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RESTAURANTS

Improve Indoor Air Quality


and Energy Ef ciency

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Restaurant Design
Restaurants present a unique Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and ventilation challenge. A large amount of ventilation air is required for
both customers and the kitchen’s cooking exhaust. The dining area must also be positively pressurized relative to the kitchen and
restrooms. The restaurant’s HVAC equipment, therefore, must have adequate humidity control and pressurization to prevent humid
air from affecting customer comfort or causing humidity issues, such as slip & falls or musty odors.

Consequences of
HVAC Design Challenges Inadequate Humidity Control
Kitchen Area
t Ventilation based on cfm of hood exhaust to contain and remove unwanted ef uents Slip & Falls
t Negative pressure relative to dining area to avoid the transfer of odors, heat, etc. Food Spoilage
t Space conditions at adequate level for productivity
t Humidity control to avoid food spoilage, mold/bacteria, and slip & falls Mold/Bacteria
Dining Area Energy Consumption
t Ventilation air requirement based on 15 cfm/person or .2 cfm/sqft
t Positive pressure relative to the outdoors, kitchen and restrooms Restaurant Comfort
t Space temperature at comfortable level (avoid freezing customers)
Hood Performance
t Humidity control to avoid slip & falls, musty odors, costly maintenance, condensation on
windows or diffusers

Standard Approach
Conventional design practices have used separate HVAC systems in dining and kitchen areas. The dining area is often treated
with a packaged DX system that treats mixed air, primarily recirculated with minimal ventilation air. Operation is based on the
space dry bulb temperature only, without regard to humidity.
The kitchen area uses exhaust hoods to remove unwanted ef uents from the space. To make up the exhausted air, dedicated units
often supply up to 85% of the required ventilation (make-up) air, with only 15% transferred from adjacent spaces.
This common, but problematic, HVAC design in kitchens sometimes includes the use of internally compensating hoods or air
curtains. While these hoods introduce ventilation air at close proximity to the exhaust hood, this make-up air is untreated and
passes through at high velocities, causing the following problems to arise:

t Inadequate hood performance


t Insuf cient humidity control causing unproductive conditions for kitchen staff and unsafe sanitation in food prep area
t Inability to maintain kitchen at negative pressure leading to odor and humidity issues in adjacent areas

Ventilation
Kitchen Kitchen Ventilation Air Ventilation Air Ventilation Air
Exhaust 700 cfm 700 cfm 700 cfm Toilet
Intake
3,500 cfm Gravity Exhaust
2,800 cfm
Conventional Conventional Relief Conventional 400 cfm
RTU RTU Damper RTU

3,500 cfm 2,800 cfm 3,500 cfm 2,800 cfm 3,500 cfm 2,800 cfm

Kitchen Dining
AIRTRANSFER HUMIDITY CONTROL

Ventilation air’s velocity has a signi cant effect on the exhaust Controlling humidity in restaurants has proven to be a signi cant
hood’s capability to capture and contain unwanted ef uents. challenge due to the high quantities of ventilation air required.
Too often hoods and air curtains operate at higher than design Depending on the climate and occupancy load, the quantity of
rates of ventilation air, resulting in ventilation air a conventional HVAC unit can treat ranges from
a “short circuit effect” that causes 10-15% of the total supply. This limitation can result in the use
poor IAQ and reduced C&C rates. To of multiple HVAC units to meet the latent load requirements,
overcome potential issues, ventilation oversizing of the equipment, freezing customers, and an increase
air velocity at the hood should be less in the project’s rst costs, electrical requirements, structural
than 75 fpm and designers should reinforcements and utility costs. In contrast, drying the ventilation
supply at least 40% of the required air with a dedicated unit allows for smaller cooling units, improved
ventilation air through transfer air. IAQ and better humidity control throughout the entire facility.

