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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN


INTRODUCTION:

Microwave frequency range to transmit information between two fixed locations on the
earth. They are crucial to many forms of communication and impact a broad range of industries.
Broadcasters use microwave links to send programs from the studio to the transmitter location,
which might be miles away. Microwave links carry cellular telephone calls between cell sites.
Wireless Internet service providers use microwave links to provide their clients with high-speed
Internet access without the need for cable connections. Telephone companies transmit calls
between switching centers over microwave links, although fairly recently they have been largely
supplanted by fiber-optic cables. Companies and government agencies use them to provide
communications networks between nearby facilities within an organization, such as a company
with several buildings within a city.

One of the reasons microwave links are so adaptable is that they are broadband. That
means they can move large amounts of information at high speeds. Another important quality of
microwave links is that they require no equipment or facilities between the two terminal points,
so installing a microwave link is often faster and less costly than a cable connection. Finally, they
can be used almost anywhere, as long as the distance to be spanned is within the operating range
of the equipment and there is clear path (that is, no solid obstacles) between the locations.
Microwaves are also able to penetrate rain, fog, and snow, which means bad weather doesn’t
disrupt transmission.

A simple one-way microwave link includes four major elements: a transmitter, a receiver,
transmission lines, and antennas. These basic components exist in every radio communications
system, including cellular telephones, two-way radios, wireless networks, and commercial
broadcasting. But the technology used in microwave links differs markedly from that used at the
lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) in the radio spectrum. Techniques and components that

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
work well at low frequencies are not useable at the higher frequencies (shorter wavelengths)
used in microwave links. For example, ordinary wires and cables function poorly as conductors
of microwave signals. On the other hand, microwave frequencies allow engineers to take
advantage of certain principles that are impractical to apply at lower frequencies. One example
is the use of a parabolic or “dish” antenna to focus a microwave radio beam. Such antennas can
be designed to operate at much lower frequencies, but they would be too large to be economical
for most purposes.

OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE

This microwave link is made up of a string of microwave radio antennas located at the top of

towers at various microwave sites. In this study, we will be able to design a microwave communication

system from different cities and provinces along Davao with the following objectives provided:

 To create a link that uses a bus topology in the microwave link system that

will sum up to 100 miles.

 To make a path profile for each sites

 To assign frequency bands on each sites

 To check if each link that would be involved is feasible for a microwave link

 To calculate the reliability and availability of each links

The scope of the study would only involve the analysis and computation of the feasibility of

the communication system thus would not include much of the concern on its frequency

licensing, actual design implementation and the analysis on actual overall costing for the

microwave link design.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
INITIAL PLANNING, SITE SELECTION AND MAPS

In this link design, we randomly select where we will assign or designate or link design, so

I was assigned in Mindanao. As we all know that Mindanao is a mountainous region, so I was

been searching for a place where there is less mountains. So I was able to find it in Davao

province. It is a coastal commercial center near 2,954m-high Mount Apo, the country’s highest

peak. In the city center, People’s Park is known for its colorful indigenous sculptures and lighted

fountains. It's also home to Durian Dome, named after the pungent, spiky fruit that grows in

abundance on Mindanao. The Davao River cuts through the city.

Figure 1.1 – The Island of Davao

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Figure 1.2 – The Islands of Mindanao as seen on Google Earth

In choosing a location for your link, you must consider different factors and parameters

involved in designing a microwave link the required path length, equipment to be used and the

areas that must be avoided. So at the time that I started to find where I will put my links, I was

able to see it in Davao province because there are less mountainous areas that surrounded the

entire province. My microwave link design starts from Panabo City to New Corella, New Corella

to Santo Tomas, Santo Tomas to San Isidro, San Isidro to Repeater, Repeater to Bunawan and

Bunawan to La Paz.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Figure 1.3 – Bus Topology

Advantage for using a Bus Topology:

 It is the simplest network topology compare to other topologies.

 Low-cost and Efficient.

 Manageable, where it can easily identify problems and fix them quickly.

Design network’s Locations in 6 links connected:

1st Link: Panabo to New Corella

2nd Link: New Corella to Santo Tomas

3rd Link: Santo Tomas to San Isidro

4th Link: San Isidro to Repeater

5th Link: Repeater to Bunawan

6th Link: Bunawan to La paz

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 1:

PANABO CITY
To

SITE 2:

NEW CORELLA
CITY

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 1 INFORMATION: PANABO CITY

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

Panabo is a 3rd class city in the province of Davao del Norte,


Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 184,599 people. Bordering Davao
City to its northeast, Panabo is a part of Davao Metropolitan Area. The city has an area of 25,123
hectares (62,080 acres).

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 33 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°18'31.53"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°41'2.83"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 1 is located at Panabo City, it is a third-class component in the province of Davao del Norte,
Philippines, bordering Davao City to its northeast. The city has an area of 25,123 hectares (62,080
acres). According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 174,364 people. Panabo City is a part
of Davao Metropolitan Area. Panabo, which was formerly a mere barangay of Tagum, then
known as Magugpo during that time, became a town July 19, 1949, through Presidential
Proclamation No. 236 of the President Manuel A. Roxas.
The local government unit of Panabo was created into a component city of Davao del Norte by
virtue of Republic Act No. 9015 and ratified by the residents in a plebiscite held on March 31,
2001. However, its official existence as a municipal corporation took effect on with the
appointment of new set of officials.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.1 - Proposed Site 1 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to Panabo City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport,

the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in Panabo City, there are not TV or

radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 2 INFORMATION: New Corella CITY

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

New Corella is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Davao


del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 54,844 people

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 70 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°35'0.22"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°50'0.01"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 2 is located at New Corella, it is a second class municipality in the province of Davao del
Norte, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 50,699 people. New
Corella is politically subdivided into 20 barangays. Being the Water Basin of the Province of Davao
Del Norte, New Corella teems with cool watercourses from filtered streams to unspoiled springs,
pristine cascades to unblemished waterfalls making it an ideal venue for river trekking and water
adventure.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.2 - Proposed Site 2 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to New Corella City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International

Airport, the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in New Corella City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 2:

NEW CORELLA
CITY
To

SITE 3:

SANTO TOMAS
CITY

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 2 INFORMATION: New Corella CITY

