in Reverberant Environments
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46
Modeling and Analysis of Linear Observer Based On DC Machine
ICAST2017
Abstract — This paper presents how to implement fullorder and reducedorder linear observers
using the software packages for computer aided control system design MATLAB. Observers are used
these days not only for the purpose of feedback control, but also in their own right to observe state
variables of a dynamic system, which can be an experiment in progress whose state has to be
monitored at all times. As a matter of fact, it has shown how to implement a dc machine state space
model and its observer. Different observer gain(s) are determined by selecting different eigen values
for the observers. Observer estimation errors are presented by choosing the observer(s) initial
conditions. Having full understanding of the observer implementation(s), students and engineers will
fill confident to use this observers and observer based controllers in numerous engineering and
scientific applications.
Key words Full Order Observer, DC Machine, Reduced Order Observer, MATLAB/SIMULINK
form, where the state functional are treated as
additional outputs. (Tsui, 1985) developed an
I. INTRODUCTION
interesting algorithm for the design of
Estimating linear functional of state vector has been multifunctional observer. The same author (1986)
the focus of many researchers over the years. A showed that the order of observer can be reduced to
number of procedures have been proposed to design the sum of descending ordered observability indices
linear functional state observer. (Fairman and of the system minus the number of the required
Gupta, 1980; O’Reilly, 1983; Aldeen and Trinathh, functional. (O’Reilly, 1983) provides excellent
1999; and Trinath and Ha, 2000). It is often notes on observer theory in chapter 3. In this paper,
convenient when designing feedback control system a new observer capable of asymptotically estimating
to assume initially that the entire state vector of the any vector state functional, is introduced the order
system to be controlled or it is available for of the observer is dependent on the ratio of the
feedback. number of independent output measurements to the
number of independent outputs. Same method we
If the entire state vector cannot be measured, in
can extend for time delay and system with unknown
most complex systems, the control law cannot be
inputs.
implemented. In such a case either a new approach
that directly accounts for the non availability of the The rest of the paper is organized as follows: The
entire state vector must be devised, or a suitable modeling and analysis of Full order (II) and
approximation to the state vector must be Reduced Order (III) Observer is shown.DC machine
determined. In almost every situation the latter state model is derived in section (IV) and parameter
approach, that of developing and using an values are assigned (V).MATLAB program is used
approximate state vector is vastly simpler than a for determination of observer gain (VI).Result and
new direct attack on the design problem. The discussion is also shown in next section(VII).Finally
possibility of constructing an observer was first a conclusion is given at section (VIII).
explored by Bass and Gura (1965) and Luenberger
(1964,1966,1971).Alterative design procedures for
II. FULL ORDER OBSERVER MODELING
observing a scalar linear function of the state of a
multiple output system are minimal partial The theory of observers originated in the work of
realization theory and decision method respectively. Luenberger in the middle of 1960s.According to
Design procedures are suggested for observing a Luenberger, any system driven by the output of the
scalar linear function of a state of a multiple output given system can serve as an observer for that
system by (Moore, 1975), (Murdoch, 1973), and system. Consider a linear dynamic system with
(Roman, 1973). (Fortmann and Williamson, 1972) unknown initial value of
are the first to reconstruct vector linear functionals
= , (1)
of the state for multiple output systems. Another
method based on the reduction of a state observer A full order state observer estimates all of the
for a system in form, where the states functional are system state variables. In practice this may not
treated as additional outputs, was proposed by happen for a number of reasons including cost or
(Fairmann and Gupta,1980) Fairmann and Gupta that the state may not physically be measurable.
suggest another method based on reduction of state
observer for a system in Luenberger companion
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Modeling and Analysis of Linear Observer Based On DC Machine
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We define the mathematical model of the observer =
to be
= + (6)
= + (2)
Where = = estimation error
Where is the estimated state and C is the
estimated output. The n×1 matrix Ke is called state Combining equations (3) and (6), we obtain
observer gain matrix. Hence the observer error
equation is defined by = (7)
 = (  ) (3)
The above equation describes the dynamic of the
= e observed state feedback control.
