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ANATOMY OF THE CAT

JACOB REIGHARD

Professor of Zoology in the Unmrsiiy of Michigan

AND

H. S. JENNINGS

Instructor in Zoology in the University of Michigan

WITH

ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-THREE ORIGINAL FIGURES

DRAWN BY

LOUISE BURRIDGE JENNINGS

NEW YORK

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

190

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Copyright, 1901,

BY

HENRY HOLT & CO.

NEiy VORK.

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ROBBRT DRUMMOND. PRrNTEH,

PREFACE.

Although the cat has long been in common use for the

practical study of mammalian anatomy, a clear, correct, not

too voluminous account of its structure, such as should be in

the hands

of students

in

the laboratory,

has remained a

desideratum.

A number of works have been published on the

cat, some of them of much value, yet there is none which

fulfils exactly the conditions mentioned.

The books which

have appeared on this subject are the following:

  • 1. Strauss-Durckheim, H.

Anatomie descriptive et com-

parative du Chat.

2 vols.

  • 2. Mivart, St. George.

Paris, 1845.

The Cat: an Introduction to the

Study of Back-boned Animals, especially Mammals. New

York,

1 881.

  • 3. and Gage, Simon H.

Wilder, Burt G.,

Anatomical

Technology as applied to the Domestic Cat. New York, 1882.

  • 4. Gorham, F. P., and Tower, R. W.

A Laboratory

Guide for the Dissection of the Cat.

New York, 1895.

5. Jayne,

H.

Mammalian Anatomy.

Vol.

I.

Phila-

delphia, 1898.

The first of these works treats only of the muscles and

bones, and is not available for American students.

Its excel-

lent plates (or Williams's outline reproductions of the same)

should be in every laboratory. The second book named is written in such general terms

that its descriptions are not readily applicable to the actual

structures found in the dissection of the cat, and experience

has shown that it is not fitted for a laboratory handbook.

It

contains, in addition to a general account of the anatomy of

the cat, also a discussion of its embryology, psychology,

palaeontology, and classification.

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iv

,

PREFACE.

The book by Wilder and Gage professedly uses the cat as

a means of illustrating technical methods and a special system

of nomenclature. While of much value in many ways,

it does

not undertake to give a complete account of the anatomy of

the animal.

The fourth work is a brief laboratory guide.

The elaborate treatise by Jayne, now in course of publica-

tion, is a monumental work, which will be invaluable for refer-

ence, but is too voluminous to place in the hands of students.

At present only the volume on the bones has been published.

As appears from the above brief characterization, none of

these books gives a complete description of the anatomy of the

cat in moderate volume and without extraneous matter.

This

is what the present work aims to do.

In the year 1891-92, Professor Reighard prepared a partial

account of the anatomy of the cat, which has since been in use,

in typewritten form, in University of Michigan classes.

It has

been used also at the Universities of Illinois, Nebra.ska, and

West Virginia, and in Dartmouth College, and has proven so

useful for college work in Mammalian Anatomy that it was

decided to complete it and prepare it for publication.

has been done by Dr. Jennings.

This

The figures, which are throughout original, are direct re-

productions of ink drawings, made under the direction of Dr.

Jennings by Mrs. Jennings.

The book is limited to a description of the normal anatomy

of the cat. The direct linear action of each muscle taken alone

has been given in the description of muscles ; other matters

belonging to the realm of physiology, as well as all histological

matter, have been excluded. It was felt that the monumental work of Jayne on the anatomy of the cat, now in course of

publication, forms the best repository for a description of varia- tions and abnormalities, so that these have been mentioned in the present volume only when they are so frequent as to be of

much practical importance.

Except where the contrary is stated, the descriptions are

based throughout on our own dissections and observations and

are in no sense a compilation.

For this reason we have not

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PREF/ICE. V thought it necessary to collect the scattered references to the

anatomy of the

cat that may occur in

the literature.

A

collection of such references may be

found in Wilder and

Gage's Anatomical Technology.

In

addition to the

works

already referred to, we have of course made use of the standard

works on human and veterinary anatomy.