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

New Corella is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Davao


del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 54,844 people

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 70 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°35'0.22"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°50'0.01"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 2 is located at New Corella, it is a second class municipality in the province of Davao del
Norte, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 50,699 people. New
Corella is politically subdivided into 20 barangays. Being the Water Basin of the Province of Davao
Del Norte, New Corella teems with cool watercourses from filtered streams to unspoiled springs,
pristine cascades to unblemished waterfalls making it an ideal venue for river trekking and water
adventure.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.3 - Proposed Site 2 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to New Corella City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International

Airport, the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in New Corella City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 3 INFORMATION: Santo Tomas CITY
BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

Sto. Tomas is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao del


Norte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 118,750 people

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 107 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°30'33.77"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°37'53.16"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 3 is located at Santo Tomas, it is a first class municipality in the province of Davao del
Norte, Philippines and in the south by the Municipality of Braulio E. Dujali. Sto. Tomas sits astride
the Davao del Norte Provincial Circumferential Road. It is more or less 30 kilometres (19 mi) or
about an hour ride from Tagum City by any land vehicle, and the town offers a wide choice of
public utility jeepneys via Kinamayan route or bus liners via Carmen route. Davao City is
approximately 63 kilometres (39 mi) or an hour and a half ride by bus or private car. Sto. Tomas
is accessible by land through any type of vehicle. There are tricycle units serving the different
routes within the municipality. Most tricycles are color-coded red, with a capacity of 6 passengers
per tricycle.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.4 - Proposed Site 3 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to santo tomas City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International

Airport, the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in Snato tomas City, there are not

TV or radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 3:

SANTO TOMAS
CITY
To

SITE 4:
SAN ISIDRO CITY

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 3 INFORMATION: Santo Tomas CITY

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

Sto. Tomas is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao del


Norte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 118,750 people

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 107 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°30'33.77"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°37'53.16"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 3 is located at Santo Tomas, it is a first class municipality in the province of Davao del
Norte, Philippines and in the south by the Municipality of Braulio E. Dujali. Sto. Tomas sits astride
the Davao del Norte Provincial Circumferential Road. It is more or less 30 kilometres (19 mi) or
about an hour ride from Tagum City by any land vehicle, and the town offers a wide choice of
public utility jeepneys via Kinamayan route or bus liners via Carmen route. Davao City is
approximately 63 kilometres (39 mi) or an hour and a half ride by bus or private car. Sto. Tomas
is accessible by land through any type of vehicle. There are tricycle units serving the different
routes within the municipality. Most tricycles are color-coded red, with a capacity of 6 passengers
per tricycle.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.5 - Proposed Site 3 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to santo tomas City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International

Airport, the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in Snato tomas City, there are not

TV or radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 4 INFORMATION: Santo Tomas CITY

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

San Isidro is a 5th class municipality in the province of Davao del


Norte, Davao Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 26,651
people.The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the ratification of Republic Act 9265.
It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays of Kapalong

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 510 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°45'0.10"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°43'59.99"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 4 is located at San Isidro, it is a municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines.
It has a population of 25,548 people. The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the
ratification of Republic Act 9265. It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays
of Kapalong.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.6 - Proposed Site 4 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to san isidro City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport,

the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

27
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in San isidro City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 4:

SAN ISIDRO
To

SITE RPT.:
REPEATER

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 4 INFORMATION: Santo Tomas CITY

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

San Isidro is a 5th class municipality in the province of Davao del


Norte, Davao Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 26,651
people.The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the ratification of Republic Act 9265.
It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays of Kapalong

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 510 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°45'0.10"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°43'59.99"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 4 is located at San Isidro, it is a municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines.
It has a population of 25,548 people. The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the
ratification of Republic Act 9265. It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays
of Kapalong.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.7 - Proposed Site 4 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to san isidro City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport,

the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in San isidro City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE RPT. INFORMATION: REPEATER

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

San Isidro is a 5th class municipality in the province of Davao del


Norte, Davao Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 26,651
people.The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the ratification of Republic Act 9265.
It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays of Kapalong

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 510 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°45'0.10"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°43'59.99"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 4 is located at San Isidro, it is a municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines.
It has a population of 25,548 people. The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the
ratification of Republic Act 9265. It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays
of Kapalong.

33
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.8 - Proposed Site RPT. layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to san isidro City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport,

the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

34
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in San isidro City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE RPT.:

REPEATER
To

SITE 5:
BUNAWAN CITY

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE RPT. INFORMATION: REPEATER

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

San Isidro is a 5th class municipality in the province of Davao del


Norte, Davao Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 26,651
people.The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the ratification of Republic Act 9265.
It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays of Kapalong

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 510 ft.


LATITUDE: 7°45'0.10"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°43'59.99"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 4 is located at San Isidro, it is a municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines.
It has a population of 25,548 people. The municipality was created on June 26, 2004, after the
ratification of Republic Act 9265. It was formed out of 6 barangays of Asuncion and 7 barangays
of Kapalong.

37
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.9 - Proposed Site RPT. layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to san isidro City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport,

the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

38
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in San isidro City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

39
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 5. INFORMATION: REPEATER

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

Bunawan, officially the Municipality of Bunawan is a municipality


in the province of Agusan del Sur in the Caraga (Region XIII) of the Philippines. The population
was 45,151 at the 2015 census. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 21,060 registered
voters.[4Bunawan was created on June 21, 1959, through Republic Act No. 2517. The world's
largest crocodile, Lolong, was captured in the town on September 2011.

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 95 ft.


LATITUDE: 8°10'0.23"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°59'59.98"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 5 is located at Bunawan, it is a coastal district located near Davao City, the province of Davao
del Sur, Philippines. The number of residents of the district is estimated to be about 37,500
people, and it is considered one of the least populated district on the province. It is known as the
territory for crocodile hunting and various issues related to moral issues of crocodile hunting. The
latitude of Bunawan District, Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines is 7.224729, and the longitude
is 125.640862. Bunawan District, Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines is located
at Phillipines country in the Districts place category with the gps coordinates of 7° 13' 29.0244''
N and 125° 38' 27.1032'' E.

40
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.10 - Proposed Site 5 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to Bunawan City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport,

the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

41
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in Bunawan City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

42
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 5:

BUNAWAN CITY
To

SITE 6:
LA PAZ CITY

43
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 5. INFORMATION: REPEATER
BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

Bunawan, officially the Municipality of Bunawan is a municipality


in the province of Agusan del Sur in the Caraga (Region XIII) of the Philippines. The population
was 45,151 at the 2015 census. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 21,060 registered
voters.[4Bunawan was created on June 21, 1959, through Republic Act No. 2517. The world's
largest crocodile, Lolong, was captured in the town on September 2011.