Where (  ) = e = observer estimation error
vector. Thus the dynamic behavior of the error III. REDUCED ORDER OBSERVER MODELING
vector depends upon the Eigen values of
. A reducedorder state observer estimates fewer than
If the observer gain Ke is chosen such that the n state variables where n is the dimension of the
feedback matrix is asymptotically stable state vector. Consider equation (1) where the state
(has all eigen values with negative real parts) then vector
the estimation error e will decay to zero for any can be partitioned into two parts (a scalar) and (a
initial condition of e. This stabilization requirement vector). Here the state variable is equal to the
can be achieved if pair (A,C) is observable. The output y and thus can be directly measured and is
observer eigen values should be chosen to be about the unmeasurable portion of the state vector. Then
ten times faster than the system eigen values. This partitioned state and output equations become
can be achieved by setting the smallest real part of
the observer eigen values to be ten times bigger than = + u (8)
the largest real part of the closed loop eigen values
> y= (9)
= (16)
Let, the motor parameters (coefficient of differential
equations) are assigned to be = 0.5 H, = 0.01
Nm/A, = 0.01 Vsec/rad, J = 0.01 kgm2, B =
IV. STATE MODELING OF DC MACHINE 0.1 Nmsec/rad, = 1 Ω.
Direct current machines are the most versatile
Thus the state model of dc machine is derived using
energy conversion devices. Their outstanding
advantage is that the voltampere or speed torque machine parameters and equation (21) as follows:
characteristic of these machines are very much
flexible and easily adaptable for both steady state = + u (t)
and dynamic operations. When a wide range of
speed control and torque output are required dc
motor is an obvious choice. = (22)
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Modeling and Analysis of Linear Observer Based On DC Machine
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J = [2+j*1 2j*1];
K = acker(A,B,J) It can be seen from Figures 1 and 2 that the reduced
order observer is superior over the fullorder
K = 32.4900 4.0000 observer because the reducedorder observer is
more accurate than the corresponding ones observed
by the fullorder observer. Note that the eigen
>> %State observer gain matrix Ke design (Full values for both observers are placed to be of the
Order) same speed. The reduced order observer value is
placed at 9 and the fullorder observer values are
>> A = [10 1;0.02 2]; placed at 9,10. Even more, the reducedorder is
B = [0;2]; C = [1 0]; D = [0]; simpler for implementation since they are
L= [9 10]; dynamical systems of lower order that the original
Ke = acker (A',C',L)' systems.
Ke =
VIII. CONCLUSION
7.0000
55.9800 It has shown in detail how to implement fullorder
and reducedorder observers in MATLAB
environment and presented corresponding
>> % State observer gain matrix Ke design fundamental derivation and results with the help of
(Reduced Order) dc motor state model. I hope this paper will
>> Aab = [1]; Abb = [2]; motivate undergraduate and graduate students to
>> LL = [9]; further study observers and use them as powerful
>> Ke = acker (Abb', Aab', LL)' tools for observing system dynamics and/or
designing feedback control loops.
Ke = 7
REFERENCES
VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. Bass, R. W., and Gura (1965). ‘Highorder system
The obtained differences between the actual state design via Automatic Control Conference, Atlanta,
trajectories and estimated state trajectories using the Georgia. Luenberger, D.G. (1971). ’An introduction
full and reducedorder observers for dc machine are to observer’,IEEE Tran Auto. Control, AC16, pp.
presented in Figures 1 and 2 using MATLAB 596602
environment. In both cases the initial conditions are
taken as ; x1(0) = 1, x2(0) = 0, e1 (0) =1, e2(0) = 2. Luenberger(1966).’Observers for multivariable
systems’, IEEETranAuto.Control, AC11, pp.190
0,e(0) = 1.
197
1
3. Moore, J.B. and Ledwitch G.F(1975).’Minimal order
observers for estimating linear functionals of state
vector’, IEEE TranAuto. Control, AC20,p p. 623
0.5
e1
0 632.
0.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4. Murdoch, P.(1973).’Observer design of a linear
functional of the state vector’, IEEE Tran
Time(sec)
0
Auto.Control, AC18,pp.308310 Roman, J.R.,
1
Jones, L.E., and Bullock,T.E,(1973). ‘Observing a
e2
0.4
50
Modeling and Analysis of Linear Observer Based On DC Machine
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7. Tsui C.C.(1985)’A new algorithm for the design of
multifunctional observers’, IEEE Tran Auto.Control,
AC 30,pp.8993.
