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Sinhgad Technical Education Society’s Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune-41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power

Sinhgad Technical Education Society’s

Sinhgad College of Engineering,

Pune-41

Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering

Practical File

1

Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune – 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Subject: PPE Practical Plan

Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune – 41

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Subject: PPE

Practical Plan

Practical

     

No.

Topic

Planned Dates

Actual Dates

01

Study of FBC system.

   

02

Study of High Pressure boilers.

   

03

Trial on steam power plant.

   

04

Trial on Diesel Power Plant.

   

05

Study of power plant instruments.

   

06

Study of Nuclear Power Plants.

   

07

Study of Environmental Impact of Power Plants.

   

08

Visit to thermal Power plant /Co-generation Power plant or explain working of power plant by using Suitable software.

   

Signature of Faculty

Subject

H.O.D.

Principal

Co-ordinator

Mechanical Engg. Dept.

SCOE, pune

2

List of Experiments

List of Experiments Term Work: Any Eight experiments of the following- 1) Visit to thermal Power

Term Work: Any Eight experiments of the following- 1) Visit to thermal Power plant /Co-generation Power plant or explain working of power plant by using suitable software. 2) Visit to HEPP/GTPP/Non-Conventional Power Plants. 3) Study of FBC system. 4) Study of High Pressure boilers. 5) Trial on steam power plant. 6) Trial on Diesel Power Plant. 7) Study of power plant instruments. 8) Study of Nuclear Power Plants. 9) Study of Environmental Impact of Power Plants. Reference Books

1. E.I.Wakil, ―Power Plant Engineering‖, McGraw Hill Publica ons New Delhi

2. P.K.Nag, ―Power Plant Engineering‖, McGraw Hill Publica ons New Delhi.

3. K K Ramalingam ,‖ Power Plant Engineering, SCITECH Publications Pvt Ltd.

4. Domkundwar & Arora, ―Power Plant Engineering‖, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New

Delhi.

5. R.K.Rajput, ―Power Plant Engineering‖, Laxmi Publica ons New Delhi.

6. R.Yadav , ―Steam and Gas Turbines‖ ,Central Publishing House, Allahabad.

7. D.K.Chavan & G.K.Phatak, ―Power Plant Engineering‖, Standard Book House, New

Delhi.

8. G.D.Rai, ― Non-Conventional Energy Sources‖ Khanna Publishers,Delhi

9. S.P.Sukhatme, ―Solar Energy‖ Tata McGraw-Hill Publications, New Delhi

Energy Sources ‖ Khanna Publishers,Delhi 9. S.P.Sukhatme, ―Solar Energy‖ Tata McGraw -Hill Publications, New Delhi 3

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Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 01

Study of “Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers”

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AIM:- Study of Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers THEORY:- 3.1 Introduction When air is passed through

AIM:- Study of Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers

THEORY:-

3.1 Introduction

When air is passed through a fixed or packed bed of particles, air simply percolates through the interstitial gaps between the particles. As the air flow rate through the bed is steadily increased, A point is eventually reached reached at which the pressure drop across the bed becomes equal to weight of the particles per unit cross-sectional area of the bed. This critical velocity is called the minimum fluidization velocity, U mf , at which the bed is said to be incipiently fluidized. As the air velocity is increased further, the particles are buoyed up and imparted a violently turbulent fluid like motion, with the drag forces exerted by the fluid on the particles exceeding their weight. There is high degree of particle mixing and equilibrium between gas and particles is rapidly established. This is called a fluidized bed.

In Fig.1 air supplied by a centrifugal blower is passed through a perforated or porous plate, called the distributor, and then a bed of particles of wide size distribution. The air flow rate is regulated by a bypass valve along with a control valve, and it is measured by a rotameter. Dividing the mass flow rate, so measured, by the product of the bed cross sectional area and density of air, the superficial velocity of air, U, is estimated. For each mass flow rate or superficial velocity, which is gradually increased, the pressure drop across the bed is measured.

increased, the pressure drop across the bed is measured. Fig. 1: Measurement of U m f

Fig. 1: Measurement of U mf and U t of Fluidized Bed

Fig. 2 demonstrates the variation of bed pressure drop with superficial velocity. The pressure drop p varies with the superficial velocity linearly along AB till it approaches W/At, where W is the weight of particles in the bed and At is the bed crosses sectional area. This is the fixed bed regime. With further increase in air flow, the particles are buoyed up by the drag force only to fall back into the bed yielding high turbulence, with p=W/At remaining constant. This continues till there is

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considerable pressure fluctuation and finally the superficial velocity reaches the state C when particles start

considerable pressure fluctuation and finally the superficial velocity reaches the state C when particles start getting entrained in the air system, The superficial velocity of air at which particle entrainment starts is called terminal velocity, U t , of the particles, The state of the bed in the range of superficial velocity from B to C, i.e. between U mf and U t is the fluidized bed regime. With further increase in velocity, the entrained particles carried away, the weight of particles in the bed and so p decrease till it reaches the state D when all the particles are carried away, by the air stream, bed becomes empty and ∆p zero.

away, by the air stream, bed becomes empty and ∆p zero. Fig. 2: Variation of bed

Fig. 2: Variation of bed pressure drop with superficial velocity

i. Packed bed A packed or fixed bed consists of a bed of stationary particles on perforated grid through which a gas is flowing. The pressure drop per unit height of packed bed of uniformly sized particles, /L, is given by Ergun’s equation.

particles, ∆ / L , is given by Ergun’s equation. ii. Bubbling fluidized bed When the

ii. Bubbling fluidized bed When the superficial velocity of gas flowing through a fixed bed reaches the minimum fluidization velocity, U mf the fixed bed transfer into an incipiently fluidized

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bed and bed starts behaving as a liquid. Since the pressure across the bed is

bed and bed starts behaving as a liquid. Since the pressure across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed.

pressure across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. iii. Slugging If the

iii. Slugging If the bed is small in cross section and deep, the bubble may increase to a size comparable to the diameter or width of the bed. The bubble then passes through the bed as a slug. This is known as slugging and there is large fluctuation of pressure drop across the bed which is unstable.

iv. Turbulent bed As the velocity of gas through a bubbling fluidized bed is increased, the bed expands, and a point is eventually reached when the emulsion walls become very thin, the bubbles constantly collapse and re-form resulting in an active bed. The bed surface is highly diffused and particles are thrown into the freeboard above. Such a bed is called a turbulent bed. The pressure drop across the bed fluctuates rapidly.

bed. The pressure drop across the bed fluctuates rapidly. v. Fast Fluidized bed It is regime

v. Fast Fluidized bed It is regime lying between the turbulent fluidized bed and pneumatic transport. Following Basu and Fraser (1991), a fast fluidized bed may be defined as a high-velocity gas-solid suspension where particles, elutriated by fluidizing gas above the terminal velocity of single particles, are recovered and returned to the base of the furnace at a rate sufficiently high as to cause a degree of solid refluxing that will

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ensure a minimum level of temperature uniformity in the furnace. The term “fast bed” has

ensure a minimum level of temperature uniformity in the furnace. The term “fast bed” has become synonymous with the circulating fluidized bed.