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 95 ft.


LATITUDE: 8°10'0.23"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°59'59.98"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 5 is located at Bunawan, it is a coastal district located near Davao City, the province of Davao
del Sur, Philippines. The number of residents of the district is estimated to be about 37,500
people, and it is considered one of the least populated district on the province. It is known as the
territory for crocodile hunting and various issues related to moral issues of crocodile hunting. The
latitude of Bunawan District, Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines is 7.224729, and the longitude
is 125.640862. Bunawan District, Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines is located
at Phillipines country in the Districts place category with the gps coordinates of 7° 13' 29.0244''
N and 125° 38' 27.1032'' E.

44
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.11 - Proposed Site 5 layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to san isidro City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport,

the airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

45
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in San isidro City, there are not TV

or radio stations nearby.

46
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE 6. INFORMATION: REPEATER

BRIEF DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CITY

La Paz, officially the Municipality of La Paz is a municipality in


the province of Agusan del Sur in the Caraga (Region XIII) of the Philippines. The population was
28,217 at the 2015 census. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 17,584 registered voters.

PRECISE LOCATION OF THE SITE

ALT (ELEVATION): 87 ft.


LATITUDE: 8°16'16.44"N
LONGTITUDE: 125°47'59.80"E

SITE DESCRIPTION

Site 6 is located at La Paz, it La Paz, officially the Municipality of La Paz, is a municipality in


the province of Agusan del Sur in the Caraga (Region XIII) of the Philippines. The population was
28,217 at the 2015 census. In the 2016 election, it had 17,584 registered voters. La Paz is located
at 8.28°N 125.81°E.According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, the municipality has a land
area of 1,481.12 square kilometres (571.86 sq mi) constituting 14.83% of the 9,989.52-square-
kilometre- (3,856.98 sq mi) total area of Agusan del Sur.

47
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SITE LAYOUT PLAN

Figure 2.12 - Proposed Site 56layout

POWER AVAILABILITY

Davao Light and Power Company (Davao Light) is the third largest privately-owned electric utility

in the Philippines. It holds the franchise for distributing electric power to Davao City, the largest

city in the world in terms of land area, as well as Panabo City and the municipalities of Carmen,

Dujali, and Sto. Tomas in Davao del Norte.

LOCAL ZONING RESTRICTION

The closest major airport to La paz City, Philippines is Francisco Bangoy International Airport, the

airport is far enough not to cause any interference to the proposed microwave link design.

GEOLOGIC SEISMIC DATA

The Philippines is situated in a tectonically active region. Accounting some of the major fault zone

in Mindanao Island are the Philippine Fault and its splay, Philippine Trench, Cotabato Trench,

Mindanao Fault, and other inferred faults.

48
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
WEATHER DATA

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 135 mm. The average

temperatures vary during the year by 1.5 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate table: For

every month, you will find data about precipitation (mm), average, maximum and minimum

temperature (degrees Celcius and Fahrenheit). Meaning of the first line: (1) January, (2) February,

(3) March, (4) April, (5) May, (6) June, (7) July, (8) August, (9) September, (10) October, (11)

November, (12) December.

SURVEY OF EMI

There is no significant harmful electromagnetic interference in la paz City, there are not TV or

radio stations nearby.

49
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
50
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LINK 1 PATH PROFILE

Table 3.1- Path Description of Link 1

DISTANCE FROM SITE 1 LENGTH IN MILES DESCRIPTION

0 0-4 Residential

4 4 – 9.6 Rice fields

9.6 9.6 – 15.3 Forest - Residential

15.3 15.3 – 21.6 Rice fields

OBSTACLE AND ELEVATION


Figure 3.1- Path Elevation of Link 1

NOTE: Elevation is measured for every 0.1 miles

Table 3.2 - Path Profile Data of Link 1

POINT D1 D2 ELEVATION EARTH CURVATURE FRESNEL TREES AND GROWTH TOTAL


TX 0 21.6 18 0 0 50 68
1 0.1 21.5 25 2 15 50 92
2 0.2 21.4 26 3 22 50 101
3 0.3 21.3 26 5 26 50 107
4 0.4 21.2 31 6 30 50 117
5 0.5 21.1 33 8 34 50 125

51
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
6 0.6 21 36 9 37 50 132
7 0.7 20.9 33 10 39 50 132
8 0.8 20.8 37 12 42 50 141
9 0.9 20.7 37 13 45 50 145
10 1 20.6 40 14 47 50 151
11 1.1 20.5 39 16 49 50 154
12 1.2 20.4 32 17 51 50 150
13 1.3 20.3 37 18 53 50 158
14 1.4 20.2 50 19 55 50 174
15 1.5 20.1 51 21 56 50 178
16 1.6 20 45 22 58 50 175
17 1.7 19.9 31 23 60 50 164
18 1.8 19.8 31 24 61 50 166
19 1.9 19.7 42 25 63 50 180
20 2 19.6 53 27 64 50 194
21 2.1 19.5 42 28 66 50 186
22 2.2 19.4 33 29 67 50 179
23 2.3 19.3 46 30 68 50 194
24 2.4 19.2 44 31 70 50 195
25 2.5 19.1 47 32 71 50 200
26 2.6 19 51 33 72 50 206
27 2.7 18.9 57 35 73 50 215
28 2.8 18.8 41 36 74 50 201
29 2.9 18.7 41 37 76 50 204
30 3 18.6 40 38 77 50 205
31 3.1 18.5 39 39 78 50 206
32 3.2 18.4 32 40 79 50 201
33 3.3 18.3 17 41 80 50 188
34 3.4 18.2 28 42 81 50 201
35 3.5 18.1 23 43 82 50 198
36 3.6 18 27 44 83 50 204
37 3.7 17.9 28 45 83 50 206
38 3.8 17.8 30 46 84 50 210
39 3.9 17.7 27 47 85 50 209
40 4 17.6 37 47 86 50 220
41 4.1 17.5 38 48 87 50 223
42 4.2 17.4 33 49 88 50 220
43 4.3 17.3 26 50 88 50 214
44 4.4 17.2 17 51 89 50 207
45 4.5 17.1 29 52 90 50 221
46 4.6 17 33 53 91 50 227