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Modeling and Analysis of Linear Observer Based On DC Machine
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52
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
ICAST2017
Abstract — Adaptive cruise control (ACC) is crucial part of vehicle longitudinal control in driver assistance
system (DAS). It has adaptive cruise states, engine control unit, brake control unit and drive train unit as sub
parts with different sensors and actuators connected to them. There are low level controllers in engine
control and brake control units to make the car adapt to traffic environment. The FMCW radar is used to
detect relative speed and relative range of target car in front of ACC car. The designed adaptive cruise
control components communicate over controller area network (CAN) making a distributed control system
(DCS). Ultimately, the designed distributed control system is implemented using simulink and simscape
blocks. Unlike the conventional adaptive cruise control, the designed ACC can be used in a low speed
scenario and it is verified using simulation results.
Key words Adaptive Cruise Control, Controller area network, throttle control, Antilock Braking
System, vehicle dynamics
conventional braking system. ABS system brakes
I. INTRODUCTION
Futile road accidents that can be avoided by alerting
drivers to the situations are so many in numbers.
There are different driver assistance systems that
informs driver about the in front road information
and thereby assisting drivers in avoiding/reducing
accidents that could come along with it (F.
A.Arvind Raj R et al, 2011). Adaptive cruise control
(ACC) and antilock braking systems (ABS) are few
of such a driver assistances systems (DAS).
Adaptive cruise control system adapts the vehicle's
speed to the traffic environment while making the Fig.1. ACC Vehicle relationships
car to move at the desired speed or desired time gap
to the target vehicle. It makes the car to move with a the car without locking the wheel which results in
speed specified by the driver if there is no other small braking distance as the car doesn't supposedly
vehicle in the car's lane; and it also maintains the slide.So, the car can be handled and maneuvered by
minimum time gap to the front car if the front car is the driver as desired. If deceleration of the ACC car
in the same lane. The minimum time gap and the is not sufficient enough to avoid a collision, the
desired cruise speed are set by the driver. The ACC warns the driver with a warning sound. If the
conventional ACC is not used in low speed system detects the target vehicle is no longer in the
scenarios. The car with ACC is called ACC car ACC car's path, the ACC will accelerate the car to
while the in front vehicle in the lane of ACC car is desired speed set by the driver. So, this operation
called target vehicle. An antilock brake system makes the car to slow down and speed up with the
(ABS) controls the slip of each wheel to prevent it traffic. The ACC car speed is controlled through
from locking as a result of the service brake being engine throttle control and limited brake operation.
applied with too much force (Idar et al, 2001). The The ACC was often used in free driving with speed
idea is to maintain cornering forces on braked between and (F. A.Arvind
wheels to ensure that the vehicle retains its driving Raj R et al, 2011). It was never used in slow driving
stability and maneuverability as far as physically with stop and go scenario. The normal ACC doesn't
possible. work under the speed below 30 to 50 (F.
In order to maintain the time gap to the target A.Arvind Raj R et al, 2011). The cruise control
vehicle, ACC uses radar system and ABS system. operation using radar sensors is one of the sensing
Radar system is used to detect the relative speed of technologies used for automotive control (Camilla
target vehicle and range to target vehicle. If target et al, 2009). Radar sensors are so important that
vehicle is moving slowly, the ACC system will slow they perform equally well during the day, the night,
down the ACC car and controls the time gap and in most weather conditions. Though passive
between the ACC car and target vehicle. While optical devices can be an alternative to radar
slowing down the vehicle, the ACC system applies sensors, they have less accuracy at greater distances.
brake using ABS system rather than the
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Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
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In this paper distributed ACC is designed Where and are longitudinal tire forces at
considering low speed scenario as low as 6 . front and rear wheels respectively, is an
The ACC module, the brake control unit, the engine aerodynamic drag force, is mass of the vehicle,
control unit are designed separately. High speed is longitudinal direction of the vehicle. The
controller area network (CAN) bus is used to aerodynamic drag is given by
communicate different components of the ACC
system with each other. Each component/node has
CAN controller to pack and unpack the signals where is aerodynamic coefficient, is mass
to/from CAN messages; and CAN Transceiver to density of air, is frontal area of the car and is
transmit and receive CAN messages. Ultimately, the longitudinal vehicle velocity. The mass density of
designed ACC system is implemented in Simulink air may be taken as 1.225 (Rajesh, 2011).
using simscape blocks. The distributed adaptive The vehicle frontal area is calculated from its mass
cruise control sub systems are described in section according to equation (3) (Rajesh, 2011).
