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Volume 41 Number 12 December 2013

Contents ISSN 0376-7256
2-3 From the Editor’s Desk - “Can Roads Be Saviour to Environment”
4 Important Announcement-74th Annual Session to be Held at Guwahati from 18th to 22nd January 2014
5-39 Highlights of International Seminar on “Experience Gained in PPP Projects in Road Sector - the Way Forward” Held at New Delhi on
11-12 November, 2013
40 A Laboratory Study on Short Term and Long Term Ageing of Bitumen Using Modifiers
Praveen Kumar, Shambhavi Mishra and Nikhil Saboo
52 Comparative Study of Wet and Dry Blending of Plastic Modified Bituminous Mix Used in Road Pavements
M. Veerendra Kumar, R. Muralidhara and Divya J. Nair
59 The Impact of Road Construction on Depletion of Natural Aggregates and Consequence of Delay in Recycling Pavements - Key Factors
in Sustainable Road Construction
Rajib B. Mallick, Michael Radzicki, Yamini V. Nanagiri and A. Veeraragavan
70 A Study on Response Spectrum and Time History Analysis Methods for Seismic Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Bridges
Saadat Zaki Mulla
75 How Safe are Indian Highways at Night
Partha Aich and M.K. Ganguly
93 Behaviour of Piles Under Loads
K.S. Agashe
96 Split Tensile Strength Test of Lime and Cement Stabilized Fly Ash
Kaushik Bandyopadhyay and Sunanda Bhattacharjee
102 Just Published
103-105 Circular Issued by MORT&H
106 Aasam Road Research and Training Institute
107 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow
108 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Allahabad
109 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Bareilly
110 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow
111 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow
112 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow
113 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow
114 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow
115 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Chennai
116 Tender Notice of NH Circle, Kanpur
117-118 IRC Membership Form
119-120 74th Annual Session Registration Form
121-122 74th Annual Session Accommodation Form

The Indian Roads Congress Founded : December 1934

E-mail: secretarygen@irc.org.in/indianhighways@irc.org.in IRC Website: www.irc.org.in
Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road, Kama Koti Marg, Sector 6, R.K. Puram
New Delhi - 110 011 New Delhi - 110 022
Tel : Secretary General: +91 (11) 2338 6486 Tel : Secretary General : +91 (11) 2618 5303
Sectt. : (11) 2338 5395, 2338 7140, 2338 4543, 2338 6274 Sectt. : (11) 2618 5273, 2617 1548, 2671 6778,
Fax : +91 (11) 2338 1649 2618 5315, 2618 5319, Fax : +91 (11) 2618 3669

No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the Secretary General, IRC.
Edited and Published by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress (IRC), New Delhi. The responsibility of the
contents and the opinions expressed in Indian Highways is exclusively of the author/s concerned. IRC and the Editor disclaim responsibility
and liability for any statement or opinion, originality of contents and of any copyright violations by the authors. The opinions expressed in the
papers and contents published in the Indian Highways do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor or IRC.
From the Editor’s Desk


Dear Readers,
Can roads be considered conducive to environment preservation & conservation? The issue is
debatable but when we see from the aspect of civilization and human inclusive growth, then many
options becomes visible which suggests that roads can be a savior of environment, environment
preservation and protection efforts.
It is commonly debated that the road construction requires lot of natural resources and, therefore,
how they can be considered conducive to environment preservation? Perhaps in the infrastructure
sector, roads sector have maximum possibilities of use of waste material, industrial by-products as
well as municipal waste. The need is to inculcate the concept of achieving higher carbon footprints
in the road construction and operation system. This require dedicated efforts of all the stakeholders
and more importantly the need to carryout dedicated research in a more intensive and extensive
manner. However, over the years the attention towards research in the road sector have taken a
backseat, which now requires a relook. It may not be appropriate to overlook the strength of some
good practices of the past especially on the aspect of principles of alignment fixation which use
to be finalized considering the ecological issues. This can be seen from the fact that some of the
national highways are having alignment fixed long back (some few centuries ago). This must
be the integral feature of a road sector project preparation especially for the new alignments or
The optimization of land resources in spite of building activities taking place on either side of
the road is yet to be fully integrated and still the concept of by-passes is practiced as a normal
routine. Considering the life cycle cost analysis, it will be always be more environmental friendly
if we consider and implement the concept of multilevel highways/road facilities on the existing
alignment. This may also help in the resulted huge savings in land acquisition and rehabilitation
efforts. Hence economically high returns but doubted by finance minded people normally having
short term perspective/vision.
The issue of material requirement especially the sand, aggregates, etc. do have environmental
concerns but if proper integrated approach is followed by interlinking the various programs of
different Ministries/Departments/Organizations, to a larger extent the environmental concerns
may get translated into a system of environment preservation and conservation. This is a difficult
proposition but not impossible and pessimists will always criticize of such type of concept. However,
this is the need of the hour.
Do road constructions contribute towards climate change? Answer may be both in affirmative as
well as in negative sense. There are number of ways, techniques & technology which may allow

2 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


road construction activity to transform into climate friendly process. The need is to transform the
narrow mind set to a more positive & pragmatic approach.
Do we really carry out value of return on the investment made in the road sector? And how it has
relevance on the environment conservation? A deeper thought is required to be given as most of the
time the right technical solutions having much higher economic returns are discarded on financial
considerations. The time has come when the financial decisions needs to be subjected to technical
audit and the road sector if it adopts the same may give much higher economic returns to the society
and the country.
Do the road accidents have environmental impacts? If we compromise the safety of road users
especially the pedestrians by just deleting the provisions of footpath or pedestrians cross over
facilities, etc. does it have impact on the environment? Why the roads especially in the urban areas
should not be made conducive and safe for the non-motorized vehicles/cyclists as well as pedestrians.
By doing so how much saving we can make in economic terms as well as from environmental
considerations. All these issues require a concerted approach as well as synergization of efforts
from all stakeholders.
The need is not to criticize and indulge in blame game but to learn from the failures and bring
in more ecological friendly processes, procedures, techniques and technology to not only reduce
degradation of the eco-system but to create a process of rehabilitation of eco-system that has been
degraded, damaged or destroyed. The road sector can play a pioneering role and in this direction
Indian Roads Congress has already taken some steps and have just published the Guidelines on “Use
of Plastic Waste in Road Construction”. More efforts by the fraternity of Indian Roads Congress
are underway for such process & technologies in the road sector which may ultimately prove to be
a savior sector to the environment among all the infrastructure sectors.

“Do you want to know who you are? Do not ask. Act! Action will delineate and define you”

“Thomas Jefferson”

Place: New Delhi  Vishnu Shankar Prasad

Dated: 21st November, 2013 Secretary General

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 3

Important Announcement
from 18th to 22nd JANUARY 2014

On the invitation of Government of Assam, the 74th Annual Session of the Indian Roads Congress will be
held at Guwahati (Assam) from 18th to 22nd January, 2014. The Invitation Booklet containing the Tentative
Programme, Registration Form, Accommodation Form etc. is available in our website www.irc.org.in. The
Relevant Registration and Accommodation Forms are attached with this edition in the end.
The 74th Annual Session of the Indian Roads Congress is scheduled to be held at Guwahati. It is expected that
more than 3000 Highway Engineers from all over the country and abroad will attend this Session. During the
Annual Session of IRC, there has been a practice for various firms/organizations to make Technical Presentations
on their products/technologies & case studies (with innovative construction methods or technologies or having
special problems requiring out of the box thinking and special solutions). The presenters get an opportunity
to address a large gathering of highway professionals from Private Sector as well as decision makers in the
Govt. Sector. These presentations evoke lively interactions among the participants.
A time slot of about 15 minutes is normally allocated for each Technical Presentation to be made through
Power Point. Time is also given for floor interventions. Audio-visual equipment is made available at the
venue for these Presentations.
During Technical Presentation Session no other meetings will be held parallel so as to ensure maximum
attendance during the Technical Presentation Session. The stakeholders are, therefore, requested to
participate in the event and book the slots at the earliest.
Interested Organizations may write to IRC conveying their willingness for participation and send the topic
of their Technical Presentation by E-mail at journal@irc.org.in or through Speed Post alongwith a Demand
Draft for Rs.50,000/- (Rupees Fifty Thousand only) drawn in favour of Secretary General, Indian Roads
Congress, New Delhi latest by 20th December, 2013 so that necessary arrangements can be made by IRC.
Requests received after 20th December, 2013 will not be entertained. Since the time slot available is limited,
the interested firms/organizations may reserve the slots at the earliest instead of waiting for the last date.

Attention Invited
For any enquiry about the 74th Annual Session like Registration, Membership etc. please address to
Secretary General, (Kind Attn. Shri D. Sam Singh, Under Secretary) Indian Roads Congress,
Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110 022. Phone + 91 11 26185273, 26185315, 26185319,
E-mail: secretarygen@irc.org.in, or contact the following officers:
Registration Membership Technical Presentation Accommodation and Technical
Shri S.K. Chadha Shri Mukesh Dubey Shri S.C. Pant Shri Suryya Kr. Baruah
Under Secretary (I/C) Section Officer Section Officer Local Organizing Secretary &
Phone: + 91 11 2338 7140 Phone: + 91 11 2338 7759 Phone: + 91 11 2618 5273 SE, Building Circle -I, Highways,
E-mail: annualsession@irc.org.in, E-mail: membership@irc.org.in E-mail: journal@irc.org.in Guwahati- 641 018 (Assam)
ircannualsession@gmail.com Phone: 0361-266 9873
M.: +91-98640 33268
E-mail: 74thircguwahati@gmail.com

4 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

ON 11-12 NOVEMBER, 2013
Welcoming Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways, Govt. of India Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji

Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways being Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways being
welcomed by Shri C. Kandasamy, President, IRC and welcomed by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad,
Director General (Road Development) & SS, MoRTH Secretary General, IRC

Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways meeting with Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways and other
National & International Delegates Dignitaries on the way to Seminar Hall

The Indian Roads Congress (IRC) in association Sector Engineers/Professionals representing various
with the World Road Congress (PIARC) and Govt. of facets of road sector fraternity all over the globe as
France organized two days International Seminar on well as from Central/State Govt. Departments, PSUs,
"Experience Gained in PPP Projects in Road Sector – Private Sector Orgnizations, Academic Institutes,
The Way Forward" from 11th to 12th November, 2013 Banking and Financing Institutes, Legal Firms, etc.
at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi. The International and also from multilateral orgnization like World
Seminar was attended by more than 300 Highway Bank, Asian Development Bank, JICA, etc.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 5

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri B.K.Chaturvedi Ji, Member (Power Energy & Transport), Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways, Govt. of India,
Planning Commission, Govt. of India being welcomed by Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji with Shri B.K.Chaturvedi Ji and
Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad, Secretary General, IRC Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad

Shri T.K.A. Nair Ji, Advisor to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India His Excellency Shri Francois Richier Ji, Ambassador of Govt. of
being welcomed by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad, France to India being welcomed by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad,
Secretary General, IRC Secretary General, IRC

Shri Arvind Mayaram Ji, Secretary, Department of Economic Shri Gajendra Haldea Ji, Advisor to Deputy Chairman
Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India being welcomed by (Infrastructure), Planning Commission, Govt. of India being
Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad, Secretary General, IRC welcomed by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad,
Secretary General, IRC

6 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Inaugural Function
Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji, Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways inaugurated the International Seminar
by lighting the traditional lamp.

Lighting of Traditional Lamp during the International Seminar

Other dignitaries, Shri Arvind Mayaram, Secretary, Shri Gerardo L Gavilanes Gineres, Chairman of the
Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Technical Committee, PIARC; Shri P.N. Jain, Past
Govt. of India; His Excellency Shri Francois Richier, President, IRC; Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad, Secretary
Ambassador of Govt. of France; Lt. Gen. A.T. Parnaik, General, IRC and S/Shri K.K.Y. Mahindrakar and
Director General (Border Roads); Shri C. Kandasamy, Shri Swatantra Kumar Vice-Presidents of IRC also
Director General (Road Development) & SS, Ministry graced the occasion.
of Road Transport & Highways, President of IRC,

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 7

Highlights of International Seminar

Some Glimpses of Inaugural Function

Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways, Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji being welcomed in traditional manner with Shawl by
President IRC, Shri C. Kandasamy, DG (RD) & SS, MoRTH

Shri Arvind Mayaram, Secretary, Department of Economic His Excellency Shri Francois Richier, Ambassador of Govt.
Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India being welcomed in of France to India being welcomed in traditional manner with
traditional manner with Shawl by President IRC Shawl by President IRC, Shri C. Kandasamy, DG(RD) & SS,
Shri C. Kandasamy, DG(RD)&SS, MoRTH

Shri Gerardo L. Gavilanes Gineres, Chairman, Technical Lt. Gen. A.T. Parnaik, Director General (Border Roads) being
Committee of PIARC being welcomed in traditional manner with welcomed in traditional manner with Shawl by Shri P.N. Jain,
Shawl by President IRC, Shri C. Kandasamy, Immediate Past President of IRC

8 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri C. Kandasamy, President, IRC and DG (RD) & SS, MoRTH Shri P.N. Jain, Immediate Past President of IRC being welcomed
being welcomed in traditional manner with Shawl by in traditional manner with Shawl by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad,
Shri P.N. Jain, Immediate Past President of IRC Secretary General, IRC

Shri K.K.Y. Mahindrakar, Vice President, IRC being welcomed Shri Swatantra Kumar, Vice President, IRC being welcomed in
in traditional manner with Shawl by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad, traditional manner with Shawl by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad,
Secretary General IRC Secretary General IRC

A view of the dais during Inaugural Function

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 9

Highlights of International Seminar

Address by Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & Highways, Govt. of India

necessary for the Highway Engineers to provide world

class roads to our Citizens, facilitating their access to
education, health and well-being, within the context
of sustainable development.  UPA Government has
given a thrust to all areas of infrastructure in the
country. It is no more a secret that the highway sector
in the country is witnessing a significant increase in
activities, in recent years. The Government has made
substantial efforts to tackle the road and shortcomings
of highways sector and to reform its transport
institutions. Perhaps India is the one country where
private sector financing is taking place on a big way in
the shape of Public Private Parternship (PPP) Projects.
Government is continuously making efforts to create a
conducive environment to channelized private sector
With the growing road construction industry,
environmental burdens are not far behind because of
the use of resources, the emission of pollutants and
global warming, which affect society at large. Roads
have significant impacts on both nearby communities
and the natural environment. New roads bring
development to previously underdeveloped areas,
sometimes causing significant effects on sensitive
environments and the lifestyles of indigenous
people. Our UPA Government is committed to an all-
Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji, Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport & round development of road network in the country.
Highways delivering Inaugural Address Strategically, adding lanes to existing highway and
“Distinguished Dignitaries, Delegates from India upgrading existing roads in initial phase will reduce
& Abroad, Invitees, Guest & Friends from the greenhouse gas emissions by easing congestion. This
Media strategy is paying by reducing the amount of fuel that
vehicles waste in stop-and-go traffic, leading to lower
It is a matter of great pleasure to be amongst the galaxy
releases of greenhouse gases from vehicles. India is
of experts gathered from all over the world on the
soon going to have one of the world’s most extensive
occasion of this International Seminar “Experience
National highway networks through various phases of
Gained in PPP Project in Road Sector – The Way
the National Highways Development Project planned
Forward” being organized jointly by the Indian Roads
by the Government.
Congress (IRC), Government of France & World
Road Association (PIARC). As you all know road The one area of concern to which I would like to draw
infrastructure contributes not only to the economic the attention of all the Experts is the conservation of
growth of the nation but also help in poverty alleviation the material. There is a need to save scarce physical
and generation of employment. It is, therefore resource like aggregates, sand, earth, cement, bitumen,

10 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

etc. looking to huge programme of construction of that there is proper integration and inter-linkages
highways in the country. Construction of roads require between laboratory research and field requirements/
huge amount of soil and a great part of it is drawn implementations. I would like to give the slogan “field
from fertile top soil suitable for agriculture purposes. to lab & lab to field” and the private entrepreneurs
should not feel hesitate in associating and collaborating
Here I feel that we need a convergence of various
with the government institutions to carry out people
efforts.  To my mind it is not our department alone
oriented research activities in the road sector.
should take up this task, we should have conversions
with Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Rural We are developing roads as a National asset at a huge
Development where we have extensive programme cost. These assets need to be preserved qualitatively
to provide employment to our people - hundred days through asset management initiatives. We need to
guaranteed employment in the country for every work out appropriate maintenance strategies keeping
household. Their main task is to create water bodies.  in view the available budget and the required demand.
Whereas, in another government department of water This concept is having high relevance in the big ticket
resources, we are planning to build 10,000 water long term projects of PPP segment. It also opens up
bodies, and spending money to create water bodies.  opportunity for usage of new materials, techniques
We in the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways & technologies and I urge upon the Consultants,
are digging out earth for use in road building. Here Concessionaires as well as executing agencies
I say why don’t we utilize that soil dug for creating including officers of the government to develop suitable
water bodies.  We will be conserving rather than mechanism for adoption of the best on continuous
we spending money and wasting our resources.  Let basis. The system should be flexible enough for quick
us interlink various departments - Water Resource adoption of the same but rigid enough to identify and
Ministry should be one, Ministry of Agriculture and quantify the end product result/quality.
Ministry of Irrigation can also be associated. One of
As it happens, over a period of time some
our main concerns is to find money to maintain the
apprehensions gets developed about the suitability of
roads. What I say is along the highways we have
a system, which may be due to changed conditions
plenty of land where we plant saplings & make them
and scenarios or may be due to changed aspirations
grow into trees. Somebody had planted a tree & we are
of users/stakeholders. This is also true to PPP road
eating the fruits.  Why don’t we plant tree and leave
projects and the government is taking appropriate
them there till they will grow up. After twenty, thirty,
measures to address those issues. In this year budget,
forty, fifty years you cut them and use that income for
government have already announced setting up
maintaining roads.  Let us have thinking on these lines
a regulatory mechanism on which work is going
so that, we not only draw from nature but we add to
on besides the issues of debt management/debt
the wealth of the nature.
refinancing, institutional strengthening, restructuring
On the other hand, we have problem of the disposal of projects, revision of MCA, etc. are being examined
& storage of industrial waste like fly-ash, copper slag, and being regularity reviewed and revised. I am
marble slurry, etc.  We should make sincere efforts happy that this International Seminar is taking place
in utilizing these waste materials in construction of at the most appropriate time and I compliment the
roads through complete/partial replacement for sub- organizers especially the Indian Roads Congress for
grade, embankment construction to conserve the top this endeavor.
soil suitable for cultivation.  Stabilization by use of
We are also planning for constructing green field
chemical, enzymes and modifiers should be attempted
expressways and I am told that Indian Roads
to utilize the otherwise unsuitable soil. Our research
Congress have developed a Manual in a record time
based activity should be conducted in such a manner
of nine months for Specifications and Standards

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 11

Highlights of International Seminar

for Expressways which will be form the part of the needs to be recognized. There is a need for openness
contract agreement. I am told it is going to be released and transparency in the contracts and concession
today. My special compliments for the same. agreements. Once you have signed the contracts,
can you open it again without attracting criticism or
I am sure during the course of 2 days program highly
without attracting adverse attention? There is always
useful and meaningful discussion & deliberations will
an issue of moral hazard. Therefore, it is necessary
be carried out by the experts which have come from
to revisit the concession agreement keeping in view
different parts of the world and different stakeholders.
the stressed PPP projects without failing into the
I am sure the sharing of experience, expertise and
trap of moral hazard. How best we can address these
wisdom by the stalwarts in the road sector will lead to
important issues keeping in view the sovereign and
new workable suggestions & recommendations. I am
the Concessionaire liability in a transparent manner.
eagerly awaiting the same.
The need is to develop a transparent framework for a
I wish the International Seminar all the success. negotiable determination of the relief that can be given
Jai Hind” to the stressed projects. In this context I am happy that
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways is finalizing a
Address by Shri Arvind Mayaram, Secretary,
framework for a road regulator who I believe in future
Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of
will act as an Independent arbitrator to determine
Finance, Govt. of India
where the responsibility for stressed projects lies. The
other issue which I think is important for us in our
deliberations is developing private sector capabilities.
We have now realized that those who have come into
the PPP projects concession period of 25-30 years
do not have the capability of running concession for
such long period. They are having core competence
in the construction only and once they have done
construction, they want to move out of the same. So
we require the facilitating process of allowing them to
take out their equity stake and simultaneously we need
to develop the management companies seen in some of
the foreign countries like USA & France. The facility
Shri Arvind Mayaram, Secretary, Department of Economic
management company in France take over the project
Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India, delivering address
and operate & managed for next 20 to 25 years. We are
“Hon’ble Minister for Road Transport & Highways, looking at important aspect of creating infrastructure
Ladies and Gentlemen, Public Private Partnership finance & management towards companies which will
is here to stay. We have now the largest program in step in after the PPP facility is successfully constructed
all the sectors combined and road have always in the and then get new investors to manage the facilities
forefront. I am going to speak very quickly only at three during the operation & maintenance period. Lastly, I
important issues which I think will be discussed during would like to speak which is about problem of getting
the deliberations in the Seminar. First important fact is long term financing and transfer of debt. You might
that we started PPP and we have not envisaged at that have read in the newspapers how the banks in India
point of time the integration of World economy and are engaged in stretching the loan period to say 10 to
Indian economy.  The turmoil in the global economy 15 years. The infrastructure debt funds will make the
is being felt in India. Now we recognized that there projects more viable without attracting the regulatory
is a dynamic environment for PPP sector and this penalty while reconstructing the debt/loan of the

12 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Concessionaires. This has been a major problem of we have all these investments and we are keen to see
the Concessionaires and the Industry. I hope we will infrastructure developing in India because we need
be able to move in this direction and create framework them good for these companies which are currently
for long term financing.  Thank you very much” benefiting from 2.5 lakh Indian skilled personnel. And
we need also across the board strong India with strong
Special Address by His Excellency Shri Francois
infrastructures and strong stand in the international
Richier, Ambassador of Govt. of France to India
community. The latest bi-lateral development between
France and India is technological partnership and
flagship of that was recent India-France technology
summit which took place in Delhi and highlighted
number of sectors in which we find a great common
interest into joining hands and sharing technologies
for the betterment of two countries. And here also
in infrastructure component, I am sure the different
companies present here which all have very cutting
edge technology, are ready to contribute to Indian
growth and sharing those particular technology. In
this context the PPP model that we are going to look
His Excellency Shri Francois Richier, Ambassador of Govt. of into today is certainly the way forward. From the tests
France to India delivering address some time before, we reached the conclusion that
we have best of law on PPP model in this sector. If
"Hon’ble Minister for Road Transport and Highways
I recollect correctly in 2004 less than ten years ago,
Shri Oscar Fernandes, Shri Arvind Mayaram,
since then it has developed quite well and there was
Secretary, Deptt. of Econimics Affairs, Ministry of
some good reason for that simply because when you
Finance, dignitaries from Indian Roads Congress,
have such a growing demand, expectations are from
distinguish delegates, ladies and gentlemen, I am very
the people to have good roads. When you have such
happy to be here in the Inauguration of this Seminar.
difficulties to finance them. We found it absolutely
It fits very well in the direction which were given few
necessary to develop that model and I would like to
month ago on the occasion of State visit of French
add other element from smaller countries other than
President Mr. Francois Hollande to India in February.
India, which we look at the grow question in Europe.
During this visit, of course, he highlighted strategic
We have like most of the growth in India is generated
pillars of Indo-French partnership in nuclear, defence,
by the domestic consumption, therefore, I think this
tourism, space and others, but he also highlighted the
seminar is very timely. I mention the French companies
necessity for India to join hands in developing the
some of them are present here. I have a list, before
economic partnership and today I think we are on the
I read the list, I hope I don’t forget anybody that is
right track with 750 French companies present with
Sistha Engeineering, Facenemania Gohebja NAPC in
18 Billion stock of Investments which shows the
construction, Hindustan Colas in Bitumen equipment
confidence we have in France in the future and the
supply & construction and Quasi group in waterways
growth of India as major economic partner in the World.
constructions, I think they all are ready to participate
This has also of course, in this different dimensions
in competition in India to build roads. As many other
and one of course is infrastructure development with
companies present in India they have some concern
urban or others and is definitely to keep priority of this
and legitimate once which could be very well in the
economic partnership that we are developing. There
future may become hurdles if not addressed now in
is several reasons for that, the first one is that because
the development of infrastructure in India. I am very

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 13

Highlights of International Seminar

happy that this International Seminar will contribute views between experts came from different countries. 
to find solutions and few good reflections, new ideas I am sure that based on these deliberations innovative
and innovative proposals to fix these concerns and I ways and means will emerge for inclusive growth &
am sure that we have great future together. development in road sector.
Thank you very much". Thank You”
Address by Shri C. Kandasamy, President, Address by Shri Gerardo L. Gavilanes Gineres,
Indian Roads Congress and Director General (RD) Chairman, Technical Committee of PIARC
& Special Secretary, MoRT&H

Shri Gerardo L Gavilanes Gineres, Chairman of the Technical

Committee, PIARC (TC-2.1- Financing) delivering address
Shri C. Kandasamy, President, IRC and Director General
(Road Development) & SS, Ministry of Road Transport & “Excellencys, Ladies and Gentlemen, I welcome to
Highways, delivering address you all to this International Seminar “Experience
gained in PPP Project in Road Sector – The Way
“Distinguished dignitaries, delegates and invitees,
Forward” organized by the Indian Roads Congress.
friends from the media, ladies and gentlemen. A very
On behalf of PIARC International, Secretary General
good morning to you.
I would like to give you a few words about what
As we know, the road sector plays a vital role in the PIARC is. Most of you already know it but  Some
development of the Nation and the Society.  The of you might not know. The Worlds Road Association
demand for rapid development needs the effort commonly known as PIARC, is  a non-political non-
of the government be supplemented with private profitable organization, that was established in 1909.
participation channelizing and utilizing private sector So it’s a long history in its back of PIARC. It is known
efficiency. As we all know, Govt. of India has declared as PIARC because PIARC  stands for “Permanent
this decade as the decade of innovation for inclusive International Association of Road Congresses” and
growth and the UN has declared this decade, the was namely association  is to have   between 1909
decade of action for road safety.  The Indian Roads and 1995. Now the name changed and is known as
Congress in its Coimbatore Session in January, 2013 World Roads Association but for a customary word it
has adopted the resolution that the “Roads be built is still known as PIARC. The mission of PIARC is to
not only for the vehicles  but for the people, safety organize International forums as this and to disseminate
and services”. This shift the focus on the people and best practices – promote efficient tools for decision
services for inclusive growth and road safety.  The makers and giving  special emphasis for European
ways and means of achieving these objectives will be countries and countries with economic internships. In
greatly benefitted from such Seminars and exchange of this respect there are already 118 members from all

