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Chapter 16

Toward Classicism

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The transitional style which combined Baroque and Classical characteristics in early eighteenth-century France represented
A. a strong reaction against the heaviness of the Baroque.
B. an entirely new direction that turned back to the Greek roots of Western art.
C. a continuation of the Baroque with an emphasis on more expression and ornamentation.
D. a turn towards the arts of the lower classes.

2. All of the following are characteristics of Rococo visual arts except

A. ornamentation became even more ornate.
B. manners and dress became even more elaborate than in the seventeenth century.
C. there was a move to "Neoclassicism" in the visual arts during the latter part of the eighteenth century.
D. Rococo art was designed to edify or improve rather than to amuse and entertain.

3. The French aristocracy moved away from the formal and austere court at Versailles to the intimate __________ salons and comfortable
country lodges.
A. Leon
B. Nice
C. Paris
D. Marseilles

4. Which of the following best describes the social life of the French aristocracy during the reign of the Duke of Orleans?
A. Audiences welcomed the complexity and challenge of Baroque fugues.
B. France was a secular, materialistic, society marked by loose morals and the pursuit of pleasure.
C. The noble classes wanted to correct social injustice and inequality.
D. Dress and manners became more simple, modest, and "natural."

5. All of the following are characteristics of Rococo art except

A. beautiful ornaments were made from rich materials.
B. tapestry art reached its peak during this period.
C. furniture was beautifully made but uncomfortable and of little use.
D. paintings portrayed elegant men and women in idyllic pastoral surroundings.

6. The texture of Rococo music was generally

A. monophonic.
B. polyphonic.
C. homophonic.
D. heterophonic.

7. In France, the most important composer of the Rococo period was

A. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.
B. Francois Couperin.
C. Domenico Scarlatti.
D. Antoine Watteau.

8. Germany introduced a style similar to the French Rococo—the __________ style.

A. infective
B. exclusive
C. impressive
D. sensitive

9. Unlike the French Rococo, the German sensitive style represented __________ taste.
A. upper-class
B. middle-class
C. lower-class
D. poor
10. The most famous composer in the German expressive style was
A. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.
B. Johann Sebastian Bach.
C. Domenico Scarlatti.
D. Antoine Watteau.

True / False Questions

11. The music of the Rococo was generally light and entertaining rather than serious and dramatic.

12. One of the finest composers of the Rococo period was Antoine Watteau.

13. In Rococo music, more than one melody was frequently introduced within a piece or movement, in contrast to the Baroque inclination to
present one melodic idea, one mood or "affection," at a time.

14. German composers used subtle changes of melody, harmony, dynamic level, rhythmic patterns, and keys to avoid tugging at the heartstrings.

15. The best-known composer of the German sensitive style was J. S. Bach.

Chapter 17
The Classical Period: General Characteristics

Multiple Choice Questions

1. From about __________, democratic, republican, and revolutionary causes affected every phase of European life and art.
A. 1740-1815
B. 1750-1825
C. 1760-1835
D. 1770-1845

2. The two outstanding Classical composers of the late eighteenth century were
A. Mozart and Beethoven.
B. Haydn and Mozart.
C. Haydn and Beethoven.
D. Mozart and Martinez.

3. The musical center of the Classical style, and the city where Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven all lived and worked was
A. Paris.
B. Vienna.
C. London.
D. Florence.

4. The term classical is an ambiguous word that has acquired all of the following meanings except
A. referring to the arts of ancient Greece and Rome.
B. describing an objective, emotionally restrained approach to art as opposed to the subjective "romantic" style.
C. referring to a work of art that is new, innovative, and sure to become popular.
D. referring to the music of Haydn and Mozart's period.
5. Which of the following characteristics of the late eighteenth century's artistic style renders the term Classical particularly applicable to the
A. frequent references to the arts of Greece and Rome
B. concern with clarity of form
C. a quality of emotional restraint characteristic of the most important works of the period
D. all of the above

6. The goals of the Enlightenment included all of the following except

A. to use reason to improve the quality of life.
B. to encourage mystic, supernatural, and religious beliefs.
C. to promote religious tolerance.
D. to replace political abuse with social justice.