II; in section III the low level controllers in brake
control unit and engine control unit are developed.
Finally, implementation and result analysis are The longitudinal tire forces and is friction
described in section IV. forces from the ground that act on the tires. They are
calculated from each tires slip ratio, normal load on
the tires and friction coefficients of tire road
II. THE ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL SUBSYSTEMS
interface. Assuming the vehicle won't do vertical
Distributed ACC system is consisted of a serious of motion, the net force in the vertical direction is
interconnected units, sensors and actuators. These
different components communicate through serial
communication network called Controller Area Considering load transfer effect
Network (CAN) (Di Natale et al, 2012). In this part
these units are designed. Different assumptions
considered in each component are described.
A. Vehicle Modeling Taking a moment about contact point of front tire
Vehicle has different parts such as diesel engine,
transmission unit, and wheels. The model of the
vehicle is complete representation of these parts. Substituting equations (3, 4, 5, and 6) in equation
Distributed Adaptive cruise control is an advanced (7) normal loads on tire will be:
longitudinal control of the vehicle which involves
longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle (Rajamani,
2011). Longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle has two
parts: power train dynamics and vehicle dynamics where
(Rajesh, 2011). The longitudinal power train of a is vehicle length
vehicle is consisted of diesel engine, transmission is distance from front wheel to center
and wheels along with engine speed sensors, wheel of mass along longitudinal direction
speed sensors, vehicle speed sensor and torque is acceleration due to gravity
actuators. Vehicle dynamics quantifies the influence is vertical distance from vehicle center
of longitudinal tire forces, aerodynamic drag forces of mass to floor
and gravitational forces on the vehicle. These is normal loads on front tires
longitudinal forces are indicated in Fig.2. (Abe, is normal loads on rear tires
2009).
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Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
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The tire longitudinal slip ratio is computed from Wheel speed sensors
wheel dynamics and it is given by equation (10). Engine speed
Vehicle speed
Brake actuators
where is longitudinal slip, is effective radius. If
friction coefficient of the tireroad interface is
Car drive train unit
assumed to be 1 and the normal force is assumed to
be a constant, the typical variation of longitudinal
tire force as a function of the slip ratio is shown in
Fig 3. During braking the slip ratio might not be Wheel speed
Switch signal
small to adopt the linear small slip region for Engine speed
Brake torque
modeling tire force. So, the nonlinear tire model Vehicle speed
called The Pacejka “Magic Formula" is used. It is
given as in equation (11, 12)
CAN Node 4
55
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
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Radar
56
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
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CAN Node 2
57
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
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CAN Node 5
58
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
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engine control unit receives engine speed and car the message. Messages with smaller ID will have
speed from the car drive train and brake control unit higher priority. Each message have static properties
respectively. Throttle position signal, and brake which comprise message priority , message
torque signal for each wheel of the vehicle is period , message maximum transmission time ,
received by the car drive train unit subsystem. The message arrival time , (Robert et al, 2007). The
brake control unit computes car speed and wheel maximum transmission time , is determined by the
brake torque signal while it receives wheel speed number of data bytes, bit stuffs and inter frame
and car speed from car drive train. The user space, and it is computed by equation (21).
interface unit receives signals from ACC unit and
brake control unit and displays the information
about the traffic and information about state of the where is number of byte in data field of message,
ACC car for the driver. Fig. 11 is the block diagram is the time it takes to transmit one bit. The static
of the system. Written in the text box are the signal properties of CAN messages used in this work are
names with the arrows direction indicating the described as in table I.
direction of signal flow. In each CAN node there are
Apart from CAN messages with message ID of 100
two sub parts: the CAN controller and the CAN
and 21, all other CAN messages have transmission
transceiver. CAN controller is responsible for
time of 0.19 ms. So, for messages with message ID
packing and unpacking of the CAN messages. CAN
greater than 100, the maximum blocking time by the
transceiver is responsible for transmitting and
lower priority message occupying the bus is 0.27
receiving messages on the CAN bus. CAN receiver
ms. The blocking time by the lower priority
doesn't block messages rather receives all the
message is given by:
messages which are latter ignored by CAN
controller if it is not the needed one. CAN bus used
in this work is the high speed CAN bus with 0.5
Mbps bus speed. Each CAN message transmitted = set of messages with lower priority than
over a CAN bus is required to have unique ID. The message if a message is the lower priority
standard ID which is 11 bits in length is adopted for message, is equal to zero).
