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Technology Overview - II

Created by
Sandeep B. Patil (ALUMS)
Pulok Sinha (ALUMS)


Slide 2 

WCDMA Technology Overview

Course Contents :
‰ Introduction
‰ 3G and UMTS/WCDMA overview
‰ WCDMA Radio Concepts and Procedures
‰ WCDMA Protocols layers
‰ WCDMA Radio Channels
‰ WCDMA Power Controls and Handovers
‰ Basic UE Call flow Procedures and Operations
‰ High Speed Downlink Packet Access( HSDPA)
‰ High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)
‰ Introduce HSPA +

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Slide 3 

At the end of this training session,participants would be able to :

9 Understand WCDMA Radio Channels.

9 Know the types of Power control
9 Know the types of Handovers.
9 Understand the Basic UE Call flows.

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Slide 4 

WCDMA Technology Overview

Chapter 5

UE Radio Connection

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Slide 5 

UE Radio Connection States

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Slide 6 

UE Radio Connection States

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Slide 7 

UE UTRA States – Idle Mode

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Idle Mode 
The UE operates in Idle mode whenever it has no active CS or PS call. The UE may be registered 
for service in CS and/or PS networks, which allows it to send and receive calls. A PS call may be 
in a dormant state in which no data is being transferred. 
In Idle mode, the UE monitors the PCH and the associated PICH. It may “sleep” between paging 
occasions by disabling some of its circuitry to improve standby time. If the network wants to 
deliver a call, it must first page the UE during the UE’s assigned paging occasion. The UE 
responds to the page by requesting an RRC connection, transmitting on the RACH. If the UE 
wants to set up a call, it autonomously requests an RRC connection by transmitting on the 
The UE is required to perform a Location/Routing Update procedure whenever it changes to a 
new Location/Routing Area. A Location/Routing Area may encompass many cells. The UTRAN 
must page the mobile over all cells of the Location/Routing Area in which the UE last performed 
location/routing updating. 
UTRAN addresses the UE by using IMSI, TMSI, or P‐TMSI. 
Call Types 
No active calls are allowed, although a PS call could be in a “context preserved” state 

Slide 8 

UE UTRA States – DCH Mode

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The CELL_DCH state may be entered from Idle mode when an RRC connection is established, or 
when a dedicated physical channel is established from the CELL_FACH state. 
UTRAN knows in which cell the UE is located, because the UE is communicating with UTRAN 
over a dedicated physical channel in that cell. If the UE moves out of coverage of one cell, a 
handover occurs as channels are set up in a new cell and torn down on the old. 
No addressing is required, because the UE and UTRAN are communicating on a dedicated 
physical channel. The Radio Network Temporary Identifiers assigned when the RRC connection 
was established are preserved by both the UE and UTRAN. 
Call Types 
A CS call always operates in CELL_DCH state, because it requires the guaranteed throughput that 
a dedicated physical channel delivers. 
A PS call may operate in CELL_DCH state, especially if it is a high rate data transfer condition and 
the network wants to ensure a high throughput. 


Slide 9 

UE UTRA States – CELL_FACH State

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The CELL_FACH state may be entered from Idle mode when an RRC connection is established or 
from the CELL_DCH state when directed by UTRAN. Dedicated logical channels are still 
allocated, but are mapped to common transport and physical channels. The transitions from 
CELL_PCH and URA_PCH occur when the UE detects the need to transmit signaling or user data 
from those states. 
In CELL_FACH, the UE continuously monitors the FACH (except during FACH measurement 
occasions) because UTRAN can send it data or signaling at any time (no sleeping!). 
UTRAN knows in which cell the UE is located, because the UE is required to perform a cell 
update procedure whenever its location changes to a new cell. 
On the FACH, UTRAN addresses the UE using either the UTRAN Radio Network Temporary 
Identifier (U‐RNTI) or the Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier (C‐RNTI) that was assigned 
when the RRC connection was established. 
Call Types 
A PS call may operate in CELL_FACH state, because the bursty nature of a packet data service 
can tolerate the lower throughput of a common channel. 