7. It was the French who articulated and defended the ideas that led to the Age of Reason, but they freely acknowledged their debt to the English
for pointing the way toward the intellectual movement called the
A. Age of Reason.
B. Enlightenment.
C. French Revolution.
D. American Revolution.

8. The greatest painter of mid-eighteenth-century France was

A. Sir Joshua Reynolds.
B. Jean-Antoine Houdon.
C. Jacques-Louis David.
D. J. B. S. Chardin.

9. Jacques-Louis David was a __________ artist whose revolutionary sympathies imbued his later works with romantic characteristics.
A. medieval
B. renaissance
C. baroque
D. neoclassic

10. The English artist __________ was a moralist, but he tempered his visual sermons with satire and caustic wit.
A. Sir Joshua Reynolds
B. William Hogarth
C. Jean-Antoine Houdon
D. Jacques-Louis David

11. Who made the likenesses of Franklin, Jefferson, and Washington on United States coins?
A. Reynolds
B. Chardin
C. Houdon
D. David

12. The influence of the eighteenth-century neoclassical style on the United States is expressed in the language and tone of the
A. Preamble to the Constitution.
B. Declaration of Independence.
C. Pledge of Allegiance.
D. Gettysburg Address.

13. __________ was designed in the 1790s to become a city of neoclassical buildings, grassy parks, and long, wide avenues.
A. New York
B. Chicago
C. Los Angeles
D. Washington, D.C.

14. In literature, the eighteenth century was an age of __________ more than poetry.
A. possibilities
B. prose
C. plays
D. puns
15. During the eighteenth century, the __________ theater was of unprecedented importance.
A. French
B. English
C. Spanish
D. American

16. Which Classical composer accepted the social and artistic restrictions of court employment?
A. Haydn
B. Mozart
C. Beethoven
D. Billings

17. All of the following were characteristics of Classical music except

A. composers embraced Baroque intensity of religious feeling.
B. classicists found beauty in order and symmetry of design.
C. crescendos were used, and were longer and more expressive.
D. instrumental music clearly dominated the Classical period.

18. During the Classical period, the predominant texture was

A. monophony.
B. polyphony.
C. homophony.
D. heterophony.

True / False Questions

19. Although the late eighteenth century was marked by democratic revolution and profound social change, it was also a period of classical
restraint in the arts. TRUE

20. The members of the Enlightenment were concerned with mistreatment of the upper classes, and they initiated significant humanitarian
reforms to correct these injustices.

21. Proponents of the Enlightenment believed that knowledge is universal, truth absolute, and reason the pathway to Enlightenment.

22. The frivolous, aristocratic art of the Rococo was well suited to expressing the enlightened, democratic, and revolutionary views of the late
eighteenth century.

23. Although Houdon made his living from portraiture, he made every effort to produce accurate rather than flattering portrayals.

24. During the eighteenth century, concerts became more common and the public's appreciation for music increased.

25. During the late eighteenth century, a significant number of women became professional musicians, braving criticisms of impropriety and
often winning recognition for their accomplishments.
26. Classicists organized their music clearly, according to old or new principles of musical form.

27. Polyphony became the predominant texture of the Classical era.


28. The range of dynamic levels increased and changes of dynamics became both subtler and more dramatic.

29. Composers increasingly resisted the system of support by church or noble patronage, relying more and more on public approval of their

30. An early version of the piano, called the pianoforte, was particularly well suited for the expressive music of the eighteenth century.

31. Composers of the Classical period embraced the intensity of religious feeling and the dramatic contrasts popular in the Baroque.

Chapter 18
Formal Design in the Classical Period

Multiple Choice Questions

1. During the Classical period, although Italy continued to dominate the world of opera, the main centers of musical activity moved north to all of
the following cities except
A. Berlin.
B. Vienna.
C. Mannheim.
D. Paris.