Among these

should be mentioned as especially useful the Anatomie des

Hundes by EUenberger and Baum. Other publications which

have been of service in the preparation of the work are Windle

and Parson's paper On the Myology of the Terrestrial Carniv-

ora, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London

for

1897 and 1898, T. B. Stowell's papers on the nervous

system of the cat in the Proceedings of the American Philo-

sophical Society (1881,

1886,

1888) and in the Journal of

Comparative Neurology (vol. I.), and F. Clasen's Die Muskeln

und Nerven des proximalen A bschnitts der vorderen Extremi-

tdt der Katze, in Nova Acta der Ksl. Leop-Carol. Deutschen

Akademie der Naturforscher, Bd. 64.

Nomenclature.The question of nomenclature has been

one

of difficulty.

What

is desired

is

a uniform

set

of

anatomical names,a system that shall be generally used by

anatomists.

At present the greatest diversity prevails as to

the names to be applied to the different structures of the body.

The only set of terms which at the present time seems to have

any chance of general acceptance is that proposed by the German Anatomical Society at their meeting in Basel in 1895,

and generally designated by the abbreviation BNA.

This

system has therefore been adopted, in its main features, for use

in the present work.

It seems impossible at the present time,

however, to impose any one set of terms

absolutely upon

anatomists of all nations, and we have felt it necessary to use

for certain familiar structures, in place of the BNA terms,

names anatomy, and may almost be considered component parts of

that have come to have

a fixed place in English

the English language. The German anatomists have expressly

recognized the fact that this would

be to a greater or less

degree necessary among anatomists of different nations, and

have characterized their list as for the present tentative, and

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VI

PREFACE.

capable of farther development.

The only purpose of a name

is that it shall furnish a key to a common understanding;

where the BNA name does not furnish such a key to English

readers, and where there is a term in established English usage that does serve this purpose and seems unlikely to be sup*

planted, we have used the latter.

But we have endeavored to

make the number of these exceptions as small as possible, and

in such cases we have usually cited at the same time the term proposed by the German society, followed by the abbreviation

BNA.

When, on the other hand, we have adopted a BNA

term for which there is also a commonly used English equiva-

lent, the latter has likewise usually been cited in parenthesis.

In deciding whether or not to use in a given case the BNA

term many difficult cases arose.

Will the common English

name innominate bone (os innominatum) be replaced by the

BNA

term os cox(z or coxal bone f

We have held this to be

highly improbable, and have therefore used the term innomi-

nate bone, merely citing os coxce (BNA) as a synonym.

In the

same way we have used centrum as a designation of a part of a

vertebra, in place of corpus (BNA) ; premaxillary bone or pre- maxilla in place of os incisivum (BNA) ; malar bone in place of OS zygomaticum (BNA) ; trapezoid as a name of one of the

bones of the carpus, in place of os multangulum minus (BNA),

etc.

In other cases where it has seemed probable that the

BNA term would come into common use, though now un-

familiar, this and the more common English expression are

both used or used alternatively; such has been the case, for

example, with the Gasserian ganglion or semilunar ganglion

(BNA).

In naming the cerebral sulci and gyri the system in

use for man is not well fitted for bringing out the plan of those

in the brain of the cat, so that it was necessary to reject the

BNA names for these structures.

As to the use of the Latin terms and their equivalents in

English form, we have made a practice of employing in the

text sometimes one, sometimes the other; this has the advan-

tage of giving variety, and of impressing the interchangeability of the Latin and English forms on the mind of the student.

Where a given structure is called by two equally well-known

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PREFACE. names, we have used both, holding that the student should

vu

become familiar with each and recognize

their identity of

meaning.

In general

we have maintained the principle that the

primary purpose of such a work as the present is not to illus-

trate or defend any particular system of nomenclature, but to

aid in obtaining a knowledge of the structures themselves.

With this end in view, we have used such terms as would in

our judgment best subserve this purpose, making the BNA

system, as the one most likely to prevail, our basis.

In apply-

ing the system we have had to keep in mind a number of

sometimes conflicting principles.