14 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

over the world, 31 in Asia, 32 in Africa, 33 in Europe take advantage of the occasion and will meet for
and 22 in America. 37 countries are participating in another two days. Thank you”
the International Committees to PIARC, Committees
which are established in every country to promote
working of PIARC. The work of PIARC is established
every four years period depending on  certain things
that have been selected before. For this period which is
already in   2012-2015, there are for statutory things-
management of performance, efficient mobility, safety
in road infrastructure, etc. There are 18 technical
committees and 2 task forces.  Apart from them, there
is a permanent  committee on terminology which
is something that we found useful  because most
of the countries are having  different ways for the Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad, Secretary General, IRC
same things, the work is to unify and come with a delivering welcome address
uniform terminology  which  works of every one . The
Committee we belong to is committee 1.2 which is for
financing and management performance. This is one
of the issues & important aspects of PPP roads now
a days, where to find money to do the things better,
provide the better service to citizens. Our work mainly
consists of studying  in different strategy of financing,
different approaches, different ways, PPP tradition
of procurement, etc. and finally at the end of  this 4
years period, we will be able to produce technical
report that will be useful for everyone who wants to
do anything about the world roads finance. To give
the honoraria to the proforma cycle 2008-11, there Shri P.N. Jain, Immediate Past President, IRC
were 56 technical reports produced by the different delivering vote of thanks

technical committees. All of them are available to Vote of Thanks by Shri P.N. Jain, Immediate Past
you all in www.piarc.org, which is a web page for President, IRC
PIARC. You can find most of their services available
“Good morning every body”. Hon’ble Minister of
on knowledge base, virtual library, terminology Road Transport and Highways Shri Oscar Fernandes
information about the association, if you want to have Ji, all other dignitaries on the dais, off the dais,
more details about it. The next World Roads Congress distinguished delegates from India and Abroad,
will take place in Seoul in 2015. I would like to finish invitees, guests and friends from the media, On
this introduction with special thanks to Indian Roads behalf of the Indian Roads Congress it is my proud
Congress for organizing this PPP seminar which I privilege to propose vote of thanks on the occasion
think will be useful for everyone. After this Seminar of inaugural function of International Seminar on
which is of two days duration’ – our committees will “Experience Gained in PPP Projects in Road Sector

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 15

Highlights of International Seminar

– The Way Forward”. We are feeling blessed to and have come all the way to India today. I am
have our Hon’ble Minister of Road Transport and highly appreciative of the untiring efforts of technical
Highways with us today who has given his valuable and managerial skills of IRC Secretariat under the
time from his extremely busy schedule and for giving leadership of Secretary General Shri Vishnu Shankar
guidance to all of us. Today road sector and IRC have Prasad Ji, I extend my gratitude and special thanks
attained greater heights, we would like to request to him. I also thanks the sponsors and advertisers in
you for giving continuous support to IRC fraternity supporting this IRC event, I would like to express my
as has been done in the past. I on behalf of Indian gratitude to the Press and Media for being with us on
Roads Congress thankful to the Secretary, Department this occasion and I hope they will adequately cover the
of Economic Affair Shri Arvind Mayaramji for his deliberations of this apex think tank of the road sector.
thought provoking address and sharing his experience, In the end again I extend my heartiest gratitude to the
I express sincere thanks for his kind presence. I dignitaries on the dais and off the dais, well wishers
express my sincere thanks to the Ambassador of the and all who have come here from different parts of the
Govt. of France to India his Excellency Shri Francois world for supporting and boosting the moral of IRC.
Richer for his illuminating address and making JAI HIND
possible to grace this International event in spite of
Thank You”
other engagements, I express my sincere thanks to the
Director General (RD) & SS, MoRT&H and President, Release of IRC Publications:
IRC Shri C Kandasamy Ji for his able guidance in Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji, Hon’ble Minister of Road
organizing this International Seminar with all his Transport & Highways released following five
support, I express my sincere thanks to Lt. General important IRC documents:
Shri A.T. Parnaik Ji Director General, Border Roads
i) IRC:SP:99-2013 “Manual of Specifications and
for gracing this event and his support to the Indian
Standards for Expressways”
Roads Congress, I also express my sincere thanks
on behalf of Indian Roads Congress to Shri Girardo ii) First Revision of IRC:SP:87-2013 of “Manual of
Gavilanes Gineres and the entire fraternity of PIARC Specifications and Standards for Six Laning of
who has made this event memorable and we are sure Highways through Public Private Partnership”
to have very fruitful cooperation in the years to come. iii) IRC:SP:98-2013 “Guidelines for the use of
I express my sincere thanks to the Vice President of Waste Plastic in Hot Bituminous Mixes (Dry
Indian Roads Congress Shri K.K.Y. Mahindrakar and Process) in Wearing Courses”
Shri Swantatra Kumar for gracing this inaugural
iv) First Revision of IRC:107-2013 “Specification
function and the cooperation in organizing this event.
for Bitumen Mastic Wearing Courses”
My gratitude to this August gathering of eminent
scholars, professional, invitees, guests and all the v) Souvenir for International Seminar on
participants for giving us this privilege through “Experience Gained in PPP Projects in Road
their graceful presence on this memorable event. Sector- the Way Forward” containing technical
I sincerely thanks to our guests and delegates from presentations delivered by experts during
foreign countries who have accepted the invitation Seminar

16 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri Oscar Fernandes Ji, Hon’ble Minister of RT&H, Govt. of India releasing Souvenir of International Seminar on
“Experience Gained in PPP Projects in Road Sector- the Way Forward”

Release of IRC:SP:99-2013 Manual of Specifications and First copy of IRC: SP: 99-2013 being presented to
Standards for Expressways by Hon'ble Minister of RT&H Shri C. Kandasmy, DG (RD) & SS, MoRTH

This Manual has been prepared in a record time of 9 months.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 17

Highlights of International Seminar

Release of First Revision of IRC:SP:87-2013 First Copy of First Revision of IRC:SP:87-2013 being presented
“Manual of Specifications and Standards for Six Laning of to Lt. Gen A.T. Parnaik, SM, VSM, Director General
Highways through Public Private Partnership” Border Roads
by Hon’ble Minster of RT&H

Release of IRC: SP: 98-2013 “Guidelines for the use of Waste First copy of IRC: SP: 98-2013 being presented to
Plastic in Hot Bituminous Mixes (Dry Process) in Wearing His Excellency Shri Francois Richier, Ambassador of
Courses” by Hon’ble Minister of RT&H Govt. of France to India

Release of First Revision of IRC:107-2013 “Specification for First copy of First Revision of IRC:107-2013 being presented
Bitumen Mastic Wearing Courses” by Hon'ble Minister of RT&H to Shri Gerardo L. Gavilanes Gineres, Chairman, Technical
Committee of PIARC

18 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

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View of Audience during Inaugural Functions Another view of Audience during Inaugural Function

Glimpses of Some lighter moments

Technical Sessions : point of view. Let me highlight three areas which

form important components of this strategy. The
After the inaugural function Technical Session-1
first and the foremost is that it is being realised that
‘Overview in Developing and Managing Road
in all developing countries infrastructure is key to
Infrastructure in India and Other Countries’ was
growth. All the infrastructure, road infrastructure
Chaired by Shri B.K. Chaturvedi, Member (Power
is very important for us. Both rural roads as well as
Energy & Transport), Planning Commission, Govt.
highways which form the arteries for movement of
of India and Co-chaired by Shri D.P. Gupta, Member,
goods, these are very critical. While rural roads there
National Transport & Development Committee &
is no way, states have to spent their own money. It is
Former DG (RD), MORTH.
being realised that we cannot spent large amount of
Chairman in his opening remark said that resources on developing the arteries, the highway, from
“Distinguished panellists, invitees, the Session the State exchequer. And therefore, we must involve
deals with Overview in developing and managing for private players. These private players have to be
road infrastructure in India and other countries, involved not only in terms of construction but also
here presented in different areas for giving good in terms of their finance participation. So the private

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 19

Highlights of International Seminar

sector participation comes both in terms of financing   The third set of issues is the question that as the road
and in terms of construction. We have tried two major is get made, what about its maintenance and what
model of financing in India. The first is being public about during the operation period. The construction
private partnership based on the BOT Model and the agreement, how do we go about and for that whole
other public private partnership based on the Annuity body of literature has come. We have tried what is
model. We have other models like what is known as the known as operation maintenance contracts and their
engineering construction model but there we need the again it has been experienced that you can bid them
Govt. resources which are used and not the resources separately and these are persons who have experienced
of the private players.  So practically, a large number in this. So, today the development of the road sector,
of states now are going to adopt this model because which are used to be simple Govt. funded is now more
it is being realised that in this way they are able to be on different pattern. The pattern is that the Govt.
develop faster. wants more private financing. And for that various
models are being developed. But most of them are
The second component of this strategy has been
model based on PPP. Govt. also then has to take care
levying of toll in most of these roads where the
of many of the issues as this model comes because
traffic can bear. So there is a whole body of experts
often people bid in order to grab contracts, sometimes
which have developed these experts deal with the
they bid very aggressively. For the time, things have
various legal terms. We have RFQ, RFP documents
changed. How do we negotiate and renegotiate such
and the Model Concession Agreements and there are
contracts, is another question which is now being
questions being raised in terms of model concession
raised and become very important particularly in
agreement what will apply and what will not apply,
the context of India. Recently, we find that a large
what is appropriate and what is not appropriate. So
number of contracts are such which are not getting
there is a whole body of literature now coming up in
implemented because the developers are finding
this form. Developing countries have realised that
difficulties in terms and conditions. In some cases, the
it is important that concession agreement are of the
situations which they had expected have changed and
best standards and really transparent and fair. Risk
economy has slowed down and therefore they cannot
allocation is appropriate. Suitable to the govt. as well
implement and in other cases where they say it can be
as to the developer. And this way only they will take a
implemented the environmental and other clearances
good response. So, therefore, the second point I would
are yet to be given.
like to say is that there is a whole body of literature
coming up now and there are issues which are seen There are other sets of issues as you will see relating
during the course of this conference on public private to implementing the contracts. What is the Govt’s
partnership, the model concession agreements, various responsibility in this regard, in respect of providing
terms of it, the RFP & the RFQ. The terms for qualifying land and providing environmental clearances and
firms should have tough standards, in case we have how far should this go before we award this contract.
tough standards, no domestic firms, comes, with the Issues which we have various points of view. I noticed
results that the domestic capacity building does not that we have very good list of presenters who will
take place. In case we have very loose standards, then give different points of view. I am sure that during
international firms are not interested. You don’t get the course of the deliberations here today, they will
any experience of international construction industry come forward and give their ideas and suggestions on
with the result that you don’t really improve methods how some of these issues need to be tackled and how
in this regards. There are various types of issues which if there are another related issues which need to be
need to be seen. This is the second set of issues which addressed so that this process of development of road
is important for this development. which is so critical for the development of the economy,

20 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

becomes very vital, very vibrant and succeeds and if it revenues of govt. of go down and the revenue of Govt.
succeeds to that extent then India’s growth will have go down to that extent, the availability of funds for
very positive impact on the road model. With these Govt. projects gets limited. And therefore, availability
opening words and highlighting some of the issues, I to spend Govt. funds on roads and road projects or
would like to invite the speakers” any other Govts. spending projects will go down. So,
therefore, we have to use other resources. So these are
During this session following four very lucurative and
some out of the box solutions which are required and
informative presentations were made by presenters of
we will have to think in that manner.
India and Abroad:
Second it is important that whatever roads are made,
i) Overview of Road Infrastructure
are they in accordance with the norms and standards
Development – World Bank Perspective by
laid down under the agreement. They confirm to it, so
Shri Ben Eijbergen, Lead Transport Specialist
that for the maintenance and for the OMT contract,
& India Infrastructure Coordinator, World
it becomes easy. If these are not going in accordance
Bank & Shri Arnab Bandopadhyay, Transport
with that, then to that extent for the OMT contractors,
Specialist, World Bank
it is going to be extremely difficult. Besides people will
ii) Overview of Road Infrastructure Development say that look how can we come in because the roads
in India by Shri C. Kandasamy, Director General are not being built really as per the standards. It is
(Road Development) & Special Secretary to the therefore important that our system in this respect gets
Govt. of India & President, IRC further strengthening and this is an area of weakness I
will say and we need to work in this.
iii) Private Sector view on Operating Roads in
India by Shri Geoffrey GUILLY (France) Third, I will say that it is important that we do
undertake R&D and other activities in this sector
iv) Overview in Developing and Managing Road
continuously today. Roads are getting modernized and
Infrastructure in Japan- Key Challenges by
new technologies are coming in and because of which
Shri Kiyoshi Dachiku, JICA Expert to India
these are continue to last long. India has a wide variety
At the end Chairman said that “I want to thank of climate. You take north east, you take south, you
all the presenters. I would like specially thank take Rajasthan. Such different variety of climate and
the participants who have been absolutely firstly it is important that the roads that we make last long. So
discipline and secondly raised very limited number of therefore, we must continue with the R&D work. And
questions but very focused one. Three points I would in this R&D works, we must also take into account
like to make in respect of this session. First it is quite the fact that India has also some difficult areas, which
clear that Govt. resources alone cannot really meet needs to be appropriately taken care of. And this must
the requirements of the road sector. And we have to also be shared under the model concession agreement
therefore, think of some other ways. We have been and the clauses must be so designed. If the clauses
thinking of PPP. Mr. Kandasamy gave some very fine are so designed that you will make roads only in abc
out of the box solutions. How we can use aerospace manner and not use any other technology then the
on the road to further get more money and make the benefit of use of new technology for the contractors
project more viable in some of these areas. I think we goes down. So, to that extent I think we must have
need to look at these things. We are also looking at appropriate changes in the clauses. I think this has been
it in the context of railways is also need to look at a very useful session as far as I have concern. I would
it in context of roads. Because the facts remains that once again like to thanks the presenters. And come to
when roads close down, it has two impacts, first, the the close up of this session with my observations”.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 21

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Glimpses of Technical Session-1

View of the dais during Technical Session-1 ‘Overview in Developing and Managing Road
Infrastructure in India and other Countries’

Shri Ben Eijbergen, Lead Transport Specialist & India Shri C. Kandasamy, DG (RD) &SS, and President, IRC
Infrastructure Coordinator, World Bank making presentation making presentation

22 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri Geoffrey GUILLY (France) making presentation Shri Kiyoshi Dachiku, JICA Expert making presentation

Shri B.K.Chaturvedi, Chairman of Seesion-1 being honored by A view of dais during Technical Session-1
Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad, Secretary General, IRC

Technical Session -2 ii) Experienc Sharing in Developing PPP Projects

by Shri S.V. Patwardhan, Advisor, Madhucon
Technical Session-2 ‘PPP Policy Framework’ was
Projects Limited
Chaired by Shri G. Sharan, Former DG (RD), MoRTH.
Govt. of India. During this session following four very iii) PPP Policy Framework – by Shri Sri Kumar
lucurative and informative presentations were made Tadimalla, South Asia Sustainable Development
by presenters from India and Abroad: Dept., World Bank
i) Budget versus User Based Financing - A iv) Overview of PPP Policy Framework in India
Successful Change Over in Austria by by Shri Rahul Gupta, Superintending Engineer,
Shri Friedrich SCHWARZ-HERDA (Austria) MoRTH

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 23

Highlights of International Seminar

Glimpses of Technical Session-2

View of Dias during Technical Session-2 “PPP Policy Framework”

Shri Friedrich SCHWARZ-HERDA (Austria) making Shri S.V. Patwardhan, Advisor, Madhucon Projects Limited
presentation making presentation

24 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri Sri Kumar Tadimalla, South Asia Sustainable Development Shri Rahul Gupta, Superintending Engineer, MoRTH making
Dept., World Bank making presentation presentation

Technical Session -3 of being in the middle of it and I was writing the

Technical Session-3 ‘Overview of Development in Model Concession Agreement myself and it was a
Financing for Road Infrastructure Programme in very complicated exercise because there is no
different Countries’ was Chaired by Shri Gajendra experience in this in India here at that point of time in
Haldea, Advisor to Deputy Chairman (Infrastructure), a matter like this so, we set about finding out what had
Planning Commission, Govt. of India and Co-chaired happened in different countries. We studied what had
by Shri Nirmaljit Singh, Former DG (RD) & SS, happened in Canada and in US and several Latin
MORTH. American countries, in France, in Italy and south east
Asia and so on. And we learned from their strength,
Chairman in his opening remarks said that “When we we also learned from their mistakes, we learnt how
began economic liberalization in the early 1990s, it many countries had to renegotiate, how some of their
was thought that we should get private investment, projects failed and fell apart mid-way. So, based on all
private participation in roads and the infrastructure those learnings we prepared our framework. So, it can
sector like power, airports, ports and so on. So, from be said that whatever the world had learnt and whatever
1995 or so we set about in the Govt. of India to invite literature was available till about say 2000 or 2001
private participation. Well it is a long winded road, was actually brought out to bear in our framework and
time does not permit the detailed explanation but as I when we started in the early 2000 then we brought
say the first project was awarded only, first worthwhile about a framework being working in last decade or so
project, there were some small experiments here and and during this period we do not know of too many
there like NOIDA Expressway Toll Way and so on but developments at least I don’t know many developments
they were very small and significantly flawed but a having taken place in different countries which are of
proper exercise was done only in the late nineties and a different nature and which give us reason to change
first major project was awarded in 2002 which got our strategy. Of course there will be learning from our
completed in 2005. First PPP road project came about own experience and also from other countries and
in 2005. So, we have really speaking about 8, 9 or 10 some of our colleagues here on the dais, will inform
years of experience in PPP Projects in roads. Now of us of the learning in their countries based on that we
course this activity has picked up very fast and we can take a relook at what we are doing but during the
have made a lot of progress. When this whole past six-seven years what we have implemented has
framework was being written, I have great privilege actually led India to the World global rank one.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 25

Highlights of International Seminar

According to World Bank India has been the top paper and are in violation. Different types of problems
recipient of PPP investment in the World for the last 3 are rising, so if you do not implement PPP contract
or 4 years and we are quite ahead of most other seriously and the way it is mend then you are bound to
countries in attracting private investment specially in have few problems you go along and we have to take
highways. The experience with the MCA has been a serious look at that as well. may be you can’t
somewhat mixed not because we have discovered implement some thing. It need simplification we
many problems with the MCA, you can discount part should look at that. So either, we should modify to
of it because people may think I am biased in favour make it more simpler what the stake holders feel or
of MCA but as a matter of fact I want to mention to we should figure out ways how to implement the MCA
you that I haven’t come across a serious people which more rigorously because one should enter the world of
says these are the four or five area or these are 5, 10 or contracts which is what PPP is. The contract become
15 clauses which need to be revised or modified or sour and you have to follow the terms of the contract,
improved. I haven’t come across that kind of if you take it lightly, you will have serious untended
discussion. Some changes has been made in the consequences. Now, none of these documents should
National Highway document but soon after the be regarded as cast in stone, there is going to be
changes were made there were some reservations by learning, there is going to be hope for improvement,
the Committee. The Chairman of the Committee who there is going to be hope for review. As a result of this
actually made them that is Mr. Chaturvedi and he belief we have actually started review of the MCA if
asked for review for more provisions that’s one part that apply to the states, we have not done it for centre,
and those changes actually changes the basic substance we have left it to NHAI to decide but the state look up
of the theory of the MCA. On the other hand there are to Planning Commission for MCA and they follow
about 11 or 12 states which have adopted the MCA MCA without change. We are now in dialogue with
without any change. They have not made the changes the states that whether we can further improve the
as the Centrtal Govt., the NHAI had made and they MCA to meet some emerging concerns that we noticed
have not reported any problems so far. That is so far as in the last six or seven years and those of you who are
the report back or feed back as far as MCA is concerned. interested in the MCA as a document. In the theory
On the other hand there is quite serious problem, my behind the MCA how it should be improved discovering
perception about the MCA as one of the speaker in the the flaws, in making improvements. We have organized
previous Session pointed out that problem is the big seminar where we have invited major stake
implementation and enforcement. I don’t think we holders, experts and several people from State
have as yet created the specialization of the capacity Government to come and talk to us about revise
or real mindset that is necessary for successful document, we have circulated revised document
implementation of PPP projects . So, I think what has strengthening some of the provision of the MCA to
happened there on one side. We have adopted a fare make them more financeable and more effective and
and advanced framework taking note of the all that those of you who are interested you can either get in
happened in rest of the world. On the other side while touch with me, send me an email or contact IRC, and
this was proceeding and gone quite a lot on the other they will let us know and we will be happy to invite
side we did not trained our mind, we did not trained you on 22nd November meeting few days from now
our people, we did not understand the MCA, we did and also give you the revise document. Now so much
not change from the old civil engineering practices of for MCA etc. I think the entire business of PPP is quite
road building to public private participation and an international exercise, there is lot of international
therefore, there have been serious problems in literature, lot of international experience and I presume
implementation and enforcement of the MCA so the idea of this particular session is to share the
much. Many other provisions actually are remain on experience and learn from the each other how we can

26 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

do better, incidentally the ADB had commissioned the the Italian experience and what we can learn from
economist EIU to do a study on PPP framework and I you”
am very happy to report to you that they have treated, During this session following five very lucrative and
and have weighted Indian infrastructure framework informative presentations were made by presenters
and PPP framework or Model Concession Agreement from India and Abroad:
RFQ, RFP among top in the world just next to UK and i) Financing of PPP Road Projects in India by
Australia who were much more mature because they Shri S.K. Agarwal, Sr. Vice President, SBI
have many many more years of experience but we are Caps
right at the top so far as international rating and ii) The funding of Roads and Toll Highway
assessment is concerned. There is always more to Network - Japanese Experience by Shri Takaaki
learn and always room for improvement that what we NAMBU, Expectative Managing Director,
should do. These are some very brief remarks. Time is Hanshin Expressways Co. Ltd., Japan
short so would not take more of your time and I know iii) Public-Private Partnership in the Road
you keen to hear the international participants to figure Transport Sector-New Treads in Italy by
out how they are doing and what we can learn from Shri Fabio PasQuali, Head of Economic
them. I am slightly changing the order with the Assessment (Italy)
permission of all the key speakers here. What I iv) Different PPP Approaches for Indian Roads by
proposed to do to put an Indian experience in the end Shri Rik JOOSTEN, The Netherlands
and learn the International experience from our guest v) “The Australian Experience - Lessons Learned
first. My broad understanding is that there are number and New Approaches to Road Financing” by
of PPP, I mean Toll Roads in Italy so, may I request Shri Richard. A. Lowe, Principal PPP Specialist,
Mr. Fabio Pasquali to first began his presentation on Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Glimpses of Technical Session-3

View of dais during Technical Session-3 “Overview of Developments in Financing for Road Infrastructure Programme in
different Countries”

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 27

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri Gajendra Haldea, Advisor to Deputy Chairman Shri S.K. Gupta, Sr. Vice President, SBI
(Infrastructure), Planning Commission making Caps making presentation
Opening Remarks

Shri Takaaki NAMBU, Executive Managing Director, Hanshin Shri Fabio PasQuali, Head of Economic Assessment, Italy
Expressways Co. Ltd., Japan making presentation making presentation

Shri Rik JOOSTEN, The Netherlands making presentation Shri Richard A. Lowe, PPP Specialist, ADB making presentation

28 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Technical Session-4 ‘Experience Sharing in in about nine to ten minutes so that when questions
Contractual Model Choices, Analysis, Risk Allocation, come you can cover the areas which actually concern
Government Support Mechanisms' was Chaired by or bother many of the participants here. So if that’s
Shri Gajendra Haldea, Advisor to Deputy Chairman Ok with the presenters then lets begin, let Mr. Rajesh
(Infrastructure), Planning Commission, Govt. of India Rohatgi Sr. Transport Specialist from World Bank,
and Co-chaired by Shri Mahesh Kumar, Engineer-in- please make the first presentation”.
Chief, R&B Department, Haryana PWD.
During this session following four very lucrative and
Opening remarks by Chairman Shri Gajendra Haldea: informative presentations were made by presenters
“First of all I want to thank the IRC again for giving me from India and Abroad:
this opportunity to be here and to share experience and
i) Output & Performance Based Road Contract
learn from various participants across the world. Now
– An Alternate PPP Model by Shri Rajesh
I believe that in the session yesterday there was some
Rohtagi, Senior Transport Specialist, World
discussion on the MCA and that probably the kind of
subject that we are going to discuss today because we
are going to talk about contractual model choices and ii) Experience Sharing in Contractual Model
that is all about contracts. Before I begin, I want to Choices: Analysis, Risk Allocation, Government
congratulate in particular the Secretary General of the Support Mechanisms – The French Model by
IRC. He has taken a great deal of trouble and initiative Ms Anne PLUVINAGE, Project Manager,
in organizing this Seminar like this. It is much needed Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development
and I would suggest to him to make this an annual and Energy, France.
feature because it provides a forum for airing people’s iii) Contractual Model Analysis from Banks
views and understanding each other’s perspective and Perspective by Shri Kamal Verma, CEO, SREI
I can see a number of people here, people like Mr. D.P. Infrastructure Finance Limited.
Gupta, Mr. S.C. Sharma and of course many others
iv) PPP Contract Choices- Examples of
the some of whom I know and some I did not have the
ADB’s Experience with Performance
benefit of meeting, who have had a lot of experience.
Based Maintenance Contracts (PBMC) by
Mr. Sharan is here, they have a lot of experience of
Ms. Lise Weidner, Senior PPP Specialist, Asian
contracts relating to roads with PPP contracts relating
Development Bank (ADB)
to highways and I think in the fitness of thing it might
be better if we leave more time for floor interaction At the end Chairman said that “I just want to confine
because we will then get good flavor of the views myself to few issues. First I, as in other conferences
across this hall. Because well I agreed that there is lot noticed that there are lots of issues that people want to
of expertise residing here in the panel but there is a lot raise about MCAs and its various provisions and how
of expertise residing on the other side as well. So what they can be different. But before I come to the MCAs,
I propose to do is, I will cut down time. I am supposed I have to just first say that why do we need PPPs. Well
to have been allocated five minutes so I am cutting across sectors, we find that where incumbent players
them down to 2 or 3 minutes and I will conclude here do not welcome PPPs easily. Incumbent players like
and I would urge the panel members to try and finish cash contracts because there it is in their control, they

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 29

Highlights of International Seminar

are in control of the asset, that is fine, that is human that the balance is already reflected in MCA and it
nature. If I were you, I have done in the same way. is also possible the balance needs to be changed or
The problem is that increasingly govt. budgets don’t reviewed. We know that MCA is not cast in stones
have the money, so the choice is between shrinking but there must be consensus building. We should not
your respective sector whether Ports, Airports, write MCA on the basis of your or my belief because I
Highways or any other sector or let it be opened and believe this MCA was written after lot of deliberation
let the people of India and your own sector benefited with stakeholder consultations and after trying to
by PPP participation. There are problems with PPPs, build, as much consensus as possible, so I leave this
as there are problems with NHAI, we need to resolve request with IRC. As regard to the long term debt is
those problems in a constructive manner. Now, concerned, we have set up infrastructure debt funds
there are lots of issues with MCA. There are MCAs which will refinance bank loan that provide long
issues which I am hearing about and quite often term debt. We hope this initiative taken last year will
some of them are arising from different stakeholder stabilize and as it grows we hope to largely resolve
perspective. Some of them also arise because they the financing problem. Some points were made about
think that some provisions are not properly written, lending, etc. by you as well. We had taken it with the
some are imbalance because some of them are written Reserve Bank about six months ago. Earlier the banks
in some other way. Well, in a lighter vein let me tell said this is not secured loan, we want this charge or that
you that we have written in number of MCAs and charge etc. Now the reserve bank has categorically
every MCA I write I lose more friends because when said that loan given on the basis of Model Concession
I started people welcome the exercise. When you Agreement are secured loans. that problem is really
have done, everybody thinks that it looks that 95% is behind us. There is always this discussion about TPC,
OK and that the balance 5% is not that is important. I am not clear about why so many discussions takes
For me these fellows have not understood. They are place because it is between the lender engineers and
rigid and they don’t understand that particular point it is between the NHAI engineers. I don’t see why
as they are not addressed it. So at the end of the day they can’t resolve this, why they can’t find the way of
most people have dissatisfaction about that 5%. The establishing a correct project cost. There are issues
truth is about that 5%. If that 5% is given to you, on both sides some time these costs are not reasonable.
then the other stakeholder who will walk out and if I In these cases NHAI need to look at them again. The
give him that 5%, which he is wanted then you will need is to have check and balance in place. This is
walk out. MCA is all about balances in equilibrium primarily a cost estimation exercise, which is in the
and that is why I would reiterate the suggestions to domain of the engineers and finance experts and it is
Secretary General, IRC, please organize free flowing not clear to me yet why this issue keeps going on and
brain storming sessions on MCA. What that does is, no efforts are made either in NHAI or Ministry or any
that certain stakeholders with their perceptions and other forum to find out how to address this problem of
most of them actually balance out because some of TPC and how to make it reasonable and apt. Hope
the people are pulling in different direction and they the deliberations in this Seminar may show the way
neutralize and arrive at some balance. It is possible forward”.