each message. When a CAN transmitter attempts to The ACC system is continuous system while the
transmit messages, it has to first detect if the bus is controller area network is a discrete system.
idle or not. If two/ more messages from the same Discrete system manipulates discrete signal; so, the
node or two or more nodes start to transmit continuous signals from the plant have to be
messages simultaneously, the bus arbitration based sampled and feed to CAN nodes. A zero holder
on message ID is triggered. The message with high sampler with sampling time of 5 ms is used to
priority which is a message with small ID will be sample the continuous signal from the ACC sub
transmitted winning the arbitration process. CAN systems.
messages are queued in priority queue in the nodes All the CAN messages packed by CAN controller
before being transmitted. The priority in the queue are sent over a CAN bus by a CAN transmitter
is based the value of identifier field in the header of periodically. The period of each message is assumed
59
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
ICAST2017
to be equal and it is 5 ms. The CAN bus adopted for gap. It shouldn't be affected by the transition effects
this system has a bus speed of 500 Kbps. With this from one mode of operation to another.
rate of bus speed, the time that it takes to transmit The first part of the throttle control unit is the
one bit will be 2 µs. The message length is acceleration demand part. The acceleration demand
calculated by adding the number of bits in the is computed from the reference speed and the ACC
header of the message to the number of data bits car speed. This demand quantifies the amount of
from the data field of the message. The message engine speed needed for the car to track the
transmitted by CAN transmitter is received by CAN reference speed and it is computed by PI control. It
is possible to call this a vehicle speed controller in
which the output is the acceleration demand.
Brake
Engine control unit
User
control
Interface
Unit unit
60
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
ICAST2017
where is brake torque and is effective wheel low level hydraulic brake controller, the wheel
radius. dynamics and longitudinal vehicle dynamics. CAN
controller and CAN transceiver are implemented by
the vehicle network block while the car drive train is
IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULT ANALYSIS
implemented by the simscape block. The sensors
The designed Distributed ACC system is and actuators are implemented by blocks from
implemented and analyzed using simulink block, simscape. The low level controllers in the engine
vehicle network block and Simscape block for control unit are implemented by simple simulink
different scenarios. User defined matlab functions blocks. Different figures are plotted in order to
are used to implement the ACC state algorithm, the analyze the performance of the designed system.
Fig.14. Speed control scenario at 40 Km/hr with target 100m away and desired time gap set to 0.9 seconds.
Fig.15. Time gap control scenario with constant relative range of 20 m between cars and both cars moving at the same
speed
61
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
ICAST2017
Fig.16. Time gap control scenario with variable relative range between cars
Fig.17. The mixed scenario: speed control at 40 Km/hr with target car 44.4m away and time gap control of 0.9 sec with
target car 20m away. In both cases the relative speed between cars is assumed to be zero.
62
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
ICAST2017
some periods and then enters speed control mode where U is network utilization rate, N is number
when the target range grows to 44.4m. of messages, is message transmission time and
is message period. When message period is
When CAN networks are used in the
increased, the network utilization rate is reduced
implementation of the closed loop system; as a
and this has a negative effect on the performance
result of the limited network bandwidth, two
of the designed control system as shown in fig.
sources of delays may occur. These are sensor to
19. In the figure the speed of the ACC car when
controller delay and controller to actuator delay.
the message period is 5 ms is compared to the
Any controller computational delay can be
speed when the message period is 100 ms.
absorbed into either delay without loss of
generality. The delays can affect the transient The network utilization rate when the message
response behaviors in a control system. The period is 5 ms is 65% while the network
general system performance as described by the utilization rate when the message period is 100 ms
criteria for step response may be degraded. This is 3.25%. The response of the system became
effect may include the increase of both overshoot oscillatory with the increased sampling time.
and settling time of the system step response. The Similarly, very high network utilization rate
delays can also affect the stability of a system and degrades the performance of the control system
cause the system to become unstable. Illustrated due to over loading of the network. The number
in fig. 18 is the comparison of speed of ACC car of messages to be transmitted over CAN network
with and without controller area network. As it is plays crucial role in choosing suitable message
clear from the figure, it is the transient behavior of period. The other important parameter in network
the system that is highly affected. Speed control based control system is the delay of messages.
mode is less affected than the time gap control The maximum delay a message my experience is
mode as the transient behavior is only for shorter calculated from the CAN Log data. From CAN
period. log data it is only possible to determine the
maximum delay, mean delay of the messages are
The CAN transmitter used in this work samples
difficult to determine. The maximum root mean
messages with a sampling period of 5ms.
square delay for a CAN network with sampling
Sampling period controls the network utilization
messages at a period of 5 ms and CAN bus speed
rate computed by:
of 500Kbps is 0.0048 seconds.