Optimized Approach to Improve IAQ and Reduce Costs


A design approach that introduces treated make-up air and offers powerful humidity control can greatly impact exhaust hood
performance, HVAC sizing and utility costs while also improving worker/food safety and diner comfort.
Designing a dedicated make-up air unit with liquid desiccant technology allows for greater humidity control and lower operating
costs due to the lower dewpoint of the supply air and operating ef ciencies associated with these systems (20-40% less energy
costs compared to vapor compression systems). Without the need to overcool the air to remove moisture, liquid desiccant units
deliver optimal air quality with lower operating costs and maintenance. These systems also work as a natural disinfectant, scrubbing
germs from the air and eliminating problematic water sources from wet coils and drip pans.
Furthermore, by incorporating a liquid desiccant system in conjunction with a conventional cooling system to control the air in
the dining area, one can save on operating costs by dehumidifying the space without cooling during unoccupied hours. When
the restaurant is closed, the liquid desiccant system can operate in 100% recirculation mode, dehumidifying the space to protect
furnishings/building integrity, prolong shelf life of food supplies and avoid spikes in humidity during occupied hours.

Ventilation Air
Ventilation Air Toilet
Conventional 3,600 cfm
Kitchen 750 cfm Exhaust
RTU
Exhaust 400 cfm
3,500 cfm
5,000 cfm

4,250 cfm 3,600 cfm Unoccupied mode


3,600 cfm
Kitchen Dining
3,500 cfm

Comparison of Restaurant HVAC Systems


Dedicated Outdoor Advantix Systems
Conventional A/C Air KEY BENEFITS
System(Aaon, Addison)
Liability Risk (slip &
falls, mold, bacteria, etc.) t Decrease liability risk from slip & falls or food spoilage
Operating Costs t Increase C&C performance of exhaust hoods
t Improve Indoor Air Quality in dining room and kitchen
HVAC Maintenance t Achieve greater humidity control for improved
Facility Maintenance customer comfort and staff productivity
(Furnishings, Carpets, etc.) t Reduce HVAC size, electrical and structural requirements
First Costs
t Lower operating costs during full and part load
conditions

Sources:
Design Guide 3, Improving Kitchen Ventilation System Performance, Integrating Kitchen Exhaust Systems with Building HVAC, www. shnick.com
Humidity Control Design Guide, for Commercial and Institutional Buildings, Harriman, Brundrett, Kittler
HOW IT WORKS THE THERMODYNAMIC SHORTCUT

Advantix Systems’ dehumidi cation & cooling products are Liquid desiccant technology conditions the air
based on liquid desiccant’s natural removal of moisture from air. directly, eliminating the “rework” required of
This non-toxic, brine solution conventional and solid desiccant systems.
dehumidi es, cools, and cleans REGENERATOR
Exhaust Air
CONDITIONER
Treated Air

the air in a simultaneous 50


200

190

process (Conditioner). Under


85

180

170

>

>
>
>
>

>

>
>
>
>
>

>
normal conditions, the desiccant
45

160
80
Thermal 150

does not carryover or need to


Energy
Liquid Desiccant Liquid Desiccant 40
140

75
130

be replaced for any reason over

DEW POINT TEMPERATURE - F


OA
35 120

H2 O 110 70

the lifetime of the system. When Captured

HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR


%
Conventional

90
100
30
65

80%
Cooling Coil Liquid
90

heated, the liquid desiccant

%
Desiccant
80

70
60
25

70

releases the collected moisture (to be exhausted)

%
%
Air Air

60
25 55
60
(to be treated) 20 50
%
IA 50
Solid
50

to the external environment Desiccant


%
40 45
15 % 40
15
40
30%
30 35

(Regenerator). Liquid desiccant is also a natural disinfectant,


ITY
10 HUMID
20% LATIVE 30
8% RE 20 25
IDITY 6% 20
TIVE HUM
10% RELA 4% 10

eliminating airborne microorganisms.


10
2% 0

20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130


Chart by: HANDS DOWN SOFTWARE, www.handsdownsoftware.co m DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - F

For more information on Advantix Systems liquid desiccant dehumidi cation systems,
visit www.advantixsystems.com or contact us at sales@advantixsystems.com /
888.818.5171

RES-APG-AE-011 2013-03

www.advantixsystems.com