30 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Glimpses of Technical Session-4

A view of the dais

Ms. Lise Weidner, Senior PPP Specialist, ADB Shri Rajesh Rohtagi, Senior Transport Specialist, World Bank
making presentation making presentatin

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 31

Highlights of International Seminar

Ms Anne PLUVINAGE, Project Manager, Ministry of Ecology, Shri Kamal Verma, CEO, SREI Infrastructure Finance Limited
Sustainable Development and Energy, making presentation
France making presentation

Shri Gajendra Haldea being presented memento by Another view of dais

Secretary General, IRC

Technical Session-5 i) Comprehensive Bidding Practices in Japan by

Technical Session-5 ‘Experience Sharing in Tendering Shri Keita Nakasu, JICA Expert
for Road Infrastructure Contracts & Pre-construction ii) Tendering Procedure in Austrian PPP Project, A
Activities’ was Chaired by Shri V.L. Patankar, Negotiation Procedure by Shri VOLKER Rux
Additional Director General, Ministry of Road (Austria)
Transport and Highways and Co-chaired by iii) Challenges in Pre-construction Activites in PPP
Shri Manoj Kumar, Chief Engineer, R&B Dept., Projects in India by Ms Neha Vyas, World Bank
Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. and Ms Sangeeta Kumari, World Bank.
During this session following four very lucrative and iv) PPP in Road Development in India- Government
informative presentations were made by presenters Support Mechanism by Shri Sudhir Hoshing,
from India and Abroad: CEO, Reliance Infrastructure Ltd.

32 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Glimpses of Technical Session-5

A view of the dais

Shri Keita Nakasu, JICA Expert making presentation Shri Volker Rux (Austria) making presentation

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 33

Highlights of International Seminar

Ms Neha Vyas, World Bank making presentation Ms Sangeeta Kumari, World Bank making presentation

Shri Sudhir Hoshing, CEO, Reliance Infrastructure Ltd. making Another view of dais

Technical Session-6 i) Legal Aspects Including From feedback by

Technical Session-6 ‘Legal Aspects for Road Shri EU. Sabine LASSERRE (France)
Infrastructure Projects, Including Contract ii) Coping with Court Sentences – The Case
Management Aspects’ was Chaired by Shri Adesh Jain, of Radial Toll Highways in Madrid by
Chairman of I2P2M & Honorary President, PMA and Shri Gerardo L. GAVILANES Gineres (Spain)
Co-chaired by Shri S.C. Sharma, Former DG (RD) &
iii) User Perceptions & Perspectives for PPP Road
SS, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
Infrastructure Projects by Shri D.P. Gupta,
During this session following three very lucrative and Former DG (RD), MORTH & National Expert
informative presentations were made by presenters on Transport
from India and Abroad:

34 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Glimpses of Technical Session-6

A view of the dais

Ms. EU. Sabine LASSERRE (France) making presentation Shri Gerardo L. GAVILANES Gineres (Spain)
making presentation

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 35

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri D.P. Gupta, Former DG (RD), MORTH & National Expert Another view of dais
on Transport making presentation

Session: 7-Panel Discussion Shri S.K. Puri, Convenor, G-1 Committee of IRC &
Former DG (RD), MoRTH; Shri Nirmal Jit Singh,
Panel Discussion on “Recap on Key Strategies for
Convenor, G-8 Committee of IRC & Former DG
Way Forward for PPP Road Projects” was Co-chaired
(RD) & SS, MoRTH Shri B. Seenaiah, MD, BSCPL
by Dr. Henri Chua, United Kingdom & Shri C.
Infrastructure Ltd. and Maj. V.C. Verma, Presendent,
Kandasamy, Director General (Road Development) &
National Highway Building Federation.
Special Secretary, MoRTH. The other panelists were

View of dais during Panel Discussion Session

36 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Valedictory Session: been better & faster because developments in the road
The Valedictory Session was Chaired by Shri T.K.A. sector affect every other sector of our economy. Well
Nair, Advisor to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India. one of the casual observations I may make with your
This Session was also graced by Shri C. Kandasamy, permission is: In many instances when the projects are
President IRC and DG (RD) & Special Secretary, progressing well they are not noted but when the delay
MoRT&H, Dr. Henri Chua, United Kingdom, Shri is taking place they became very glaring i.e. Perhaps
Vishnu Shankar Prasad, Secretary General, IRC, the assessment that the preparation of the project could
and Shri Gerardo L. Gavilanes, Chairman Technical have been better, more rigorous methods of assessing
Committee, Piarc. from day from point one onwards i.e. the demand and
then various other aspects concerning the project are
Shri T.K.A. Nair, in his Valedictory Address said
“Mr. Kandasamy, other colleagues and friends not perhaps or perhaps could get better attention are
including distinguished participants who represent some issues which crops up. These become evident
international institutions of other Countries, Well, first not when a project is clear, when a project gets cleared.
of all let me begin with a word of apology for not In India many of these large projects get cleared at
being able to join the preliminary inaugural session, a the very highest level of a Cabinet Committee. At
bit of unforeseen development I had to excuse myself, that point of time, you know we are all anxious to
forgive me for that lapse. Well I had the privilege see that project is cleared and the work gets started
of opportunity of listening to the last five minutes but as we go along, we find that perhaps on account
of the last session I would get a flavor of what would of inadequate preparatory work problems come up
have been the subjects of discussions in the previous starting with land acquisition, environmental clearance
sessions. Well talking to you at this point of time and the rest of it, and many projects get delayed on
particularly about the challenges which India faces that account and again forgive my saying most of us
in the road sector, I would be like carrying call to are for good reasons very optimistic, if we can get a
new chasm you would have been by now thoroughly work done in ten months twelve months, you know we
briefed about the Indian Road Sector of our progress won’t take into the account the fact that there will be
during the last few years, what is its current status and unforeseen developments and therefore the target date
what are the challenges and the prospects before us of completion could be longer. We tend to be fairly
in the coming years. Well I had a look at the various optimistic. This is my layman’s observations. Two
themes which you have discussed and the different observations: One preparation of the project could be
panels and I find that practically various aspects
through a more rigorous process and our optimism in
which is of concern to all the stake holders have been
projecting the completion of the projects would also
touched upon. The last about financing is the most
land us into perhaps avoidable problems later on.
crucial part of any economic activity - the financing
These all based on what one has read, what one has
of those activities, the problems which are involved
in securing the finances and then how we utilize that. seen with respect to different projects which you get
Well I have some sporadic acquaintance with the road approval from the govt. of India and which quite often
sector and many of the road projects which the country come back for revised costs, and all and unfortunately
has been taking it for implementation through various you know in our process of governance if we decide
methods, through various mechanisms during the last on some thing some parameters some costs etc. at one
few years and my information is not up-to-date, my point of time, get it cleared at very high level, any
knowledge is also not up to date but let me say that minor changes and that will have to go all the way up
the expectations with which we started these very again for revised approach and in terms of time and in
very ambitious road programmes are moving forward terms of effort we lose a lot. I mean, what I said, I don’t
but the pace of development we believe could have speak with reference to any particular project, this is

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 37

Highlights of International Seminar

a general observation based on some of the projects who are willing to take up this kind of activity in the
which one had at the opportunity to look at. Well, as private sector, the financial institutions, you know
well as financing is concerned, I heard concerns which the Ministry, the Planning Commission and all the
have been raised they are most genuine but here again people who are concerned with these kind of things,
you may have gone through it in detail. I do not know, if they get together periodically, evolve you know
I may be saying something which need not be said certain acceptable models, may be models, policies,
because it has already been discussed, that is a proper guidelines, parameters, etc. which are subject to
understanding of the issues by all the stakeholders review from time to time. Perhaps you know we can
together and then based on that you evolve your norms do better in terms of achieving the targets which are
and practices and PPP models and what not. That PPP very ambitious targets which the Country has set for
model is a new thing in road sector it has been there itself in the road sector.
for some time, by now we would had have enough Friends this is the end of your discussion of
of experience of various kinds in different parts of different panels and I am sure the conclusions and
the Country, again it need not be repeated, I mean its recommendations of the various panels would be
common knowledge that conditions in different parts recorded and taken on with government at different
of the country are quite different. If we try to apply the levels Mr. Kandasamy is sitting here he is the right
standards applicable in the Central Indian states to the man to take these things forward well with these
North Eastern states, we are stuck. So that one size fits words I thank the organizers especially Indian Roads
all kind of approach would land us into difficulties, Congress for giving me this opportunity to be with
very avoidable difficulties which will result in the you and more than speaking to you. I am happy that
so-called time & cost overruns. I say with so much I could listen to a part of your discussion towards the
of experience gathered, the concessionaires or those end of the last session. Thank you very much”.

Shri T.K.A. Nair, Advisor to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India delivering Valedictory Address

38 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Highlights of International Seminar

Shri T.K.A. Nair, Advisor to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India A view of the dais during Valedictory Session
being Honoured by Shri C. Kandasamy, DG (RD) & SS

Shri T.K.A. Nair Advisor to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Shri T.K.A. Nair, Advisor to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India
being presented Memento by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad,
Secretary General, IRC

Another view of dais

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 39

Praveen Kumar*, Shambhavi Mishra** and Nikhil Saboo***

ABSTRACT cost, possibility of stage construction, repairing

The ageing of bitumen binder has an influence on how long is of underground utility services and maintenance
in service a road coating. Thus, it is important to have reliable techniques. The roads in India are mainly affected
methods to predict pavement behaviour with time. During its by increasing traffic volumes, increasing axle
service period, bitumen suffers a gradual loss of its desirable
properties due to continuous exposure of bitumen to environment loads due to increase in commercial vehicles and
and traffic. To determine changes of binder characteristics with significant variations in daily and seasonal climate.
respect to time, one must expose bitumen to the influence of Major distresses are rutting, fatigue cracking,
external factors which results in oxidation, evaporation and
ravelling, undulations bleeding shoving and potholes
exudation of bitumen components thus hardening of the bitumen.
in bituminous surface. As a viscoelastic material, it
In the present study two modifiers i.e. Styrene Butadiene
should be flexible enough at low service temperatures
Styrene (SBS), an elastomer and Crumb Rubber, obtained from
discarded tyres are used, to modify VG30 bitumen. The changes to arrest pavement cracking and to be stiff enough at
in conventional and rheological properties of VG30 modified with high service temperatures to prevent rutting (Khosla
different percentages of SBS(5% to 7%) and Crumb Rubber(7% to and Zahran, 1989).
9%) before and after ageing are studied. The rheological properties
of binders in terms of their complex modulus (G*) which depicts
stiffness and overall resistance to deformation, storage modulus
1.1 Ageing of Bitumen Binder
(G’ = G*×cosδ) which measures energy stored during a loading Bitumen ageing is one amongst the major factors
cycle, loss modulus (G” = G* × sinδ) which measures the energy
dissipated during a loading cycle and phase angle (δ), measures causing the deterioration of bituminous pavement
the viscoelastic character of bitumen are studied using Physica (Xiaohu and Isacsson, 2001. Bitumen suffers a gradual
Smart Pave Asphalt Rheometer. The properties are tested at loss of its required properties like adhesion, cohesion,
different temperature varying from 58˚C till failure at frequency
self-healing, waterproofing, and resistance to abrasion,
10 rad/sec. Short and Long Term ageing is simulated by Rolling
Thin Film Oven Test and Pressure Ageing Vessel respectively. due to the continuous access of bitumen to traffic heat,
light, air and moisture of the environment.
Conventional tests shows hardening of bitumen due to ageing and
increase in viscosity and temperature susceptibility characteristics Based on hardening and stiffening of bitumen material
due to addition of modifiers. Complex Modulus G* increases
with increase in % of modifier and test temperature, G* values
ageing are of two types:
are greater after RTFOT ageing which indicated hardening 1. Short Term Ageing
of bitumen and considerably greater after PAV ageing due to
prolonged ageing. Rutting resistance (G*/sinδ) values are greater 2. Long Term Ageing
for modified bitumen indicating better rutting resistance. The third
rheometer measurement Loss modulus (G* × sinδ) is carried out The short term ageing is earlier age hardening in
on PAV aged residue, to evaluate fatigue cracking property of pavement, its simulation is done in laboratory under
controlled conditions of temperature and is commonly
used for studying binder response to hot plant mixing
and paving operations. The ageing is expected to start
Most of the roads in India are constructed as flexible from the very first exposure of the bituminous binder
pavement with bitumen surfacing, due to lower initial to the plant burner and hot aggregates and continues

* Professor,
Transportation Engineering Group, Civil Engineering Department,
** Ph.D Research Scholar,
Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India
*** Ph.D Research Scholar,

40 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


to hauling and laying till the final compaction. It is conducted related to mechanical properties of these
simulated by Rolling Thin Film Oven Test (RTFOT) polymers, but time related changes in properties i.e.
in present study. Long term ageing is slow ageing to ageing is not fully explored. The characteristics of
which bituminous pavement is exposed during its life PMBs are dependent on polymer characteristics and
cycle, its effects in pavement depends on the prevailing their percentage in mix, bitumen nature, and also on
environmental and traffic situations, simulated by blending process (Isacsson and Lu, 1999).
Pressure Ageing Vessel (PAV).
Bitumen ages by two types of mechanisms (Xiaohu 2 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
and Isacsson, 2002)- The tests used in present study are Penetration Point,
● The main ageing mechanism is an Softening Point and Ductility tests to evaluate the
irreversible process associated with flow properties of conventional and modified bitumen.
chemical changes in the binder affecting These tests have been carried out at conventional and
its rheological properties. Irreversible modified bitumen before after both short and long term
ageing occurs due to oxidation, loss of ageing. The rheological properties of conventional
volatile components and exudation i.e. and modified bitumen are evaluated using Physica
migration of oily components from the Smart Pave Asphalt Rheometer. The rheological
bituminous binder into the aggregate. characteristics of binders are accessed using complex
modulus (G*), storage modulus (G’), loss modulus
● The second ageing mechanism is a
(G”) and phase angle (δ).
reversible process caused due to physical
hardening, due to the molecular structure- 2.1 Bitumen and Modifier
reorganisation of bitumen molecules to
approach a more stable and optimum In present study VG30 bitumen is used and modifiers
thermodynamic state under a specific set used are Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) and Crumb
of conditions. Rubber (CR). Both the modifiers come in elastomer
category of polymers. Percentage of mix selected on
1.2 Bituminous Binder and Modified Bitumen the basis of previous studies is 5 to 7 for SBS and 7
to 9 for CR because effect of modifier get pronounced
Bitumen is a viscoelastic material, which depicts
and is optimum in this range only.
either elastic or viscous behaviour, depending on
temperature and time of loading (Xiaohu and Isacsson, 2.2 Dynamic Shear Rheometer
2002). At sufficiently low temperatures and less
loading times, bitumen is completely elastic, but if The tests were conducted according to the AASHTO
temperature and loading time increases, the viscousity TP5-1994 and the instrument was operated by computer
of bitumen becomes more obvious. The complex using Rheoplus Software. The testing procedure
modulus (G*) is a physical function, describing the includes application of a sinusoidal oscillating shear
mechanical response of the material when submitted stress, controlled by frequency and temperature, to the
to harmonic load, which is used to study visco-elastic bitumen sample placed between two parallel plates.
characteristics of bitumen. It is the ratio of total shear Various rheological parameters can be obtained at
stress to total shear strain thus the sample’s total different temperatures and loading frequencies based
resistance to deformation when repeatedly sheared. on the stress strain measurements made by rheometer.
In standard test oscillation speed of 10 rad/s
Increase in the volume of traffic in recent years has (1.59 Hz) and shear strain value varying from
raised a need of using Polymer Modified Bitumen in 1-12% is maintained depending upon the stiffness of
road construction. Previously many studies have been material. The complex modulus (G*) and phase angle

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 41


(δ) define the resistance to deformation of the binder from Figs. 1 to 6. The penetration and ductility values
in viscoelastic range. In present study binder grading are decreasing, softening point increases significantly
tests are carried out which are basically temperature for VG30 bitumen mixed with SBS and CR, indicating
sweep test and standard frequency tests are carried out the improvement in their temperature susceptibility
to determine the zero shear viscosity which is used as resistant characteristics. After ageing similar trends in
indicator to rutting now days. value are obtained due to hardening of bitumen. The
binders having high ductility have good cementing
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION qualities. The minimum ductility value at 27˚C is
10 cm for Indian Paving Bitumen as per IS 73:1992.
3.1 Conventional Properties After RTFOT and PAV ageing ductility value become
The variation of conventional properties of modified too less in high percentage of modifier, which is not
bitumen before and after ageing is graphically shown appropriate for cementing qualities of bitumen.

Figs. 1 and 2 Penetration Value wrt % SBS and CR Before and After Ageing

Figs. 3 and 4 Softening Point wrt % SBS and CR Before and After Ageing.

42 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Figs. 5 and 6 Ductility Value wrt % SBS and CR Before and After Ageing

3.2 Temperature Sweep Tests for Unaged Binder The variation of shear modulus G*/sinδ with
temperature at different percentage of modifiers is
The rheological properties of neat and modified
shown in Figs. 7 and 8. The rutting resistance increases
bitumen are given in Table 1. Phase angle decreases with increase in % of modifier. Higher the value of
with percentage of modifier and increases with G* stiffer the bituminous binder is and lower phase
temperature. Lower the phase angle more elastic angle value indicate better elastic characteristics thus
will be the behaviour. Complex Modulus G* better resistance to rutting because binder will be able
decreases with increase test temperature and to rebound to its original shape after being deformed
increases with % modifier, this increase is more by the load.
dominant at low temperatures than high ones. As per specifications for acceptable performance of
This may be due to the reason that at high temperatures bitumen binder at hot-mix plant and during laying
the complex network structure of polymer is operation the value of shear modulus of original
degraded. binder must be greater than 1.0 kPa.

Figs. 7 and 8 Variation in G*/sinδ at Different % SBS and % CR wrt Temperature Before Ageing

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 43


Table 1 Rheological Properties of Bitumen Before Ageing

Bituminous Temperature Complex Shear Modulus Phase angle (δ)

Binder ºC Modulus G* (G*/sinδ)kPa Degree
VG30 58 4.9 4.93 83.3
  64 2.26 2.268 85.2
  70 1.08 1.081 86.7
  76 0.541 0.542 87.9
Pass/Fail Temperature = 70.7ºC
VG30 + 5% SBS 58 20.92 22.69 67.2
64 11.46 12.26 69.1
70 5.83 6.09 72.9
76 2.96 3.06 75.6
82 1.56 1.59 78.7
  88 0.82 0.83 81.2
Pass/Fail Temperature = 86.5ºC
VG30 + 6% SBS 58 23.88 26.05 66.4
  64 12.14 13.03 68.6
  70 6.27 6.63 70.8
  76 3.33 3.48 73.1
  82 1.68 1.73 75.5
  88 0.9 0.92 78.3
Pass/Fail Temperature = 87.2ºC
VG30 + 7% SBS 58 25.42 28.02 65.1
  64 12.91 14 67.2
  70 6.54 6.97 69.7
  76 3.39 3.55 72.6
  82 1.78 1.84 74.9
  88 0.94 0.96 77.1
Pass/Fail Temperature = 87.5ºC
VG30 + 7% CR 58 15.1 15.7 73.8
64 7.83 8.09 75.2
70 3.85 3.94 77.1
76 2.02 2.05 79.6
82 1.09 1.1 81.9
  88 0.6 0.6 84.3
Pass/Fail temperature = 83.1ºC
VG30 + 8% CR 58 17.16 18.07 71.7
  64 9.61 10.04 73.2
  70 5.25 5.41 75.9

44 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Bituminous Temperature Complex Shear Modulus Phase angle (δ)

Binder ºC Modulus G* (G*/sinδ)kPa Degree
  76 2.748 2.8 78.6
  82 1.435 1.45 80.6
  88 0.74 0.75 81.5
Pass/Fail Temperature = 85.9ºC
VG30 + 9% CR 58 22.22 23.56 70.6
  64 11.48 12.02 72.8
  70 6.04 6.22 75.9
  76 3.18 3.25 78.2
  82 1.76 1.78 80.5
  88 0.975 0.984 82.5
Pass/Fail Temperature = 87.8ºC

3.3 Temperature Sweep Tests for Aged Binder modulus G*/sinδ with temperature at different
After Short Term Ageing (RTFOT) percentage of modifiers is shown in Figs. 9 and 10. To
evaluate bitumen’s ability to resist rutting the binder
The complex modulus, shear modulus and phase is aged and the residues should have a shear modulus
angle after short term ageing for neat and modified G*/sinδ value greater than 2.2 KPa according to
bitumen is given in Table 2. The variation of shear current specifications at highest service temperature.
Table 2 Rheological Properties of Bitumen After Short Term Ageing i.e. RTFOT

Bituminous Binder Temperature ºC Complex Shear Modulus Phase angle (δ)

Modulus (G*)kPa (G*/sinδ)kPa Degree
VG30 58 11.2 11.4 80.2
  64 5.02 5.06 82.8
  70 2.35 2.36 84.9
  76 1.16 1.16 86.5
Pass/Fail Tempearture = 70.6ºC
VG30 + 5% SBS 58 26.9 29.4 66.1
64 13.56 14.64 67.8
70 6.88 7.33 69.7
76 3.52 3.7 71.9
82 1.86 1.93 74.1
Pass/Fail Temperature = 80.77ºC
VG30 + 6% SBS 58 27.8 30.62 65.2
  64 14.01 15.21 67.1
  70 7.22 7.71 69.3
  76 3.73 3.93 71.5
  82 1.94 2.02 73.7
Pass/Fail Temperature = 81.1ºC

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 45


Bituminous Binder Temperature ºC Complex Shear Modulus Phase angle (δ)

Modulus (G*)kPa (G*/sinδ)kPa Degree
VG30 + 7% SBS 58 31.18 34.72 63.9
  64 15.68 17.19 65.8
  70 7.92 8.54 67.9
  76 3.92 4.16 70.1
  82 2.08 2.18 72.3
Pass/Fail Temperature = 81.6ºC
VG30 + 7% CR 58 19.43 20.32 72.9
64 9.92 10.24 75.5
70 5.12 5.23 78.1
76 2.63 2.67 80.4
82 1.39 1.4 82.5
Pass/Fail temperature = 77.8ºC
VG30 + 8% CR 58 22.02 23.23 71.4
  64 11.16 11.65 73.3
  70 5.7 5.88 75.6
  76 3.12 3.19 77.5
  82 1.62 1.65 79.4
Pass/Fail Temperature = 79.8ºC
VG30 + 9% CR 58 22.66 24.12 70

  64 11.7 12.3 72.1

  70 6.06 6.28 74.6
  76 3.18 3.26 77.2
  82 1.76 1.79 79.5
Pass/Fail Temperature = 80.3ºC

Figs. 9 and 10 Variation in G*/sinδ at Different % SBS and % CR wrt Temperature After RTFOT

46 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


3.4 Temperature Sweep Tests for Aged Binder Table 3. Figs. 11 and 12 depict variation in value of
after Long Term Ageing (PAV) Loss Modulus G*× sinδ with temperature at different
The third rheometer measurement is carried out % modifiers.
on PAV aged residue, to evaluate fatigue cracking The G* is considerable greater values are obtained
property of binder. G*.sinδ also called loss modulus is due to prolonged ageing. According to specifications
an indicative measure of fatigue resistance according G* values should be greater than 5000 KPa. As
to current specifications; it should be small in order to temperature is increasing the G*.sinδ values are
arrest the cracking and impart elastic characteristics decreasing that is potential of fatigue cracking is also
to bitumen. The rheological measurements are carried decreasing, thus there is a threat to fatigue cracking at
out at temperatures 19 to 28ºC which is similar low temperatures. However, by addition of modifiers
to the normal field temperature at which fatigue the phase angle value is decreasing at a particular
cracking becomes dominant. The values of complex temperature by increase in content of modifier, this
modulus, loss modulus and phase angle are shown in signifies increase in elastic characteristics.