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UE UTRA States – CELL_PCH State

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The CELL_PCH state may be entered from the CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH state, when UTRAN 
detects a lack of activity from the UE during a PS call. 
Similar to Idle mode, in CELL_PCH the UE monitors the PCH and the associated PICH. It may 
sleep between paging cycles. If the network has data or signaling to send, it must first page the 
UE during the UE’s assigned paging cycle, which causes the UE to transition to CELL_FACH and 
respond on the RACH. If the UE has data or signaling to send, it autonomously transitions to 
CELL_FACH and transmits on the RACH. 
UTRAN knows in which cell the UE is located, because the UE is required to perform a cell 
update procedure (from CELL_FACH) whenever its location changes to a new cell. 
On the PCH, UTRAN addresses the UE using the UTRAN Radio Network Temporary Identifier (U‐
RNTI) that was assigned when the RRC connection was established. 
Call Types 
A PS call may be placed into the CELL_PCH state due to a period of low activity; however, any 
data transfer requires transition to CELL_FACH. 


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UE UTRA States – URA_PCH State

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URA_PCH State 
The URA_PCH state is similar to the CELL_PCH state, except that the URA update procedure is 
used for mobility management, and is triggered by a change in the UTRAN Registration Area 
Channel usage is the same as CELL_PCH state. 
The UE is required to perform a URA update procedure (from CELL_FACH) whenever its location 
changes to a new URA. If a URA encompasses many cells, the frequency of updates is much 
lower than for the CELL_PCH state. The trade off is that UTRAN must page the UE in all cells of 
the URA, rather than just a single cell. 
Addressing is the same as CELL_PCH state. 
Call Types 
A PS call may be placed into URA_PCH state due to a period of very low activity, especially if the 
low activity coincides with high mobility. Any data transfer requires transition to CELL_FACH. 


Slide 12 

UE UTRA States – Relation to NAS States

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Slide 13 

WCDMA Technology Overview

Chapter 6

WCDMA Radio Channels

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Slide 14 

UMTS Radio Channels

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UMTS Channels 
• Downlink – Transmitted by UTRAN, received by UE. 
• Uplink – Transmitted by UE, received by UTRAN. 
• Common – Carries information to/from multiple UEs. 
• Dedicated – Carries information to/from a single UE. 
• Logical – Defined by what type of information is transferred, e.g., signaling or user data. 
• Transport – Defined by how data is transferred over the air interface, e.g., multiplexing of 
Logical Channels. 
• Physical – Defined by physical mappings and attributes used to transfer data over the air 
interface, e.g., spreading rate. 


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Channel Mapping

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The diagram shows possible mappings of logical, transport, and physical channels in the control 
and user planes for UMTS Release 99. Not all mappings would be defined at the same time for a 
given UE, and multiple instantiations of some mappings may occur simultaneously. For example, 
a voice call uses three DTCH logical channels mapped to three DCH transport channels. 
Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM) and Acknowledged Mode (AM) indicate 
the mode in which RLC is configured for a logical channel. 
Some channels exist only in Physical Layer context (CPICH, SCH, DPCCH, AICH, PICH). These 
channels carry no upper layer signaling or user data. Their contents are defined at the Physical 
Synchronization Channel (SCH): Provides the timing synchronization for the UEs within the cell. 
They are transmitted during the DTX of the PCCPCH. Basically, there are two type of SCH: 
Primary Synchronization Channel (P‐SCH) and 
Secondary Synchronization Channel (S‐SCH) 
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH):  Provides an in cell timing reference. CPICH is also used for 
signal quality estimation which is further used for HO, cell reselection, open loop power control, 

Slide 16 

Channel Mapping

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Broadcast Channel 
The BCCH Logical Channel carries system information messages necessary for the UE to camp on 
a WCDMA cell and to access the system. It is always configured for Transparent Mode RLC. 
UTRAN broadcasts this channel continuously, repeating the system information messages at a 
system configurable repetition rate. The UE typically reads this channel after power‐up or when 
camping on a new cell and periodically thereafter to ensure that the UE has current system 


Slide 17 

Channel Mapping

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Paging Channel 
The PCCH Logical Channel carries paging messages to notify the UE of incoming calls. It is used 
in conjunction with the physical Page Indicator Channel (PICH) and is always configured for 
Transparent Mode RLC. 
UTRAN broadcasts the PCH continuously, but the UE typically only monitors the PICH during 
assigned slots while in Idle, CELL_PCH, and URA_PCH states. The PICH contains only indicator 
bits (on or off), which indicate whether a page message for a group of mobiles will be 
transmitted on the corresponding SCCPCH. If an indicator bit is set, all UEs assigned to a given 
PICH slot and PICH indicator bit must decode the associated SCCPCH slot to determine to which 
UE the message is addressed. 