.2

Fluidized bed boilers produce steam from fossil and waste fuels by using a technique called fluidized bed combustion which has been discussed above. These can be of two types:

Fluidized Bed Boilers

I. Bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers

II. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers

In BFB crushed coal (6-20 mm) is injected into the fluidized bed of limestone just above an air-distribution grid at the bottom of the bed (Fig. 3). The air flows upwards through the grid from the air plenum into the bed, where the combustion of coal occurs. The products of combustion leaving the bed contain large proportion of un- burnt carbon particles which are collected in cyclone separator and fed back to the bed. The boiler water tubes are in the furnace.

back to the bed. The boiler water tubes are in the furnace. Fig. 3: Schematic of

Fig. 3: Schematic of Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler

Since most of the sulphur in coal is retrained in the bed by the bed material used (limestone), the gases can be cooled to a lower temperature before leaving the stack with less formation of acid (H 2 SO 4 ). As a result of low combustion temperatures (800-900 ), inferior grades of coal can be used without slagging problems and there is less formation of NO , Cheaper alloy materials can also be used, resulting in economy of construction. Further economics are achieved since no pulverizer is required. The volumetric heat release rates are 10 to 15 times higher and the surface heat transfer rates are 2 to 3 higher than the conventional boiler. This makes the boiler more compact.

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Fig. 4 shows a bubbling fluid bed boiler system operating at atmospheric pressure, similar to

Fig. 4 shows a bubbling fluid bed boiler system operating at atmospheric pressure, similar to the one of 160 MWe Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) project at Shawnee, USA, recently installed (1993).

(TVA) project at Shawnee, USA, recently installed (1993). Fig. 4: An atmospheric bubbling fluid bed boiler

Fig. 4: An atmospheric bubbling fluid bed boiler system

The CFB boiler is said to be second generation fluidized bed boiler (Fig 5). It is divided into two sections. The first section consists of (a) furnace or fast fluidized bed, (b) gas-solid separator (cyclone), (c) solid recycle device (loop seal or L-valve), and (d) external heat exchanger (optional). These components from a solid circulation loop in which fuel is burned. The furnace enclosure of CFB boiler is generally made of water tubes as in pulverized coal fired (PC) boilers. A fraction of the generated heat is absorbed by these heat transferring tubes. The second section is the back-pass, where the remaining heat from the flue gas is absorbed by the reheater, superheater, economizer, and air preheater surfaces (as in conventional PC boiler). Coal is generally injected into the lower section of the furnace. Sometimes fed into the loop-seal, from which it enters the furnace along returned hot solids, Limestone is fed into the bed in a similar manner. Coal when mixed hot bed solids. The primary combustion air enters furnace through an air distributor grate at the furnace floor. The secondary air is injected at some height above grate to complete the combustion. Bed solids are well mixed throughout the height of the furnace. Thus, the bed temperature is nearly uniform in the 800-900, through heat is extracted along its height. Relatively coarse par of sorbent (limestone) and unburned char, larger than the cyclone cut-off are captured in the cyclone and are recycled

9

back near the base of the furnace. Finer solid residues (ash and spent sorbents) generated

back near the base of the furnace. Finer solid residues (ash and spent sorbents) generated during combustion desulphurization leave the furnace, escaping through the cyclones, but collected by a bag-house or electrostatic precipitator located further downstream.

or electrostatic precipitator located further downstream. Fig. 5: An schematic of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

Fig. 5: An schematic of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

Advantages of CFB Boilers:

Circulating fluidized bed boilers have a number of unique: that makes them more attractive than other solid fuel fired boilers as given below.

i. Fuel Flexibility: This one of the most attractive features of CFB boilers. Fuel particles constitute less than 1-3% by weight of all solids in the furnace of typical CFB boilers. The rest of the solids are non-combustible: sorbents (limestone or dolomite) and fuel-ash. The special hydrodynamic condition in the CFB furnace allows an excellent gas-solid and solid-solid mixing. Thus fuel particles fed to the furnace are quickly dispersed into the large mass of bed solids , which rapidly heat the fuel particles above their ignition temperature without any drop in the temperature of bed solids. This feature of a CFB furnace allows it to burn any fuel without the support of an auxiliary fuel.

ii. High combustion efficiency :

Superior mixing in the CFB , large reaction space (combustion zone extending up to the top of the furnace , about 40m and above large utility boilers, and further beyond into the hot cyclone) and consequently long residence time of combustion

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afford high combustion efficiencies which can be 99% for a wide variety of fuels under

afford high combustion efficiencies which can be 99% for a wide variety of fuels under different operating conditions.

iii. Efficient Sulphur removal :

When coal burns, sulphur is oxidized to sulphur dioxideS+O 2 =SO 2 +9260kJ/kg.Some part of SO 2 converted toSO 3 .This SO 2 and SO 3 if thrown out to atmosphere undergo chemical reaction with moisture, catalyzed by sunlight to form acids.

Limestone and dolomite (CaCO 3 , MgCO 3 ) are two principle sorbents used for the absorption of S0 2 in fluidized bed combustors. For limestone directly fed into the CFB furnace as bed material, there is calcination when the limestone is decomposed into CaO and CO 2 through an endothermic reaction. Good contact between the gas and solid and long residence time in the CFB combustor afford better sulphur capture at Ca/S ratio of 1.5 to 2.0.

iv. Low NO x emission :

Owing to low combustion temperature and the staged combustion process, NOx emission in a CFB can be kept low, in the range of 50-150 ppm.

v. Small furnace cross section :

A high heat release rate per unit furnace cross-section (about 5MW/m 2 ) is a major advantage of CFB boiler. It results in less floor area. A high superficial velocity (4-7 m/s) along with, intense gas solid mixing promotes high heat release and heat dispersion in the bed.

.3 Pressurized Fluidized Bed Boiler The combustion process takes place in a pressurized environment resulting in a compact furnace and improved combustion efficiency. There is situ sulphur capture and low NO x generation with bed operating at about 850like atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. (AFBe) furnace. The process allows the use of a gas turbine, driven by pressurized hot combustion gases. Thus, in addition to having the ability to burn high sulphur and low grade coal in an environmentally acceptable manner and the compactness of the steam generator.

11

Fig6. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Boiler The advantages of PBFBC are as follows: i. There is
Fig6. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Boiler The advantages of PBFBC are as follows: i. There is

Fig6. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Boiler

The advantages of PBFBC are as follows:

i. There is increase in its specific power output and hence a potential reduction in capital cost. At a typical fluidizing velocity of 2 m/s the bed area of AFBC at 1 bar is 2 m 2 /MW, while it is 0.2 m 2 /MW at 10 bars.

ii. By combining a gas turbine with a steam turbine, the overall efficiency of power generation system can be increased from 33% for conventional power plants to more than 40% in PBFBC plants.

iii. The emission of nitrogen oxides can be substantially reduced.

iv. The PBFBC has higher combustion efficiency than an AFBC.

v. The gas residence time in an AFBC is about 0.5 s, in a PBFBC (due to fluidizing velocity of about 1 m/s for a higher gas density), Therefore, the sulphur capture is more.

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Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 02

Study of “High Pressure Boilers”

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AIM: - Study of high pressure Boilers THEORY:- In all modern power plants, high pressure

AIM: - Study of high pressure Boilers

THEORY:-

In all modern power plants, high pressure boilers (> 100 bar) are universally used as

they offer the following advantages. In order to obtain efficient operation and high capacity, forced circulation of water through boiler tubes is found helpful. Some special types of boilers operating at super critical pressures and using forced circulations are described in this experiment.

1. The efficiency and the capacity of the plant can be increased as reduced quantity

of steam is required for the same power generation if high pressure steam is used.

2. The forced circulation of water through boiler tubes provides freedom in the

arrangement of furnace and water walls, in addition to the reduction in the heat

exchange area.