52
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
47 4.7 16.9 14 53 91 50 208
48 4.8 16.8 17 54 92 50 213
49 4.9 16.7 24 55 93 50 222
50 5 16.6 28 56 93 50 227
51 5.1 16.5 26 57 94 50 227
52 5.2 16.4 32 57 95 50 234
53 5.3 16.3 32 58 95 50 235
54 5.4 16.2 30 59 96 50 235
55 5.5 16.1 25 60 96 50 231
56 5.6 16 17 60 97 50 224
57 5.7 15.9 10 61 98 50 219
58 5.8 15.8 14 62 98 50 224
59 5.9 15.7 14 62 99 50 225
60 6 15.6 13 63 99 50 225
61 6.1 15.5 11 64 100 50 225
62 6.2 15.4 14 64 100 50 228
63 6.3 15.3 17 65 101 50 233
64 6.4 15.2 18 65 101 50 234
65 6.5 15.1 19 66 102 50 237
66 6.6 15 19 67 102 50 238
67 6.7 14.9 24 67 102 50 243
68 6.8 14.8 23 68 103 50 244
69 6.9 14.7 21 68 103 50 242
70 7 14.6 19 69 104 50 242
71 7.1 14.5 16 69 104 50 239
72 7.2 14.4 16 70 104 50 240
73 7.3 14.3 15 70 105 50 240
74 7.4 14.2 15 71 105 50 241
75 7.5 14.1 14 71 105 50 240
76 7.6 14 15 71 106 50 242
77 7.7 13.9 17 72 106 50 245
78 7.8 13.8 19 72 106 50 247
79 7.9 13.7 11 73 107 50 241
80 8 13.6 16 73 107 50 246
81 8.1 13.5 14 73 107 50 244
82 8.2 13.4 15 74 107 50 246
83 8.3 13.3 17 74 108 50 249
84 8.4 13.2 20 74 108 50 252
85 8.5 13.1 18 75 108 50 251
86 8.6 13 21 75 108 50 254
87 8.7 12.9 19 75 109 50 253

53
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
88 8.8 12.8 19 76 109 50 254
89 8.9 12.7 24 76 109 50 259
90 9 12.6 27 76 109 50 262
91 9.1 12.5 25 76 109 50 260
92 9.2 12.4 22 77 109 50 258
93 9.3 12.3 34 77 110 50 271
94 9.4 12.2 30 77 110 50 267
95 9.5 12.1 27 77 110 50 264
96 9.6 12 28 77 110 50 265
97 9.7 11.9 33 77 110 50 270
98 9.8 11.8 39 78 110 50 277
99 9.9 11.7 41 78 110 50 279
100 10 11.6 45 78 110 50 283
101 10.1 11.5 43 78 110 50 281
102 10.2 11.4 44 78 110 50 282
103 10.3 11.3 44 78 110 50 282
104 10.4 11.2 42 78 111 50 281
105 10.5 11.1 44 78 111 50 283
106 10.6 11 41 78 111 50 280
107 10.7 10.9 38 78 111 50 277
108 10.8 10.8 36 78 111 50 275
109 10.9 10.7 34 78 111 50 273
110 11 10.6 36 78 111 50 275
111 11.1 10.5 40 78 111 50 279
112 11.2 10.4 42 78 111 50 281
113 11.3 10.3 45 78 110 50 283
114 11.4 10.2 47 78 110 50 285
115 11.5 10.1 46 78 110 50 284
116 11.6 10 45 78 110 50 283
117 11.7 9.9 44 78 110 50 282
118 11.8 9.8 44 78 110 50 282
119 11.9 9.7 39 77 110 50 276
120 12 9.6 47 77 110 50 284
121 12.1 9.5 45 77 110 50 282
122 12.2 9.4 44 77 110 50 281
123 12.3 9.3 43 77 110 50 280
124 12.4 9.2 47 77 109 50 283
125 12.5 9.1 46 76 109 50 281
126 12.6 9 48 76 109 50 283
127 12.7 8.9 53 76 109 50 288
128 12.8 8.8 60 76 109 50 295

54
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
129 12.9 8.7 64 75 109 50 298
130 13 8.6 63 75 108 50 296
131 13.1 8.5 67 75 108 50 300
132 13.2 8.4 70 74 108 50 302
133 13.3 8.3 67 74 108 50 299
134 13.4 8.2 63 74 107 50 294
135 13.5 8.1 57 73 107 50 287
136 13.6 8 54 73 107 50 284
137 13.7 7.9 54 73 107 50 284
138 13.8 7.8 53 72 106 50 281
139 13.9 7.7 51 72 106 50 279
140 14 7.6 51 71 106 50 278
141 14.1 7.5 50 71 105 50 276
142 14.2 7.4 50 71 105 50 276
143 14.3 7.3 50 70 105 50 275
144 14.4 7.2 60 70 104 50 284
145 14.5 7.1 51 69 104 50 274
146 14.6 7 53 69 104 50 276
147 14.7 6.9 56 68 103 50 277
148 14.8 6.8 59 68 103 50 280
149 14.9 6.7 62 67 102 50 281
150 15 6.6 67 67 102 50 286
151 15.1 6.5 60 66 102 50 278
152 15.2 6.4 61 65 101 50 277
153 15.3 6.3 62 65 101 50 278
154 15.4 6.2 67 64 100 50 281
155 15.5 6.1 66 64 100 50 280
156 15.6 6 65 63 99 50 277
157 15.7 5.9 64 62 99 50 275
158 15.8 5.8 70 62 98 50 280
159 15.9 5.7 74 61 98 50 283
160 16 5.6 76 60 97 50 283
161 16.1 5.5 77 60 96 50 283
162 16.2 5.4 71 59 96 50 276
163 16.3 5.3 68 58 95 50 271
164 16.4 5.2 63 57 95 50 265
165 16.5 5.1 57 57 94 50 258
166 16.6 5 54 56 93 50 253
167 16.7 4.9 52 55 93 50 250
168 16.8 4.8 51 54 92 50 247
169 16.9 4.7 51 53 91 50 245