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Channel Mapping
Idle mode

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Random Access Channel and Forward Access Channels (Idle Mode) 
These Uplink and Downlink channels are used by the UE and UTRAN to communicate when the 
UE does not have a Dedicated Channel allocated to it. 
When the CCCH Logical Channel is mapped to the RACH and FACH, the Uplink is configured for 
TM RLC and the Downlink is configured for UM RLC. 
The RACH has an access protocol associated with it, in which the UE transmits a preamble at 
increasing power levels until the UTRAN responds on the AICH. After receiving the response, the 
UE transmits the rest of the RACH message. 
When UTRAN receives a message from the UE on RACH, it responds on FACH. The FACH 
Transport Channel is mapped to an SCCPCH. This may be the same Physical Channel that carries 
the PCH Transport Channel, or the UTRAN may have multiple SCCPCHs 


Slide 19 

Channel Mapping
Connected mode

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Random Access Channel and Forward Access Channels (Connected Mode) 
Dedicated logical control and traffic channels may be mapped to the common RACH and FACH 
channels and their corresponding physical channels. 
When the DCCH Logical Channel is mapped to the RACH and FACH, it may be configured for UM 
RLC or AM RLC. The DTCH Logical Channel mapped to RACH and FACH may be configured in any 
RLC mode. 
The RACH and FACH protocols and physical layer mappings in connected mode are the same as 
in idle mode. Whenever the UE has control or traffic to send, it must first transmit a preamble 
and receive a response on the AICH. 
Therefore, RACH and FACH are mainly used to carry signaling (e.g at the initial access), but they 
can also carry small amounts of data. 
When a UE sends information on the RACH, it will receive information on FACH. 


Slide 20 

Channel Mapping
Dedicated Channels

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Dedicated Channels 
These Uplink and Downlink Channels are used to carry signaling and user data between the 
UTRAN and an individual UE. These channels are assigned when a voice call is active or when a 
packet data call is transferring data. 
Dedicated Control Channels (DCCHs) are assigned to carry RRC signaling. These are also called 
Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs). Two SRBs are assigned to carry RRC signaling, one of which is 
configured for acknowledged mode and the other is configured for unacknowledged mode. The 
number of Dedicated Traffic Channels (DTCH) assigned is determined by the type of service the 
application uses. For voice, the Adaptive Multi‐Rate vo‐coder uses three DTCHs to carry the 
different classes of encoded voice bits. 
DCCHs and DTCHs may be multiplexed onto a single DCH Transport Channel, or each may be 
assigned an individual DCH. 
In Release 99 deployments, all DCH Transport Channels are multiplexed on to a single DPDCH. 
The DPCCH carries control information generated at the Physical Layer, such as Pilot, power 
control, and rate bits. There is always exactly one DPCCH. 


Slide 21 

Why Transport Channels?

A transport channel offers a flexible pattern to arrange

information on any service-specific rate, delay or coding before
mapping it on a physical channel:
• It provides flexibility in traffic variation
• It enables multiplexing of transport channels on the same
physical channel

Transport channels provide an efficient and fast flexibility in

radio resource management.

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The transport channels provide a flexible pattern to exchange data between UTRAN and the UE 
at a variable bit rate for the multimedia services. 
The logical channels are mapped on the transport channels by the MAC protocols. 
By this way the data are processed according to the QoS required before sending them to the 
Node B by the Iub. 


Slide 22 

Transport Channels Structures

A transport channel is defined by a Transport Format (TF) which may
change every Time Transmission Interval (TTI).

The TF is made of a Transport Block Set. The Transport Block size and
the number of Transport Block inside the set are dynamical parameters.

The TTI is a static parameter and is set typically at 10, 20 or 40 ms.