Table 3 Rheological Properties After Long Term Ageing i.e. PAV

Bituminous Binder Temperature ºC Complex Modulus Loss Shear Modulus Phase Angle
(G*) KPa (G”=G*× sinδ) (Delta)
VG30 19 5160 3641 44.9
22 3890 2811 46.3
25 2610 1933 47.8
28 1950 1482 49.5
Pass/Fail Temperature = 19.37 ºC
VG30 + 5% SBS 19 7910 5061 39.8
  22 5950 3925 41.3
  25 3950 2688 42.9
  28 2990 2098 44.6
Pass/Fail Temperature = 23.425 ºC
VG30 + 6% SBS 19 9910 5947 36.9
  22 7640 4785 38.8
  25 4950 3291 41.7
  28 3820 2604 43
Pass/Fail Temperature = 24.94ºC
VG30 + 7% SBS 19 12400 7180 35.4
  22 8270 4940 36.7
  25 6210 3898 38.9
  28 4130 2741 41.6
Pass/Fail Temperature = 26.74ºC
VG30 + 7% CR 19 7890 5164 40.9
22 5930 4050 43.1

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 47


Bituminous Binder Temperature ºC Complex Modulus Loss Shear Modulus Phase Angle
(G*) KPa (G”=G*× sinδ) (Delta)
25 4430 3153 45.4
28 2970 2204 47.9
Pass/Fail Temperature = 23.86 ºC
VG30 + 8% CR 19 9140 5958 40.7
  22 6610 4447 42.3
  25 4590 3181 43.9
  28 3280 2326 45.2
Pass/Fail Temperature = 24.39ºC
VG30 + 9% CR 19 9750 6290 40.2
  22 7100 4786 42.4
  25 4780 3325 44.1
  28 3440 2502 46.7
Pass/Fail Temperature = 24.71ºC

Figs. 11 and 12 Variation in G*× sinδ at Different % CR wrt Temperature After PAV

3.5 Zero Shear Viscosity from Standard are used. Due to this drawback, Zero Shear Viscosity
Frequency Tests (ZSV) has been found effective in predicting the
SHRP specifications suggested the use of G* and δ at rutting behaviour of asphalt binders. ZSV is a measure
a fixed frequency and temperature. As the viscosity of of the viscosity of a material, when a shear load is
the binder changes with change in temperature, and acting on it at a shear rate of nearly zero. At this less
the elastic properties changes with the frequency of shear rates, the binders undergo deformation so slowly,
loading, the above parameters have been suggested that it can adapt to maintain equilibrium, despite of
to be ineffective in capturing the rutting of asphalt the total amount of shear applied being large. The
pavements, especially when modified asphalt binders ZSV is said to be an indicator of two rutting related

48 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


binder properties i.e. the stiffness of the binder, and its Table 4 Zero Shear Viscosity of Binder Before and
resistance to permanent deformation under long term After Ageing
Binder Zero Shear Viscosity (Complex Viscosity
loading. The results of Zero Shear Viscosity are given
at 0.01Hz Frequency)
in Table 4 and shown separately for SBS and Crumb   Unaged After RTFOT After PAV
Rubber in Figs. 13 and 14 respectively. The results VG30 922 6855 21900
VG30+5% SBS 10540 15816 23670
shows that SBS modified binder have better rutting
VG30+6% SBS 11490 18280 29975
resistance than Crumb Rubber modified binder which VG30+7% SBS 14070 24150 32240
is in accordance with the results obtained from Shear VG30+7% CR 5460 22190 25800
VG30+8% CR 5740 22990 28040
modulus parameter. VG30+9% CR 6200 24560 30710

Figs. 13 and 14 Variation in Zero Shear Viscosity for SBS and Crumb Rubber

3.6 Improvement of the Rheological Properties percent of modification SBS has better improved the
In general binder should have a high G* values at properties of bitumen as compared to CR. But by
higher temperature for better deformation resistance increase in percent of CR the increase in G* values
characteristics. Modified binders have higher G* are comparable to SBS at low percentage, thus CR at
values than neat bitumen at same temperature. higher percentages to some extent produce same result
The improvements in terms of deformation as produced by SBS at low percentages. The increase
resistance (G*Modified/G*Unmodified) of SBS and Crumb in value of G* is quite less after RTFOT ageing as
Rubber is shown in Figs. 15 and 16 before and after compared to Unaged binder. There is further reduction
both short and long term ageing. The value of G* is after long term PAV ageing, this shows that effect
increased 5.18 times and 3.08 time by addition of 7% of modifier is diminishing with respect to ageing,
of SBS and CR respectively. This shows that at same this may be due to damage of network structure of
Polymers after ageing.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 49


Figs. 15 and 16 Variation in G*Modified/G*Unmodified for SBS and CR

4 CONCLUSIONS ageing as ductility and penetration values

The following conclusions are drawn based on the becomes quite less with high softening
results obtained from present study point, because in case of modified binder the
degradation of the modifier and the oxidation
1. The physical properties of bitumen are improved of base bitumen occur at same time and role of
with addition of modifiers. Penetration value of former is more pronounced that is why effect of
bitumen before ageing is decreased from 66 to modifier addition diminishes.
25 and 28 before ageing by SBS and Crumb
Rubber respectively, similar are the trends after 4. The complex modulus G* increases with
ageing. However the effect modifier becomes percent of modifier. For instance G* has been
less after PAV ageing the decrease in penetration increased from 4.9 KPa to 25.2 KPa and 22.2
value is only from 23 to 11 and 9 by SBS and KPa by addition of mere 7% SBS and 9% CR
CR this is due to prolonged oxidation leading to respectively. Similar trend has been obtained
increase in viscosity. after RTFOT and PAV ageing. This is due to the
improved stiffness characteristics by addition
2. The softening point of SBS modified bitumen of polymers because of network structure of
is higher than CR modified bitumen i.e. 70˚C rubber added. Also there is a decrease in G*
for 7% SBS in comparison to 65˚C for 9% values with increase in temperature is due to
percent of CR, its penetration value is lower increasing fluidity and also at high temperature
than CR modified binder and ductility values effect of polymer is weaken.
of SBS modified binder are higher than CR.
This indicates SBS adds more flexibility and 5. The phase angle values decreases with increase
good cementing properties to pavement, due to in percentage of modifier and increases with
better network structure present in SBS as it is increase in temperature. The lower phase
formulated in laboratory on the contrary to CR angle value by addition of modifier is due to
which is waste from scrap tyres. improved elastic characteristics of binder. The
SBS modified bitumen resulted in lower phase
3. The improvement in physical properties due angles than Crumb Rubber i.e. it is 65.1˚C at
to modifier diminishes after Long Term PAV 7% SBS content in comparison to 70.6˚C even

50 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


at higher 9% CR content in case of uaged binder REFERENCES

with similar trend after ageing. Thus SBS 1. Bahia HU, Hanson DI, Zeng M, Zhai H, Khatri MA,
impart better elastic characteristics to pavement Anderson RM. (2001), “Characterization of modified
asphalt binders in Superpave mix design”, National
in comparison to CR.
Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 459.
6. The rheological properties of bitumen Washington:DC.
change significantly after ageing. There is a 2. Hagos, E. T. (2008), “The effect of ageing on binder
considerable variation in values of G* before properties of porous asphalt concrete, Masters of Science
in road transportation engineering”, TU-Delf, pp. 343.
and after short term ageing. After the long term
3. Henglong Zhang, Jianying Yu and Dongliang Kuang
ageing the G* values increases exceptionally
(2011), “Effect of expanded vermiculite on aging properties
due to hardening. These changes in rheological of bitumen”, Construction and Building Materials 26,
properties after ageing can be due to chemical Elsevier, pp. 244–248.
changes and breaking of complex structure of 4. IRC:SP:53 (2002), “Guidelines on Use of Polymer and
polymers. Rubber Modified Bitumen in Road Construction”, Indian
Roads Congress, New Delhi, pp 4-9.
7. In present study G* values of SBS modified 5. IS:1201 to 1220 (1978), “Methods for Testing Tar and
bitumen are higher than CR modified bitumen Bituminous Materials”, Indian Standards Institution, New
even at lower percent of modification, thus Delhi.
SBS can be used at High temperatures and 6. IS:73 (2006), “Paving Bitumen Specifications”, Bereau of
traffic conditions. It can also be used in low Indian standards, New Delhi.
temperature areas as ductility values are 7. Isacsson Ulf, Xiaohu Lu (1999), “Characterization of
acceptable. But CR can be used as a substitute bitumens modified with SEBS, EVA and EBA polymers”.
Material Structure, pp.28:139–59.
to SBS to some extent.
8. Khosla NP, Zahran SZ. (1989), “A mechanistic
8. Addition of modifier to bitumen improves its evaluation of mixes containing conventional and polymer
rutting resistance. By addition of CR and SBS modified asphalts”. Proc Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol,
G*/sinδ values are greater than original binder.
By increase in percentage of modifier G* is 9. Kumar Praveen, Mehndiratta H. C., and Singh K.
Lakshman (2010) , “Comparative Study of Rheological
increasing and δ is decreasing which implies Behavior of Modified Binders for High-Temperature
stiffer binder with more elastic properties thus Areas” ASCE,
ability to recover deformation on removal of 10. Sengoz B, Topal A (2005), “Use of asphalt roofing
load is increased. shingle waste in HMA.J”. Constr. Build. Material-19,
pp 337-346.
9. After the processes of ageing the increase in
11. Siddiqui, M. N., and Ali, M. F. (1999), “Studies on the
G*/sinδ values are satisfactory i.e. G*/ sinδ aging behaviour of the Arabian asphalts.” Fuel Vol.78,
value increase from 4.93 to 28.2 KPa by 7% pp. 1005–1015.
of SBS at 58˚C and after RTFOT ageing the 12. Srivastava Anil and Ronald Van Rooijen (2000),
increase 11.4 to 34.72KPa at same temperature “Bituminous Performance in Hot and Arid Climate”,
and content modifier. Thus after ageing also the prepared for Pavement Seminar for the Middle East and
North Africa Region, Innovative Road Rehabilitation and
improved characteristics due modifier prevails. Recycling Technologies.
10. Based on the values of rutting resistance the 13. Xiaohu Lu. and Isacsson Ulf. (2002), “Effect of ageing
optimum content of modifier for SBS is 7% and on bitumen chemistry and rheology”, Construction and
Building Materials, Elsevier, Vol.16, pp. 15-22.
for CR is 9% because increase in G*/sinδ is
14. Zoorob, S.E., Collop, A.C., and Stephen, F. (2001),
maximum. If Crumb Rubber is used it is more
“Performance of bituminous and hydraulic materials
economical and also it can produce results in pavements”, Proceedings of the Fourth European
equivalent to SBS at higher percentages. Symposium, Bitmat4, Nottingham, UK, pp. 331.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 51

Comparative Study of Wet and Dry Blending of
Plastic Modified Bituminous Mix Used
In Road Pavements
M. Veerendra Kumar*, R. Muralidhara* and Divya J. Nair***

ABSTRACT available information on the numerical data related to

Utilisation of waste plastics in bituminous road pavement have been WM and DM of waste plastic with bituminous mix
investigated currently under two type of blending, namely: Wet used for road pavement is limited. The comparative
Mix (WM) and Dry Mix (DM). Previously research investigations study of WM and DM has not been carried out yet,
have been carried out on these two mixes individually. Hence
in this investigation, an effort has been made to compare the which will help us in finding the better option to
performance evaluation of WM and DM in terms of engineering improve the quality of road pavement. Hence, we
properties. have undertaken this investigation where a detailed
experimental comparative study has been initiated by
1 INTRODUCTION partially replacing the optimum bitumen content of
conventional bituminous mix with waste plastics.
Environmental issues now a day is of great
importance. Plastic wastes, for instance, possess
great threat to the environment. Recent researches 3 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED
on Road Pavement shows that waste plastic can be The Investigation is carried out under the following
mixed with Bituminous mix for construction of road heads.
pavements, which can actually enhance the qualities
of road pavement in terms of Strength, Resistance, 3.1 Determination of Individual Engineering
Shelf Life and Economy, along with a better way Properties of Materials Used as Listed
of Waste Management. The research work done by Below:
Dr. R. Vasudevan et al.[1] have concluded that dry Bitumen:
blending of plastic with the aggregates in the
bituminous mix has better binding property along As per the revised standards IS:73:2006, Viscosity
with improvement in engineering properties as Graded Bitumen VG-30 is selected. Based on climatic
compared to plain bituminous mix. The research condition, VG-30 pavement bitumen is used for
work done by Dr. S.S. Verma[2] has concluded that lowest daily air temperature greater than -10°C and
blending 3 to 4% of waste plastic with bitumen will highest daily temperature greater than 30°C which is
increase the melting point of bitumen and improve the prevalent in most part of Indian terrain.
strength, life and durability of road pavement. Properties of bitumen used are furnished in Table 1.
In this investigation, as per MoSRTH-2001
It has been found that various Researches are going on Specification, we have selected mix designation as
around the world in the topic of use of waste plastic bituminous concrete used in wearing and profile
in the bituminous mix for the flexible pavements. The corrective courses of ‘Grading-2’ with nominal

* Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, K.S. School of Engineering & Management, Bangalore
E-mail: mveerendrakumar@rediffmail.com
** Assistant Professor, E-mail: rm_dhar64@yahoo.co.in Civil Engineering Department, M.V.J. College of Engineering,
*** Lecturer, E-mail: divya.n.j@gmail.com Bangalore

52 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


aggregate size of 13.2 mm and layer thickness of Wet Mix:

25 to 40 mm. Determined quantity of waste plastic is added to the pre
The gradation of the aggregates with specified limits heated bitumen at a temperature of 150°C and mixed
and as adopted nearer to middle range is shown in thoroughly followed by increasing the temperature
Table 2. to 170°C in 10 minutes and the process is extended
for 5 more minutes at which a homogenous blended
The properties of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate mix is obtained. This plastic blended bitumen is then
is determined using ASTM C 127 and ASTM C added to the preheated aggregates at 170°C and mixed
128 standards, respectively, and cross verified with thoroughly to obtain the Wet Mix (WM).
MoRTH Specifications.
Dry Mix:
Properties of coarse aggregates and fine aggregates
Determined quantity of waste plastic is added to
used are furnished in Table 3.
preheated aggregates at 170°C and mixed thoroughly
Waste Plastics: followed by maintaining temperature at 170°C for
Waste plastic which is available in the shredded form 15 minutes until the waste plastic gets coated over
consists of Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE) which the aggregates uniformly until a uniform colour is
obtained. The plastic coated hot aggregates are mixed
is obtained from littered plastic bags, plastic sheets
thoroughly with pre heated bitumen at 150°C to obtain
and sacks.
the Dry Mix (DM).
Properties of waste plastic are presented in Table 4.
3.5 A Comparative Study of WM and DM:
3.2 Mix Design: Comparative study of blend of waste plastic in both
WM and DM was made in terms of its Marshall
All bituminous mixes are designed as per Asphalt
stability test, indirect tensile strength and Repeated
Institute MS-2 Manual, compacted by 75 blows on
Load Test.
both top and bottom of specimen.
From the experimental data, a comparative study of
3.3 Determination of Optimum Bitumen Content engineering characteristics of WM and DM is carried
of the Conventional Mix (CM): out to find the better option to improve the quality and
performance of CM used in pavement construction.
CM was prepared using aggregates as adopted in
Table 2, VG-30 bitumen and cement as filler material
with bitumen content varying from (4% to 6.5% at 4 LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS
steps of 0.5%). The optimum bitumen content of the
4.1 Engineering Properties of Materials:
CM was determined as per Asphalt Institute MS-2
method and cross verified by indirect tensile strength The engineering properties of individual materials,
and repeated load test. such as, Bitumen, Aggregates and Waste Plastic are
determined and is detailed below:
3.4 Method of Blending Waste Plastic in Both Bitumen:
Wet Mix (WM) and Dry Mix (DM):
The following tests were conducted for the Viscosity
For the determined optimum bitumen content of CM, Graded Bitumen VG-30 namely: Absolute viscosity,
we partially replaced the bitumen with waste plastic Penetration Value, Softening Point, Ductility, Specific
in proportions of (4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) to obtain the Gravity, Flash Point. The results of the test are
blend of WM and DM. presented in Table 1.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 53


Table 1 Properties of Bitumen Gravity of Fine Aggregate, Water absorption of Coarse

Aggregate, Impact Value, Crushing Value, Los Angles
Property Final Specification BIS Code for
Value IS:73-2006 Testing Abrasion Value, Flakiness Index, Elongation Index
and stripping value. The results of the above tests are
Absolute 2516 Min 2400 IS:1206 (Part 2)
Viscosity @ presented in Table 3 as shown below.
60ºC in Poises
Table 3 Physical Properties of Aggregates
Penetration at 59 50-70 IS:1203
25ºC, 100 g, Properties Tested Test Results MoSRTH
5 s , 0.1 mm Specification
Softening 51 Min 47 IS:1205
point (R&B) Specific gravity of 2.63 2.5-3.0
in ºC. coarse aggregate
Ductility in cm 90 Min 40 IS:1208 Specific gravity of 2.60 2.5-3.0
at 25ºC, fine aggregate
after thin film
Water Absorption of 0.671% Max 2%
Coarse aggregate
Specific 1.00 Min 0.99 IS:1202
gravity Impact value of 16.36% Max 24%
Coarse aggregate
Flash point 225 Min 220 IS:1209
(COC) in ºC Los Angeles 23.63% Max 30%
abrasion value of
Aggregates: Coarse aggregate
The gradation of the aggregates for bituminous Combined 22.94% Max 25%
concrete of grading 2 with specified limits and adopted Flakiness Index and
nearer to middle range is shown in Table 2. Elongation Index of
Coarse aggregate
Table 2 Aggregate Gradations Selected Stripping value – 98% Min 95%
Min retained coating
Sieve Size Specified Limits ( MoSRTH-2001)
(mm) Percent Cumulative Passing Adopted Waste Plastic:
19 100 100
Waste Plastic which is available in the shredded form
13.2 79 - 100 89 is tested for its softening , decomposition and ignition
9.5 70 – 88 79 temperature and is reported in Table 4.
4.75 53 – 71 62
Table 4 Properties of Waste Plastics
2.36 42-58 50
1.18 34-48 40 Properties Tested Tested Value

0.6 26 - 38 31 Softening Temperature 120 - 140

in ºC
0.3 18 - 28 22
0.15 12-20 15 Decomposition 270 - 350
Temperature in ºC
0.075 4 - 10 7
Ignition Temperature > 700
The following tests were done on the aggregates in ºC
namely: Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate, Specific

54 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


4.2 Determination of Optimum Bitumen Content Theoretical Maximum specific gravity (Gmm) of the
(OBC) for CM: un-compacted mix was evaluated as per ASTM
The optimum bitumen content is determined as per D 2041. Marshall Stability test results along with
Asphalt Institute MS-2 in terms of Marshall Stability physical properties of the bituminous mix are presented
test and cross verified with Indirect Tensile Test in Table 5.
and Fatigue behaviour using Repeated Load Test.
Optimum bitumen content is determined as the average
The specimens were prepared with bitumen content
ranging from 4 to 6.5% in steps of 0.5%. value of the bitumen content at maximum bulk specific
gravity (B1), Maximum Marshall stability (B2) and
In Marshall Stability Test (ASTM – D 1559 & MS-2),
at 4.0% voids content (B3). From the test data, we
specimens were immersed in water bath at 60ºC for
40 min before testing. The test was performed with have B1 = 5.11%, B2 = 5.00% and B3 = 4.84%. Hence
varying binder contents and the Marshall Stability Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC) is determined as
values, flow values and Bulk specific gravity average of B1, B2 and B3 which is 4.98% and is
of the compacted mix (Gmb) were determined. rounded of to 5.00%.
Table 5 Marshall Test Results for CM
% of Theoretical Maximum Bulk Specific % of Air % of Voids Marshall Flow
Bitumen Specific Gravity Gravity (Gmb) Voids (Vv) Filled with Stability Values
Content (Gmm) Bitumen (VFB) Values kN δ mm
4 2.360 2.236 5.25 62.99 16.88 7.65
4.5 2.382 2.276 4.45 69.71 18.62 4.55
5 2.422 2.328 3.88 74.99 19.83 3.20
5.5 2.407 2.321 3.57 78.13 18.23 3.55
6 2.394 2.304 3.76 78.62 17.92 4.17
6.5 2.378 2.296 3.45 81.23 17.22 4.47

Static Indirect Tensile Strength Test: The Indirect Compaction were subjected to repeated Indirect
Tensile Test (ITS) was carried out as per ASTM: Tensile Load Test with rest as per ASTM D 4123.
D-4123-82. Haversine shaped pulsating loads of magnitude 20%
Results of Indirect Tensile Strength test on specimens as that of maximum indirect tensile strength, at a
of CM are given in Table 6. frequency of 1Hz were applied diametrically to the
specimens through the loading shaft with the help of
Table 6 ITS Test Results for CM
personal computer. A loading period of 0.1s and rest
% Bitumen Content I.T.S – N Tensile Stress N/ period of 0.9s was applied during the test to simulate
high vehicle speeds. The load repetitions were
4 2943.00 0.295
continued till the specimen failed. The temperature of
4.5 3286.35 0.329 the specimen at the start of the test was 35ºC.
5 7651.80 0.767 The parameters used to evaluate the fatigue
5.5 5395.50 0.541 characteristics of the mixes are:
6 5199.30 0.521 a. The number of cycles to failure (Nf)
6.5 4120.20 0.413 b. Initial tensile strain (εi)
Repeated Indirect Tensile Load Test: Cylindrical c. Resilient modulus (Mr)
specimens of diameter 100 mm prepared by Marshall

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 55


Resilient Modulus: Table 7 Repeated Load Test Results for CM

The following expression as per ASTM: D-4123 was % Bitumen Fatigue Life Resilient Initial Tensile
Content (Number of Modulus Strain
used for the computation of resilient modulus­. Cycles, N) (M Pa) (Micro Strains)
P (0.27 + µ r ) 4 604 1175.65 364.43
Mr =
Hr * h 4.5 840 1604.23 297.21

where, 5 1065 1704.72 277.11

5.5 995 1689.91 364.43
P is the repeated load applied, µr = Resilient Poisson
6 460 751.17 376.91
ratio which was taken as 0.45 at 35ºC test temperature
6.5 474 729.32 406.01
as recommended by Transportation Research
Laboratory (TRL), Crowthrone, U.K (Nunn 1995), From the Marshall Stability Test and further
h = height of specimen (mm) Hr = resilient horizontal confirmation from Indirect Tensile Test and Repeated
deformation (mm) Load Test results as furnished in Tables (5, 6, 7), the
optimum bitumen content for conventional bituminous
Initial Tensile Strain: mix is obtained as 5%.
The initial tensile strain is a recoverable tensile strain 4.3 Comparative Study of Wet and Dry Blending
determined after 200 load cycles (ASTM: D-4123). of Plastic Modified Bituminous Mix
This is an indicator of the performance of bituminous The enhancement in the performance of conventional
mix under repeated load. mix with optimum bitumen content of 5% by partialy
replacing the bitumen with waste plastic in wet and
σ(1 + 3µ r )
εi = dry blending is determined in terms of Marshall
Mr Stability test, Indirect Tensile Strength and Fatigue
where, parameters using Repeated Load test. The specimens
σ = maximum tensile stress at the centre of were prepared by partially replacing bitumen with
waste plastic ranging from 4 to 10% in Wet Mix (WM)
and Dry Mix (DM).
Results of Repeated load test on specimens of CM are
Results of Marshall Stability Test for WM & DM are
given in Table 7.
given in Table 8.