3. The tendency of scale formation is reduced due to high velocity of water.

4. The danger of overheating is reduced as all the parts are uniformly heated.

5. The differential expansion is reduced due to uniform temperature and this reduces the possibility of gas and air leakages.

6. Some special types of high pressure supercritical boilers are described in this

experiment.

1. LA MONT BOILER A forced circulation boiler was first introduced in 1925 by La Mont. The arrangement of water circulation and different components are shown in Fig. 1 The feed water from hot well is supplied to a storage and separating drum (boiler) through the economizer. Most of the sensible heat is supplied to the feed water passing through the economizer. A pump circulates the water at a rate 8 to 10 times the mass of steam evaporated. This water is circulated through the evaporator tubes and the part of the vapour is separated in the separator drum. The large quantity of water circulated (10 times that of evaporation) prevents the tubes from being overheated.

The centrifugal pump delivers the water to the headers at a pressure of 2.5 bar above the drum pressure. The distribution headers distribute the water through the nozzle into the evaporator. The steam separated in the boiler is further passed through the super-heater. Secure a uniform flow of feed water through each of the parallel boiler circuits a choke is fitted entrance to each circuit. These boilers have been built to generate 45 to 50 tonnes of superheated steam at a pressure of 120 bar and temperature of 500°C. Recently forced circulation has been introduced in large capacity power.

14

Fig.1 LA MONT BOILER 2. BENSON BOILER The main difficulty experienced in the La Mont
Fig.1 LA MONT BOILER 2. BENSON BOILER The main difficulty experienced in the La Mont

Fig.1 LA MONT BOILER

2. BENSON BOILER The main difficulty experienced in the La Mont boiler is the formation and

attachment of bubbles on the inner surfaces of the heating tubes. The attached bubbles reduce the heat flow and steam generation as it offers higher thermal resistance compared to water film

1. Benson in 1922 argued that if the boiler pressure was raised to critical

pressure (225 atm.), the steam and water would have the same density and

therefore the danger of bubble formation can be completely

2. Natural circulation boilers require expansion joints but these are not required

for Benson as the pipes are welded. The erection of Benson boiler is easier and

quicker as all the parts are welded at site and workshop job of tube expansion is altogether avoided.

3. The transport of Benson boiler parts is easy as no drums are required and

majority of the parts are carried to the site without pre-assembly.

4. The Benson boiler can be erected in a comparatively smaller floor area. The

space problem does not control the size of Benson boiler used.

5. The furnace walls of the boiler can be more efficiently protected by using

small diameter and close pitched tubes.

6. The superheater in the Benson boiler is an integral part of forced circulation

system, therefore no special starting arrangement for superheater is required.

7. The Benson boiler can be started very quickly because of welded joints.

8. The Benson boiler can be operated most economically by varying the

temperature and pressure at partial loads and overloads. The desired

temperature can also be maintained constant at any pressure.

9. Sudden fall of demand creates circulation problems due to bubble formation

in the natural circulation boiler which never occurs in Benson boiler. This feature

15

of insensitiveness to load fluctuations makes it more suitable for grid power station as it

of insensitiveness to load fluctuations makes it more suitable for grid power station as it has better adaptive capacity to meet sudden load fluctuations. 10. The blow-down losses of Benson boiler are hardly 4% of natural circulation boilers of same capacity. 11. Explosion hazards are not at all severe as it consists of only tubes of small diameter and has very little storage capacity compared to drum type boiler. During starting, the water is passed through the economiser, evaporator, superheater and back to the feed line via starting valve A. During starting the valve B is closed. As the steam generation starts and it becomes superheated, the valve A is closed and the valve B is opened. During starting, first circulating pumps are started and then the burners are started to avoid the overheating of evaporator and superheater tubes.

avoid the overheating of evaporator and superheater tubes. 3. LOEFFLER BOILER The major difficulty experienced in

3. LOEFFLER BOILER

The major difficulty experienced in Benson boiler is the deposition of salt and sediment on the inner surfaces of the water tubes. The deposition reduced the heat transfer and ultimately the generating capacity. This further increased the danger of overheating the tubes due to salt deposition as it has high thermal resistance. The difficulty was solved in Loeffler boiler by preventing the flow of water into the boiler tubes. Most of the steam is generated outside from the feedwater using part of the superheated steam coming out from the boiler. The pressure feed pump draws the water through the economiser and delivers it into the evaporator drum as shown in the figure. About 65% of the steam coming out of superheater is passed

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through the evaporator drum in order to evaporate the feed water coming from economiser. The

through the evaporator drum in order to evaporate the feed water coming from economiser. The steam circulating pump draws the saturated steam from the evaporator drum and is passed through the radiant superheater and then connective superheater. About 35% of the steam coming out from the superheater is supplied to the H.P. steam turbine. The steam coming out from H.P. turbine is passed through reheater before supplying to L.P. turbine as shown in the figure. The amount of steam generated in the evaporator drum is equal to the steam tapped (65%) from the superheater. The nozzles which distribute the superheated steam through the water into the evaporator drum are of special design to avoid priming and noise. This boiler can carry higher salt concentration than any other type and is more compact than indirectly heated boilers having natural circulation. These qualities fit it for land or sea transport power generation. Loeffler boilers with generating capacity of 94.5 tonnes/hr and operating at 140 bar have already been commissioned.

and operating at 140 bar have already been commissioned. 4. Ones through boiler Fig. 3 Loeffler

4. Ones through boiler

Fig. 3 Loeffler Boiler

Boilers can be designed to operate at pressures above the critical pressure (221.2 bar). No drum is necessary in such boilers since no separation of the water and steam occurs, the two being at the same density.

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2- Steam Separator 3- Boiler Feed Pump 5- Economiser 6-Evaporator 7- Superheater Fig. 4 Ones
2- Steam Separator 3- Boiler Feed Pump 5- Economiser 6-Evaporator 7- Superheater Fig. 4 Ones

2- Steam Separator

3- Boiler Feed Pump

5- Economiser

6-Evaporator

7- Superheater

Fig. 4 Ones through boiler

Thus, there is no circulation. The water enters the bottom of the tubes and is completely transformed to steam by the time it reaches the top, passing through the tubes only ones. For this reason it is known as a ones-through boiler, often referred to as drumless boiler.

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Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 03

Trial on “Steam Power Plant”

19

TITLE: Trial on steam power plant AIM: To conduct a trial on steam power plant

TITLE: Trial on steam power plant

AIM: To conduct a trial on steam power plant and determine the Optimum Point Load

THEORY:

5.1 Introduction:

Steam power plants are the most common source of electrical energy in the world today. They also find use as captive power plants in various industries and co- generation power plants. Steam power plants work on the Rankine cycle with modified superheating and regenerative feed heating. Operating pressure ranges from 30 bar to 180 bar and can occasionally peak at 240 bar. Temperature ranges from 450°C to 585°C. Thermal power plants use a condensing turbine while those meant for captive power plants use a non-condensing turbine as well. Plant capacity ranges from 5 MW to 500 MW. Steam power plants can use a wide range of fuels such as coal (crushed or pulverized), oil, natural gas, waste gas at high temperature, industrial waste fuels of furnace oils and LSHS. These days, waste heat recovery plants are becoming very popular because of their reduced fuel consumption and are finding use in steel, cement, soda-ash industries, etc. Steam plants are also used as bottoming plants in combined cycle power plants with gas turbine plants as topping power plants.