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Slide 23 

Transport Channels Structure

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• TTI = 40 bits 
  TBS = 576 bits 
• Delivery bit rate of transport blocks during first TTI can be calculated as 
  (Number of blocks in the TTI x number of bits in each block )/TTI period = (576 x 4)/ 40 ms 
=57.6 kbps 
3.  5 different type of Transport Formats may be chosen for this transport channel. 


Slide 24 

Time slot mapping

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Slide 25 

Time slot mapping

− Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI)

− Pilot
− Transmit power Control (TPC)

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Slide 26 

WCDMA Technology Overview

Chapter 7

WCDMA Power control


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Slide 27 

WCDMA and Restaurant

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The equivalence are: 
• Restaurant room ‐> Cell 
• Table ‐> UE 
• Language ‐> Code 
Here the important point is all the UEs send and receive on the same time and on the same 
frequency. The WCDMA is really different because with the GSM, the UEs are separated by the 
time (TS of TDMA) and the frequency. Here the UEs are separated with codes applied on the 
Another important point is for someone the conversation on a neighbor table is considered like 
noise. It is the same principle with the WCDMA, for a user the other UEs generates some noises. 


Slide 28 

WCDMA and Restaurant

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In downlink, 
• In the restaurant, the steward wants to ask to every table that who have order a cake. If 
some people speak to loud, the table at the back of the room can’t hear the question. It is 
the same case, if there are too many users in the room. 
• In the cell, it is the same principle. If there are too many UEs on the cell or if some UEs use 
too much power, the interference level for a UE far from the Node B is too high to allow the 
UE decoding the message. 


Slide 29 

WCDMA and Restaurant

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In Uplink, 
• In the restaurant, a steward can understand all the conversation if he knows all the 
• But if on a table, close to him, someone speaks to loud the steward can’t understand 
people on the other tables. It is the same problem if there are too many people it is too 
noisy to able to understand a conversation far from him. 
• With the WCDMA, there is the same problem. That means if the cell is too load, the 
interference level at the Node B is too high to be able to decode the weakest signal. 


Slide 30 

Signal Interference Ratio

RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator

Total received wideband power over 5 MHz
including thermal noise

ISCP (No): Interference Signal Code Power

Interference on the received signal

RSCP (Ec): Received Signal Code Power

Unbiased measurement on the received
signal on one channelization code

Eb : energy per useful bit

PG : Processing Gain = Eb – Ec (in dB)

Power Gain after de-spreading. PG= 20 log

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Slide 31 

Power Control

Weak Signal

Strong Signal

Distant User

Near By User

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The most basic problem in power control is the near‐far problem. Close‐in transmitters are 
heard more easily than transmitters farther away. Transmitters (e.g., UEs) can use power control 
so their signals are received at the same power (or nearly so). and to limit the interferences 
created by the near one. 


Slide 32 

Power Control

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Power Control 
Another important feature that is required for efficient CDMA operation is power control. Power 
control minimizes interference by using just enough power for each connection to achieve the 
required Quality of Service. Fast power control is necessary in WCDMA to overcome the 
near/far problem, and to counter the path loss and fading of the radio propagation channel. 
Some common Physical Layer techniques such as error correcting coding and interleaving are 
also used to minimize the effects of fast fading. 


Slide 33 

WCDMA Power Control

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Open Loop Power Control 
In open loop power control, the mobile station makes a rough estimation of path loss by means 
of a DL beacon signal and adding the interference level of the Node‐B and a constant value and 
sets its initial power. It’s not too accurate and only used to provide a coarse initial power setting 
of the mobile station at the beginning of a connection.  
Preamble Initial Power = Primary CPICH DL TX power ‐ CPICH RSCP + UL Interf. + constant value 
The value for the CPICH_RSCP is measured by the UE, all other parameters being received on 
System Information. 
Close Loop Power Control 
The close loop power control is further classified into  
– Closed Inner Loop Power Control 
– Closed Outer Loop Power Control  
The inner loop power control consists of an estimation of SIR and a comparison with the SIR 
target, Node B commands in order to decrease or increase the MS power and a fast power 
control (1500Hz), quicker than the fast Raleigh fading for moderate mobile speeds.  
The outer loop power control consists of the adjustment of the SIR target by the RNC depending 
on the transmission quality (Block Error Rate).  