Table 8 Marshall Test Results for WM & DM

Partial Replacement Theoretical Bulk Specific % of Air % of Voids Filled Marshall Flow
of OBC of CM Maximum Specific Gravity (Gmb) Voids (Vv) with Bitumen- Stability Values Values
By Waste Plastic-% Gravity (Gmm) Plastic (VFB) kN δ mm
Wet Mix
4 2.430 2.330 4.12 73.90 17.79 4.02
6 2.429 2.331 4.03 74.28 18.78 3.32
8 2.427 2.332 3.91 74.87 25.54 2.34
10 2.424 2.330 3.88 75.03 19.67 2.97
Dry Mix
4 2.429 2.331 4.03 74.28 22.22 3.38
6 2.428 2.332 3.95 74.68 25.77 3.12
8 2.415 2.333 3.40 77.45 28.92 2.28
10 2.408 2.332 3.16 78.70 19.96 1.99

56 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Results of Static Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test out to find the better option to improve the quality
for WM & DM are given in Table 9. of the road pavement and the same is presented in
Table 11.
Table 9 ITS Test Results for WM & DM
Table 11 Comparative Study of WM and DM
Partial I.T.S Tensile
Replacement of N Stress - Properties CM at WM DM
Bitumen with N/mm2 OBC of
Waste Plastic-% 5%
ITS for WM Partial replacement of - 8% 8%
optimum bitumen of
4 5806.9 0.572 CM with waste plastic
6 7512.6 0.725 Marshall Stability 19.83 25.54 28.92
8 8610.7 0.830 Value (KN)
10 6727.8 0.664 Indirect Tensile 0.77 0.83 0.94
ITS for DM Strength (N/mm2)
4 7749.9 0.777 Fatigue Life 1065 1523 1986
(cycles- N)
6 8142.3 0.816
Resilient Modulus 1704.72 1752.47 1995.60
8 9338.5 0.936
(M Pa)
10 6375.5 0.639
Flow Value (mm) 3.20 2.34 2.28
Results of repeated load test on specimens of WM and % Air Voids 3.88 3.91 3.40
DM are presented in Table 10. % Voids filled with 74.99 74.87 77.45
Table 10 Repeated Load Test on WM & DM
Partial Fatigue Life Resilient Initial
Replacement (Number of Modulus Tensile 1. The Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC)
of Bitumen Cycles, N) (M Pa) Strain determined in terms of Marshall Stability test
(Micro for CM was found to be 4.98% which is rounded
Strains) of to 5%. This was further substantiated by flow
Repeated Load Test on WM value, Indirect Tensile Strength and Fatigue
4 969 1630.75 317.21 Parameters using Repeated Load Test.
6 1473 1660.22 277.22 2. The comparative studies for WM and DM were
8 1523 1752.47 269.44 made with reference to CM in terms of Marshall
10 1534 1839.80 253.32 Stability Test, Indirect Tensile Test and Repeated
Repeated Load Test on DM Load Test by partial replacement of OBC of
4 952 1667.18 291.38 CM with waste plastic. The enhancement in the
6 1346 1870.27 208.43 performance as compared to CM was obtained
8 1986 1995.60 203.11 at 8% partial replacement by waste plastic in
10 1980 1901.81 269.43 both WM and DM. Refer Table 11.
3. The enhancement in WM with 8% partial
5 DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS replacement of OBC of CM with Waste plastic
resulted in increase of Marshall stability by
From the experimental details, a comparative study of
28.79%, Decrease in flow value by 26.88%,
engineering characteristics of WM and DM is carried

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 57


Increase in Indirect Tensile Strength by 10. IS:1205-1978 “Determination of Softening point of

7.79%, Increase in fatigue life cycle by 43%
11. IS:1208-1978 “Determination of ductility of Bitumen”
and Increase in Resilient Modulus by 2.80%.
How ever there is slight increase in percentage 12. IS:1209-1978 “ Determination of Flash and Fit\re Point of
air voids by 0.77% but the values are within
13. ASTM C127-12 “Standard Test Method for Density,
permissible range and there is no appreciable Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of
change in percentage voids filled with bitumen- Coarse Aggregate.
plastic binder. 14. ASTM C128-12 “Standard Test Method for Density,
4. The enhancement in DM with 8% partial Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of
Fine Aggregate.
replacement of OBC of CM with Waste Plastic
15. Manual of Asphalt Institute MS-2 “Designing of Asphalt
resulted in increase of Marshall Stability by
45.84%, Decrease in flow value by 28.75%,
16. ASTM D 1559 & MS - 2 “Standard Test Method for
Increase in Indirect Tensile Strength by 22.08%, Marshall Stability and Flow of Bituminous Mixtures”
Increase in fatigue life cycle by 86.48%, increase 17. ASTM D 2041M-11 “Standard Test Method for
in Resilient Modulus by 17.06%, Decrease in Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity & Density of
percentage air voids by 0.77% and increase in Paving Mixtures”.
percentage voids filled with bitumen-plastic 18. ASTM D 4123-82 “Standard Test Method for Determining
binder by 3.28%. Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures by Indirect
Tension Test”
5. In comparative study of WM and DM from
Table 11, DM is a better option to improve the
performance of the road pavements in terms of
its fatigue, strength and stiffness by utilization
of waste plastics.
6. Utilisation of waste plastics in construction of
road pavements is found to be an eco-friendly
solution for waste disposal and economy in
pavement construction.
1. Dr. R. Vasudevan, S.Rajashekaran and Susanta Samanta
“Utilization of Waste Plastics in Construction of Flexible.
Pavenents” GPEC (2005), Vol-13, Paper abstract No 27.
2. Dr. S.S. Verma “Roads from Plastics”, Indian Concrete
Journal, November 2008.
3. Dr. M.V.L.R. Anjaneyulu, “Polymer Modified Bituminous
Mixes” M.Tech., thesis 2009, NIT Calicut.
4. E.J. Yoder, M.Witezak “Principles of Pavement Design”
2nd Edition, (2007), Publisher: John Wiley & sons.
5. Shivangi Gupta & A.Veereragavan “Fatigue Behaviour
of Polymer Modified Bituminous Concrete Mixtures”
journal of Indian Roads Congress, January-March 2009.
6. MoSRTH-2001 “Specifications for Road and Bridge
Works” 4th revision, Published by Indian Roads
7. IS:73-2006 “Specifications for Paving Bitumen”
8. IS:1202-1978 “Determination of Specific Gravity of
9. IS:1203-1978 “Determination of Penetration Value of

58 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Rajib B. Mallick*, Michael Radzicki**, Yamini V. Nanagiri*** and A. Veeraragavan****

ABSTRACT is on maintenance and rehabilitation, rather than on

Pavement construction is the single largest market of natural new construction. Because of soaring material costs
aggregates. Aggregates constitute about 100% of base and subbase and budget shortfalls, there is a huge backlog in
courses, 87% of Portland cement concrete pavements and 95% maintenance and rehabilitation of pavements, leading
of bituminous pavements. The amount of aggregate required for
a km of a surface course of bituminous mix can exceed 15,000 to the issue of sustainability of the maintenance of road
tons. The massive demand of aggregates resulting from rapid assets that have been created by huge investments.
urbanization in India has already started taking its toll – there are For India, it should be noted that in addition to the
many areas where aggregates need to be transported from hundreds
ongoing new construction, in the next five years, a
of kms away for construction of new roads, for maintaining and
rehabilitating existing roads. Furthermore, with concerns about significant amount of work will also be needed for the
pollution, opening up of new quarries are becoming increasingly maintenance and rehabilitation of the new pavements.
difficult. Transportation of aggregates over long distances adds The combined work will need (in addition to money)
to fuel cost, and contributes to increase in emissions. Hence the
depletion of stock of natural aggregates has a huge impact on costs
a massive amount of materials and energy1, 2.
as well as the environment. How big is the impact? If, instead of Pavement construction is the single largest market for
using natural aggregates, we start recycling of existing roads for
maintenance and rehabilitation, what will be the reduction in the
the natural aggregate (sand, gravel and crushed stone)
impact? How much recycling needs to be done, and how soon? industry. Typically subbase and base courses are made
This paper attempts to answer these questions with the help of completely out of aggregates, whereas aggregates
system dynamics modelling. The conclusions are alarming, and constitute about 87% and 95% of Portland Cement
demand an immediate and serious consideration of policies to
allow and enable recycling of pavements in India. concrete and bituminous pavements (respectively).
In India about 15,000 tons of aggregates are required
per kilometer of highway. A typical National Highway
1 Background
Development Project (NHDP) project of 60 km road
Roads are vital for the transport of goods and improvement require 20 lakh ton of material. Already,
passengers. The Indian government has embarked severe shortage of aggregates is prevalent in Northeast
on a vigorous road building effort – it is investing India, where a significant amount of money needs to
Rs 1,20,000 crore per annum. In the next five years be spent on gasoline/diesel for transporting aggregates
$60 billion will be invested to build 35,000 km of from faraway places. In places such as New Delhi,
roads. The roads that are being built now will be good quality aggregates are being hauled from over
ready for maintenance and rehabilitation in the next 200 kms, resulting in the consumption of hundreds of
five to ten years. Some lessons can be learnt from lakhs of liters of diesel in transportation alone. And in
the US highway system, which is a mature system, most cases, old pavement materials are dumped into
and most of the work in the recent past and at present landfills dumping of old road materials is leading to a

* Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering

E-mail: rajib@wpi.edu),
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA
** Associate Professor, Social Science and Policy Studies,
E-mail: mjradz@wpi.edu),
*** Associate Professor, NICMAR-CISC, Hyderabad, E-mail: yaminin@gmail.com)
**** Professor, Civil Engineering Department, IIT Madras, Chennai E-mail: av@iitm.ac.in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 59


depletion of landfill space and generation of significant equipment and experience, education of practitioners
amounts of harmful methane gas. In the mean time, and quality control practices.
wherever available, depletion of natural aggregate
However, there a few key pieces of information that
stock is taking place at an alarming rate (example,
are missing from the discussion: what are the overall
Fig. 1) and anecdotal evidences of the effect of
impacts of the depletion of natural aggregates on
depletion of natural aggregates are being discussed
cost and the environment? If, instead of using natural
in meetings/workshops and presented in various
aggregates, we start recycling of existing stockpiles of
Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials for new
roads and recycling of existing roads for maintenance
and rehabilitation, what will be the reduction in
the impact? How much recycling needs to be done,
and how soon? Finally, if we delay the adoption of
recycling, what will be the impact?
This study attempts to answer the above questions
using system dynamics modelling and analysis.


The objectives of this study were to:
i) To construct a proper model of depletion
Fig. 1 Example of Quarrying of Natural Aggregates of stock of natural aggregates due to
The scarcity of aggregates now forces truck delivery pavement construction, and maintenance
of materials from great distances, which leads to and rehabilitation
emission of greater amount of pollutants from the ii) To investigate the effect of various key
burning of diesel, such as particulate matter, nitrogen parameters, such as new roads built every
oxides and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Many year and existing roads maintained every
of the diesel engine emissions have been identified as year, on the rate of depletion
carcinogenic, and harmful to the human health, even at
iii) To determine the impact of the depletion
occupational and environmental levels of exposure.
of the natural aggregates on fuel cost and
An alternative to the use of natural aggregates is the environment
recycling Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)
iv) To determine the effect of recycling
material from existing stockpiles for new roads, and
(amount and rate of increase) on reducing/
from existing roads for maintenance and rehabilitation.
eliminating the detrimental impacts
It is generally accepted that recycling is needed to
stop the depletion of natural resources, and there are The scope of work included the consideration of
a number of research studies that are being carried the appropriate factors, construction of a system
out in different parts of India at this time to determine dynamics model, analysis of the various scenarios,
whether the use of RAP is suitable for different layers and conclusions and recommendations.
of asphalt pavements. Concurrently, there is ongoing
debate among policy makers about policies and 2.1 Methodology
specifications for allowing the use of RAP. Important A System dynamics model has been created to analyse
issues pertaining to this subject are availability of the various scenarios. System dynamics is an approach

60 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


that helps us develop a strategic view of a “system”, commodity that can increase or decrease in value
which could be an industry, society or a nation, by or number or quantity. Flow is the rate of increase
modelling the different parts and simulating the or decrease in the stock, which can be influenced by
dynamics of interaction between the different parts. “connectors”. A simple example is that if the amount
This helps us to determine the changes over time, and of available natural aggregate can be considered to be
hence develop a view which could not be obtained a stock, the amount of use of aggregate in tons per
from “spot” studies, that are conducted with either a km of a road can be considered to be a connector, that
few of the critical elements of the system or within dictates the rate of flow, which can be same as the
the confines of a specific time (second, hour, day or rate of use of aggregates or can also be influenced
year) time. One of the most powerful elements of this particularly by the amount of recycled aggregates.
approach is the ability to “link” elements and model
the interdependencies of the various elements across 3 LITERATURE REVIEW
disciplines (for example climatic science and civil
engineering). Known as causal (or feedback) loops, System dynamics has been utilized since the nineteen
these links help us to understand the dynamic nature sixties in modeling and simulation of a wide range of
of a problem, and simulate the systems over time. problems, including social, industrial, sustainability,
food, population growth and natural resources. Of
The important aspect of simulating “over time” is that these applications, the most appropriate for this paper
whereas impacts (such as that of unsustained growth is that related to the modeling of depletion of natural
in population or construction) may appear to be linear resources and resulting problems. Forrester (1971)1
over a short time period (say a span of five years), in introduced the subject through his sustainability model
reality, they may be of exponential nature over a decade on world dynamics, and was followed by Meadows
or a few decades. Having the ability view this change (1972)2 who presented the limits to growth model. This
over a long time period is essential for developing study has been updated twice since then3, 4. A model
policies for an industry or society or a nation, to make to illustrate the unsustainability of our civilization
sure that the far reaching consequences of adoption was presented by Sterman (2012)5, which includes
of these policies are indeed beneficial in the long run. growth, carrying capacity and technology, as well as
This ability can help us select good policies from bad the delays in regeneration of resource, development
policies – policies may appear to be “good” in the of technologies and adoption of policies. The carrying
short term, but in the long term may have disastrous capacity of the earth system and detrimental effect
consequences, and only a proper system dynamics of unsustainable growth on the environment has also
model can capture it. Another key aspect of system been investigated with system dynamics modeled by
dynamics approach is the ability to show the root Radzicki (1995)6, Bueno (2011)7 and Bockernmann
cause (or causes) of a problem, and prevent us from et al (2005)8. System dynamics has been used to
finger-pointing each other. This is because, a good investigate the relationship between quality of life
system dynamics model can include all of the essential and sustainability by Beck (2011, 2012)9, 10, whereas
elements, and their interdependencies and hence, the Grosskurth (2007)11 has looked at a case study on
relational dynamics. regional sustainability in Netherlands. Predictive
The steps in the modelling of system dynamics consists models for the forecast of fossil fuel predictions have
of identifying and defining a problem, developing been developed by Maggio and Cacciola (2012)12,
a dynamic hypothesis, modelling, simulating, and whereas the link between resource productivity,
developing policies and evaluating them. The consumption and sustainability has been investigated
components of a typical system dynamics model by Schmidt-Bleek (2008)13. More appropriately,
are stock, flow and connectors. Stock represents a resources depletion has been investigated with system

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 61


dynamics by Rees (1992)14, Wackernagel (1994)15, carried out by recycling. The maximum amount of RAP
Cohen (1995)16 and Tilton (2001)17. that can be utilized for paving new roads is the amount
that is available at present as stockpile, whereas the
Overall it seems that system dynamics is a perfect
maximum percent of recycling that could be carried
tool for formulating, modeling and simulating, and
out for maintenance jobs is 100%. Depending on
investigating the effects of a resource intensive activity
whether RAP is utilized or not, construction of new
such as road construction on the environment.
roads and maintenance jobs consume the local stock
of natural aggregates. As this stock drops, contractors
4 MODELLING have to transport natural aggregates from quarries
The model is shown in Fig. 1. The hypothesis is as that are further away, and the transportation distance
follows. Authorization of new roads through State or increases with the depletion of the local stock of
Central governments lead to the construction of new natural aggregates. The fuel cost that is associated with
roads every year (for certain number of years for a transportation of aggregates increases with an increase
specific budget/plan period). These new roads start in the transportation distance, and simultaneously
deterioration, and become candidates for maintenance. the emissions also increase. Since the amount of
In addition, there are already existing roads in emissions can be directly related to the amount of fuel
the network that require maintenance, and once that is burnt (per gram or per liter), the increase in
maintained, they become part of the “new” roads, and percentage of emissions is the same as that of the fuel
hence the cycle continues. Now, new roads may or cost (or fuel that is burnt). The specific emissions that
may not be constructed with available RAP materials have been considered, and their harmful effects are
(in stockpiles); maintenance jobs may or may not be shown in Table 1.

Fig. 1 System Dynamics Model

62 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Table 1 Emissions from Diesel Engine Trucks (Source: US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA18)
Emission Rate Effects
Volatile 0.74 gm/mile Eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; damage to liver, kidney,
Organic and central nervous system. Some organics can cause cancer in animals; some are suspected or
Compound known to cause cancer in humans. Key signs or symptoms associated with exposure to VOCs
include conjunctival irritation, nose and throat discomfort, headache, allergic skin reaction,
dyspnea, declines in serum cholinesterase levels, nausea, emesis, epistaxis, fatigue, dizziness.

Nitrogen 7.27 gm/mile Adverse respiratory effects including airway inflammation in healthy people and increased
Oxide, NOx respiratory symptoms in people with asthma. NOx react with ammonia, moisture, and other
compounds to form small particles. These small particles penetrate deeply into sensitive parts of
the lungs and can cause or worsen respiratory disease, such as emphysema and bronchitis, and
can aggravate existing heart disease, leading to increased hospital admissions and premature
death. Ozone is formed when NOx and volatile organic compounds react in the presence
of heat and sunlight. Children, the elderly, people with lung diseases such as asthma, and
people who work or exercise outside are at risk for adverse effects from ozone. These include
reduction in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms as well as respiratory-related
emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and possibly premature deaths.RNOEPA
Carbon 3.39 gm/mile At low concentrations, fatigue in healthy people and chest pain in people with heart disease.
Monoxide, At higher concentrations, impaired vision and coordination; headaches; dizziness; confusion;
CO nausea. Can cause flu-like symptoms that clear up after leaving home. Fatal at very high
concentrations. Acute effects are due to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood,
which inhibits oxygen intake. At moderate concentrations, angina, impaired vision, and
reduced brain function may result. At higher concentrations, CO exposure can be fatal.RCOEP
Carbon 10.1 kg/gallon of Primary greenhouse gas, responsible for global warming and other associated effects
Dioxide, dieselRCO21Krupnick
Particulate 0.13 gm/mile Effects on breathing and respiratory systems, damage to lung tissue, cancer, and premature
Matter, death. The elderly, children, and people with chronic lung disease, influenza, or asthma, are
PM10 especially sensitive to the effects of particulate matter. Acidic PM-10 can also damage human-
made materials and is a major cause of reduced visibility in many parts of the U.S. New
scientific studies suggest that fine particles (smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) may
cause serious adverse health effects.RPMEPA

5 MODEL EQUATIONS AND NUMERIC increases are based on the increase in trucking
VALUES OF PARAMETERS distance and expressed in percentage, equations
The model equations and numeric values (Tables 2 relating emissions to trucking distance are indicated
and 3) of the different parameters are either based at the bottom of Table 3 to demonstrate the significant
on literature or on best assumptions. Although the effect of increase in trucking distance.

Table 2 Initial Values of Parameters

Parameter Value
Authorized New Kms per year 100 lane-km for the next five years
Existing new roads 0
Existing roads needing maintenance 15,000 kms
Average pavement life 5 years
Local natural aggregate stock 1,000 million tons
Natural aggregate use per km 15,000 tons per km

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 63


Table 3. equations Table 3 Equations

Note Carbon
: Carbon dioxide,
dioxide, kg = 2.65*disel
kg = 2.65*disel fuel consumedfuel consumed
(litres): (litres):
source: Krupnick, source:
2010 19
Krupnick, 201019
Carbon monoxide=
Carbon monoxide =2.12*trucking distance:
2.12* trucking distance: source:source:
Fuel cost= diesel
Fuel cost fuel
= diesel fuelconsumed in litres*Rs.
consumed in litres*Rs. 50 (assumed)
50 per litre per litre (assumed)
Fuel consumed
Fuel consumed = =88kms perlitre
kms per litre (assumed)
Nitrogen Oxide
Nitrogen ==4.54*trucking
Oxide distance;
4.54*trucking distance; source:source:
Particulate matter
Particulate matter== 0.11*trucking distance:
0.11*trucking distance: source:
source: FHWA 20
Volatile organic
Volatile organiccontent
content == 0.46*trucking
0.46*trucking distancedistance
source:FHWA source:FHWA

64 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013



6 ANALYSIS Fig. 2 shows, the effect of a change in maintenance rate

(percentage of roads maintained every year) is more
6.1 Effect of new road construction and
significant, the depletion can range from 75 to 100 %,
maintenance activities on the local natural
as the rate changes from 20-60%. In fact, for 60%, the
aggregate stock
depletion is mathematically predicted to be >100, and
The effects are shown in Fig. 2. Note that even though the model stopped the calculations at a point at which
the construction of new road has been considered only the transportation distance became unrealistically
for the next five years, the maintenance of existing high. Although the exact numbers are less important,
roads create “new” roads, which again become the primary inference is that maintenance of roads is
ready for maintenance hence the cycle continues the major driving force behind the consumption of
indefinitely. Interestingly, the difference in kms of aggregates, and even at a low maintenance rate of
new roads that are constructed every year for the 20%, most of the local stock of natural aggregates
next 5 years do not make a significant impact on the could be depleted with two decades. Obviously, for
depletion of natural aggregate stock. If the roads that improvement of infrastructure one would assume that
need maintenance are actually maintained at a rate of a significantly higher (>20%) percentage of roads will
20%, then by the next 30 years, the natural aggregate be maintained every year the effect on the aggregate
stock will be depleted by 75 to 85%. However, as stock will be drastic.

Fig. 2 Effect of Road New Road Construction on the Depletion of Natural Aggregate Stock

6.2 Impact of the Depletion of the Natural emissions will be the same (Fig. 3). In the absence of
Aggregates on Fuel Cost and the any recycling, it is seen that the effects are exponential,
Environment and within two decades, the increase will be between
Since the environmental impacts are related to the 100-175% of initial values, depending on the rate of
amount of fuel consumed, the impact of the depletion maintenance (which, for a good pavement system,
of local natural aggregate stock on both fuel cost and should be higher than 40%).

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 65


Fig. 3 Effect of Maintenance Rates on the Depletion of Natural Aggregate Stock

Fig. 4 Impact of Rate of Maintenance on Fuel Cost and Emissions

6.3 Effects of Recycling (Amount and Rate are not stabilized even after 30 years. Note that this
of Increase) on Reducing the Detrimental analysis assumes that the fuel cost will remain at the
Impacts same level after 30 years, as it us now: obviously this
The effects are compared against those of no recycling is a wrong assumption. Fuel costs will rise, as the fuel
in Fig. 5. Recycling at a constant rate of 10% or 20% stock gets depleted, and hence the impact on cost will
cannot avoid the increase in impact by over 100% in be even more disastrous. (If one can predict the rise in
30 years. The higher rates of recycling can bring down field cost with time, it can be easily accommodated in
the impacts significantly, although the impact levels the model, and the results can be refined).

66 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Fig. 5 Effect of No Recycling, and Recycling at Constant Rates Fig. 6 Effect of No Recycling, Recycling at a Constant Rate of
on the Increase in Fuel Cost and Emissions 10% and Recycling at Various Increasing Rates on the Increase
in Fuel Cost and Emissions
So the only solution seems to be reaching a 100
% recycling level, as indicated in Fig. 6, within a 6.4 Assumptions Made in this Study
decade, by increasing the rate of recycling every The model used in this study consists of different
year. The increase in recycling can be expected as a stocks and flows, with a number of connectors. For
result of increase in confidence and technology, as the equations that relate the different components,
a result of both laboratory and field based research. certain assumptions have been made. Definitely, the
100% recycling means for a pavement that needs to equations could be improved with more study, and
identification of better relationships. The expressions
be maintained or rehabilitated, the existing layer (or
relating the emissions and the fuel cost to the fuel
layers) will be milled off, the materials will be brought
consumed are taken from literature, and the amount of
to a plant, recycled, and placed back, with the use fuel consumed per km is based on common knowledge
of a recycling agent or rejuvenator. The assumption for a typical dump truck. Hence, these values should
is that when the pavement needs the maintenance, be fairly accurate. The amount of aggregate required
the aggregates are still in good shape, and the only per km of a road is based on calculations, and although
deterioration is due to the aging of the asphalt binder accurate, can vary according to the type of roads.
(due to aging). In the case of a structural failure (that is Hence, the “rate of aggregate use” can be improved
when the pavement is ready for rehabilitation and not with data obtained for specific road types.
maintenance), a combination of in-place and in plant However, the most important assumption is the
recycling can be adopted. Part of the top layer that has relationship between the depletion of the local natural
high asphalt content could be milled off and taken to aggregate stock and the distance needed to transport
a plant for recycling. The remaining layers could be natural aggregates to the job site the assumption is
recycled in place using cold in-place recycling, with that this distance increases as the local stock goes
down (Fig. 7). Although the fundamental premise for
emulsion. The recycled bituminous mix could then be
this assumption is correct (states are experiencing
transported from the plant and laid down on the cold
a rapid increase in transportation distance with a
recycled (new) base course. Note that even though
depletion of natural aggregate stock) the equation has
100% recycling is assumed, there will be some use of been assumed – this should be determined from data
new materials, such as recycling agent or rejuvenator. for specific areas or specific states, and readers are
In some cases, if the aggregates are considered to be encouraged to collect realistic data. Literature shows
deteriorated, then new aggregates could be used but that the effect of depletion of local aggregates on the
the amount should be minimal. haul distance is indeed exponential19.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 67


The following recommendations are made.