Fig.18. Speed comparison: The speed of ACC car when CAN bus is in the control loop is compared to Speed of ACC
car when components are connected by ideal connection
63
Distributed Adaptive Cruise Control
ICAST2017
Fig.19. The response of control system when sampling messages at different period. The speed at message sampling
period of 5ms and the speed at message sampling period of 100 ms are plotted
64
Design of Controller via Feedback Linearization for a Nonlinear Conical Tank ICAST217
Abstract — Nonlinear process control is a difficult task in process industries. They exhibit nonlinear
behavior, time variance and delays between inputs and outputs. This paper aims at implementing
feedback linearization technique in which a nonlinear system can be converted into a linear system.
Feedback linearization technique is completely different from conventional linearization which is
carried out around nominal operating point. Feedback linearization transforms the entire nonlinear
system to a linear system. In this paper, feedback linearization is used to linearize a nonlinear tank
and then state feedback control is implemented and compared with IMCPID controller designed via
linearization around operating points.
Key words Conical tank, feedback linearization, state feedback control, IMC, IMCPID
From which it is clearly evident that the system is
I. INTRODUCTION nonlinear. After substitution the parameters of
conical tank the equation (1) is simplified as
Many process industries use conical tanks because
of its shape contribute to better drainage (Gunaselvi,
2013). Conical tank is highly nonlinear due to
varying cross sectional area and dependence of out To control a nonlinear process it is common practice
flow rate on square root of liquid height (h) in the to linearize the system around operating points and
tank. Conical tank is widely used in paper schedule the controller gains according to the
industries, petro chemical industries and water operating points. The conventional linearization for
treatment plants etc (Madhubala, 2004; Christy & the system around the operating point at a height ‘h’
Dinesh Kumar, 2014). The control of liquid level in results into a transfer function as shown in equation
tanks and flow of the tank is a basic problem in 3.
process industries. A level that is too high may
upset reaction equilibrium, cause damage to
equipment, or result in spillage of valuable or
hazardous material. If the level is too low, it may
have bad consequences for the sequential operations
(Madhubala, 2004; Christy & Dinesh Kumar, 2014).
65
Design of Controller via Feedback Linearization for a Nonlinear Conical Tank ICAST217
Where
III. THEORY OF IMCPID CONTROLLER
In IMCPID controller design the process model is
explicitly used in the control system design
procedure. The standard feedback structure uses the Where ‘’ is the tuning parameter of IMC which
process model in an implicit fashion, that is, PID varies the speed of response and ‘n’ is order of
tuning parameters are “tweaked” on a transfer process.
function model, but it is not always clear how the
process model effects the tuning decision B. Design of IMCPID controller for delay free
(Kongratana,2012; Xiang et al., 2013). In the IMC first order process
formulation, the controller, q(s), is based directly on Consider a first order process
the “good” part of the process transfer function
(Kongratana,2012; Xiang et al., 2013). (9)
+
+ And
r(s) I. + h
_
C. Feedback linearization of conical tank
Feedback linearization is an approach to nonlinear
control design that has attracted lots of research in
Fig. 2. Feedback Equivalent structure of IMC recent years (Lichun et al., 2006).The central idea is
to algebraically transform nonlinear systems
Where dynamics into fully linear ones, so that linear
d(s) = disturbance control techniques can be applied. This differs
gp(s) = actual process entirely from conventional (Jacobean) linearization,
gp(s) = estimated process because linearization is achieved by means of
q(s) = IMC = gp(s) feedback, rather than by linear approximations of
gc(s) = feedback controller the dynamics. The implementation of feedback
linearization for a nonlinear conical tank is
So the standard feedback controller equivalent to explained as follows.