Slide 34 

Uplink Open Loop Power Control

9 UE estimates its minimum required transmit power.

9 Power is based on received power measurement and signaled
transmit power information.
9 Used on Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH).
9 Used at the start of a dedicated Physical Channel.

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Slide 35 

Uplink Closed Loop Power Control

Closed inner loop power control is also known as Fast power control, and
runs at 1500 Hz. The transmitter gets commands 1500 times a second
from the receiver to either increase or decrease its power.

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A closed loop process controls transmission power on both the Downlink and Uplink. Closed 
loop control is basically a three‐step process: 
• A transmission is made. 
• A measurement is made at the receiver. 
• Feedback is provided to the transmitter indicating whether the power should be increased 
or decreased. 


Slide 36 

Uplink Closed Loop Power Control

For voice calls, good quality of service may be approximately 1% BLER.

To maintain a 1% BLER, a specific signal-to-interference (SIR) target

may be required.

If the user is in a bad fading environment (moving fast in a cluttered

environment), then the user needs a higher SIR target than a user in a
better fading environment (slow moving, not much clutter).

As both users require a 1% BLER, it is the job of power control to find

the right SIR target. The process of finding the right SIR target is called
outer loop power control.

Different services may have different SIR target values.

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Slide 37 

Uplink Closed Loop Power Control

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The inner loop uses a slowly changing SIR target. The outer loop must deliver the SIR target to 
the inner loop. 


Slide 38 

Uplink Closed Loop Power Control

Outer Loop (Slow PC)

An SIR target algorithm based on BLER may be adjusted slowly. Since
BLER is based on CRCs, and AMR voice CRCs are received on 20 ms TTI
boundaries, the fastest this outer loop power control method can be
adjusted is 50 times a second.

Inner Loop (Fast PC)

The SIR estimate must be calculated every slot (15 times per 10 ms radio
frame), since the DPCCH’s Pilot is present every slot. The inner loop is
given the SIR target, and compares the SIR estimate to the SIR target.
If the SIR estimate is greater than the SIR target, inner loop signals the
transmitter to power down.
If the SIR estimate is less than the SIR target, inner loop signals the
transmitter to power up. This happens quickly, 1500 times a second, to
rapidly compensate for quickly changing fading conditions.

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Slide 39 

Uplink Closed Loop Power Control

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Slide 40 

Downlink Closed Loop Power Control

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Slide 41 

Downlink Closed Loop Power Control

The UE runs its own Downlink closed loop power control algorithm.
The outer-loop algorithm is unspecified.
In one algorithm, the UE measures the BLER over a number of
frames and increases or decreases the SIR target.

Based on the SIR target and the SIR estimate, the UE tells UTRAN
to either increase or decrease the transmit power of its dedicated

The Node B’s range of power adjustment for its dedicated channel
may be around 20 dB.

Downlink power control (inner-loop) is run at either 1500 or 500 Hz.

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Slide 42 

WCDMA Handover

• All existing radio links must be dropped • Establish a new connection before
before a new link is established breaking the old connection.

• Break before make • Make before break

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Hard Handover 
A hard handover occurs when all existing radio links must be dropped before a new link is 
established. This causes a brief interruption in voice or data communication, while making the 
transition from the old serving link to the new. 
Also called as Break  Before Make. 
Soft Handover 
Soft handover allows the mobile to establish a connection with a new Node B before breaking 
the connection with the previous serving cell. In a WCDMA system, a mobile can be “in soft 
handover” with two or more cells for an extended period of time. This is a desirable state as it 
provides path diversity. If the path to one cell experiences a temporary fade, the communication 
link through the other path or paths may not be affected. 
Also called as Make Before Break. 


Slide 43 

Rake receiver
Rake receiver:

Correlator 1

Correlator 2 Combiner The combined

Receive set signal
Correlator 3

Searcher correlator Decodes the

different PSCs
s(t) s(t)

t t

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Slide 44 

Rake receiver
Rake receiver:

¾ A rake receiver is a radio receiver designed to counter the effects of

multipath fading.

¾ It does this by using several "sub-receivers" called fingers.

¾ The RAKE receiver provides for the coherent combination of multipath

components from a single base station and multiple cells/sectors
jointly in a WCDMA Handoff scenario.