5.2 Description of the Laboratory Steam Plant:

The boiler consists of two helical coils through which water, under pressure, flows. The feed water pump pumps water from the exit of the economizer to the lower end of the water tubes. When flowing through the tubes, feed water is directly flashed into steam and is collected in the common header, which is placed at the top of the boiler. Steam is generally wet and hence moisture needs to be separated at the exit. Moisture separator and steam traps are provided in the steam line to supply dry steam to the turbine. The boiler works on high speed diesel (HSD) oil, which is stored in an overhead tank. It is supplied to the burner by a gear pump under a constant pressure for proper atomization.

High temperature gas generated in the furnace flows from the top of the boiler to the bottom through the inner core of the tube. They are then deflected upward from the outer side of the tube and enter the economiser where it preheats feed water and then leaves the boiler through the chimney.

In the steam line, steam flow meter and separating and throttling calorimeters are provided to find the steam flow and dryness fraction of the steam. A separate pressure gauge near the turbine gives the steam pressure.

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Steam turbine is a re-entry type impulse turbine with single disc i.e. it is a

Steam turbine is a re-entry type impulse turbine with single disc i.e. it is a two-stage velocity compounded steam turbine with hemispherical buckets. To keep the turbine speed constant, pressure of the incoming steam is governed by a centrifugal governor. The output of the turbine is used to drive a single phase alternator, which supplies constant load to the lamp bank and variable water load.

constant load to the lamp bank and variable water load. 1 Stack 8 To separating and

1 Stack

8

To separating and Throttling calorimeter

2 Water Tank

9

Load Bank

3 Economizer

10

Generator Set

4 Feed Water Pump (reciprocating)

11

Steam Turbine

5 Main body of Boiler

12

Economizer

6 Fuel Injector with Burner

13

Fuel Pump (gear pump)

7 FCV

14

Flexible Coupling

Fig. 1 Schematic of Diesel power plant

Steam passes through the condenser where it is condensed by cooling water. The turbine can be operated in condensing and non-condensing modes. The condensate is sent to the supply water tank of the boiler.

5.3 Plant Specification:

Boiler

1.

Manufacturer

:

3M Boilers Pvt. Ltd., Pune

2.

Working Pressure

:

15 bar

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  3. Evaporation Rate : 800 kg/hr (wet steam) 4. Fuel Used : High Speed
 

3. Evaporation Rate

:

800 kg/hr (wet steam)

4. Fuel Used

:

High Speed Diesel (HSD) Oil, LDO, FO

5. Type

:

Non-IBR, Water Tube, Package Type

Turbine Generator Set

1. Output

:

6 KVA

2. Voltage

:

230 V, Single Phase, 50 Hz

3. Speed

:

3000 rpm

5.4 Procedure:

1. Open the cocks on the fuel tank and water tank and switch on the supply through the panel mounted on the boiler.

2. Put the main switch in ‘CIRL’ position, so that the feed pump starts pumping water through the boiler tubes and pumps out air trapped in the tubes through the air valve on the top of the boiler.

3. Put the switch on the ‘AUTO’ mode, which will start the blower and fuel pump. The burner will be immediately fired by a spark plug.

4. Observe the steam coming out of the vent in about one minute.

5. Slowly close the valve on the vent pipe, when temperature reaches 192°C. Allow the turbine to increase speed. This will cause the lamps in the control panel to glow. The lamp-bank remains on the turbine through out to the control panel, since there is no emergency trip on the turbine.

6. Adjust the depth of immersion of the electrode in the water loading system to give the required load current, such as 5 A, and record all the readings, once the system reaches steady state.

7. After the test is over, slowly remove the load and simultaneously close the steam stop valve, so that the turbine slows down.

8. Open the valve on the vent pipe and allow the boiler steam to discharge to the atmosphere.

9. Put the selector control switch to ‘CIRL’ and let water circulate through the boiler tube. Observe this for about five minutes, by which time, the boiler will cool down. Switch off the main supply and close all cocks and valves except for the vent pipes.

10. Clean the unit.

5.5 Observations:

1. Barometric Reading (P a )

=

1 bar

2. Room temperature (T a )

=

°C

3. Diameter of the Orifice

=

24 mm

4. Rate of Fuel Firing

=

60 lph

22

5. Density of Fuel (ρ)

6. Calorific Value of Fuel =

7. Feed-water Temperature (t i ) =

=

42,500 kJ/kg

0.83 kg/l

°C

5.5.1 Observation Table:

) = = 42,500 kJ/kg 0.83 kg/l °C 5.5.1 Observation Table: Sr        

Sr

         

No

 

Description

 

1

2

3

4

1.

Steam pressure at boiler valve (P 1 ) (kg/cm 2 )

         

2.

Temperature of steam at boiler steam stop valve (t 1 ) (°C)

       

3.

Pressure difference at orifice (ΔP) (kg/cm 2 )

         

4.

Time for collecting 100 cc water in separating calorimeter (T 2 ) (s)

       

5.

Temperature of water in separating calorimeter (t 2 ) (°C)

       

6.

Time for collecting 1000 cc water in throttling calorimeter (T 3 ) (s)

       

7.

Temperature of water in throttling calorimeter (t 3 ) (°C)

       

8.

Pressure (kg/cm 2 )

of

steam

before

throttling

(P 3 )

       

9.

Temperature of steam after throttling (t 4 ) (°C)

       

10.

Pressure of steam near turbine (P 4 ) (kg/cm 2 )

       

11.

Turbine speed (N) (rpm)

         

12.

Generator voltage (V) (volts)

         

13.

Load Current (I) (Amps)

         
 

Time for boiler operation out of 5 minutes (T 1 )

       

14.

(s)

15.

Load (W)

       

5.6 Sample Calculations:

1. Steam pressure at boiler (P 1 ):

P 1(abs)

=

P 1(gauge) +

P a

=

P 1(abs)

=

23

2. Absolute Pressure before throttling (P 3 ):

P 3(abs)

=

P 3(gauge) +

P a

=

P 3(abs)

=

3. Pressure at turbine inlet (P 4 ):

P 4(abs)

=

P 4(gauge) +

P a

=

P 4(abs)

=

4. Pressure of steam at orifice-meter (P2):

P 2(abs)

P 2(abs)

=

=

=

P 1(abs) + P 4(abs)

2

abs ) P 2(abs) = = = P 1 ( abs ) + P 4 (

5. Fuel fired in boiler for 5 min load duration (m f ):

=

=

=

( ) × × ρ

6. Thermal energy supplied to boiler during 5 min load duration (Q S ):

Q

S

= m f x C.V.

 

=

Q

S

=

7. Rate of heat supplied (I):

I Q S × 3600

=

5 × 60

=

I =

8. Plant output (electrical) (Le):

L e

=

L e(const) + L e(variable)

 

V . I

 

=

+

 

1000

 

=

L e

=

9. Plant efficiency (η p ):

24

  η p = × × 100     =   η p = 10.
 

η p

= ×

× 100

 
 

=

 

η p

=

10.

Heat Rate ( HR):

 

HR

=

I

 

L

e

 

=

 

HR

=

Incremental heat rate (IHR) = dI/dL IHR is found from graph of I vs L by measuring the slope of the tangent at the given load.

5.7

Result Table:

 

Sr

         

No

Plant Performance Parameter

1

2

3

4

1.

Plant Load (kW)

       

2.

Plant Input (kJ/hr)

       

3.

Plant efficiency (%)

       

4.