In some cases the judgment

of other anatomists will doubtless differ from our own ; but this

we feel to be inevitable.

The matter of an absolutely uniform

nomenclature is not ripe for settlement at the present time.

Some further explanation is needed in regard to the topo-

graphical terms, or terms of direction, used in the present

work.

We have adopted the BNA terms in this matter also.

The terms superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior have been

avoided, as these terms do not convey the same meaning in the case of the cat as they do in man, owing to the difference

in the posture of the body.

In place of these terms are used

dorsal and ventral, cranial and caudal. As terms of direction these, of course, must have an absolutely fixed meaning, sig-

nifying always the same direction without necessary reference

to any given

structure.

For example, cranial means not

merely toward the cranium, but refers to the direction which is

indicated by movement along a line from the middle of the

body,

toward the cranium; after the head or cranium is

reached, the term still continues in force for structures even

beyond the cranium.

Thus the tip of the nose is' considered

to be craniad of the cranium itself.

Lateral signifies away

from the middle plane ; medial toward it.

Inner and outer or

internal and external are used only with reference to the struc-

ture of separate organs, not with reference to the median plane

of the body.

In describing the limbs the convexity of the joint (the elbow

or knee) is considered as dorsal, the concavity being therefore

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viu

PREFACE.

ventral.

Medial refers to that side of the limb which in th

normal position is toward the middle of the body ; lateral t

the outer side. Terms of direction which are derived only fror

the structure of the limb itself are in some cases more conver

ient than the usual ones.

In the fore limbs the terms radic

(referring to

the side on which the radius lies) and ulna

(referring to the side on which the ulna lies) are used ; in th

hind limbs the terms tibial and fibular are used in a simila Distal means toward the free end of a limb or othe

manner.

projecting structure ; proximal, toward the attached end. For all these terms an adverbial form ending in -ad ha

been employed. Experience has shown this to be very usefi

in practice, and while not expressly recommended by the BN.A

it is not condemned.

Terms

ending in -al are

therefor

adjectives ; those ending in -ad are adverbs.

In compounding these terms of direction, the hyphen ha

been omitted in accordance with the usage recommended b

the Standard Dictionary.

Thus

dorsoventral is written i

place of dorso-ventral, etc.

The student will perhaps b

assisted in understanding these compounds if he notes thj

the first component always ends in -o, so that the letter o prac tically serves the purpose of a hyphen in determining how th

word is to be divided.

In one particular the BNA nomenclature is not entirel

consistent. While recommending or at least permitting th

use of the general terms dorsal and ventral in place of th

human posterior and anterior, and cranial and caudal in plac of superior and inferior, it retains the words anterior, posteriot superior, and inferior as parts of the names of definite organ;

For example, we have the muscle serratus anterior in plac

of serratus ventralis; serratus posterior inferior in place <

serratus dorsalis caudalis.

This is very unfortunate, from

comparative standpoint, but we have felt it necessary to retai

the BNA terms in order that the structures of the cat ma receive the same names as the corresponding structures

<

man.

In the matter of orthography we have endeavored to folio- the best English anatomical usage, as exemplified in Gray

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PREFACE.

IX

Human Anatomy,therefore writing peroneus in place of

peronaus, pyriformis in place oi piriformis, etc.

' The book is designed for use in the laboratory, to accom-

pany the dissection and study of the structures themselves.

Anatomy cannot be learned from a book alone, and no one

should attempt to use the present work without at the same

time carefully dissecting the cat. On the other hand, anatomy

can scarcely be learned without descriptions and figures of the

structures laid bare in dissection, so that this or some similar

work should be in the hands of any one attempting to gain a

knowledge of anatomy through the dissection of the cat.

The figures have all been drawn from actual dissections, and have been carefully selected with a view to furnishing the

most direct assistance to the dissector.

It is hoped that no

figures are lacking that are required for giving the students the

necessary points of departure for an intelligent dissection of any part of the body. The fore limb is illustrated somewhat more

fully than the hind limb, because it was thought that the fore

limb would usually be dissected first; the hind limb will be

easily dissected, with the aid of the figures given, after the

experience gained in dissecting the fore limb.