55
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
170 17 4.6 51 53 91 50 245
171 17.1 4.5 52 52 90 50 244
172 17.2 4.4 52 51 89 50 242
173 17.3 4.3 53 50 88 50 241
174 17.4 4.2 53 49 88 50 240
175 17.5 4.1 55 48 87 50 240
176 17.6 4 56 47 86 50 239
177 17.7 3.9 55 47 85 50 237
178 17.8 3.8 54 46 84 50 234
179 17.9 3.7 53 45 83 50 231
180 18 3.6 57 44 83 50 234
181 18.1 3.5 59 43 82 50 234
182 18.2 3.4 62 42 81 50 235
183 18.3 3.3 63 41 80 50 234
184 18.4 3.2 62 40 79 50 231
185 18.5 3.1 61 39 78 50 228
186 18.6 3 61 38 77 50 226
187 18.7 2.9 69 37 76 50 232
188 18.8 2.8 65 36 74 50 225
189 18.9 2.7 62 35 73 50 220
190 19 2.6 59 33 72 50 214
191 19.1 2.5 61 32 71 50 214
192 19.2 2.4 61 31 70 50 212
193 19.3 2.3 59 30 68 50 207
194 19.4 2.2 59 29 67 50 205
195 19.5 2.1 59 28 66 50 203
196 19.6 2 65 27 64 50 206
197 19.7 1.9 72 25 63 50 210
198 19.8 1.8 68 24 61 50 203
199 19.9 1.7 68 23 60 50 201
200 20 1.6 67 22 58 50 197
201 20.1 1.5 70 21 56 50 197
202 20.2 1.4 70 19 55 50 194
203 20.3 1.3 72 18 53 50 193
204 20.4 1.2 69 17 51 50 187
205 20.5 1.1 63 16 49 50 178
206 20.6 1 61 14 47 50 172
207 20.7 0.9 69 13 45 50 177
208 20.8 0.8 66 12 42 50 170
209 20.9 0.7 68 10 39 50 167
210 21 0.6 72 9 37 50 168

56
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
211 21.1 0.5 77 8 34 50 169
212 21.2 0.4 70 6 30 50 156
213 21.3 0.3 69 5 26 50 150
214 21.4 0.2 67 3 22 50 142
215 21.5 0.1 65 2 15 50 132
RX 21.6 0 63 0 0 50 113

EARTH’S CURVATURE COMPUTATION

FORMULA:

0.667(d1)(d2)
; ft
k

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

k = k factor

(0.667)(0.2)(21.4)
EC2: = 2.8547ft
1

(0.667)(0.3)(21.3)
EC3 : 1
= 4.2621 ft

(0.667)(0.4)(21.2)
EC4: = 5.6516 ft
1

(0.667)(0.5)(21.1)
EC5: = 7.0368 ft
0.66

(0.667)(0.6)(21.0)
EC6: = 8.4042 ft
1

NOTE: The complete computation of the Earth’s curvature is solved using excel.

57
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
FRESNEL CLEARANCE RADIUS

FORMULA:

d1d2
R 𝑛 = 72.1√ ; ft F = 2.3 GHz, D = d1 + d2
FD

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

F = frequency in Gigahertz

F2 : 72.1√0.2(21.4)/(2.3 ∗ 21.6) = 21.1331 ft

F3: 72.1√0.3(21.3)/(2.3 ∗ 21.6) = 25.8579 ft

F4: 72.1√0.4(21.2)/2.3 ∗ 21.6) = 29.7880 ft

F5: 72.1√0.5(21.1)/(2.3 ∗ 21.6) = 33.2254 ft

F6: 72.1√0.6(21.0)/(62.3 ∗ 21.6) = 36.3102 ft

Note: The first channel of the frequency band is used in the formula.

ANTENNA AND TOWER HEIGHT


Antenna Height Tx: 218 ft

Antenna Height Rx: 292 ft

58
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
REFLECTION POINT / AREA

FORMULA:

Lower Antenna Height 218


Antenna Ratio = = = 0.7465
Higher Antenna Height 292

LINE OF SIGHT

FORMULA:

Yi = (Y/D ) Di; ft, LOSi = HT + Yi; ft

Y = HR – HT = 292 – 218ft = 74 ft.

D = Path length = 21.6 mi

Di = Distance from Rx

Point 1: Yi = (Y/D)

Di = (74/21.6)(0)=0 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 218ft + 0 ft = 218

Point 2: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (74/21.6)(0.5)= 1.71 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 218 ft + 1.71 ft = 219.71

Point 3: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (74/21.6)(1.0)= 3.43 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 218 ft + 3.43 ft = 221.43

Point 4: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (74/21.6) (1.5)= 5.14 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 218 ft + 5.14 ft. = 223.14

Point 5: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (74/21.6) (2.0)= 6.85 ft

59
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LOSi = HT + Yi = 218 ft + 6.85 ft = 224.85

Figure 3.2 - Line of Sight for Link 1

FRESNEL ZONE

FORMULA:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi
where Fi = Fresnel Clearance (ft)

Point 1:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 218 ft ± (0.3)(0) = 218 ft. ; 218 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 218 ft. ± (0.6)(0) = 218 ft. ; 218 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 218 ft. ± (1)(0) = 218 ft.; 218 ft.
Point 2:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 219.71 ± (0.3)( 24) = 226.91 ft. ; 212.51 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 219.71. ± (0.6)( 24) =234.11 ft. ; 205.31 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 219.71 ± (1)( 24) = 243.71 ft. ; 195.721 ft.
Point 3:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 221.43 ± (0.3)(34) = 231.63 ft. ; 211.23 ft.

60
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 221.43 ± (0.6)(34) = 241.83 ft. ; 201.03 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 221.43 ± (1)(34) = 255.43 ft. ; 187.43 ft
Point 4:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 223.14 ± (0.3)( 41) = 235.44 ft. ; 210.84 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 233.14 ± (0.6)(41) = 247.74 ft. ; 198.54 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 233.14 ± (1)(41) =264.14 ft. ; 125.84 ft.