Heat Rate (kJ/kW-hr) (×10 3 )

       

5.

IHR (kJ/kW-hr) (×10 3 )

       

5.8

Conclusions:

 

The graph of IHR and HR vs Load indicates that the optimum loading point

occurs at

KW.

25

Graphical Analysis Load kW 26

Graphical Analysis

Graphical Analysis Load kW 26
Graphical Analysis Load kW 26

Load kW

26

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 04

Study of “Trial on Diesel Power Plant”

TITLE: Trial on Diesel Power Plant

27

AIM: To conduct a trial on diesel power plant and to determine the operating parameters

AIM: To conduct a trial on diesel power plant and to determine the operating parameters and economical load of the plant.

THEORY:

4.1 Introduction:

Diesel power plants have the advantages over other types of power plants that they don’t need any warming time and don’t need to be run for a very long time before loading. There are no standby losses, like those in steam power plants. Diesel power plants are used in applications where fuel costs are low, water supply is limited and plant capacity is less (5 to 10 MW).

4.1.1 Advantages of Diesel Power Plants over Thermal Power Plants:

1. Diesel power plants are more efficient than thermal power plants for lower capacity plants.

2. Diesel power plants can run on a wide range of fuels such as HSD, LSD, FO, HFO and LHSH and can also use natural gas.

3. Low initial cost.

4. Quick starting.

5. Easy to maintain.

6. Compact.

7. Can be installed.

8. No ash handling system required.

9. Simple lubrication system required.

10. High efficiency.

4.1.2 Disadvantages

1. These plants have lower capacity than thermal power plants.

2. Higher repair costs.

3. Diesel power plant has shorter life.

4. They produce excessive noise.

5. High lubricating oil consumption.

6. These plants are not suitable for long control operations.

4.1.3 Applications

1. Central Power plant Power generation capacity of diesel power plants is limited to 50 to 100 MW. This capacity depends upon the economics of cost of the plant and load conditions.

2. Standby Plant Diesel power plants are used as standby plant to supply a part of the load in power station when required. e.g. if hydroelectric power plant is a main source of electricity and water supply falls, a diesel power plant is used temporarily in parallel with hydroelectric power plant.

28

3. Peak Load Plant Diesel power plants are used for meeting peak load requirement, while

3. Peak Load Plant Diesel power plants are used for meeting peak load requirement, while base load is supplied by a thermal of hydroelectric power plant. Diesel power plants are ideally suited to this application because they can be started to meet the required load.

4. Emergency Plant Diesel power plants are also used as emergency plants to meet the power requirement when main power plant fails.

5. Nursery station Whenever smaller power plants are to be setup, diesel power plants are the most suitable since generation period is smaller. These small capacity plants are called nursery stations.

6. Setup Plants Diesel power plants are used as auxiliary power plants for starting large plants.

7. Mobile Plants Mobile diesel power plants, usually trailer mounted, can be used for a wide range of applications, supplying power to construction sites etc.

4.2 Experimental Setup The setup consists of 5HP diesel engine which is mounted on a foundation. Water is circulated through a water jacket for cooling the plant. Water is also provided to the exhaust gas calorimeter. The engine is connected to a single phase ac generator by means of a coupling. Electricity thus generated is supplied to load bank.

4.2.1 Specifications:

Engine:

1. Make :

2. Type :

3. Speed :

4. Bore*Stroke :

5. Power :

Generator:

1. Type:

2. Capacity:

Kirloskar Oil Engines

Single cylinder, vertically mounted

1500 rpm

90 mm * 110 mm

5 HP (3.75 kW)

Electric generator

5kVA, 50Hz, 230 at 1500 rpm.

4.2.2 Test Setup:

An electric load bank consists six 500W bulbs and five 100W bulbs with digital voltmeter, ammeter, shell and tube exhaust calorimeter, air box with an orifice and

digital gas calorimeter at various points with thermocouple.

29

4.2.3 Procedure: 1. Ensure that there is sufficient fuel in the tank. 2. Starts the
4.2.3 Procedure: 1. Ensure that there is sufficient fuel in the tank. 2. Starts the

4.2.3 Procedure:

1. Ensure that there is sufficient fuel in the tank.

2. Starts the water tap to supply water to the engine and the exhaust gas calorimeter.

3. Switch on the AC supply.

4. Note all reading.

5. Gradually load the engine by turning on the bulbs one by one.

6. Repeat the above procedure for different values of load.

7. To stop the engine, first unload the engine and then pull the stop lever.

4.2.4 Observations:

1. Density of fuel(ρ) :

0.83kg/ltr

 

2. Calorific value of fuel :

42500kJ/kg

Speed

Voltage

Current

Load

Time for 10 ml of Fuel ‘t’ (sec)

Exhaust gas

(rpm)

V (volts)

I (Amp)

(kW)

temp. ()

4.2.5 Calculations

1. Power output from engine (Load) (L) = V×I =

2. Fuel Consumption(m f ) =

3. Plant efficiency (η)

4. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (B.S.F.C) = m f ×

× ρ × 10 =

= ( )

× . =

30

. ( ) =

5. Plant input (I) = m f × C. V. =

6. Heat rate (HR) =

7. Incremental heat rate ( ) =

=

4.2.6 Result Table

=

heat rate ( ) = = 4.2.6 Result Table ∆ ∆ = H.R. I. H. R.
H.R. I. H. R. Load L (W) Fuel flow rate (m f × 10 3
H.R.
I. H. R.
Load L
(W)
Fuel flow
rate (m f ×
10 3 ) (kg/s)
Plant
Plant I/P
B.S.F.C
efficiency
(I) kJ/hr
kJ/kW-hr
(kJ/kw-
(kg/kw-hr)
3
ɳ (%)
10
×10 3
hr) × 10 3

4.3 Conclusions

1. From the graph of mass flow rate Vs load, it is observed that as load increases engine has to produce more work.

2. The graph of BSFC Vs load shows a dropping nature. BSFC decreases with load because higher fuel is consumed more efficiently.

3. Brake thermal efficiency increases with load. Graph of IHR & HR Vs load indicated optimum loading point occurs at

31

Graphical Analysis Load kW 32

Graphical Analysis

Graphical Analysis Load kW 32
Graphical Analysis Load kW 32
Graphical Analysis Load kW 32

Load kW

32

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 05

Study of “Power Plant Instruments”

33

TITLE: Study of power plant instruments

THEORY:

TITLE: Study of power plant instruments THEORY: In the power plants instruments are used for a

In the power plants instruments are used for a number of reasons as to operate the power plant as efficiently as possible. Instruments provide accurate information for guidance to safe, continuous and proper plant operation.

6.1 Classification of instruments

The two general classifications of instruments are:

1. Those employing purely mechanical methods

2. Those employing electromechanical methods

With the increase in automation electronics is being used more widely in the field of instruments. Remote control has become an established practice in power plant engineering and especially in nuclear power station where the complete instrument is watched and controlled from a distance. Hence the importance of instrumentation in power plant engineering has increased.