As the book is designed to accompany the dissection of the

specimen in the laboratory, it was deemed best to give succinct

specific directions for the dissection of the different systems of

organs, together with suggestions as to methods of preserving

and handling the material.

dix.

These are included in an appen-

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CONTENTS.

The Skeleton of the Cat

I. The Vertebral Column Thoracic Vertebrse Lumbar Vertebrae Sacral Vertebrae ; Sacrum Caudal Vertebrae Cervical Vertebrae

Ligaments of the Vertebral Column

II. The Ribs

III. The Sternum

IV. The Skull Occipital Bone Interparietal

Sphenoid

Presphenoid

Temporal

Parietal

Frontal

Maxillary

Fremaxillary

Nasal

Ethmoid

Vomer

Palatine

Lachrymal

Malar

Mandible

Hyoid

The Skull as a Whole

Cavities of the Skull Joints and Ligaments of the Skull

V. The Thoracic Extremities

Scapula

Clavicle

Humerus

Radius

Ulna

Carpus

PAGB

i

i

i

-

xi

7

8

n

11

i6

18

20

21

22

25

25

29

30

36

37

39

41

42

42

44

45

46

47

47

49

49

57

6i

62

62

64

64

67

68

69

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;"

CONTENTS.

.

Bones of the Hand

;

Joints and Ligaments of the Thoracic Limbs

VI. The Pelvic Extremities

Innominate Bones

Femur

Patella

Tibia

Fibula

Tarsus Bones of the Foot

.,

,

Joints and Ligaments of the Pelvic Limbs

The Muscles ,

  • I. Muscles of the Skin II. Muscles of the Head

A. Superficial Muscles

£. Deep Muscles

a. Muscles of Mastication

  • b. Muscles of Hyoid Bone

III. Muscles of the

....

 

1.

Muscles of the Back

 

A.

S.

 

a.

b.

 

C.

 

2.

 

A.

B.

 

3.

Muscles of the Thorax

 

A.

B.

 

4.

Abdominal Muscles

IV.

 

1.

 

A.

Lateral Surface

B.

Medial Surface

 

2.

3.

 

A.

B-

 

4.

Muscles of the Hand

 

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Muscles of the Thoracic Limbs

Muscles of the Shoulder

Muscles of the Shoulder

Muscles of the Vertebral Column

Muscles of the Tail

Muscles of the Lumbar and Thoracic Region

Dorsal Muscles of the Cervical Region

Muscles on the Ventral Side of the Vertebral Column

Lumbar and Thoracic Regions

Muscles on the Ventral Side of the Neck

Breast Muscles (Connecting the Arm and Thorax)

Muscles of the Wall of the Thorax

Muscles of the Brachium or Upper Arm

Muscles of the Antibrachium or Forearm

Fascia of the Forearm

Muscles on the Ulnar and Dorsal Side of the Forearm

Muscles on the Radial and Ventral Side of the

Betvireen the Tendons

Muscles of the Thumb

Between the Metacarpals

Special Muscles of the Second Digit

Special Muscles of the Fifth Digit

Forearm. .

  • V. Muscles of the Pelvic Limbs

.

I.

Muscles of the Hip

PAGE

71

73

76

76

yg

go

go

g2

82

g j

86

93

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96

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107

107

112

115

115

1 15

123

126

131

136

138

138

139

144

144

148

153

156

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164

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179

184

184

184

185

185

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186

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.

CONTENTS.

A.

On the Lateral Surfece of the Hip

B.

Fascia of the Thigh

On the Medial Surface of the Hip

2. Muscles

of the

Thigh

3.

Muscles of the Lower Leg

A.

B.

On the Ventral Side

On the Dorsal and Lateral Surfaces

4.

Muscles of the Foot

A.

B.

Muscles on the Dorsum of the Foot

Muscles on the Sole of the Foot

C.

The Viscera

Muscles of the Tarsus

I. The Body Cavity

II. Alimentary Canal

1. Mouth

Glands of the Mouth Teeth

,

Tongue

Muscles

of the

Tongue

Soft Palate

, Muscles

of the

Soft Palate

2. Pharynx Muscles of the Pharynx 3. (Esophagus 4. Stomach

5.