Table 3.3 - Line of Sight Data for Link 1

LOS F1 NF1 F1 NF1 F1 NF1


236 236 236 236 236 236 236
236.550926 251.550926 221.550926 245.550926 227.550926 241.050926 232.050926
237.101852 259.101852 215.101852 250.301852 223.901852 243.701852 230.501852
237.652778 263.652778 211.652778 253.252778 222.052778 245.452778 229.852778
238.203704 268.203704 208.203704 256.203704 220.203704 247.203704 229.203704
238.75463 272.75463 204.75463 259.15463 218.35463 248.95463 228.55463
239.305556 276.305556 202.305556 261.505556 217.105556 250.405556 228.205556
239.856481 278.856481 200.856481 263.256481 216.456481 251.556481 228.156481
240.407407 282.407407 198.407407 265.607407 215.207407 253.007407 227.807407
240.958333 285.958333 195.958333 267.958333 213.958333 254.458333 227.458333
241.509259 288.509259 194.509259 269.709259 213.309259 255.609259 227.409259
242.060185 291.060185 193.060185 271.460185 212.660185 256.760185 227.360185
242.611111 293.611111 191.611111 273.211111 212.011111 257.911111 227.311111
243.162037 296.162037 190.162037 274.962037 211.362037 259.062037 227.262037
243.712963 298.712963 188.712963 276.712963 210.712963 260.212963 227.212963
244.263889 300.263889 188.263889 277.863889 210.663889 261.063889 227.463889
244.814815 302.814815 186.814815 279.614815 210.014815 262.214815 227.414815
245.365741 305.365741 185.365741 281.365741 209.365741 263.365741 227.365741
245.916667 306.916667 184.916667 282.516667 209.316667 264.216667 227.616667
246.467593 309.467593 183.467593 284.267593 208.667593 265.367593 227.567593
247.018519 311.018519 183.018519 285.418519 208.618519 266.218519 227.818519
247.569444 313.569444 181.569444 287.169444 207.969444 267.369444 227.769444
248.12037 315.12037 181.12037 288.32037 207.92037 268.22037 228.02037
248.671296 316.671296 180.671296 289.471296 207.871296 269.071296 228.271296
249.222222 319.222222 179.222222 291.222222 207.222222 270.222222 228.222222
249.773148 320.773148 178.773148 292.373148 207.173148 271.073148 228.473148
250.324074 322.324074 178.324074 293.524074 207.124074 271.924074 228.724074
250.875 323.875 177.875 294.675 207.075 272.775 228.975

61
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
251.425926 325.425926 177.425926 295.825926 207.025926 273.625926 229.225926
251.976852 327.976852 175.976852 297.576852 206.376852 274.776852 229.176852
252.527778 329.527778 175.527778 298.727778 206.327778 275.627778 229.427778
253.078704 331.078704 175.078704 299.878704 206.278704 276.478704 229.678704
253.62963 332.62963 174.62963 301.02963 206.22963 277.32963 229.92963
254.180556 334.180556 174.180556 302.180556 206.180556 278.180556 230.180556
254.731481 335.731481 173.731481 303.331481 206.131481 279.031481 230.431481
255.282407 337.282407 173.282407 304.482407 206.082407 279.882407 230.682407
255.833333 338.833333 172.833333 305.633333 206.033333 280.733333 230.933333
256.384259 339.384259 173.384259 306.184259 206.584259 281.284259 231.484259
256.935185 340.935185 172.935185 307.335185 206.535185 282.135185 231.735185
257.486111 342.486111 172.486111 308.486111 206.486111 282.986111 231.986111
258.037037 344.037037 172.037037 309.637037 206.437037 283.837037 232.237037
258.587963 345.587963 171.587963 310.787963 206.387963 284.687963 232.487963
259.138889 347.138889 171.138889 311.938889 206.338889 285.538889 232.738889
259.689815 347.689815 171.689815 312.489815 206.889815 286.089815 233.289815
260.240741 349.240741 171.240741 313.640741 206.840741 286.940741 233.540741
260.791667 350.791667 170.791667 314.791667 206.791667 287.791667 233.791667
261.342593 352.342593 170.342593 315.942593 206.742593 288.642593 234.042593
261.893519 352.893519 170.893519 316.493519 207.293519 289.193519 234.593519
262.444444 354.444444 170.444444 317.644444 207.244444 290.044444 234.844444
262.99537 355.99537 169.99537 318.79537 207.19537 290.89537 235.09537
263.546296 356.546296 170.546296 319.346296 207.746296 291.446296 235.646296
264.097222 358.097222 170.097222 320.497222 207.697222 292.297222 235.897222
264.648148 359.648148 169.648148 321.648148 207.648148 293.148148 236.148148
265.199074 360.199074 170.199074 322.199074 208.199074 293.699074 236.699074
265.75 361.75 169.75 323.35 208.15 294.55 236.95
266.300926 362.300926 170.300926 323.900926 208.700926 295.100926 237.500926
266.851852 363.851852 169.851852 325.051852 208.651852 295.951852 237.751852
267.402778 365.402778 169.402778 326.202778 208.602778 296.802778 238.002778
267.953704 365.953704 169.953704 326.753704 209.153704 297.353704 238.553704
268.50463 367.50463 169.50463 327.90463 209.10463 298.20463 238.80463
269.055556 368.055556 170.055556 328.455556 209.655556 298.755556 239.355556
269.606481 369.606481 169.606481 329.606481 209.606481 299.606481 239.606481
270.157407 370.157407 170.157407 330.157407 210.157407 300.157407 240.157407
270.708333 371.708333 169.708333 331.308333 210.108333 301.008333 240.408333
271.259259 372.259259 170.259259 331.859259 210.659259 301.559259 240.959259
271.810185 373.810185 169.810185 333.010185 210.610185 302.410185 241.210185
272.361111 374.361111 170.361111 333.561111 211.161111 302.961111 241.761111
272.912037 374.912037 170.912037 334.112037 211.712037 303.512037 242.312037
273.462963 376.462963 170.462963 335.262963 211.662963 304.362963 242.562963