The instruments can also be classified as follows:

1. Indicating instruments

2. Recording instruments

3. Indicating and recording instruments

4. Indicating and integrating instruments

5. Indicating, recording and integrating instruments

Commonly used instruments in a power plant:

1. Pressure gauges

2. Thermometers

3. Liquid level gauges

4. Flow meters(steam and gas)

5. PH measuring instruments

6. Gas analyzers

7. Humidity measuring instruments

8. Impurity measuring instruments

9. Stem calorimeters and fuel calorimeters

10. Speed measuring instruments

11. Gong alarms

12. Electrical instruments

(i) Ammeters (iii) Watt meters (v) Reactive volt ampere meters

6.2 Control board equipment

(ii) Voltmeters (iv) Power factor meters (vi) Ground detectors

34

The control room or the operating room is the nerve center of power station. The

The control room or the operating room is the nerve center of power station. The various controls located in it are: circuit breakers, load and voltage adjustments, transformer tap changing, emergency tripping of turbines, instruments for indicating the load, voltage, frequency, power factor, winding temperatures and water levels in the case of hydro stations, synchronizing equipments, voltage regulators, relays, integrating meter and other appliances, as well as mimic diagram and suitable indicating equipment to show the open or closed positions of circuit breakers, isolators etc . In the era of digital, each information appears on the computer screen.

The location of the room in relation to the other sections of the station is of importance and suitable position should be obtained. It should be located away from the sources of noise and it should be near the switch house to shorten the lengths of the multi-core cables. The control room should not be affected in the case of any fire in switch house. There should be access from the control room to the turbine house. The various locations of the control room relative to the other sections of the plant are shown in Fig I. The control room should be clean, comfortable, well ventilated, well lighted and free from draughts.

6.3 Mechanical instruments

1. Temperature measurement:

a) Glass tube mercury thermometers: These are used for installation in the thermometer well in the flow lines, measuring temperature of condensate, circulating water, feed water, bearing oil etc. They are necessarily local reading but are often installed as a check on remote reading bulb and tube thermometers.

b) Gas filled bulb and tube thermometer: These are used to measure the temperature of gases or liquid up to 540°C and indicate or record same at point as far distant as 100 m from the location of the bulb.

c) Vapor pressure thermometer: These are used to measure temperature up to 260°C. It contains of a bulb partially filled with a liquid connected to the length of tubing. It has less power plant applications than gas filled type.

d) Electrical resistance thermometer: These are used for accurate measurement of feed water and condensate temperatures and for measurement of temperature of winding of electric machines.

e) Thermocouple, thermometer or pyrometer: The thermocouple is used to measure high-range temperatures such as furnace, flue gases, preheated air or superheated air or superheated steam temperatures.

2. Pressure measurement:

35

a) Standard, Bourdon tube type, steam pressure gauge: These are extensively used for measuring the

a) Standard, Bourdon tube type, steam pressure gauge: These are extensively used for measuring the pressure of moderate and high pressure steam. Remote indicating or recording type may be placed on panel boards but primary information is always taken from standard short lead gauge mounted on boiler itself.

b) Helical tube or diaphragm type low steam pressure gauge: Such gauges are used to measure bleeder steam pressures etc.

c) Vacuum gauges and manometers: These are used to measure condenser vacuum and heater pressures.

d) Draft gauges (inclined glass tube, diaphragm and liquid-sealed bell types):

The draft gauge is employed to obtain and maintain the best furnace conditions, to check the condition of boiler setting the flues. These also measure the performance of draft fans and chimneys.

e) Miscellaneous pressure gauges on oil, air and water lines.

3. Flow measurement:

a) Steam flow meters: The steam flow meter is used to measure individual boiler output, group boiler output, turbine supply, auxiliary steam and industrial steam.

b) Water flow meters: Measure condensate, feed water, pump discharge etc.

c) Air flow meters: They are generally used in the form of a differential draft gauge. Air flow is metered only occasionally outside of the ‘gas loop’.

4. Fuel measurement:

a) Coal: Coal is usually weighed in batches although belt conveyer weighers and some pulverized coal weighers are continuous. Chain grate strokes may be equipped with continuous coal volume measuring meters.

b) Gas meters: These are either the positive displacement or differential head type.

c) Oil meters: Positive displacement type.

5. Gas analysis:

Orsat apparatus and CO 2 or O 2 instruments: The types of CO 2 meters in present use employ one of the following principles:

a) Chemical: modification of the Orsat apparatus.

b) Electrical: Based on the measurement of conductivity of flue gases.

c) Mechanical: Flue gas density balanced against air.

36

CO 2 meters are instruments for measuring smoke density. 6. Speed measurement: a) Vibrating reed

CO 2 meters are instruments for measuring smoke density.

6. Speed measurement:

a) Vibrating reed tachometer

b) Electrical tachometer

c) Clock type tachometer

d) Centrifugal tachometer

e) Stroboscope

f) Revolution counter

Tachometers are used to gauge the turbine speed, also the speed of some larger plant auxiliaries.

7. Level recorders:

Liquid level in the boilers, tank, canals, coal level in pulverized coal bin.

8. Gong alarms:

Gong alarms with or without annunciators are used to give warning of high generator or transformer coil temperatures, generator cooling air temperature, lubricating oil temperature of high water in the hot well or of low water in the boiler feed tank. The annunciator system is usually mounted on main switch or panel board.

9. Calorimeters, steam and fuel:

These are not ordinary used for operating supervision or guidance but are put in service during the course of special test. However their use necessitates inclusion of proper fitting to which they may be connected when in use.

10. Atmospheric measurements:

Barometer, hygrometer, thermometer.

11. Electrical instruments

a) Ammeters: Ammeters are used in generator leads, feeder circuits, auxiliary power circuits and field circuits

b) Voltmeters: They are used to maintain proper voltage, check automatic voltage regulators, synchronized and with proper connection, detect grounds.

c) Wattmeters: Show power in generator or feeder circuit.

d) Synchroscope: Used to parallel alternators.

e) Reactive volt ampere meters

f) Ground detectors

37

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 06

Study of “Study of Nuclear Power Plants”

38

Introduction: There is strategic as well as economic necessity for nuclear power in the United

Introduction:

There is strategic as well as economic necessity for nuclear power in the United States and indeed most of the world. The strategic importance lies primarily in the fact that one large nuclear power plant saves more than 50,000 barrels of oil per day. At $30 to $40 per barrel (1982), such a power plant would pay for its capital cost in a few short years. For those countries that now rely on but do not have oil, or must reduce the importation of foreign oil, these strategic and economic advantages are obvious. For those countries that are oil exporters, nuclear power represents an insurance against the day when oil is depleted. A modest start now will assure that they would not be left behind when the time comes to have to use nuclear technology. The unit costs per kilowatt-hour for nuclear energy are now comparable to or lower than the unit costs for coal in most parts of the world. Other advantages are the lack of environmental problems that are associated with coal or oil-fired power plants and the near absence of issues of mine safety, labor problems, and transportation bottle-necks. Natural gas is a good, relatively clean-burning fuel, but it has some availability problems in many countries and should, in any case, be conserved for small-scale industrial and domestic uses. Thus nuclear power is bound to become the social choice relative to other societal risks and overall health and safety risks.

GENERAL HISTORY AND TRENDS

MAJOR EVENTS

1945 : “Nuclear energy emerged from scientific obscurity and military secrecy.” 1945-55 : “An enthusiastic vision developed of a future in which nuclear power would provide a virtually unlimited solution for the world’s energy needs.” 1955-73 : The pros and cons of nuclear energy were debated; however, the optimists prevailed and nuclear energy grew to become an important source of electricity. Pros : Abundant, clean, and cheap energy. (We now know nuclear energy is not cheap.) Cons : Large amounts of radioactivity are produced in the nuclear reactor, mishaps cannot be totally ruled out, and nuclear energy cannot be divorced from nuclear weapons. (Also, the long-term storage of nuclear wastes is now a very important issue.) 1955-65 : Many reactors designed, built, and put into operation. 1965-73 : Most of the US reactors were ordered during this period.