2. The overall design of a work is called its

A. tonality.
B. form.
C. timbre.
D. texture.

3. The two outstanding composers of the Classical period were

A. Handel and Haydn.
B. Mozart and Handel.
C. Bach and Beethoven.
D. Mozart and Haydn.

4. Among instrumental forms, the __________ experienced the greatest development and offered composers the widest field for creativity during
the mid-1700s.
A. fugue
B. sonata
C. toccata
D. symphony

5. Classical composers changed the orchestra in all of the following ways except
A. narrowing the Baroque conception of the orchestra.
B. standardizing the number of instruments used.
C. determining certain proportions of wind instruments to strings.
D. eventually dropping the harpsichord from the ensemble.
6. In the middle of the eighteenth century, the German city of __________ developed an outstanding orchestra which attracted attention
throughout Western Europe.
A. Munich
B. Vienna
C. Salzburg
D. Mannheim

7. The Mannheim orchestra achieved all of the following except

A. soft pianissimos.
B. loud fortissimos.
C. terraced dynamics.
D. gradual dynamics.

8. Who was employed as a court composer by the same noble family for nearly thirty years?
A. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
B. Ludwig van Beethoven
C. Franz Joseph Haydn
D. Giovanni Pergolesi

9. The Classical composers expanded the Baroque concept of multi-movement compositions by

A. standardizing the number of movements for certain types of works.
B. creating widely varied musical forms.
C. developing and employing terraced dynamics in orchestral works.
D. all of the above.

10. A __________ is a multi-movement work played by an orchestra and originally based on the Italian sinfonia consisting of three movements
A. fugue
B. sonata
C. toccata
D. symphony

11. A Classical concerto usually has __________ movements.

A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five

12. A Classical concerto usually had at least one passage, called a __________, which was improvised by the soloist alone.
A. cadenza
B. credenza
C. coscienza
D. confidenza

13. Where does the cadenza usually occur in a concerto?

A. toward the beginning of a movement
B. toward the middle of a movement
C. toward the end of a movement
D. between movements

14. The end of the improvised solo passage in a concerto is often indicated by a __________, which summons the orchestra to join in bringing the
movement to a close.
A. bell
B. trill
C. cymbal
D. triangle

15. Music performed by a relatively small number of people playing one to a line is called _________ music.
A. salon
B. church
C. chamber
D. intimate
16. Most Classical chamber ensembles consisted of several instruments belonging to
A. different families.
B. the same family.
C. the woodwind family.
D. the percussion family.

17. The most popular Classical small ensemble was the

A. piano trio.
B. brass quintet.
C. string quartet.
D. voice and piano.

18. The Classical string quartet consisted of

A. violin, two violas, and cello.
B. violin, viola, cello, and bass.
C. two violins, viola, and cello.
D. two violins, viola, and bass.

19. In a Classical string quartet, the person playing __________ serves as the leader of the group.
A. first violin
B. second violin
C. viola
D. bass

20. A Classical string quartet usually consists of __________ movements.

A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five

21. The minuet and trio is based on a stylized dance introduced in the court of
A. King Louis XIV.
B. King George II.
C. the Duke of Prussia.
D. the Holy Roman Emperor.

22. All of the following were common forms in the Classical period except
A. sonata-allegro form.
B. rondo form.
C. minuet and trio.
D. toccata-allegro form.

23. The three main sections of the Classical sonata-allegro form are the
A. introduction, development, and recapitulation.
B. introduction, recapitulation, and transition.
C. exposition, development, and recapitulation.
D. thematic material, transition, and coda.

24. The most significant difference between the exposition and the recapitulation in sonata-allegro form is that
A. the recapitulation changes key and the exposition does not.
B. the exposition changes key but the recapitulation does not.
C. the exposition has an extra theme.
D. the recapitulation has an extra theme.
25. An extended closing section in the Classical sonata-allegro form is called the
A. coda.
B. bridge.
C. finale.
D. cadenza.

26. The third movement of many Classical symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets is a
A. through-composed form.
B. theme and variations.
C. minuet and trio.
D. strophic form.

27. One form of a Classical rondo is

A. A B A
B. A B
C. A B A C A
D. A B C D E

28. One of history's most tragic figures, __________, began his performing career as a child prodigy.
A. Franz Joseph Haydn
B. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
C. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
D. Christoph Willibald Gluck

29. Although Mozart had a short life that was marked by financial difficulties,
A. he was helped by the support and understanding that he received from both his father and his wife.
B. he delighted his audiences and was highly paid for his services.
C. he enjoyed the respect of his fellow composer Handel.
D. none of the above.

True / False Questions

30. Composers of instrumental music in the last half of the eighteenth century developed a style characteristic of their own city.