IMC structure is
Suppose if the input flow rate (Fin) is selected as
In practical to minimize the model mismatch a low Where ‘v’ is a synthetic input.
pass filter is added in series with the internal model
controller. So the controller transfer function is From equation (1)
(16)
66
Design of Controller via Feedback Linearization for a Nonlinear Conical Tank ICAST217
Where
LINEAR
CONTROLL
ER and
v
Substituting the parameters of conical tank of
interest
Fig. 3. Schematic of control strategy via feedback
linearization (25)
D. Design of full state feedback controller and
In this section the design of Full State Feedback
controller (FSF) is illustrated. From the equation (26)
(16) the system in hand is now linear between
And from equations (13) & (14) the values of and
output and synthetic input . proportional and integral gains are
If the synthetic input is selected as
(18)
&
Where
Substituting and values from equations (23)
And & (24) will give
K=Positive constant
and (28)
Now Equation (16) became
(19) IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Taking Laplace transform on both sides In this section performance of IMCPID and Full
State Feedback (FSF) controllers is compared. The
(20) performance is compared in terms of set point
tracking and disturbance rejection. Fig. 4 shows
controller performance for a set point of 40 cm.
(21)
45
controller designed via linearization around
40 operating points.
35
30
60
(levelm)
25
(c m)
20
40
IMCPID
SETPOINT
Lev el
15 FSF
10 20 IMC  PID
Set Point
5
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Time(s)
Time (s)
Fig. 4 Comparison of IMCPID vs FSF for a Set Point of
40 cm
60
Fig. 5 shows performance of controllers against set
point changes
(c m)
40
Lev el
Table I. Comparison of Time domain characteristics Set Point
20
FSF
Type of Rise Settling time Peak over
controller time(s) (s) shoot (%)
0
IMCPID (=10) 83.64 217.18 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Time (s)
FSF (K=10) 32.34 48.05 0
Fig. 6. IMCPID vs FSF against disturbance (A
Disturbance of 10cm and 10cm is introduced at 300s and
500s respectively)
50
45 REFERENCES
40 1. Gunaselvi Manoharl, Elakkiya V, Pearley Stanlel
35 and Sudha R. (2013). Neural Network Based Level
30 Control in Two Tank Conical Interacting System,
Level(cm)
25
Proceedings of International Conference on
Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO 2013),
20
IMCPID (pp.194196)
15 SET POINT
FSF 2. Madhubala, T K., M Boopathy, Sara Chandra Babu
10 and T K.Radhakrishnan (2004). Development and
5 tuning of fuzzy controller for a conical level system,
0
Proceedings of international Conference intelligent
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Time(s)
sensing and information Processing, (pp. 450455).
Tiruchirappalli, India.
Fig. 5. Performance comparison against set point changes 3. Y. Christy and D. Dinesh Kumar (2014). Modeling
Figure 6 shows controller performance against and Design of Controllers for Interacting Two Tank
Hybrid Systems (ITTHS), International Journal of
disturbance. A disturbance of 10 cm and 10cm is Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 3
introduced at 300s and 500s respectively. (7), 231239
4. Kongratana V, Tipsuwanporn V and Numsoran A
VI. CONCLUSION (2012). IMC based PID controller design for
torsional vibration system, 12th international
Feedback linearization is a powerful tool which conference on control, automation and systems Jeju
eliminates the necessity of partial linearization Island,korea.
around operating points and thus scheduling of
5. Leijun Xiang, Yinyin Dai and Xiaofen Lu (2013).
controller gains. To increase the robustness of the
Novel IMCPID Controller Design and Parameter
controller integral of error can be added to the
Tuning with Improving Control Performance for the
synthetic input (v). Feedback linearization of SOPTD Processes 10th IEEE International
conical tank gave excellent servo and Regulation Conference on Control and Automation (ICCA)
control performance when compared to Hangzhou, China.
conventional linearization. The response is smooth
as well as fast when compared to convention
68
Design of Controller via Feedback Linearization for a Nonlinear Conical Tank ICAST217
6. Lichun Li, Zhufeng Wang, Jingping Jiang, Stabilization Scheme for ThreePhase Grid
Xiaoming Yu (2006). Robust Design for Network Connected Photovoltaic Systems, IEEE Journal of
based Control System with Random Time Delay, Photovoltaics, 4(1), 423431.