39

1973-85 : Many US reactors cancelled during this period. 1970-90 : Most US reactors licensed

1973-85 : Many US reactors cancelled during this period. 1970-90 : Most US reactors licensed to operate during this period. 1990-present : The number of nuclear reactors operating in the US and in the world levelled off, reaching a plateau. Few new reactors ordered and built.

10.4 SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY CONCEPTS AND TERMS

SUMMARY OF FEATURES

1. Heat energy source is fission of radioactive material, (U-235)

2. Two typical plant designs:

Pressurized water reactor (PWR) (U.S.) Boiling water reactor (BWR) (Russian)

3. Fuel pellets are in a large number of tubes (fuel rods)

4. Water circulates through core

5. Water converted to steam drives turbine

6. Turbine turns generator electricity

NUCLEAR REACTOR

PARTS OF A NUCLEAR REACTOR

A nuclear reactor is an apparatus in which heat is produced due to nuclear fission

chain reaction.

Fig. 10.6 shows the various parts of reactor, which are as follows :

1. Nuclear Fuel

2. Moderator

3. Control Rods

4. Reflector

5. Reactors Vessel

6. Biological Shielding

7. Coolant. Fig. 10.6 shows a schematic diagram of nuclear reactor

40

NUCLEAR FUEL Fuel of a nuclear reactor should be fissionable material which can be defined
NUCLEAR FUEL Fuel of a nuclear reactor should be fissionable material which can be defined

NUCLEAR FUEL Fuel of a nuclear reactor should be fissionable material which can be defined as an element or isotope whose nuclei can be caused to undergo nuclear fission by nuclear bombardment and to produce a fission chain reaction. It can be one or all of the following U233, U235 and Pu239. Natural uranium found in earth crust contains three isotopes namely U234, U235 and U238 and their average percentage is as follows :

U238 — 99.3% U235 — 0.7% U234 — Trace Out of these U235 is most unstable and is capable of sustaining chain reaction and has been given the name as primary fuel. U233 arid Pu239 are artificially produced from Th232 and U238 respectively and are called secondary fuel. Pu239 and U233 so produced can be fissioned by thermal neutrons. Nuclear fuel should not be expensive to fabricate. It should be able to operate at high temperatures and should be resistant to radiation damage.

MODERATOR In the chain reaction the neutrons produced are fast moving neutrons. These fast moving neutrons are far less effective in causing the fission of U235 and try to escape from the reactor. To improve the utilization of these neutrons their speed is reduced. It is done by colliding them with the nuclei of other material which is lighter, does not capture the neutrons but scatters them. Each such collision causes loss of energy, and

41

the speed of the fast moving neutrons is reduced. Such material is called Moderator. The

the speed of the fast moving neutrons is reduced. Such material is called Moderator. The slow neutrons (Thermal Neutrons) so produced are easily captured by the nuclear fuel and the chain reaction proceeds smoothly. Graphite, heavy water and beryllium are generally used as moderator. Reactors using enriched uranium do not require moderator. But enriched uranium is costly due to processing needed.

A

moderator should process the following properties :

1.

It should have high thermal conductivity.

2.

It should be available in large quantities in pure form.

3.

It should have high melting point in case of solid moderators and low melting point

in

case of liquid moderators. Solid moderators should also possess good strength and

machinability.

4. It should provide good resistance to corrosion.

5. It should be stable under heat and radiation.

6. It should be able to slow down neutrons.

Control Rods. The Control and operation of a nuclear reactor is quite different frorn

a fossil and fuelled (coal or oil fired) furnace. The furnace is fed continuously and the heat energy in the furnace is controlled by regulating the fuel feed, and the combustion air whereas a nuclear reactor contains as much fuel as is sufficient to operate a large power plant for some months. The consumption of this fuel and the power level of the reactor depends upon its neutron flux in the reactor core. The energy produced in the reactor due to fission of nuclear fuel during chain reaction is so much that if it is not controlled properly the entire core and surrounding structure may melt and radioactive fission products may come out of the reactor thus making it uninhabitable. This implies that we should have some means to control the power of reactor. This is done by means of control rods. Control rods in the cylindrical or sheet form are made of boron or cadmium. These rods can be moved in and out of the holes in the reactor core assembly. Their insertion absorbs more neutrons and damps down the reaction and their withdrawal absorbs less neutrons. Thus power of reaction is controlled by shifting control rods which may be done manually or automatically. Control rods should possess the following properties :

1. They should have adequate heat transfer properties.

42

2. They should be stable under heat and radiation. 3. They should be corrosion resistant.

2. They should be stable under heat and radiation.

3. They should be corrosion resistant.

4. They should be sufficient strong and should be able to shut down the reactor almost

instantly under all conditions.They should have sufficient cross-sectional area for the absorption. REFLECTOR

The neutrons produced during the fission process will be partly absorbed by the fuel rods,

moderator, coolant or structural material etc. Neutrons left unabsorbed will try to leave the reactor core

never to return to it and will be lost. Such losses should be minimized. It is done by surrounding the

reactor core by a material called reflector which will send the neutrons back into the core. The returned

neutrons can then cause more fission and improve the neutrons economy of' the reactor. Generally the

reflector is made up of graphite and beryllium.

REACTOR VESSEL It is a. strong walled container housing the cure of the power reactor. It contains moderator, reflector, thermal shielding and control rods.

ADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT The various advantages of a nuclear power plant are as follows:

1. Space requirement of a nuclear power plant is less as compared to other

conventional power plants are of equal size.

2. A nuclear power plant consumes very small quantity of fuel. Thus fuel

transportation cost is less and large fuel storage facilities are not needed Further the nuclear power plants will conserve the fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas etc.) for other energy need.

3. There is increased reliability of operation.

4. Nuclear power plants are not effected by adverse weather conditions.

43

5. Nuclear power plants are well suited to meet large power demands. They give better

5. Nuclear power plants are well suited to meet large power demands. They give

better performance at higher load factors (80 to 90%).

6. Materials expenditure on metal structures, piping, storage mechanisms are much

lower for a nuclear power plant than a coal burning power plant.

DISADVANTAGES

1. Initial cost of nuclear power plant is higher as compared to hydro or steam power

plant.

2. Nuclear power plants are not well suited for varying load conditions.

3. Radioactive wastes if not disposed carefully may have bad effect on the health of

workers and other population. In a nuclear power plant the major problem faced is the

disposal of highly radioactive waste in form of liquid, solid and gas without any injury to the atmosphere. The preservation of waste for a long time creates lot of difficulties and requires huge capital.

4. Maintenance cost of the plant is high.

5. It requires trained personnel to handle nuclear power plants.

***

44

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 07

Study of “Environmental Impact of Power Plant”

45

AIM: - Study of Environmental Impact of Power Plant THEORY:- 7.1 Pollutants from Power Plants:

AIM: - Study of Environmental Impact of Power Plant

THEORY:-

7.1 Pollutants from Power Plants:

Various types of pollutants released by various power plants are summarised

in below Table:

Table: Production of pollutants and effects of various pollutants

Pollutant

Cause

Effect

CO

Incomplete combustion of fuel

Headache, nausea, breathlessness, reduced O 2 carrying capacity to lungs

HC

Unburnt HC in lean and rich mixtures

Irritation in respiratory system

NOx

Combustion at temperature more than 1000 o C

Irritation to eyes nose and throat, damage to lungs, smog formation

Soot

Unburnt solid C

Lung cancer

SO 2 and

Burning of S in fuel

Suffocation, irritation of throat and eyes, lung cancer, destruction of crops, reduced vegetation, corrosion of metal parts

H

2 S

Suspended

   

Particulate

Respiratory system, soiling and corrosion of metal parts

matter

Burning of fossil fuels

(SPMs)

 

CO 2

Combustion of fuel

Global warming, flooding of coastal areas

The various pollutants emitted by respective power plant is given below:

7.1.1.