62
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
274.013889 377.013889 171.013889 335.813889 212.213889 304.913889 243.113889
274.564815 378.564815 170.564815 336.964815 212.164815 305.764815 243.364815
275.115741 379.115741 171.115741 337.515741 212.715741 306.315741 243.915741
275.666667 379.666667 171.666667 338.066667 213.266667 306.866667 244.466667
276.217593 381.217593 171.217593 339.217593 213.217593 307.717593 244.717593
276.768519 381.768519 171.768519 339.768519 213.768519 308.268519 245.268519
277.319444 382.319444 172.319444 340.319444 214.319444 308.819444 245.819444
277.87037 383.87037 171.87037 341.47037 214.27037 309.67037 246.07037
278.421296 384.421296 172.421296 342.021296 214.821296 310.221296 246.621296
278.972222 384.972222 172.972222 342.572222 215.372222 310.772222 247.172222
279.523148 386.523148 172.523148 343.723148 215.323148 311.623148 247.423148
280.074074 387.074074 173.074074 344.274074 215.874074 312.174074 247.974074
280.625 387.625 173.625 344.825 216.425 312.725 248.525
281.175926 388.175926 174.175926 345.375926 216.975926 313.275926 249.075926
281.726852 389.726852 173.726852 346.526852 216.926852 314.126852 249.326852
282.277778 390.277778 174.277778 347.077778 217.477778 314.677778 249.877778
282.828704 390.828704 174.828704 347.628704 218.028704 315.228704 250.428704
283.37963 391.37963 175.37963 348.17963 218.57963 315.77963 250.97963
283.930556 392.930556 174.930556 349.330556 218.530556 316.630556 251.230556
284.481481 393.481481 175.481481 349.881481 219.081481 317.181481 251.781481
285.032407 394.032407 176.032407 350.432407 219.632407 317.732407 252.332407
285.583333 394.583333 176.583333 350.983333 220.183333 318.283333 252.883333
286.134259 395.134259 177.134259 351.534259 220.734259 318.834259 253.434259
286.685185 395.685185 177.685185 352.085185 221.285185 319.385185 253.985185
287.236111 397.236111 177.236111 353.236111 221.236111 320.236111 254.236111
287.787037 397.787037 177.787037 353.787037 221.787037 320.787037 254.787037
288.337963 398.337963 178.337963 354.337963 222.337963 321.337963 255.337963
288.888889 398.888889 178.888889 354.888889 222.888889 321.888889 255.888889
289.439815 399.439815 179.439815 355.439815 223.439815 322.439815 256.439815
289.990741 399.990741 179.990741 355.990741 223.990741 322.990741 256.990741
290.541667 400.541667 180.541667 356.541667 224.541667 323.541667 257.541667
291.092593 401.092593 181.092593 357.092593 225.092593 324.092593 258.092593
291.643519 401.643519 181.643519 357.643519 225.643519 324.643519 258.643519
292.194444 402.194444 182.194444 358.194444 226.194444 325.194444 259.194444
292.74537 402.74537 182.74537 358.74537 226.74537 325.74537 259.74537
293.296296 404.296296 182.296296 359.896296 226.696296 326.596296 259.996296
293.847222 404.847222 182.847222 360.447222 227.247222 327.147222 260.547222
294.398148 405.398148 183.398148 360.998148 227.798148 327.698148 261.098148
294.949074 405.949074 183.949074 361.549074 228.349074 328.249074 261.649074
295.5 406.5 184.5 362.1 228.9 328.8 262.2
296.050926 407.050926 185.050926 362.650926 229.450926 329.350926 262.750926

63
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
296.601852 407.601852 185.601852 363.201852 230.001852 329.901852 263.301852
297.152778 408.152778 186.152778 363.752778 230.552778 330.452778 263.852778
297.703704 408.703704 186.703704 364.303704 231.103704 331.003704 264.403704
298.25463 408.25463 188.25463 364.25463 232.25463 331.25463 265.25463
298.805556 408.805556 188.805556 364.805556 232.805556 331.805556 265.805556
299.356481 409.356481 189.356481 365.356481 233.356481 332.356481 266.356481
299.907407 409.907407 189.907407 365.907407 233.907407 332.907407 266.907407
300.458333 410.458333 190.458333 366.458333 234.458333 333.458333 267.458333
301.009259 411.009259 191.009259 367.009259 235.009259 334.009259 268.009259
301.560185 411.560185 191.560185 367.560185 235.560185 334.560185 268.560185
302.111111 412.111111 192.111111 368.111111 236.111111 335.111111 269.111111
302.662037 412.662037 192.662037 368.662037 236.662037 335.662037 269.662037
303.212963 413.212963 193.212963 369.212963 237.212963 336.212963 270.212963
303.763889 413.763889 193.763889 369.763889 237.763889 336.763889 270.763889
304.314815 413.314815 195.314815 369.714815 238.914815 337.014815 271.614815
304.865741 413.865741 195.865741 370.265741 239.465741 337.565741 272.165741
305.416667 414.416667 196.416667 370.816667 240.016667 338.116667 272.716667
305.967593 414.967593 196.967593 371.367593 240.567593 338.667593 273.267593
306.518519 415.518519 197.518519 371.918519 241.118519 339.218519 273.818519
307.069444 416.069444 198.069444 372.469444 241.669444 339.769444 274.369444
307.62037 415.62037 199.62037 372.42037 242.82037 340.02037 275.22037
308.171296 416.171296 200.171296 372.971296 243.371296 340.571296 275.771296
308.722222 416.722222 200.722222 373.522222 243.922222 341.122222 276.322222
309.273148 417.273148 201.273148 374.073148 244.473148 341.673148 276.873148
309.824074 416.824074 202.824074 374.024074 245.624074 341.924074 277.724074
310.375 417.375 203.375 374.575 246.175 342.475 278.275
310.925926 417.925926 203.925926 375.125926 246.725926 343.025926 278.825926
311.476852 418.476852 204.476852 375.676852 247.276852 343.576852 279.376852
312.027778 418.027778 206.027778 375.627778 248.427778 343.827778 280.227778
312.578704 418.578704 206.578704 376.178704 248.978704 344.378704 280.778704
313.12963 419.12963 207.12963 376.72963 249.52963 344.92963 281.32963
313.680556 418.680556 208.680556 376.680556 250.680556 345.180556 282.180556
314.231481 419.231481 209.231481 377.231481 251.231481 345.731481 282.731481
314.782407 419.782407 209.782407 377.782407 251.782407 346.282407 283.282407
315.333333 419.333333 211.333333 377.733333 252.933333 346.533333 284.133333
315.884259 419.884259 211.884259 378.284259 253.484259 347.084259 284.684259
316.435185 420.435185 212.435185 378.835185 254.035185 347.635185 285.235185
316.986111 419.986111 213.986111 378.786111 255.186111 347.886111 286.086111
317.537037 420.537037 214.537037 379.337037 255.737037 348.437037 286.637037
318.087963 420.087963 216.087963 379.287963 256.887963 348.687963 287.487963
318.638889 420.638889 216.638889 379.838889 257.438889 349.238889 288.038889