1. Research should be carried out to obtain proper
data and determine the relationship between
depletion of local natural aggregate stock and
increase in aggregate transportation distance/
2. The equations and parameters in the proposed
model should be improved and analysis should
be carried out
3. Based on the conclusions reported here, policy
Fig. 7 Assumed Natural Aggregate Stock Versus Haul Distance makers are requested to take a very serious look
Relationship at the country’s future especially with respect
to the sustainability of road construction and
7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS maintenance, and immediately develop a policy
to encourage and even provide incentives
This study has utilized a system dynamics approach
to jumpstart recycling, and maintain a path
to get a “big picture” of the effect of new road
of increasing recycling rate over the years to
construction and maintenance on the depletion of
local natural aggregate stock, and the corresponding
impacts on fuel cost and emissions. Based on the work 4. It should be noted that recycling can only be
the following conclusions could be made. carried out when the existing mixes consist of
good quality aggregates, and the detrioration
1. System dynamics should be utilized to get has been primarily due to the aging of the binder
an objective and clear view of the impact of and/or changes in volumetric and mechanical
construction work properties of the mixes. Hence, the proposed
2. The cumulative impact of new road construction approach is valid for the roads that are being
and resultant increase in the number of roads now with relatively better specifications, and
to be maintained can only be understood when materials and mixes.
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Appropriated Carrying Capacity: a Tool for Planning
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Planning, The University of British Columbia. Doctor of
16. Cohen, J., E. (1995). "Population Growth and Earth's
Carrying Capacity." Science 269(5222): 341-346.
17. Tilton, J. E. (2001). Depletion and the Long-Run
Availability of Mineral Commodities. International
Institute for Environment and Development , http://pubs.
iied.org/pdfs/G01035.pdf, accessed June 18, 2013.
18. US Environmental protection Agency, EPA: http://www.
epa.gov/airquality/urbanair/, accessed June 30, 2013.
19. Krupnick, Alan. Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Economic
Implications of Natural Gas Trucks. Natural Energy Policy
Institute, June 20110. http://www.rff.org/RFF/Documents/

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 69

A study on Response spectrum and Time history
Analysis Methods for Seismic Analysis of
Prestressed concrete Bridges
Saadat Zaki Mulla*

ABSTRACT is obtained by combining response due to individual

Due to the increase in the population and development, manmade component, as method of superposition is valid for
structures are also increasing with a rapid increase, increasing the linear static systems. Since the natural frequencies of
hazards due to natural calamities specially earthquakes. In this structure are not known prior, complications arise in
contest, importance of sufficient strength of structures to resists
the design of structure necessitating several iterations.
seismic forces has increased. The importance and necessity of
seismic analysis has gained momentum in recent times and many In such a situation, a design engineer requires
methods have been developed for analysis like, response spectrum, perception of seismic loading that reflects frequency
capacity spectrum, displacement coefficient, time history, pushover content, amplitude of ground motion and effect of
analysis etc. The suitability of Response spectrum and Time history subsequent filtering by the structure. This information
method is studied under in the present work and it’s found that
is provided by Response spectra. Response spectrum
time history analysis gives more conservative results and better
behavior of prestressed concrete bridges. The availability of high is set of ordinates that describes maximum response
speed computing tools has made the computations easier; hence of a single degree freedom system (SDOF) subjected
time history method should be preferred for the seismic analysis. to a prescribed ground motion.
Response spectrum method gives more idealistic behavior when
compared to Time history method. 2.1 Procedure as per IRC:6-2010[1]
In this, Dynamic analysis of the structure is performed
to obtain the first as well as higher modes of vibration
In recent years the emphasis on the seismic strength and the forces obtained for each mode by using
of the structures has lead to many newer methods response spectrum from Fig.13 of IRC:6-2010 and
of structural analysis especially seismic analyses. clause 219.5.1 of the same.
The response spectrum method has gained much
The horizontal seismic forces acting at the center of
importance in the whole process much because of the
mass, which are to be resisted by the structure as a
simplicity in the calculations. Also, many standard
whole, shall be computed as follows:
codes prefer for this method over the other developed
rational methods only because of the complications Feq = Ah (Dead load + Appropriate Live load)
in the computations. In the present study an effort has where,
been put to compare the widely accepted response
spectrum method with the more rational and actual Feq = seismic force to be resisted
method of Time history analysis. A h = horizontal seismic coefficient
= (Z/2) x (I) x (Sa/g)
2 RESPONSE SPECTRUM METHOD Z = Zone factor as given in Table 6 of
The response of a structure is often obtained by IRC:6-2010
subjecting structure to one component of ground I = Importance factor as per Table 7 of
acceleration. The total response of structural system IRC:6-2010

* Post Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, KLES College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum, India
E-mail: saadat.mulla@gmail.com

70 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


T = Fundamental period of bridge (in sec) Since structure response will depend on the strength
for horizontal vibrations and stiffness of the various structural elements, which
Sa/g = Average response acceleration will not generally be known at the preliminary stages
coefficient for 5% damping of load of a design, it is unsuitable for defining design force
resisting elements depending upon levels. It is worth noting that the level of sophistication
the fundamental period of vibration of the analytical technique may engender a false sense
T as given in Fig.13 of IRC:6-2010 of confidence in the precision of the results in the
Fundamental time period of the bridge member is inexperienced designer. It must be recognized that
to be calculated by any rational method of analysis assumptions made to the earthquake characteristics and
adopting the Modulus of Elasticity of concrete as per structural properties imply considerable uncertainty in
Clause 6 of IRC:112-2011, and taking gross uncracked the predicted response.
section for moment of inertia. The fundamental period The main value of dynamic analysis is a research tool,
of vibration can also be calculated by the method
investigating generic rather than specific response.
given in Annex D.
It may also be a considerable value in verifying
anticipated response of important structures after
detailed design to force and displacement defined by
less precise analytical methods[2].
Modal superposition is an elastic dynamic analysis
approach that relies in the assumption that the
dynamic response of a structure found by considering
the independent response of each natural mode of
vibration and then combining the responses in some
way. Its advantage lies in the fact that generally only a
few of the lowest modes of vibration have significance
when calculating moments, Shear, deflections at
different levels of the structure. In its purest form, the
Fig. 1 Response Spectrum of IRC:6:2010 response to a given accelerograms in each mode of
vibration is calculated as a time history of forces and
3 TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS displacements, and these responses are combined to
provide complete time history of structural response.
The most sophisticated level of analysis available In practice, it is used in conjunction with an elastic
to the designer for the purpose of predicting design
response spectrum to estimate the peak response in
forces and displacements under seismic attack is
each mode. These peak responses which will not
inelastic time history analysis. This involves stepwise
necessarily occur simultaneously in real structures are
solution in the time domain of multi degree of freedom
then combined in accordance with one of combination
equations of motions representing a multi storey
structure response. It requires one or more design
accelerograms representing the design earthquake.
These are normally generated as artificial earthquakes
analytically or by massaging recorded accelerograms The bridge model considered is a 2 span highway
to provide the requisite elastic spectral response. bridge with each span of 15 m long supported by

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 71


three piers at mid span. The piers are rectangular in

section with size 1.0 m × 0.5 m and height 10 m. The
main girders are I shaped prestressed concrete girders
with 2.5 m center to center spacing, the total depth is
1.83 m and base width is 0.712 m and bottom width is
1.066 m, web thickness is 0.232 m. The prestressing
force for main girders is taken as 1500 kN and the
prestress losses are estimated to be at 15%. The
concrete grade for deck slab is M 25, which is cast
in situ and that of main girders is M 50. The piers are
connected to superstructure through bearings and the
fixity is provided with the foundation. Damping ratio
of 2% is adopted.
For seismic analysis the soil type is considered as
Rock or Hard type. The seismic zone is taken as IV Fig. 3 I Girder Section
(Zone factor = 0.24) and the seismic class as Important 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
bridges (Importance factor, I = 1.2). The live load is the
a. Mode Shapes
IRC class A tracked vehicle. For Response Spectrum
Table 1 Time Period
analysis, the Response Spectrum developed by the IRC
as given in the IRC:6-2010 is used. For Time history Mode Period in s
analysis, Time history function of Century City, Lacc 1 0.281736
2 0.117693
North earthquake is used.
3 0.096409
The models are created and analysed using SAP 4 0.094308
2000. 5 0.089853

The time periods obtained for different modes are

given in the Table 1.

Fig. 2 Cross Section of Deck

Fig. 4 Different Mode Shapes

72 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


b. Axial Forces Table 3 Shear Forces

The axial forces acting at the centre of the Time History Response Spectrum
mass, obtained by the response spectrum Direction
Analysis Analysis
and Time history analysis are tabulated Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
below in Table 2. kN kN kN kN
Vertical 713.4707 -799.5856 763.9205 140.697
Table 2 Axial Forces
Horizontal 1190.8982 -1190.797 1325.8143 58.2025
Time History Analysis Response Spectrum Analysis
d. Bending Moment
Maximum kN Minimum kN Maximum kN Minimum kN
966.156 -1182.976 1171.1828 1123.7727 The bending moment due to the
adopted loading conditions obtained
c. Shear Forces in the response spectrum and time
The shear forces (horizontal and vertical) history analysis are tabulated in the
obtained in response spectrum and time Table 4.
history methods are given in the Table 3. The bending moment values shown in
From the values shown in the above table the Table 4 indicate that the response
we observe that the Response spectrum spectrum analysis gives moment in one
method gives only positive values direction whereas time history analysis
whereas the Time history analysis gives yields bending moment in both directions
both positive and negative values. thereby balancing each other.
Table 4 Bending Moment

Direction Time History Analysis Response Spectrum Analysis

Maximum kN Minimum kN Maximum kN Minimum kN
About Hz 1695.1472 -1527.311 1707.1151 734.2137
About V1 4904.1266 -4579.56 5368.9909 1328.1652

Fig. 5a Moment About Horizontal Axis_TH Fig. 5b Moment About Horizontal Axis_RS

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 73


● As observed in tabulated results of response

spectrum analysis, only positive values are
observed. This method gives maximum and
minimum values of axial forces, shear force and
moments in one direction. In Time history analysis
both positive and negative values can be found in
the results.
● Hence, it can be concluded that, when the behavior
of structure in both the methods is studied, Time
history analysis gives more realistic and actual
behavior whereas Response spectrum method
tends to give conservative values.
● Based on the points above conclusion can be
made that Response spectrum analysis is more
conservative when compared with Time history
Fig. 6 Moment About Vertical Axis_TH method.
● The drawback of the time history method is, it
involves lengthy and complex computations.
● Availability of powerful computing tools has
made the computations easier hence incorporation
of Time history analysis is good for more realistic
and economic designs of bridges.

1. IRC:6:2010- Standard Specifications and Code Practice
for Road Bridges, Section II- Loads and Stresses
(Fifth Revision), Indian Roads Congress New Delhi.
2. V. K. Raina, “Concrete Bridge Practice, Analysis, Design
and Economics, Tata McGraw – Hill publishing Co,
Fig. 7 Moment About Vertical Axis_RS
New Delhi, (1991).

6 CONCLUSIONS 3. Takahiro Sakata, Takao Nakazawa, Ryuichi Kanemaru,

and Mitsuo Tokunaga, (2000). “Earthquake Resistance
On the basis of the comparison of time history and of Four Span Continuos PC Rigid – Frame Box
response spectrum methods for seismic loads performed Girder Bridge” 12th World Conference on Earthquake
on a 15 m two span bridge, certain generalized conclusions Engineering, Newzealand.
are made based on the results obtained as below:
4. Ding Yang, Ll Nan, and Ll Zhong – Xian, (2004). “Seismic
● As observed in the tabulated results for Axial Analysis of Rigid Framed Prestressed Reinforced
forces, the response spectrum method gives 20% Concrete Bridge in Tianjan Light Railway” Transactions
higher results than the time history method. of Tianjan University, Vol:10, No:4.
● The Shear force values show that the response 5. Choi, En – Soo, Kim Hak–Soo, Kim Kwang – II, Cho
spectrum results are 7% & 13% higher than the Byang – Wan, (2006). “Seismic Response of Multi Span
time history results. Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges in the New Madrid
Seismic zone”.
● The bending moment about vertical axis in the
response spectrum analysis is 10% more than 6. A. Adnan, M. Suhatril, I. M. Taib, (2008). “Seismic
that of the bending moment in the time history Performsnce of Seismic KL Elevated Span Bridge Under
analysis. Low Earthequake Ground Motion” ICCBT.

74 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

How Safe are Indian Highways at Night
Partha Aich* and M.K. Ganguly**

ABSTRACT contributors to the construction industry. Moreover, the

India has a very large network of Highways and Roads. However, National Highways Development Programme (NHDP)
compared to the world average it is far less. Only 15 per cent of has created the biggest construction opportunity in
the highway network in India carries 80 per cent of the traffic. the road and highways sector. The programme aims at
Safety of travel along the highways is always unsafe due to
several reasons like road discipline, frequent crossings of slow developing 50,000 km of national highways in seven
& fast traffic from local roads across major highways and even phases by 2015 with an investment of over Rs 3,000
movement of traffic in wrong lane in case of divided highways. billion at 2007 prices. Table 1 gives an overview of
The system is somewhat manageable in daytime. With inadequate
Highway Network in India.
lighting as well as outdated systems the situation becomes
worse at night. With introduction of four-lane roads in Golden
Table 1 An Overview : Road Network of India
Quadrangle (GQ) and North-South-East-West (NSEW) Corridors,
lighting along highways has been provided at selected stretches
passing through towns and villages as per the Guidelines and
Category of Road Length in Km
Highway Codes. These are more visible on BOT roads. Still these Total Road Network 3.34 million
are inadequate and do not match with the current requirements of
National Highways 65,569
mixed traffic movement on highways. Thus, safety of movement
on highways at night is a major concern. State Highways 1,30,000
This paper tries to bring out the deficiencies in lighting on the Major Distt. Road, Rural 3.14 million
Indian highways and the probable solutions to make highway Road & Urban Road
travel safe at night. Reference of lighting systems followed in
various countries have also been presented in this paper to make ● India having 3.34 million kilometers of road
a comparative assessment of the requirement keeping in view the network is the second largest in the world.
costs involved and supports required.
● As per present estimate, road network carry
1 INTRODUCTION nearly 65% of freight and 85% of passenger
Road connectivity is important for economic and social
development, and this is increasing in a great way in ● Traffic on roads is growing at a rate of 7 to 10%
India. The road network spans about 3.14 million km per annum while the vehicle population growth
but the road densities of 2.75 km per 1,000 people and is of the order of 12% per annum.
770 km per 1,000 sq. km are far too meagre compared All the roads except a few rural roads are mostly
to world averages of 6.7 km and 840 km respectively. accessible by all types of motorized vehicles. The
Further, about 15% of the network carries 80% of the differences between daytime and nighttime journeys
traffic. are:
With the setting up of an effective Public-Private ■ Daytime Journey - Passengers can move
Partnership (PPP) model by the government to comfortably, can drive safely and can avail
expand the road network, this sector witnessed rapid speed limits as marked in the signboards. Due
growth in the past few years and it has become the top to clear vision, the roads still remain somewhat

* Director,
M/s Sylos Engineering Pvt. Ltd., E-mail: p.aich@sylosengg.com
** Chief Electric Consultant,

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 75


safer, even if the drivers break minor road ■ Major Bridges (Length > 60 Mts.)
■ Rail over bridges
■ Nighttime Journey - This has several problems
■ Public underpass
■ Vehicle underpass
a) Little lighting support on Highways or
Expressways. ■ At Grade Junctions
b) Uncomfortable drive on two-lane roads ■ Tunnels
due to limited available space. The
However, there are no highway stretches that get
situation becomes worse on hilly roads
priority. This may be for avoiding expenses and
where there are frequent curves.
maintenance/energy bills.
c) Uncomfortable drive on four and six
lane divided highways where median
2 Annual Global Road Crash
width is low (1.2 m). Anti glare trees
often cannot be planted on four-lane and
six-lane highways with low median ■ Nearly 1.3 million people die in road
width (1.2 m). crashes each year, on average 3,287
d) Traffic from crossroads crosses the deaths a day.
highway without any warning. ■ An additional 20-50 million are injured
e) Motorized traffic without proper light or disabled.
moving in wrong lane suddenly appears ■ More than half of all road traffic deaths
from opposite side (tractors, tractor
occur among young and adults ages
trailers, slow traffic and the like).
f) Lane discipline is not followed by heavy
■ Road traffic crashes rank as the 9th
leading cause of death and account for
g) Overtaking from wrong side is frequent 2.2% of all deaths globally.
as the trucks have a tendency to travel on
right lane to avoid interference of parked ■ Road crashes are the leading cause of
vehicles and slower traffic on the left death among young people ages 15-29,
lanes. and the second leading cause of death
worldwide among young people ages
All these render the highways very unsafe for travel
at night. There are guidelines for highway lighting,
but various PPP construction organizations interpret ■ Each year nearly 4,00,000 people under
illumination of highways in different ways and thus 25 dies on road, that is on an average
the road users suffer even though they pay tolls for over 1,000 a day.
movement. PPP concentrates illumination at the
■ Over 90% of all road fatalities occur
following areas:
in low and middle-income countries,
■ Toll plazas which have less than half of the world's
■ Junctions vehicles.

76 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


■ Road crashes cost USD $518 billion took 50%; and even a country like Malaysia took a
globally, costing individual countries target of bringing road deaths down to less than 3 per
from 1-2% of their annual GDP. 10,000 vehicles!
■ Road crashes cost USD $65 billion What about India’s targets?
annually in developing nations,
exceeding the total amount received in 6 Who is at risk?
developmental assistance.
More than 90% of deaths due to road accident occur in
■ Unless action is taken, road traffic injuries
countries, like Africa and Middle-East and of course
are predicted to become the fifth leading
India. Even injuries due to accident are pretty high in
cause of death by 2030.
these countries. Also, in developed countries people
3 Annual United States Road Crash from lower socio-economic backgrounds are victims
Statistics to road traffic crashes compared to their more affluent
With 250 million cars in USA the accident statistics
is as under:
7 Motor vehicles (per 1,000 people)
■ Over 37,000 people die in road crashes
The percentage of ownership of vehicles with
each year.
respect to the population is shown in the following
■ An additional 2.35 million are injured or
Table 2. Motor vehicle category includes cars,
buses, and freight vehicles excluding two-wheelers.
■ Over 1,600 children under 15 years of Population refers to midyear population in the year for
age die each year. which data are available.
■ Nearly 8,000 people are killed in crashes Table 2 Percentage of Ownership of Vehicles with
involving drivers ages 16-20. Respect to Population
■ Road crashes cost the U.S. $230.6 billion Sl Countries Name Year 2009 % w.r.t
per year, or an average of $820 per Population
person. of 1000

■ Road crashes are the single greatest 1 United States of America 802 80.2
annual cause of death of healthy U.S. 2 United Kingdom 523 52.3
citizens traveling abroad. 3 United Arab Emirates 313 31.3
4 Russian Federation 271 27.1
4 Indian Scenario 5 Australia 688 68.8
With a mere 12 million vehicles, we have about 6 South Africa 162 16.2
1,42,000 deaths on Indian roads caused by accidents
7 China 47 4.7
alone with 80 per cent occurring at night.
8 Hong Kong (SAR China) 74 7.4

5 What some countries plan for 9 Japan 589 58.9

their citizens! 10 Republic of Korea 355 35.5

For USA the target for reducing road deaths is 20% in 11 India 18 1.8
ten years; for UK, the target taken was 40%; Austria Source : The World Bank

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 77


Source : MORT&H Document

Fig. 1 A Statistics of Country-wise % Share of Accidents in World Scenario

8 WHO [World Health funding. This is an on-going process and the final
Organization] Response - result is not yet available.
Coordinating the decade of
action for road safety 9 Road Accident statistics in India
In 2010, a United Nations general assembly resolution Government’s claims to curb road fatalities clearly do
proclaimed a decade of action for road safety (2011 not bear out in the nationwide loss of 390/400 lives
to 2020). This decade was launched in May 2011 in daily. While, 17 lives were lost in road accidents
over 110 countries, with the aim of saving millions of every hour last year, the corresponding figure was 15
lives by improving the safety of roads and vehicles; for 2010.
enhancing the behavior of road users; and improving
Latest figures for all the states and Union Territories
emergency services. WHO, in collaboration with the
(from government sources, to be published soon)
United Nations regional commissions, is the secretariat
shows at least 1.42 lakh people died in road accidents
for the decade and plays a key role in guiding global
in 2011, an increase of over 7,000 from 2010. National
efforts by continuing to advocate for road safety at the
Crime Records Bureau Statistics also shows near by
highest political levels; compiling and disseminating
figures as mentioned above.
good practices in prevention; sharing information
with the public on risks & methods to reduce these The average cost of Road Transport Authority
risks; and drawing attention to the need for increased (RTA) in India is approximately 12.5 billion dollars

78 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


(Rs 7000 Crores). This does not include the economic The accidents in cities are no less. This is mainly due
burden of permanent disability of more than 10 lakh to inter-mingling of heavy commercial traffic and
people who survives major accidents every year. smaller vehicles particularly at night when commercial
traffic movement is opened in cities. The accident
About 85% of the road accident victims are men in
data for various major cities in India in the year 2010,
the age group of 20-50 years. Majority of these are the as collected from Bureau of Statistics are presented
bread earners for their families. below in Table 3.

Table 3 Road Accident Profile in Selected Cities (2010)

Sl. No. Name of city Total number of

Fatal All Person Persons Accident
Accidents Accidents Killed Injured Severity
1 Ahmedabad 226 2,135 235 2,124 11.0
2 Bengaluru 791 6,490 832 5,376 12.8
3 Chennai 590 5,123 607 4,425 11.8
4 Coimbatore 264 1,131 274 1,066 24.2
5 Delhi 2,104 7,260 2,153 7,108 29.7
6 Hyderabad 473 2,797 494 2,662 17.7
7 Indore 383 4,961 414 4,180 8.3
8 Jaipur 414 2,000 436 1,808 21.8
9 Kanpur 558 1,413 640 1,249 45.3
10 Kochi 153 1,779 166 1,783 9.3
11 Kolkata 341 2,843 354 2,239 12.5
12 Lucknow 482 1,275 498 709 39.1
13 Ludhiana 222 430 227 239 52.8
14 Madurai 120 568 120 526 21.1
15 Mumbai 609 28,424 637 5,940 2.2
16 Nagpur 301 1,548 317 1,404 20.5
17 Patna 444 1,170 444 606 37.9
18 Pune 417 1,999 439 1,701 22.0
19 Vadodara 180 1,335 188 1,121 14.1
20 Varanasi 234 359 248 126 69.1
21 Vishakhapatnam 437 1,865 460 1,804 24.7
Total 21 cities 9,743 76,905 10,183 48,196 13.2
All India 119,558 499,628 134,513 527,512 26.9
Note : * Accident Severity: Road Accident deaths/100 accidents
Source : Bureau of Statistics, Statistics on Road Accidents in India

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 79


10 Points to Ponder highlighted street lighting as one of the most important

■ 17 people die per hour in road accidents point to be noted.
in India. “Street lighting of appropriate standard contributes
■ It is increasing 13.5% per year. to safety in urban areas. Installation of good lighting
■ India leads world in road death as per results in 21% reduction in all accidents, 29%
WHO. reduction in “all casualty” accidents, 21% reduction
in “non-pedestrian casualty” and 57% reduction in
■ 70% of accident-prone spots are
“pedestrian casualty” accidents.”
located on National Highways, which is
responsible for just 2% of Indian roads.
11 What Lighting does in Highways
■ Indian vehicle traffic is only 1.8%
compared to affluent countries having The justification for highway lighting is savings
traffic as high as 80.2%. What will be in terms of costs of loss of the vehicles, lives, and
the situation on highway accidents when compensation payment due to accident reduction.
traffic density in India increases to higher Although estimates vary, the savings can be enough to
percentages? pay for a lighting installation in few years.
■ The analysis of road accident data Estimates by the regulation of Security and Road
received from States/Union Territories Lighting (1989) indicated that lighting could reduce
reveals that drivers’ fault is the single the ratio of night-to-day accidents by as much as 14
most important factor responsible for percent of total accidents. In a more recent analysis
accidents (78%). Some of the other by Griffith (1994), the safety benefit was found
factors responsible for road accidents are to be much higher, with an accident reduction of
indicated in Table 4. 32 percent.
Table 4 Other Factor Responsible for Accident Commission of Illuminating Engineers, popular
as CIE (1990), reports that road accidents at night
Fault of cyclist 1.2%
are disproportionately higher in number and
Fault of pedestrian 2.7% severity compared to daytime. Data from 13 OECD
Defect in road conditions 1.2% (Organization for Economic Co-operation &
Defect in condition of motor vehicle 1.7% Development) countries shows that the proportion of
Weather condition 1% fatal nighttime accidents is ranged between 25 and
All other causes* 14.2% 59 percent (average value of 48.5 percent). Estimates
*Includes fault of driver of other vehicles, of vehicle kilometers traveled during the hours of
fault of passengers, poor light condition, darkness ranged from 17 to 32 percent (average of 25
falling of boulders, neglect of traffic rules, percent). Although factors such as increased alcohol
stray animals, and other known and unknown usage, fatigue, and over-representation of young
causes. However, most accidents occur at
drivers in night traffic contributes to the problem, the
night due to poor light condition.
major factor is darkness, demonstrated in accident
The above indicates that Poor Lighting is one of the studies in which the effect of all factors has been
causes for accidents on Indian Highways and hence taken into account (CIE, 1990). In an evaluation of
there is definitely a need for appropriate Lighting. A 62 lighting and accident studies from 15 countries, 85
quote from Prof Tom V. Mathew, on his lecture note percent of the results showed lighting to be beneficial,
dated 11th August 2012 for Traffic Engineering and with approximately one-third of the results statistically
Management & Analysis of Road Accident of India, significant. CIE (1990) concludes, therefore,

80 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


that roadway lighting is successful; however, the from its surroundings. This property of an object
installation of lighting cannot be expected to result in depends on a combination of the following factors:
a reduction in accidents if there is a major non-visual ■ The differences in luminance, hue, and
problem at any particular site. saturation between the object and its
Channelization is frequently used in connection with immediate background (contrast);
rural intersection improvements. However, without ■ The angular size of the object at the eye
proper lighting this becomes another reason for of the observer;
accident at night as drivers are often caught unaware at ■ The luminance of the background against
such channelized junctions. A study indicates that the which it is seen; and
mean night accident to total accident ratio when both
■ The duration of the observation.
lighting and channelization were present, was lower
than junctions with channelization without lighting. Historically, two complementary measures of lighting
system performance were employed:
12 Lighting and Drivers’ ■ Luminance, or the amount of light from
Performance an installation incident upon a given
surface of interest (visibility target) in
The primary purpose of lighting a roadway at night
the roadway environment, and
is to increase the visibility of the roadway and its
immediate environment, thereby permitting the driver ■ Luminance, or the amount of reflected
to maneuver more efficiently and safely. The visibility light returned to the driver’s eye from the
of an object is that property which makes it discernible visibility target.
Table 5 Highway Lighting Standards in India

Particulars Locations
Highways Recessed Lights in Service Road Underpass
Average 40 lux 30 lux 20 lux 70 lux
Minimum 18 lux 19 lux 8 lux -
Uniformity More than 40% More than 40% More than 40% More than 60%

Lighting illumination at major junctions at ground ■ A comfortable Vertical illumination on

level shall be minimum 50 lux. Lighting luminance at 1.5 m height i.e. drivers eye level
toll plazas and in all underpasses shall be 70 lux. (Motorist eye level to Truck drivers
In reality, if we analyze effect of illumination on eye level) of 25-30 lux vertical with
Speedy traffics on highways, there importance to uniformity 0.6 in vertical plane is better
drivers is as under: illumination w.r.t drivers. Uniformity of
illumination has a major role.
■ Clear visibility of forward traffic on the
same direction. ■ Illumination criteria of maximum to
minimum should not be greater than
■ Higher Median Width to avoid opposite
side traffic and its strong deeper effect. 3 times.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 81


13 Trend of Illumination Practice 24.300 Km Roads under Golden quadrant/N-S/E-W

in India Corridor/Port connectivity. Table 6 presents the
a) Horizontal illumination of road at metal surface summary.
level. (How far effective to drivers who is Table 6 National Highway Development Programs
driving the car > 80-120 kms per hour speeds).
Project Length Target
b) Horizontal illumination level produces 60-65% (in Km) Date of
vertical illumination indirectly (Provided right Completion
selection of street light luminaries is in place). NHDP Phase-I
c) Uniformity of 0.4 means against an illumination (i) GQ 5846 Dec., 2005
level of 40 lux (Horizontal-AVG). NHAI ii) Port Connectivity & 1133 Dec., 2007
illumination guideline allows Bidders/Lighting others
Manufacturer to design a road lighting level to NHDP Phase-II
go down to 16/18 lux on metal surface Roads. It
(i) N-S Corridor 7300 Dec., 2007
also allows no restriction to higher illumination,
as a result maximum illumination go up to (ii) E-W Corridor
80-90 lux (below the street light luminaries). NHDP Phase-III 10,000 Dec., 2012

d) It creates a wide variation in illumination levels These are the stretch of Roads carrying major Road
from as low in 16 lux to 90 lux on a span of transportation/Goods movements between Metros
30-35 metres (spacing between the poles) for and can be the focal point for Lighting. Now PPP
normal four lane highways. Contractors construct these Roads. If 100 % Lightings
are involved in initial costing of projects then job
e) Uniformity of current standards needs to becomes easier to illuminate National Highway.
review and following uniformity is suggested
to improve Illumination. ■ More than 24000 km 2/4 even 6-lanes are
completed in India.
Ideal Uniformity should be
■ Marginal lengths through towns and
● Eminimum/Eavg as 0.6.
villages are illuminated.
● Eminimum/Emaximum 0.33 to 0.4
■ Highway lighting today is mainly
f) Introduction of vertical illumination concept concentrated on Toll Plaza’s i.e. the
on highways will increase quality of lighting earning point for investors.
(More sensible approach than conventional)
■ Lighting has been provided at some of
g) Increase in uniformity will definitely curb the selected junctions.
variation of lighting in highways and will
definitely reduce night accidents. ■ NHAI Guidelines are not followed in
14 Highway Lighting condition in ■ NHAI has specified in their guide lines
India for illumination levels etc for highways.
Let’s consider National Highway Development ■ Some PPP contractors are providing for
Projects popular as NHDP under Phase-I, 2 & 3 Urban areas. There is no importance on
completed in the year 2012, with approximately Rural areas.