From fossil fuel power plants:

a)

Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and H 2 S

b)

Oxides of Nitrogen like Nitric Oxide (NO), Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ), Nitrogen Trioxide (NO 3 ) etc. All these oxides of nitrogen are commonly referred as NO x emission, pronounced as NO X .

c)

Particulate matter

d)

Thermal pollution

e)

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

7.1.2.

Diesel Power Plants:

a)

Carbon monoxide (CO)

46

b) Unburned hydrocarbons (HC) c) NO x d) Aldehyde and other emissions like H 2

b) Unburned hydrocarbons (HC)

c) NO x

d) Aldehyde and other emissions like H 2 S and SO 2

e) Smoke and particulate

f) CO 2

like H 2 S and SO 2 e) Smoke and particulate f) CO 2 7.1.3. Gas

7.1.3.

Gas Turbine Power Plants:

a)

SO 2

b)

Unburned hydrocarbons (HC)

c)

NO x

d)

CO 2

7.1.4.

Nuclear Power Plants:

a)

Radioactivity release

b)

Radioactive waste

c)

Thermal pollution

7.1.5.

Hydroelectric and Solar Power Plants:

These are basically non-polluting type power plants.

7.2 Acid Rains:

47

They are formed during rainy seasons due to combining of SO 2 and NO x

They are formed during rainy seasons due to combining of SO 2 and NO x in presence of water to form H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 . It affects marine life, fertility of soil and damages monuments and buildings.

7.3 Thermal Pollution:

This is caused by discharge of cooling water in thermal power plants. Increased

temperatures affect the plant and animal life in water.

7.4 Impact of cooling towers:

The cooling towers using natural air draught for cooling of water can produce drift deposits and affect the environment of the region at the place they are erected. The impacts of cooling towers are:

7.4.1. Drift Deposits: The cooling air carries along with it some water droplets leaving the cooling tower called drift. These droplets carry with them salts and chemicals. When these are deposited on the earth’s surface cause soil and metal corrosion thus it damages vegetation. 7.4.2. Fog Plumes: The condensation of water droplets in atmosphere air may cause formation of fog at ground level and reduce local visibility in that area.

7.5 Noise Pollution in Thermal Power Plants and Control

Noise pollution is defined as the creation of noise by increasing the sound level of atmosphere. The normal level of sound under which the persons can work is limited to 60 dB of atmosphere. However, in power plants the main source of noise pollution is due to turbo alternators, fans and power transfers. These equipments

increase the noise level in power plants that a noise level of 100 dB can have an adverse effect on hearing ability in a very short period on the persons working in such environment. Due to this, as per regulations, the noise pollution in thermal power plants is limited to a maximum of 85-90 dB for a worker working to maximum 8 hrs of working. The various methods of noise control to reduce noise level up to 85 dB are as follows:

1. Sound proofing by providing adequate insulation of piping.

2. Provision of dashpot on air inlet to the fans.

3. Complete casing for turbo alternators.

4. Complete sound proofing of power transformers and switch gears.

5. Provision of sound proof cabins for other workers except working directly on machines.

6. Use of ear plugs by the workers to reduce the effect of noise pollution on hearing as preventive measure.

48

7.6 Effect of CO 2 on environment and global warming: Generally speaking the air pollution

7.6 Effect of CO 2 on environment and global warming:

Generally speaking the air pollution is related to presence of various contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, mist, and smoke, odour in atmosphere which is injurious to the health of human, vegetation and marine life. Through CO 2 produced by power plants has no ill effects on human life biologically, but increased concentration of CO 2 n atmosphere is causing the climatic changes due to its heat trapping quality.

The increased CO 2 is causing global warming and mean temperature of earth’s atmosphere is on the threshold of 2 O C increase. Thus, it is essential to control release of CO 2 into atmosphere by making strict laws for pollution control. All over the world, the work is being done in this direction. Apart from using better technologies, we need to arrest the cutting of trees and planting more and more trees since these trees absorb CO 2 and convert into O 2 by photosynthesis.

Various methods adopted for nuclear waste disposal are:

a) Gaseous wastes are passed through filters and discharged at a high level through stacks.

b) Moderate liquid wastes are discharged after filtration, preliminary treatment (pH value is adjusted) by diluting with cooling water discharge into deep pits or dry wells.

c) Highly radioactive liquid wastes are kept in concrete tanks and buried into ground till their decay of radioactivity.

d) Solid wastes (control rods, fuel cans etc.) are stored in shielded concrete vaults.

e) Combustible wastes are burnt in incinators and flue gases formed are filtered and disposed off through stacks.

f) Active solid wastes are stored in water for more than 100 days to allow radioactivity to decay. Then these are disposed off to deep salt mines or ocean floor in deep well in stable geological strata.

Energy and environment:

The usage of energy resources in industry leads to environmental damages by polluting the atmosphere. Few of the examples of air pollution are sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous oxide (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions from boilers and furnaces, Chloro-Fluro Carbons (CFC) emissions from refrigerants use etc. In chemical and fertilizer industries toxic gases are released. Cement plants and power plants spew out particulate matter.

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Air pollution A variety of air pollutants have known or suspected harmful effects on human

Air pollution

A variety of air pollutants have known or suspected harmful effects on human

health and the environment. These air pollutants are basically the products of combustion from fossil fuel use. Air pollutants are basically the products of combustion from fossil fuel use. Air pollutants from these sources may not only create problems near to these sources but also can cause problems far away. Air pollutants can travel long distances, chemically react in the atmosphere to produce secondary pollutants such as acid rain or ozone.

Evolutionary trends in pollution problems In both developed and rapidly industrialising countries, the major historic air pollution problem has typically been high levels of smoke and SO 2 arising from the combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuels such as coal for domestic and industrial purposes.

Smog’s resulting from the combined effects of black smoke, sulphate / acid aerosol and fog have been in European cities until few decades ago and still occur in many cities in developing world. In developed countries, this problem has significantly reduced over recent decades as a result of changing fuel-use patterns; the increasing use of cleaner fuels such as natural gas and the implantation of effective smoke and emission control policies.

In both developed and developing countries, the major threat to clean air is now

posed by traffic emissions. Petrol and diesel-engine motor vehicles emit a wide variety of pollutants principally carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulates which have an increasing

impact on urban air quality.

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Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune - 41 Department of Mechanical Engineering

Power Plant Engineering Laboratory

Term Work No: - 08

Industrial Visit

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AIM: - To visit one Thermal Power Plant THEORY: - The students are expected to

AIM: - To visit one Thermal Power Plant

THEORY: -

The students are expected to visit one Thermal Power Plant and write a report on it. The report should summarize the following points:

(a)

Name of Thermal Power Plant

(b)

Place of visit.

(c)

Day / Date

(d)

Introduction of power plant

(e)

Unique features of power plant

(f)

Specifications

(g)

Summarization

(h)

Photographs

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