31. The concept of form in music was of serious concern to all of the composers of the Classical period.

32. Haydn was a vain man who called himself the "master of all" composers.

33. Classical composers expanded the sections of the symphony, organizing each "movement" according to the principles of a chosen
instrumental form.

34. Classical composers removed the fourth movement from the symphony resulting in a slow-fast-slow form.

35. After the Baroque period, the concerto grosso declined in importance and was replaced by the solo concerto for orchestra and one soloist.

36. The orchestra prepares for a cadenza by playing a long decrescendo that ends quietly on the tonic chord.

37. Since the nineteenth century, composers have often written cadenzas for earlier concertos, including those written by Haydn, Mozart, and
their contemporaries.
38. In a chamber music performance, each player must be an accomplished performer since each is responsible for one line of music.

39. The Classical period's appreciation for clarity of thought, purity of sound, and emotional restraint made chamber music one of the favorite
means of expression.

40. The Classical sonata-allegro form was generally conceived as a four-part structure.

41. Unlike Baroque composers, Classical composers often considered the two tonal areas of the sonata-allegro exposition an opportunity to
present two melodies of a contrasting nature.

42. The minuet was a stately dance introduced at the seventeenth-century court of Louis XIV.

43. The Classical rondo form often seemed particularly appropriate for the last movement.

44. In sonata-allegro form, the recapitulation is an exact repeat of the exposition.


Chapter 19

Vocal Music in the Classical Period

Multiple Choice Questions

1. One of the changes that classical composers imposed on opera was
A. to make the introductory section completely independent of the opera.
B. to lessen the differences between aria and recitative.
C. to include no recitative.
D. to create only operas based on serious plots.

2. One of the features of comic operas in all countries was that

A. the Italian language was used for all spoken sections.
B. the characters were named after contemporary political figures.
C. the operas were written in the language of the country.
D. short humorous skits similar to today's stand-up comics were interspersed.

3. The introductory orchestra piece of an opera is called the

A. introit.
B. prelude.
C. overture.
D. oratorio.

4. Light in mood and concerned with everyday characters and events, __________ operas developed in several countries during the eighteenth
A. serious
B. reform
C. comic
D. Baroque

5. The opera buffa introduced the __________ to bring an act or an opera to a musically and dramatically exciting close.
A. coda
B. ensemble finale
C. postlude
D. intermezzo
6. All of the following are true about Mozart's operas except
A. he felt that music was the supreme element of opera
B. he wrote operas only in Italian
C. some of his operas combine elements of the serious and comic styles
D. classical restraint and proportion are often abandoned

7. The following were all true of Classical religious music except

A. The fugal style of Bach was considered inappropriate for the church.
B. expressive passages in homophonic texture were used
C. lyrical melodies similar to those in bel canto opera were used
D. The orchestra was very important, with many vocal sections based on instrumental forms of the Baroque and Classical periods.

8. Just before he died, Mozart composed a __________.

A. Passion
B. Sanctus
C. Requiem
D. Prelude

9. Classical composers often

A. found the stile antico of Palestrina and the fugal style of Bach appropriate for music intended to enhance a worship service.
B. resorted to setting the psalms to music.
C. created large instrumental works to be performed during breaks in the church service.
D. were restricted by the church in the style of music that they created.

10. Which of the following is NOT an opera composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart?
A. La serva padrona
B. The Magic Flute
C. Don Giovanni
D. The Marriage of Figaro

True / False Questions

11. The Classical period produced much more vocal than instrumental music

12. Very few operas and very little vocal religious music was composed during the Classical period.

13. During the eighteenth century, audiences paid rapt attention to the plots of operas during their performance.

14. Audiences appreciated the fact that comic operas were written in their own, local language

15. All comic operas, except the Italian form, used spoken dialogue instead of recitative.

16. In Italy during the early eighteenth century, short comic episodes interspersed between acts of a serious opera became so popular that
composers used them as the basis for a new style of opera.
17. In The Marriage of Figaro one of the main characters is a nobleman who is outwitted and humiliated by his own servants.

18. Although Church remained a strong influence in some areas of Europe during the Classical Era, very few composers contributed to the
repertoire of religious music.

19. After Bach and Handel, Protestant music declined because the music was supposed to be a functional part of the service rather than "art for
art's sake."

20. When Haydn was criticized for writing religious music that was too "happy," he replied that he did not believe the Lord minded cheerful