82 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


■ Vehicles on highways whether in Rural or 15 Estimates of Benefits and Cost

Urban Lighting is equally important for
The tangible capital and operational costs are easy to
all areas. Rather security point of view
assess. However, the intangible costs such as medical
rural area is more dangerous for driving
ambulance services, productivity loss (including
than urban.
delay of traffic flow at the site of accident), police and
According to Engineering Practice or Commission of medical support, fire services, loss of property and loss
Illumination Engineers Guides, continuous highway of quality of life of the victims are largely unknown.
lighting is needed whether it is urban or rural area. Similarly, benefits too are difficult to quantify because
This might increase investments to the tune of 5-7% it is deferred safety and security costs that constitute
per km of construction but it gives comfort to vehicle the benefits. 1996 Federal Highway Administration,
drivers who drive cars at night on highways and US Department of Transportation (FHWA) Annual
will definitely reduce accident/loss of life to a great Report to Congress, covering study between 1974 and
1995 indicate that illumination had a benefit/cost ratio
Table 7 below shows safety benefits on road lighting of 26.8 percent, and this ranks highest of all safety
conducted by National Highway Co-operative improvements. The Table 8. Illustrate the same.
Research Program of National Academics published
by US scientists in 2009. Fig. 2 shows the reduction Table 8 Highway Safety Improvement with Cost
Benefit Ratio
in nighttime accident in other countries due to
illumination. Rank Improvement Descriptions Benefit-
Cost Ratio
Table 7 Estimated Reduction in Nighttime Crashes
1 Illumination 26.8
Lighting’s Impact on Night time Crash Reduction 2 Up-grade median barriers 22.6
Variables Category Estimated % 3 Traffic signs 22.4
Reduction Night Time
4 Relocated breakaway utility poles 17.7
Fatal 65% 5 Remove obstacles 10.7
Injury 29% 6 New traffic signals 8.5
Crash severity
PDO 17% 7 Impact attenuators 8.0
Unspecified 18% 8 New median barriers 7.6
9 Up-grade guard rails 7.5
10 Up-grade traffic signals 7.4
11 Up-grade bridge rails 6.9
12 Improve sight distance 6.1
13 Median for traffic separation 6.1
14 Groove pavement for skids 5.8
15 Improve minor structures 5.3
16 Turning lanes and channelization 4.5
17 New RR crossing gates 3.4
18 New RR crossing flashing lights 3.1
19 Pavement markings and delineators 3.1
Fig. 2 Nighttime Accident Reduction in Other Countries 20 New RR crossing lights and gates 2.0

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 83


Let us concentrate on indirect savings by providing Here Illumination levels are maintained > 40 lux
continuous lighting on highways whether it is in urban (average) with minimum illumination > 20 lux which
areas or rural areas. is termed as quality lighting.
Benefit-cost ratio of New Road Lighting System ■ Pole spacing: 50 meters
can be worked out by the following formula set by ■ 11m Poles
FWHA: ■ Road width: 11.5m + 5.5m(median) +
(ADT x % ADTn x 365 x NRU x CRF x ACC)/(AIC 11.5m
+ TMC +AEC) x 1,000,000 Benefit-cost ratio of ■ Type of streetlight luminaries:
Existing Road Lighting System can be worked out by Symmetrical Beam 1 x 400 watt HPSV
the following formula set by FWHA: street lights from Holophane USA.
(ADT x %ADTn x 365 x NRU x CRF x ACC)/(TMC National Highways
+ AEC) x 1,000,000
Highway-Profile-6 Lanes Lighting
ADT = Average Daily Traffic (Existing or
%ADTn = Percent of ADT at night
NRU = Night crash rate unlighted
CRF = Crash Reduction Factor
ACC = Average crash cost (per crash)
AIC = Annualised installation cost
TMC = Total annual maintenance cost Main Carriage Ways Lighting Installation on NH-4
AEC = Annual energy cost Typical Street Light

The data from FWHA Technical Advisory T7570.1 16 Highway Lighting and
(January 30,1988), recommends the following for Introduction of LED Street
computation of average crash cost: Lights in Asia
■ $1.7 million/fatality Million-LED installation lights up China highways.

■ $ 14,000/ injury High-brightness white LEDs made by US company

Cree expected to reduce energy consumption by 60%
■ $ 3,000/ property damage compared with sodium lamps.
These figures have changed significantly in the last 20 LED-based fixtures newly installed on nearly 75 miles
years. In India, a family gets Rs. 50,000 for injured to of roadway in China will dramatically cut energy
Rs. 1 lakh maximum in case of death as compensation. consumption and provide a return on investment
This does not compare with any compensation package in just four years, according to companies closely
anywhere in the world. involved in the project.
The following photos indicate typical cases of lighting The Chinese LED lighting company that, installed a
system on various Indian highways along with the combination of its 270 W and 300 W luminaires along
comparative analysis as adopted at other countries. the highways, has recently installed 10000 LED street
The technical parameters are included with each lights on municipal roads. Highways are also going
photo. from HPSV to LED street lighting in stages. India has

84 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


started LED Installation on Highways with Indigenous Pole Spacing: 30 m between the poles
Manufacturing – A Great Strength Now.
LED street lights: 216 watt from Philips India.
A 10 km Span in NH-41 [4 LANES HIGHWAYS]
Good Design of roads & highways in near future will
attract other Indian manufacturers to promote LED in
street lighting.

17 Transition Period
More LED Street light installations on highways
will slowly phase out High Pressure Sodium Vapour
streetlights resulting in better visibility on highways.
Standard recommendation of High Pressure Sodium
Vapor vs LED Street lights to combat Highway
Lighting Requirements (specified by NHAI) is
indicated in Table 9. The estimated comparative cost
is included in Table 10. The cost of construction of
Project Place: Haldia, West Bengal few highways where cost of illumination has not been
Illumination Level : 40 Lux (avg) with considered is indicated in Table 11. The estimated per
Uniformity : 0.4 kilometre cost of construction including illumination
Road Width: 2 x 10.5 m is included in Table 12.

Table 9 Comparison of High Pressure Sodium Vapour and LED Street Lights

S. No. Type of Highways Nature of Road length/ Using High pressure Using LED
median width Sodium Vapor Street Lights Street light
1 Four Lanes Highways 10.5Mts + 1.2Mts 1 x 400 watt High pressure 1x216 watt LED
Sodium vapor street lights Street Lights light
(2 x 2 lanes) (medians) + 10.5 Mts
on twin bracket pole (From s on twin bracket
Indian Manufacturers) pole (From Indian
2 Six Lanes (2 x 3 lanes) 11.5 m + 5 m (medians) + 1 x 400 watt (luminaries from 1x216 watt LED
11.5 m USA Imported) High pressure Street Lights on
Sodium vapor street lights on twin bracket pole
twin bracket pole & lamps (From Indian
400 watt SON-T Plus Lamps Manufacturers)
(From Indian Manufacturers)
3 Eight Lanes (2 x 4 14.0 Mts + 5 Mts 1 x 400 watt (luminaries from 1x216 watt LED
lanes) USA Imported) High pressure Street Lights light
(medians) + 14.0 Mts
Sodium vapor street lights on s on twin bracket
twin bracket pole & lamps pole (From Indian
400 watt SON-T Plus Lamps Manufacturers)
(From Indian Manufacturers)

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 85


Table 10 Estimated Costing of Highway Lighting for Various Lane Configuration

Highway Lighting 2 x 2 Lanes 2 x 2 Lanes 2 x 3 Lanes 2 x 3 lanes 2 x 4 lanes 2 x 4 Lanes

Lighting Lighting with Lighting with Lighting with Lighting with Lighting with
with 400 W. 216 W.LED 400 W. HPSV 216 W.LED 400 W.HPSV 216 W. LED
Street Lights Street Lights Street Lights Street Lights Street Lights Street Lights
Initial Investments 42.5 51.0 43.5 73.0 46.5 82.5
per km (Rs In Lakhs)
Energy Consumption 29.04 14.52 35.2 17.6 40.5 21.12
per km (Kw)
Running Electricity 6.36 3.18 7.70 3.86 8.9 4.62
Cost (Rs 6.00 per kwh
for 10 hours per day x
365 days. (Rs In lakhs)
Note : This cost excludes cost of power arrangements for highways by local Electricity Department.

Table 11 Cost of Construction of Highways

Number of Lanes Cost per Km Reference

2 x 3 lanes (6 lanes highways) (as per 2011 approved Rate of Rs 20.9 Crores per KM * Ahmedabad-Vadodara
NHDP-III Approved by CCI in its meeting held on April 2011) (6-laning)
2x2 lanes (4 lanes highways) (as per 2011 approved Rate of Rs 9.8 Crores per KM * Beawer-Pali-Pindwara
NHDP-III Approved by CCI in its meeting held on April 2011) (4-laning)
2x4 lanes (8-lanes) No Input available
Cost of highways construction under various modes of construction varies. However old reference of Panipath- Jullandhar
(6 lanes) is Rs 7.5 Crores / Km & Dhule- Maligaon (4 lanes) was Rs 4.5 crores /km in the year of 2006-2007.
Note : If we look at the investments, cost of lighting for Highways is not included.

Table 12 Construction Cost Including Cost of Lighting (Based on Current Date Cost Consideration)

Number of Lanes As on date ADD Lighting with LED Effect on Overall Costing Remarks
Cost of Civil Latest Technology (Initial (Civil + Highway Lighting vs
Part (In Rs Investments) (In Rs today’s cost of Civil works)
Crores) Crores) (In Percentage)
2 x 2 lanes (4 lanes 5.6 6.10 8.9 NHAI / PPP to accept
Highways) as Mandatory Cost
of Overall on LED
Street Lighting
2 x 3 Lanes (6 lanes) 7.50 1) 7.935 with HPSV 5.6% extra with HPSV NHAI/PPP to decide
Lighting Lighting
2) 8.23 WITH led Street 9.73% extra with LED Street
Lights Lighting
2x4 Lanes 11.00 1) 11.465 with HPSV 4.2 % extra with HPSV NHAI/PPP to decide
Lighting Lighting
2) 11.825 WITH led Street 7.5 % extra with LED Street
Lights Lighting
This will significantly come down in course of time.

86 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


18 Various streetlights adopted in ■ Energy savings.

Indian scenario are illustrated ■ Long 50000 hrs Lamp Life that is
in the following photographs 2.5 times higher than High-pressure
sodium lamps.
18.1 LED Street Lights (Indigenous
Manufacturing) ■ Lumen / watt: 125
■ 216-wattstreetlight delivers 19500
1 x 216 watt LED Street lighting luminaries
indigenously manufactured in India suitable for
highway illumination. Up to 8 lanes highways. ■ Color choice, warm or cool color.

■ True white Color and better visibility

always when compared to other Light
■ Less Co2 gas generation than other HID
light sources. Fig. 3 LED Street Light (Indigenously Manufactured)

High Pressure Sodium Vapor street lights (HPSV)

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 87


400 watt High Pressure Sodium Vapor street lights

(Indigenous) manufacturing can tackle maximum
2 lanes one sides. Any further stretch on road
uniformity of lighting drastically falls down, hence
twin streetlights is recommended for 2 x 2 lanes i.e.
4-lanes maximum.
400 watt streetlights from abroad are much superior in
lighting distribution and can tackle national highway
street lighting illumination level with less number of
poles per km, as well as maintain better uniformity up
Fig. 4 Indian 1 x 400 watt HPSV street lights are suitable for to 0.6 Emin/Eavg & 0.33 Emin/Emax in case of 6 lanes and
2 x 2 Lanes (4 lanes Highways) 8 lanes highways.

Fig. 5 Imported 1 x 400 watt HPSV Street Lights for 6 Lanes & 8 Lanes

88 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


■ 50000 Hrs of burning life (Will exist on

highways, safely for 10-12 Years).
■ Maintenance cost of installation is nil.
■ Easily available in India now.
■ Lumen per watt is 125 Lumens.
■ Applicable in all types of installations.
■ Costing is decreasing due to indigenous
■ Ideal for 2 x 2 Lanes/2 x 3 lanes/2 x 4
lanes. With variation of spacing of poles.
■ Less CO2 Generation.

20 LED is a game changing

■ Lighting the clean revolution.
■ Worldwide lighting is accounted for 19%
grid connected electricity generation and
used 9% of global energy in 2006.
■ The 6% of Global Green House Gas
(GHG) emission attributed to lighting is
equivalent to 70% of passenger vehicles
emission worldwide.
■ Switching to efficient lighting of Light
Emission Diode (LED) technology offers
designers to design an efficient lighting
system for indoors as well as outdoors.
■ Light intensity control, which possibly
saves electricity from peak hours to idle
hours. Additional Savings in electricity.

19 Why LED Street Lights ■ Conventional lighting technology

tends to suffer decay over time (Lumen
■ Natural white or warm color option is depreciation). In case of dimming HID
available for foggy areas. source like sodium lamps or metal halide
■ 60% Power savings when compared to lamps, it further deteriorates rapidly. In
high efficient High Pressure Sodium case of LED, it runs under lesser current
Lamps. to reduce further energy consumption
that uses smart control system aiding in
■ 216-watt LED street lights are replacing
increased life span.
400 watt High Pressure Sodium Lamps.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 89


■ Infinite color choice by using RGB for large proportion of the technology’s
LED technology. Hence, it is ideal for energy savings. In the case of streetlights
applications needing color changes. this can reduce light pollution by
preventing lights from intruding into
■ Directional Light LED provides
residential windows or spreading through
directional lights, meaning that they shine
the night sky.
only where it is needed. This accounts

Table 13 LED Efficiency Over Conventional Light Source Technology

S. No. Description Conventional system with High Switch over to LED

pressure Sodium Lamp
1 Light source Life 20000 Burning Hours (avg). 50000 Burning Hours (100% survival).2.5
Average denotes 50% Survival times more life.
2 Visibility Dull in Roadways traffic. Golden- Clear in visibility. Available in Warm and
white color. Poor Color rendition to cool color. Color rendition to maximum
maximum 2200 deg Kelvin. Color 6500 deg Kelvin. Color Rendering Index:
Rendering Index: 20 85.0
3 Lumen efficacy 90-110 lumens /watt 125 Lumens/watt (Indigenous Supply)
(lumen /watt ) .
4 Maintenance To attend accessories / lamp Maintenance cost compared to long life is
replacement periodically Nil.
5 Maintenance No development in technology Lumen / watt in Research laboratory already
since 1970 reached 230 lumens / watt & development
further is also expected I terms of life to
100000 Burning Hours.

LED light sources will soon supersede all the other light Pressure Sodium Vapour/Metal Halide/Fluorescent
source technologies. Advanced countries are going & Incandescent light sources. This will avoid pollution
towards LED to stop Carbon Dioxide emission with and make city or highways much cooler in night time
repect to High Intensity Discharge Lamps like High and fairly pleasant.

Fig. 5

90 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Table 14

21 An Example of City- Lights in the 22 Modern day Solution

year 2012 in USA ■ LED with solar power is modern day
■ 4-lanes lighting of a city. solution for highways.
■ 300-350 metres road span, clear for ■ India is having ambitious plan to go with
drivers’ safe vision for driving. solar power in 2020.
■ Head light usages on roads are ■ At present India has installed 1067 MW
negligible. solar power & connected it to the Grid.
■ No Dipper use. ■ By 2017, the plan is to upgrade to
■ Comparative electricity savings as additional 10000 MW.
recurring expenses of streetlights is ■ By 2022, the plan is to upgrade to 20000
noticeable up to 60 % than conventional. Mw.
■ No maintenance on street light points. ■ Rough cost of solar energy investment is
■ Instant lighting is available with Rs 15.0 crores with which advancement
availability of electrical power. of technology &indigenous drive will
definitely reduce cost.
■ Solar LED combination will be ideal
choice for solution to highway lighting
throughout India.
22 Conclusion
Importance of illumination for highways has been
identified and suitable recommendations have
been provided. Yes, question always arises in any
discussion forum for promotion of lighting especially
with highway builders; they will definitely provide
norms and guides that National Highway Authority
has established and are now in place.
At first stage, NHDP should give importance
to illumination and make it mandatory for PPP
contractors to build illumination system along

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 91


highway construction. We should think of alternative 24 About the Authors

energy usage like wind power or solar power etc. so it
Partha Aich, Founder and Director of Sylos
does not put pressure on power generation using the
Engineering Private Limited, has experience of more
ever depletingnon-renewable resources.
than 35 years in design of two-lane, four lane divided
It is being learnt that more usage leads to cost economy, carriageway National Highways and up-gradation of
like more solar plants will reduce cost of solar power four-lane to six-lane National Highways. In course of
which today is Rs 15 cores per MW. 47% of this cost his service life, he has been associated with many major
involves one-time buying charges of solar cells and road projects, due to which he travelled extensively
once India starts producing its own indigenous solar throughout India and several countries of the world.
cells under government subsidy, this cost will come Looking at the night travel safety in other countries
down to 6-7 cores. Till such time we may have to go
compared to India, he chalked down the deficiencies
with conventional energy system.
of Indian Roads related to highway lighting. This
Regarding LED street lights or near future flood inspired him to write this Paper along with Mr. M. K.
lights, India should manufacture LED granules that Ganguly, Electrical Consultant as co-author for this
will save cost from today’s 216 watt at Rs 60,000 to paper.
near future Rs 10,000 to 15,000 per unit. This cost
reduction process will aid manufacturer to reduce M.K. Ganguly, Electrical Consultant having 35 years
manufacturing cost and offer competitive pricing. of experience in the field of design of Highway
LED as a technology is now accepted as a long-term Illumination, Sports Stadiums and Tunnel lighting. He
technology for its benefits when compared to High was actively involved in design of Highway Lighting
Intensity Discharge lamps of sodium and metal halide for the following Projects:
or fluorescent light sources. ■ Maligaon- NH-3 :Dhule : 118 kms
Finally, let us make our highways comfortable for (4 lanes)
driving, which eventually will reduce accidents ■ Nashik – Mumbai :NH-3 - 100 kms
resulting in better utilization of government’s (4 lanes)
compensation money, road damage maintenance and
medical resource utilization for other serious aliments ■ Hoskote - Mulbagal : NH-4 : 82 kms
rather than road injuries. (4/6 lanes Highways)
■ Devihali-Nela Mangala : NH-48 :
Today we are losing 400 lives per day in highways
81 Kms (4/6 lanes Highways)
and accidents are increasing rapidly unless we take
proper action. We will surely keep building highways ■ Pan path – Jalandhar : NH-1 296 kms
and without proper illumination we are certain to keep (Six Lanes Highways)
on adding to the loss of lives on roads. It needs to be ■ Shamshabad Airport-Gachibowli (8 lanes
seen if highways are becoming a big deathtrap or ano Highways) 22 km span First Phase
loss win-win situation for everyone.
■ Elevated Road & Underpass at 7 locations
23 Abbreviations Used in Noida.
WHO : WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION During last few years, he was actively involved
UT : Union Territory in lighting designs for all major sports stadium in
RTA : ROAD TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION connection with Commonwealth Games, 2010. He
GOVT OF INDIA also carried out designs for lighting Dr. D. Y. Patil
NHA : NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY Cricket Stadium in Navi Mumbai and Wankhade
Stadium at Mumbai and two hockey stadiums/ Four
FWHA : Federal Highway Administration, US
Department of Transportation Football stadiums with Punjab Mandi Board.

92 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

Behaviour of Piles Under Loads
K.S. Agashe*

1 Preamble end bearing. Further, it is supposed to have both of

Piles of various types have been in use for decades. these components for any given load. In short, even
Different types have been invented during the last if a small load is placed on a long pile, it is supposed
century. The load and ‘moment carrying capacities to have frictional as well as end bearing components.
of piles’ has been a subject of research. Most of the This is due to the fact that initial assumption is that
aspects of the capacities are a matter of guess work. the pile does not have elastic compression and the
Different methods are adopted for determining the whole of settlement is due elastic compression of
capacities mostly depending on actual tests. For the soil. Due to this approach anomaly creeps in. For
determining the load carrying capacities there are small loads the calculated settlement works out to be
static and dynamic methods prescribed. Analytical higher than the actual with this assumption. The
methods are also suggested which depend on the IS:2911 (Part 4) – 1985 (cl. A-2.1.5) therefore
characteristics of soils or rocks. In spite of all this, some advises to ignore such results. In most of the cases
of the aspects remain to be understood or explained. in Maharashtra the experience is that, the calculated
The load carrying capacity is allowed such that during settlement for the designed load is more than the actual
service, the settlement is well within permissible settlement. It is also difficult to explain the permanent
limit. Analytical methods require characteristics of settlement.
soil. However, these characteristics are not related
with settlement and 1hence by adopting these
3 Need of Revised Thinking:
characteristics, no forecast of settlement is possible.
In most of the cases, the forecast of capacity of piles In southern India there are no areas which are formed
based on the characteristics results in small settlement by transportation of soils. The land has resulted from
and this is very conservative and actual load test allows deterioration of the crust of earth. The frictional
more load. In all cases of piles after conducting load capacity of these soils is quite high.
test permanent settlement is observed. Even in case
The assumption made in the method recommended
of piles resting on rocks, which have infinitesimally
for use is not in keeping with structural requirement.
small settlement, exhibit some appreciable permanent
set. In case of piles resting on rock frictional capacity The energy stored by a structural element is always
of the overburden is neglected. the least possible i.e. the ‘principle of least work’
or ‘conservation of energy’. In case of pile which is
loaded, if frictional capacity is available, the pile will
2 Present Thinking
try to support the load by friction as it is available
In case of piles which rest on firm stratum or rock, the at higher elevation (Fig. 1). A stage will be reached
capacity due to friction is neglected. The pile capacity when the frictional support of entire pile length will
is supposed to have two components, i.e. friction and
be mobilized (Fig. 2).

* Superintending Engineer, Maharashtra, PWD (Retd.), E-mail: akagashe6@hotmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 93


will further start dropping faster and will be negligible

where the frictional resistance ends. In this case the
length subjected to frictional will be smaller than as
shown in Fig. 1. Such behavior will depend on the
soil properties. However, it will be conservative to
consider the supporting length as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Further on the deformation or settlement of the tip

will result into some resistance due to friction and
remaining due to soil reaction (Fig. 3).