TENCON 2006. Proceedings of 2006 IEEE Region
10 Conference.
7. Mahmud M. A., Pota H. R., Hossain M. J., and Roy
N. K. (2014). Robust Partial Feedback Linearizing
69
Design of Controller via Feedback Linearization for a Nonlinear Conical Tank ICAST217
70
Image processing for Pick and Place Gantry Robot
ICAST217
Abstract — In developed countries almost all manufacturing sectors employ automation and
computer aided manufacturing (CAM) to produce reliable and accurate products that can compete in
the market. But our country’s manufacturing sectors seems to struggle with that concept and still
chooses to relay on the good old man power that is unpredictable, inaccurate, slow, and expensive to
work with. So in this paper an attempt is made to apply some image processing techniques to improve
hoisting mechanisms of an industry for a better handling and transporting of products and raw
materials by using gantry robot.
Key words CAM, Image Processing, Gantry Robot
automation reduces the total production cycle
I. INTRODUCTION time, and second, it helps smooth flow of raw
In the manufacturing industries a lot of efforts are materials and finished products to their desired
expended in material handling tasks. This location with little or no human interference
situation has produced a significant increase in (Fredonia Focus).
the demand of material handling products that Gantry robots are electromechanical devices that
allows reducing these efforts, decreasing the can perform different tasks that are difficult,
consumed time and the costs of this activity. dangerous, repetitive or dull for human beings
Materials handling products and systems are (Abdela et al., 2016). They are devices that can be
found in almost every manufacturing and programmed to follow a set of instructions to
distribution company and for an endless number perform certain tasks (Abdela et al., 2016). The
of goods. robot consists of a manipulator mounted onto an
Automation has brought several drastic changes overhead system that allows it to move across
in manufacturing over the past century. These horizontal plane (Abdela et al., 2016). Gantry
changes include increase in overall productivity robots are also called Cartesian or linear robots
and profitability of a manufacturing system. (Abdela et al., 2016). They are usually large
Development of electronics (transistors and systems that perform pick and place applications,
microchips) led to a jump in control technology but they can also be used in welding and other
and precision of various instruments (Butala et applications. Gantry robot systems provide the
al., 2002). This laid a path for efficient and cost advantage of large work areas and better
effective manufacturing processes (Butala et al., positioning accuracy (John Craig, 2005). Position
2002). Automation of manufacturing systems accuracy is the ability of the robot to place a part
requires integration of various fields such as correctly (Abdela et al., 2016). Gantry robots are
mechanical, control and electronic systems, and easier to program, with respect to motion, because
computers (Butala et al., 2002). Automation in they work with an X, Y and Z coordinate system
various forms constitutes the backbone of most (John Craig, 2005). Another advantage is that
major industries. It has become a significant they are less limited by floor space constraints.
component of defense, medical, aerospace and Image processing is a form of signal processing
automotive industries, material processing and for which the input is an image, a series of images
handling, manufacturing and consumer products or a video and the output could either be an image
to meet the increasing demand for the production or a set of characteristic or parameters related to
volume and product variety. In the manufacturing the image (Adrian Rosebrock, 2014). Most image
industry, automation in material handling has processing techniques involve treating the image
increased the overall profitability of the product as a two dimensional signal and applying standard
with an improvement in the quality and signalprocessing methods using mathematical
productivity of the system (Fredonia Focus). This operations (Adrian Rosebrock, 2014).
is primarily due to two reasons. First,
71
Image processing for Pick and Place Gantry Robot
ICAST217
II. DESIGN OF MECHANICAL AND COMPUTER from the sensor matches the desired data given by
SYSTEM the user. That could be simply switching one device
The design of mechanical system of the device is on or turn the other off and the like.
responsible for the support and housing structure. It We can divide this system in to three main
is where all the electric components, gripping tool categories
and actuators are secured and the translation of The graphical user interface (GUI): is the part
motion takes place. of the computer program (code) that is directly in
The mechanical part of this device is very important contact with the user and gather information in the
and needs a lot of details because any failure in in form of numerical value.
this part will result in total loss of control and
stability. So it must be carefully designed and
installed without errors.
The translation motion is produced by attaching the
threaded bars to the motors and a fixed nut can be
dragged parallel to the axis of rotation with the
bearings on the iron bar effectively producing
sliding motion along the angle irons.
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Image processing for Pick and Place Gantry Robot
ICAST217
73
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