¾ Each finger can independently recover a particular PSC

¾ Searcher continuously checks pilots

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Slide 45 

WCDMA Handover
UE can maintain connections to multiple cells in soft handover.

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Slide 46 

WCDMA Handover
Advantages of Soft Handover
9 Reduces interference and transmit power required
9 Increases capacity
9 Reduces dropped calls
9 Improves voice quality

Variations of soft handover include:

‰ Soft Handover – involves traffic channels from more than

one Node B.
‰ Softer Handover – involves traffic channels from two sectors
of one Node B.
‰ Soft/Softer Handover – involves more than one Node B and
two sectors of one Node B.

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Slide 47 

WCDMA Handover

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Slide 48 

Cell Reselection versus Handover

Cell Reselection

Cell reselection is the process of selecting a new cell when the UE is not
operating on a dedicated Traffic Channel.

The UE selects a new cell autonomously without requiring intervention

from UTRAN. However, UTRAN provides parameters in the system
information messages that influence the UE’s cell reselection decision.


Handover is the process of adding or removing cells with which the UE

is communicating on a dedicated Traffic Channel.

The UE assists the process by taking measurements of the signal

strength of neighbor cells and reporting this to UTRAN, but ultimately
UTRAN decides when to perform a handover.

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Slide 49 

Cell Reselection versus Handover

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Slide 50 

Cell Categories

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Slide 51 

WCDMA Soft Handover

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Slide 52 

WCDMA Soft Handover

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Slide 53 

WCDMA Soft Handover

Inter BSC Soft Handover

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Slide 54 

WCDMA Soft Handover


Soft-Softer Handover

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Slide 55 

Inter-RAT Hard Handover

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Slide 56 

Uplink Power Control in Soft Handover

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Slide 57 

Uplink Power Control in Soft Handover

When a UE is involved in a soft handover, it may receive conflicting
power control commands from the different Node Bs.
The UE resolves this conflict using a simple rule: if any Node B
commands the UE to reduce power, it will reduce power. This is called
OR of the downs.
In the event of a multi-cell (same Node B) handoff, the UE should
receive identical commands from the two cells.
Knowing this, the UE “soft combines” the bits before making a decision
on the value of the bit. Here, there is no OR of the downs. The reason is
that if the signal is from two cells but the same Node B, the signal likely
experiences the same general fading environment.
During handover, there can be up to six sets of TPC indices, one index
from each Node B. If the TPC index is the same, this means those cells
correspond to the same Node B. If the Node Bs are different, signaled
by a different TPC index, then the Node Bs are in different fading
The UE powers down if any of the Node Bs transmit a power down
command (OR of the downs).
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Slide 58 

WCDMA Technology Overview

Chapter 8

Basic UE Call Flow


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Slide 59 

When Phone is turned ON ?

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Slide 60 

When Phone is turned ON ?

What Happens when the Phone is turned on?

When a UE is first powered up, it begins to search for a suitable

system by deciding which band and Absolute Radio Frequency
Channel Number (ARFCN) to search.
In most cases, the UE attempts to find a suitable cell on the list
of frequencies that the UE has camped on in the past, or from
information provided from the operator.
Initial system acquisition in WCDMA is performed as a three-step search

1. Slot Synchronization – Use P-SCH to find slot timing.

2. Frame Synchronization and Code Group Identification –
Find the start of the 10 ms frame and reduce the number of PSCs to
search in Step 3 from 512 to 8.
3. Scrambling Code Identification – Find the correct PSC
(out of 8 possible).
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Slide 61 

Call Establishment

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Slide 62 

Mobile Originated Voice Call Flow

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Slide 63 

Mobile Originated Voice Call Flow

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Slide 64 

Packet Switched Data Call Flow

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Slide 65 

Packet Switched Data Call Flow

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Slide 66 

Mobile Terminated Voice Call Setup

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Slide 67 

Mobile Terminated Voice Call Setup

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Slide 68 

Call Release

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Slide 69 

Call Release

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Slide 70 

UE Procedures at Power Off

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Slide 71 

UMTS Security Overview

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Slide 72 

UMTS Security Overview

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Slide 73 

UMTS Security Overview

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Slide 74 

AKA Parameters

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Slide 75 

AKA Parameters

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Slide 76 

WCDMA Technology Overview

Pulok Sinha
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