Fig. 4

Fig. 3

The proposition of sharing of load beyond the point as

indicated in Fig. 2 will depend on shear deformation
and elastic deformation of soil. The ratio of shear
modulus and modulus of sub grade reaction will
decide the sharing of the load. It may be difficult to
decide the modulus of shear and also the modulus of
sub grade reaction at the tip.
In case of cohesive soils, the frictional resistance is
advised to be taken equal to shear strength i.e. the
cohesion. Fig. 5

From the pile test with small load, it will be easily

possible to find out the average skin friction which 4 Behavior on Release of Load
will be nearly half the final. On removal of the load the pile top will try to return
In view of the fact that sharing of the maximum to its original level. However this upwards movement
load, which is supported by friction and end bearing will be prohibited by the surrounding soil which will
(Fig. 3), is difficult to be decided. It is convenient to have a grip over the pile. Thus, there will be negative
consider the sharing of further load by drawing lines friction on the pile surface. Due to this phenomena
parallel to the straight portion of the load settlement pile will get permanent settlement.
curve and y axis from this point downwards. If this pile is subjected to load once again, due to the
If the principle of least work or conservation of energy principle of least work no further settlement will take
is to be strictly applied, it may result into support by place till the entire negative friction is neutralized. The
friction as illustrated in Fig 4. The drop in frictional pile will exhibit further settlement after the negative
resistance will be lesser near the ground level and it friction is neutralized. This load shall be almost equal

94 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


to the previously removed load. It may be slightly iv) Clause 6.2 (Maintained Load Method)
less due to the fact that due to the upward movement shall also include “The components of
the pile top which is near the ground surface and that load supported by friction and end bearing
beyond the ground surface there is no surcharge on arrived at as detailed in Appendix A”.
continuing soil the soil near top, instead of offering
v) Clause 6.3 (Cyclic Method) shall be
frictional resistance may be sheared (Fig. 6).
totally dropped.
vi) Appendix A shall be revised to include
Fig. 4 explaining that friction alone shall
support the load up to the load indicated
by the intersection of the load settlement
curve and the line drawn for calculated
elastic shortening for half the load for
full length of pile. The length of pile
supporting smaller loads shall be ‘actual
Fig. 6 settlement/calculated settlement’ as
suggested above.
5 Conclusions and The numbering of clauses shall be revised
Recommendations accordingly.
From the above mentioned discussion it will be
realised that IS:2911 (Part IV) 1985 (Reaffirmed
2000, printed 2003), titled ‘Indian Standard
Code of Practice for Design and Construction
of Pile Foundations, Part 4 – Load Test on Piles,
(First Revision), needs amendments to correct the
provision in respect of the sharing of the applied load
on piles by friction and end bearing.
The required amendments are as under :
i) Clause 2.4 (Initial Test) shall also
include “and also the components of load
supported by friction and end bearing as
detailed in appendix A”.
ii) Clause 2.9 (Total Displacement –
Gross) and clause 2.10 (Total Elastic
Displacement) shall be deleted.
iii) Clause 6.1 (Vertical Load Test
(Compression) – General) shall be
modified to mention that ‘Maintained
Load Test’ given in clause 6.2 shall be
used to determine the safe load as well
as the resistance by friction and end
bearing. The mention of cyclic load test
(clause 6.3) and relevant references shall
be deleted.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 95

Kaushik Bandyopadhyay* and Sunanda Bhattacharjee**

ABSTRACT cement stabilized fly ash materials, direct tension and

The evaluation of different characteristics for pavement materials flexural beam test method are not popularly acceptable
is an important step for design and performance of future condition. for assessing the tensile characteristics of those
Due to the effect of repetitions of wheel loads, component layers stabilized pavement materials. Indirect tensile test
of the pavement are stressed due to tension and as a result tensile
or split tensile test is the simplest acceptable method
crack is developed. Tensile stress may also be developed due to
differential ground movement. The reason for differential ground where tensile characteristics is examined by applying
movement is seasonal variation and temperature gradient. In this compressive load in a vertical diametrical plane.
paper, for simulating the field conditions of lime and cement For pavement design aspect graphical comparison
stabilized fly ash material, indirect tensile test or split tensile test
is necessary in between split tensile strength and
is performed to assess the tension characteristics by applying a
compressive load in a vertical diametrical plane. Graphical relation unconfined compressive strength. That is why in this
is also presented between split tensile strength and unconfined present investigation both the tests are performed in
compressive strength because unconfined compressive strength is the laboratory.
the most relevant parameter for pavement design. For both the
tests, samples are cured for different time periods.
1 INTRODUCTION Sobhan and Mashnad (2002)16 suggested that a
stabilized pavement layer is subjected to repeated
Fly ash, the waste material from power plants, is
widely used in road construction work for preparation tensile stresses due to traffic load and failure is initiated
of embankment, sub grade, sub base or base in ordinary due to the formation and propagation of tensile
or stabilized condition. The road construction industry cracks. Cumberledge et al. (1976)4 concluded that a
has been under pressure in recent years in India to split tensile strength of 469 kPa or above is required
incorporate a wide variety of waste materials into for road bases to resist freeze-thaw cycles. Davidson
component layers. Different test methods are used et al.(1959)6 proposed that unconfined compressive
for evaluation of tensile characteristics of stabilized strength of 2070-3050 kPa is sufficient for road
materials. The regular and simplest method is direct bases material to resist freeze-thaw cycles. Ghosh
tension test method. But some difficulties have been et al. (2006)10 described that split tensile strength values
arisen when performing the test such as the introduction of 514, 1084 and 1146 kPa were achieved at 28, 45
of bending stresses due to eccentricity of the load and and 90 days curing period, respectively, for the fly ash
the addition of stress concentrations at the loading containing 10 percent lime and 1.0 percent gypsum.
grips (Kennedy and Hudson,1968)14. Flexural beam Clough et al. (1981)5 observed that the Brazilian
test is the preferred method for pavement engineers Tensile strength of cemented sands varied from 9 to
as stress conditions are properly simulated to the 12 percent of unconfined compressive strength. Ghosh
field conditions of pavement component materials. et al. (2006)10 expressed that split tensile strength of
But due to difficulties of preparation and handling fly ash stabilized with lime and gypsum achieved
of sample at low level binder content for lime and 21.5% of unconfined compressive strength. Emesiobi

* Associate Professor, E-mail: kb@const.jusl.ac.in Department of Construction Engineering, Jadavpur University

** Research Scholar, E-mail: sbhattacharjee069@gmail.com (Second Campus), Kolkata, India

96 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


and Ayotamuno (2005)7 indicated the size of specimen (as SO3) = 0.28; loss on ignition = 5.40; The fly ash
of 100 mm dia and 80 mm height for split tensile test. can be classified as Class F, i.e. low lime fly ash
They also pointed that the curing temperature be of according to ASTM C 618- (2003)1.
28ºC at humidity control chamber with the sample
The chemical composition (percent by dry weight) of
being wrapped in polythene cover and suggested to
hydrated lime was as follows : SiO2 = 1.10; Al2O3 =
use normal CBR testing machine for split cylinder
5.60; Fe2O3 = 0.58; CaO = 62.80 ; MgO = 0.34; loss
test. Kennedy (1977)15 and Adedimila (1986)3 also
on ignition = 24.10. Air dried fly ash specimen was
used the CBR load frame with innovative adaptations
mixed with 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 percent lime and 4, 6,
for application of load.
8, 10, 12, 14 & 16 percent cement by weight of fly
3 AIM AND SCOPE OF LABORATORY ash at maximum dry density and water was mixed
STUDY at optimum moisture content for each percentage in
accordance with IS:4332 (Part-1)196712. The size
Aim and scope of work consists of the following: of the specimen for split tensile test was of diameter
(i) To study the variation of both the indirect tensile 100 mm and height 80 mm. At first the sample was
strength and unconfined compressive strength of taken at 100 mm dia & 127 mm height Proctor
lime and cement stabilized fly ash with percent mould attached with collar. The mould was placed in
change of binder (lime and cement) content. compression testing machine for static compaction.
(ii) To investigate the variation of both the indirect After the compaction was completed the sample was
tensile strength and unconfined compressive extracted by hydraulic jack (Photo 1). At this time the
strength of lime and cement stabilized fly ash size was100 mm dia & 127 mm height. The sample
with different curing periods. was cut from 127 mm and formed to 80 mm height.
All the test specimens of lime and cement stabilized
(iii) To examine the variation of maximum dry fly ash were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days
density with percent change of binder content in humidity control chamber at 30 ± 0.5ºC and >
and trend of indirect tensile strength and 95 percent relative humidity. The specimens were
unconfined compressive strength with maximum wrapped by polythene for prevention of loss of
dry density for lime and cement stabilized fly moisture when kept in humidity control chamber
ash samples. (Photo 2).
(iv) To correlate the graphical relation between
indirect tensile strength and unconfined
compressive strength of both the stabilized
samples for different curing periods.


The source of fly ash was from Farakka Thermal
Power Station, in the state of West Bengal. Hydrated
Lime used in this study was supplied from Katni
in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Ordinary Portland
Cement (OPC) of 53 Grade, was used in this work.
The chemical composition (Percent by dry weight)
of fly ash was as follows : SiO2 = 67.95; Al2O3 =
23.96; Fe2O3 = 1.67; CaO = 0.17; MgO = Photo 1 100 mm x 80 mm Sample is Extracted After
0.14; Na2O = 0.031; K2O = 0.024; Total Sulphur Compaction by Hydraulic Jack

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 97


similar curing periods maintained for split tensile test

with a view to checking of variation with split tensile
strength for pavement design aspect. For each percent
of lime and cement content, six samples are taken for
both the split tensile and unconfined compression test
of lime and cement stabilized fly ash sample.


Split tensile test results (average of six samples)
of stabilized mixes for different curing periods for
different percent lime and cement addition with fly
ash are summarized in Table 1. Maximum dry density
Photo 2 Cured Samples Wrapped by Polythene in Humidity values for different percent lime and cement addition
Control Chamber with fly ash are also furnished in Table 1. From Table
Specimen was placed in between 12.5 mm wide 1 and Fig. 1, it is observed that in case of fly ash
curved loading strip (radius of curvature equal to that samples stabilized with lime, split tensile strength
of the specimen) attached with platen of a CBR testing increases with increase of 3 to 10 percent lime
machine and tested as per, ASTM D4123 (82)2. The addition at 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days curing periods,
specimen was failed by splitting along the vertical respectively. From 3 to 10 percent lime addition, split
diameter (Photo-3). tensile strength also enhances with increase of curing
periods. Similar observations were found by Ghosh
et al.(2006). Table 1 and Fig. 2 also show that in case
of fly ash sample stabilized with cement, split tensile
strength increases with increase of 4 to 16 percent
cement addition at similar curing periods followed for
lime stabilized fly ash samples. From 4 to 16 percent
cement addition, split tensile strength also enhances
with increase of curing periods. It is further observed
that split tensile strength for cement stabilized fly ash
samples are much higher compared to lime stabilized
fly ash samples for same percent binder addition and
same curing period. Unconfined compression test
results of stabilized mixes for different curing periods
for different percent lime and cement addition with
fly ash are also furnished in Table 2. It represents that
Photo 3 Sample Failed by Splitting Along the Vertical Diameter unconfined compressive strength value increases with
in Indirect Tensile Strength Test
increase of 3 to10 percent lime and 4 to 16 percent
Unconfined compression test was also carried out as cement addition for similar curing periods as followed
per IS:2720 (Part10) 197311 at laboratory for similar for split tensile strength of lime and cement stabilized
percent of lime and cement mixed with fly ash and for fly ash samples respectively.

98 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Table 1 Split Tensile Strength Test Results (in kPa) for

Lime and Cement Stabilized Fly Ash

Mix Designation MDD Curing Period (Days)

3 7 14 28 56 90
Fly ash 0.992 31 39 47 59 68 113
+ 3% Lime
Fly ash 1.016 43 51 58 71 92 141
+ 4% Lime
Fly ash 1.038 52 58 64 83 116 278
+ 6% Lime
Fly ash 1.102 79 98 142 196 285 434
+ 8% Lime
Fly ash 1.107 104 179 218 297 388 626
+ 10% Lime
Fig. 2 Split Tensile Strength Versus Percent Cement Content for
Fly ash 1.046 89 117 182 228 293 371 Cement Stabilized Fly Ash
+4% Cement
Fly ash 1.083 172 245 322 387 441 532 Table 2 Unconfined Compressive Strength Test Results
+6% Cement (in kPa) for Lime and Cement Stabilized Fly Ash
Fly ash 1.117 255 328 388 472 537 624 Mix MDD Curing Period (Days)
+8% Cement Designation (gm/cc)
3 7 14 28 56 90
Fly ash 1.208 293 356 417 498 631 752
+10% Cement Fly ash 0.992 87 119 193 258 314 586
+ 3% Lime
Fly ash 1.233 327 394 511 642 717 925
+12% Cement Fly ash 1.016 102 186 218 334 389 927
+ 4% Lime
Fly ash 1.248 383 486 528 691 843 1034
+14% Cement Fly ash 1.038 151 229 342 414 527 2842
+ 6% Lime
Fly ash 1.281 429 514 625 711 902 1142
+16% Cement Fly ash 1.102 196 259 388 492 743 4068
+ 8% Lime
Fly ash 1.107 218 272 423 537 862 5617
+ 10% Lime
Fly ash 1.046 197 244 315 398 453 1814
+4% Cement
Fly ash 1.083 223 378 437 527 671 3891
+6% Cement
Fly ash 1.117 421 506 642 931 5674
+8% Cement 367
Fly ash 1.208 438 646 732 915 1512 7238
+10% Cement
Fly ash 1.233 614 727 941 1217 2786 8893
+12% Cement
Fly ash 1.248 765 986 1518 2389 3908 9232
+14% Cement

Fig. 1 Split Tensile Strength (fct) Versus Percent Lime Content Fly ash 1.281 914 1426 2204 3634 5764 9802
for Lime Stabilized Fly Ash +16% Cement

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 99


From 3 to10 percent lime and 4 to 16 percent cement From Table 1 and Table 2, it is observed that split
addition unconfined compressive strength also tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength
enhances with increase of curing periods. Kaniraj value increase with increase of maximum dry density.
et al.(2006)13 observed similar trend for cement The weight of the samples is taken after 3, 7, 14, 28, 56
stabilized fly ash samples in his study. Unconfined and 90 days curing in humidity control chamber, and
compressive strength for cement stabilized fly ash loss in moisture contents are within 0.25%. Similar
samples are also much higher compared to lime results were observed by Ghosh et al. (2001)9.
stabilized fly ash samples for same percent binder Comparing Table 1 with Table 2, it is observed that
addition and same curing period. Figs. 3 and 4 unconfined compressive strength values are much
indicate that maximum dry density values increase higher than split tensile strength values for both lime
with increase of percent lime and cement addition for and cement stabilized flyash samples at same curing
both the lime and cement stabilized fly ash samples period and same percent binder addition.
respectively. Figs. 5 and 6 indicate the relationships between split
tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength
of lime stabilized flyash samples for different curing

Fig. 3 Relationship Between Percent Lime Added with Fly Ash

Versus Maximum Dry Density (MDD) for Lime Stabilized Fly Fig. 5 Relationship Between Split Tensile Strength and
Ash Sample Unconfined Compressive Strength for 3, 7 and 14 Days Curing
Periods of Lime Stabilized Fly Ash Samples.

Fig. 4 Relationship Between Percent Cement Added with Fig. 6 Relationship Between Split Tensile Strength and
Fly Ash Versus Maximum Dry Density (MDD) for Cement Unconfined Compressive Strength for 28, 56 and 90 Days Curing
Stabilized Fly Ash Sample Period of Lime Stabilized Fly Ash Samples.

100 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


Figs. 7 and 8 also represent the same relationships of cement due to increase of percent binder with fly ash may be due
stabilized fly ash samples for different curing periods. The to the formation of new reaction products such as Calcium
values of coefficient of determination (R2) are presented in Silicate Hydrate (CSH). Hydrated calcium aluminates and
silicates crystallizing as products of lime-flyash interaction
the respective scatter of plots in Figs. 5 to 8. are identified in pastes cured at 30 ± 5ºC. Major reaction
products of flyash and calcium hydroxide as calcium
aluminium hydrate, carboaluminate, monosulphoaluminate
and hydrated calcium silicate play a vital part of strength
gain after increase of binder content and curing period. For
this reason split tensile strength and unconfined compressive
strength both increase with increase of percent binder and
curing period.
Both split tensile strength and unconfined compressive
strength are much higher for cement stabilized flyash
samples as compared to lime stabilized flyash samples.
This is due to the fact that cement stabililized flyash
samples accelerate the formation of pozzolanic reaction
product much earlier. Fraay et al. (1990) observed that the
pozzolanic reaction products of cement stabilized flyash
Fig. 7 Relationship Between Split Tensile Strength and
Unconfined Compressive Strength for 3, 7 and 14 Days Curing deposited in the capillary pores of the stabilized mix and
Periods of Cement Stabilized Fly Ash Samples consequently a less permeable compact structure like,
ettringite is formed.
Unconfined compressive strength values are found to be
higher than split tensile strength for both lime and cement
stabilized flyash samples for same percent binder content and
same curing period. Fly ash materials are weak in tension
and stronger in compression. In unconfined compression
test sample is tested under direct compressive load. But
for split tensile test tension is developed into the sample.
For this reason, failure is developed earlier in case of split
tensile test compared to unconfined compression test. The
higher values of unconfined compressive strength may also
be attributed to different mechanism of testing procedures.
The indirect tensile test or split tensile test involved the
application of a compressive load on a cylindrical specimen
in a vertical diametrical plane through two curved steel
Fig. 8 Relationship Between Split Tensile Strength and strips. A uniform tensile stress was developed at the
Unconfined Compressive Strength for 28, 56 and 90 Days Curing bottom by compressive load which ultimately caused the
Periods Samples specimen to fail by splitting along the vertical diameter.
Besides unconfined compressive strength is higher due to
Due to higher percent of lime and cement addition and more rigidity of the sample in the plane of loading. Due
extension of curing periods more and more pozzolanic to different axis of loading plane, rigidity is lesser for split
reactions occur and cementitious material is formed. In tensile strength.
the first few days of curing low pH value of pore fluid is
observed in the pozzolanic reaction, (Fraay et al,1990)8. 6 CONCLUSIONS
Afterwards both the strengths are lower. Pozzolanic 1. Both split tensile strength and unconfined
reaction accelerates at a later stage of curing and more compressive strength increase with increase of
hydration products are formed at higher percent of binder percent binder (lime and cement) content.
content and higher curing period. These hydration products 2. Split tensile strength and unconfined compressive
reduce the inter connectivity of pore channel and compact strength both increase with increase of curing
matrix products are formed. The improvement of strength period.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 101


3. Split tensile strength and Unconfined compressive 7. Emesiobi, F.C. and Ayotamuno, M.J. (2005),“Testing
strength for cement stabilized fly ash samples both of Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soils in Various Indirect
are much higher compared to lime stabilized fly ash Tensile Tests: (I) Methodology. Indian Highways, August
samples for same percent binder (lime and cement) 2005, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, p.p. 67-76.
content and same curing period. 8. Fraay, A., Bijen, J. M., and Vogelaar, P. (1990), “Cement
-Stabilized Fly Ash Base Courses.” Cem. Concr. Compos.,
4. In case of lime and cement stabilized fly ash
12(4), pp.279 -291.
maximum dry density value increases with
increase of percent binder content. Split tensile and 9. Ghosh, A., and Subbarao, C. (2001), “Microstructural
Development in Fly Ash Modified with Lime and
unconfined compressive strength value both increase
Gypsum.”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering”
with increase of maximum dry density.
ASCE, 18(1), pp: 65-70.
5. Unconfined compressive strength values are much
10. Ghosh, A., and Subbarao, C. (2006), “Tensile Strength
higher compared to split tensile strength for same Bearing Ratio and Slake Durability of Class F Fly ash
percent binder (lime and cement) content and same Stabilized with Lime and Gypsum.”, Journal of Materials
curing period. in Civil Engineering” ASCE, 18(1), pp: 18-27.
11. IS:2720 (Part-10)-1973 Methods of Test for Soils:
REFERENCES Determination of Unconfined Compressive Strength,
1. ASTM C 618 (2003), Standard specification for Coal Fly Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in 12. IS:4332 (Part1)-1967 Methods of Tests for Stabilized
Concrete. ASTM Standards, Philadelphia, USA. Soils: Part 1 Method of Sampling and Preparation of
2. ASTM D 4123 (1982), Standard Test Method for Indirect Stabilized Soils for Testing, Bureau of Indian Standards,
Tension Test for Resilient Modulus of Bituminous New Delhi, India.
Mixtures. ASTM Standards, Philadelphia, USA.
13. Kaniraj, S.R., Gayathri, V. (2003), “Factors Influencing
3. Adedimila, A.S.(1986), “A Comparison of the Marshall the Strength of Cement Fly Ash Base Courses.”, Journal
and Indirect Tensile Test in Relation to Asphalt Mixture of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, Vol.129(5),
Design: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, pp : 538-548.
Part 2, Vol 81, pp 461-469.
14. Kennedy, T.W., and Hudson, W.R.,(1968) “Application of
4. Cumberledge, G., Hoffman, G.L., and Bhajandas, A.C
Indirect Tensile Test To Stabilized Materials,” Highway
(1976).,“Curing and Tensile Strength Characteristics of
Research Record. Vol. 235, pp.36-48.
Aggregate-Lime-Pozzolan” Transportation Research
record 559, Transportation Research Board, Washington 15. Kennedy, T.W. (1977), “Characterization of Asphalt,
D.C, p.p. 21-29. Pavement Materials using the Indirect Tensile Test.”
5. Clough, G.W., Sitar, N., Bachus, R.C., and Rad, N.S. Asphalt Paving Technologists, San Antonio, Texas:
(1981), “Cemented Sands Under Static Loading.” Vol-46, pp: 132 -150.
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering .ASCE, 107(6), 16. Sobhan, K., and Mashnad, M. (2002), “Tensile Strength and
pp: 799-817. Toughness of Soil-Cement-Fly Ash Composite Reinforced
6. Davidson, D.T., Mateos, M., and Katti, R.K (1959), with Recycle High-Density Polyethylene Strips.”
“Activation of the Lime-Fly Ash by Trace Chemicals.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 14(2),
HRB Bull., 231, pp.67-81. pp: 177-184.


1. IRC:107-2013 –Specification for Bitumen Mastic Wearing Courses (First Revision) (Price Rs.200/-
+ Rs.30/- for Postage and Packing charges)
2. IRC:SP:87-2013 – Manual of Specifications & Standards for Six Laning of Highways through Public
Private Partnership (First Revision) (Price Rs.1000/- + Rs.40/- for Postage and Packing charges)
3. IRC:SP:98-2013 – Guidelines for the use of Waste Plastic in Hot Bituminous Mixes (Dry Process) in
Wearing Courses (Price Rs.300/- + Rs.30/- for Postage and Packing charges)
4. IRC:SP:99-2013 – Manual of Specifications and Standards for Expressways (Price Rs.1200/- + Rs.40/-
for Postage and Packing charges)

102 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013

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HQ office : Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110022 (India)
Phone. : Secy. Genl.:+91(11) 26185303, Sectt.:+91(11) 26185315, 26185319, 26185273, 26716778
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74th ANNUAL SESSION - GUWAHATI – 18th to 22nd JANUARY, 2014

Telephone No. : 011-2338 7140, 2338 6486

The Under Secretary Fax No. : 011-2618 3669
Indian Roads Congress, Email : annualsession@irc.org.in
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Hotel Name :_________________
_______________Days from______________to_______________ Jan. 14_____________
(Payment for accommodation charges should be made to LOS at Guwahati

Date____________________________ Signatures_________________________________

For Office Use Only

Receipt No : __________________________________
Amount (Rs.) : ___________________ Dated : ________________

120 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013


74th ANNUAL SESSION – GUWAHATI 18th to 22nd JANUARY, 2014
(Please Return before 31st December, 2013)

Shri Suryya Kr. Baruah Telephone No. : Ͳ͵͸ͳǦʹ͸͸ͻͺ͹͵

(Local Organising Secretary, Mobile No. : +91-98640 33268
74th Annual Session) Email : 74thircguwahati@gmail.com
Superintending Engineer, Website : www.74thircguwahati.in
—‹Ž†‹‰‹”…Ž‡ ǡ ‹‰Š™ƒ›•,
Guwahati – 641018 (ASSAM)

USE BLOCK LETTER ONLY Tick (¥) Wherever Applicable

IRC Membership No. __________________
Name :_________________________ Whether Official/Non-Official
Designation :_________________________ Equivalent to :
Address :_________________________ Secy/ E-in-C/CE [A]
:_________________________ SE [B]
:_________________________ EE [C]
Pin Code :_________________________ AE [D]
Age :_________________________ Basic Pay ( Rs.) :
Total Emoluments Rs. :

Telephone Nos. with (STD) Code

Office :_________________________ Residence :____________________
Fax :________________________ Mobile :____________________
Email :_______________________________

Name of Spouse ( If accompanying) Age Veg [V] / Non-veg [ N]

Arrival Date Departure Date

Mode Air / Train / Bus / Car Mode Air / Train / Bus / Car
Flight No. Time Date Flight No. Time Date

Airport : Airport :
Train Name Time Date Train Name Time Date

Class Station Class Station

Bus Time: Date: Bus Time: Date:

Car Time: Date: Car Time: Date:

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013 121

Own Arrangements : Yes [Y] No [N]
Address : __________________________________________________

ACCOMMODATION AS GOVT. OFFICER : Rs. 8500/ 7500/ 6000/4500 SINGLE [S]/ Double[D]
______________________Days from____________________to__________________ Jan. 14
Accommodation for delegates (Paying Full) Single (S) / Double (D)
Hotel Name : _____________________________@ Rs.____________________________
Days from___________________________to___________________ Jan. 14___________

For on-line payment and booking of Accommodation, visit www.74thircguwahati.in

Cheque per person

Tour No. (1) Rs.

Tour No. (2) Rs.

Tour No. (3) Rs.

Tour No. (4) Rs.

Not Participating [N] Total Rs.

Date : ____________________ Signature : ________________________

Note : Draw Demand Draft in favour of "Local Organising Secretary, 74th Annual Session, IRC
payable at Guwahati for accommodation and tours. Accommodation would be confirmed only on
receipt of payment in advance.

Accommodation for all delegates shall be arranged from the forenoon of the 18th to the
afternoon of the 22nd January 2014. It will not be possible to provide accommodation for
period less than that mentioned above and charges for the period will have to be paid in

122 INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2013