Small Intestine

6.

Large Intestine

Liver, Pancreas, and Spleen III. Respiratory Organs

7.

1.

Nasal Cavity

2. Larynx

Cartilages of the Larynx

Muscles of the Larynx

3. Trachea

4. Lungs

Thyroid Gland

Thymus Gland

IV. Urogenital System

1

Excretory Organs

Kidneys

Ureter

Bladder

(Suprarenal Bodies)

2. Genital Organs

A. Male

B. Female

Muscles of the Urogenital Organs, Rectum, and Anus

  • a. Muscles Common to the Male and Female

i.

Muscles Peculiar to the Male

xm

I'AGB

i86

i86

192

194

203

203

209

212

212

212

215

217

217

22j

221

223

224

2.6

228

229

230

23

232

234

234

236

237

239

243

243

246

247

249

25

252

254

254

255

255

255

256

256

257

257

257

263

268

268

271

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XIV

CONTENTS.

 

PACB

 

t.

Muscles Peculiar to the

Female

272

The Circulatory System

274

  • I. The Heart

 

274

II. The Arteries

280

 
  • 1. Pulmonary Artery

 

280

  • 2. Aorta

 

281

 

A.

Thoracic Aorta and its Branches

 

281

 

Common Carotid Artery

,

283

Subclavian Artery

290

 

B.

Abdominal Aorta and its Branches

 

301

 

External Iliac Artery and its Branches

309

III. The Veins

 

315

 
  • 1. Veins of the Heart

 

315

  • 2. Vena Cava Superior and its Branches

 

316

Veins of the Brain and Spinal Cord

324

  • 3. Vena Cava Inferior and its Branches

325

 

Portal Vein

 

326

IV.

Lymphatic System

330

 
  • 1. Lymphatics of the Head

331

  • 2. Lymphatics of the Neck

332

  • 3. Lymphatics

of the

Thoracic Limbs

 

332

  • 4. Lymphatics of the Thorax and Abdomen

333

  • 5. Lymphatics of the Pelvic Limbs

 

334

The Nervous System

335

  • I. The Central Nervous System

336

 
  • 1. Spinal Cord

336

2.

The Brain

339

 

(1) Myelencephalon

344

(2) Metencephalon

347

(3) Mesencephalon

351

(4) Diencephalon

352

(5) Telencephalon

357

II. The Peripheral Nervous System

369

 
  • 1. Cranial Nerves

369

 

I.

Olfactory Nerve

369

II. Optic Nerve

 

369

III. Oculomotor Nerve

369

IV. Trochlear Nerve

370

V.

Trigeminal Nerve

370

VI. Abducens

 

375

VII.

Facial Nerve

375

 

Vni. Auditory Nerve

 

377

 

IX.

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

378

X.

Vagus Nerve

378

XI.

Accessory Nerve

382

XII.

Hypoglossal Nerve

383

 
  • 2. Spinal Nerves

 

383

 

A.

Cervical Nerves

383

 

The Brachial Plexus

386

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CONTENTS.

B.

Thoracic Nerves

C. Lumbar Nerves Lumbar Plexus

  • D. Sacral Nerves and Sacral Plexus

E. Nerves of the Tail

3. Sympathetic System

Sense Organs and Integument

...

I. The Eye The Ear

II.

III. Olfactory Organ

IV. Organ of Taste

V. Integument

Appendix : Practical Directions

XV

PAGE

393

394

395

399

404

4°4

409

409

41S

426

426

427

429

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG.

  • 1. Skeleton

2.

3-

4.

5.

6.

Fourth Thoracic Vertebra " "

"

Thoracic Vertebrae

Lumbar Vertebrse

Sacrum

7-

8.

"

Caudal Vertebra

9-

10.

1 1.

"

"

Cervical Vertebrse

Sixth Cervical Vertebra

12.

Atlas

  • 13. Axis

  • 14. Ligaments of the Odontoid Process

15.

16.