64
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
319.189815 421.189815 217.189815 380.389815 257.989815 349.789815 288.589815
319.740741 420.740741 218.740741 380.340741 259.140741 350.040741 289.440741
320.291667 421.291667 219.291667 380.891667 259.691667 350.591667 289.991667
320.842593 420.842593 220.842593 380.842593 260.842593 350.842593 290.842593
321.393519 421.393519 221.393519 381.393519 261.393519 351.393519 291.393519
321.944444 420.944444 222.944444 381.344444 262.544444 351.644444 292.244444
322.49537 421.49537 223.49537 381.89537 263.09537 352.19537 292.79537
323.046296 421.046296 225.046296 381.846296 264.246296 352.446296 293.646296
323.597222 421.597222 225.597222 382.397222 264.797222 352.997222 294.197222
324.148148 421.148148 227.148148 382.348148 265.948148 353.248148 295.048148
324.699074 420.699074 228.699074 382.299074 267.099074 353.499074 295.899074
325.25 421.25 229.25 382.85 267.65 354.05 296.45
325.800926 420.800926 230.800926 382.800926 268.800926 354.300926 297.300926
326.351852 421.351852 231.351852 383.351852 269.351852 354.851852 297.851852
326.902778 420.902778 232.902778 383.302778 270.502778 355.102778 298.702778
327.453704 420.453704 234.453704 383.253704 271.653704 355.353704 299.553704
328.00463 421.00463 235.00463 383.80463 272.20463 355.90463 300.10463
328.555556 420.555556 236.555556 383.755556 273.355556 356.155556 300.955556
329.106481 420.106481 238.106481 383.706481 274.506481 356.406481 301.806481
329.657407 420.657407 238.657407 384.257407 275.057407 356.957407 302.357407
330.208333 420.208333 240.208333 384.208333 276.208333 357.208333 303.208333
330.759259 419.759259 241.759259 384.159259 277.359259 357.459259 304.059259
331.310185 419.310185 243.310185 384.110185 278.510185 357.710185 304.910185
331.861111 419.861111 243.861111 384.661111 279.061111 358.261111 305.461111
332.412037 419.412037 245.412037 384.612037 280.212037 358.512037 306.312037
332.962963 418.962963 246.962963 384.562963 281.362963 358.762963 307.162963
333.513889 418.513889 248.513889 384.513889 282.513889 359.013889 308.013889
334.064815 418.064815 250.064815 384.464815 283.664815 359.264815 308.864815
334.615741 417.615741 251.615741 384.415741 284.815741 359.515741 309.715741
335.166667 418.166667 252.166667 384.966667 285.366667 360.066667 310.266667
335.717593 417.717593 253.717593 384.917593 286.517593 360.317593 311.117593
336.268519 417.268519 255.268519 384.868519 287.668519 360.568519 311.968519
336.819444 416.819444 256.819444 384.819444 288.819444 360.819444 312.819444
337.37037 416.37037 258.37037 384.77037 289.97037 361.07037 313.67037
337.921296 415.921296 259.921296 384.721296 291.121296 361.321296 314.521296
338.472222 415.472222 261.472222 384.672222 292.272222 361.572222 315.372222
339.023148 415.023148 263.023148 384.623148 293.423148 361.823148 316.223148
339.574074 413.574074 265.574074 383.974074 295.174074 361.774074 317.374074
340.125 413.125 267.125 383.925 296.325 362.025 318.225
340.675926 412.675926 268.675926 383.875926 297.475926 362.275926 319.075926
341.226852 412.226852 270.226852 383.826852 298.626852 362.526852 319.926852

65
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
341.777778 411.777778 271.777778 383.777778 299.777778 362.777778 320.777778
342.328704 410.328704 274.328704 383.128704 301.528704 362.728704 321.928704
342.87963 409.87963 275.87963 383.07963 302.67963 362.97963 322.77963
343.430556 409.430556 277.430556 383.030556 303.830556 363.230556 323.630556
343.981481 407.981481 279.981481 382.381481 305.581481 363.181481 324.781481
344.532407 407.532407 281.532407 382.332407 306.732407 363.432407 325.632407
345.083333 406.083333 284.083333 381.683333 308.483333 363.383333 326.783333
345.634259 405.634259 285.634259 381.634259 309.634259 363.634259 327.634259
346.185185 404.185185 288.185185 380.985185 311.385185 363.585185 328.785185
346.736111 402.736111 290.736111 380.336111 313.136111 363.536111 329.936111
347.287037 402.287037 292.287037 380.287037 314.287037 363.787037 330.787037
347.837963 400.837963 294.837963 379.637963 316.037963 363.737963 331.937963
348.388889 399.388889 297.388889 378.988889 317.788889 363.688889 333.088889
348.939815 397.939815 299.939815 378.339815 319.539815 363.639815 334.239815
349.490741 396.490741 302.490741 377.690741 321.290741 363.590741 335.390741
350.041667 395.041667 305.041667 377.041667 323.041667 363.541667 336.541667
350.592593 392.592593 308.592593 375.792593 325.392593 363.192593 337.992593
351.143519 390.143519 312.143519 374.543519 327.743519 362.843519 339.443519
351.694444 388.694444 314.694444 373.894444 329.494444 362.794444 340.594444
352.24537 386.24537 318.24537 372.64537 331.84537 362.44537 342.04537
352.796296 382.796296 322.796296 370.796296 334.796296 361.796296 343.796296
353.347222 379.347222 327.347222 368.947222 337.747222 361.147222 345.547222
353.898148 375.898148 331.898148 367.098148 340.698148 360.498148 347.298148
354.449074 369.449074 339.449074 363.449074 345.449074 358.949074 349.949074
355 355 355 355 355 355 355

66
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LINK 2 PATH PROFILE

Table 3.4- Path Description of Link 1

DISTANCE FROM SITE 2 LENGTH IN MILES DESCRIPTION

0 0 – 6.4 Forest – Rice fields

6.4 6.4 – 10.53 Mountainous

10.53 10.53 – 12.6 Forest – Residential

12.6 12.6 – 14.8 Rice fields

OBSTACLE AND ELEVATION

Figure 3.3 - Path Elevation of Link 2

NOTE: Elevation is measured for every 0.1 miles.

Table 3.5 - Path Profile Data of Link 2

POINT D1 D2 ELEVATIO EARTH FRESNEL TREES AND TOTAL


N CURVATURE ZONE GROWTH
TX 0 14.8 63 0 0 50 113
1 0.1 14.7 69 1 9 50 129
2 0.2 14.6 69 2 12 50 133
3 0.3 14.5 66 3 14 50 133

67
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
4 0.4 14.4 72 4 16 50 142
5 0.5 14.3 76 5 18 50 149
6 0.6 14.2 74 6 20 50 150
7 0.7 14.1 70 7 21 50 148
8 0.8 14 76 8 23 50 157
9 0.9 13.9 71 9 24 50 154
10 1 13.8 68 10 25 50 153
11 1.1 13.7 72 11 26 50 159
12 1.2 13.6 71 11 27 50 159
13 1.3 13.5 72 12 28 50 162
14 1.4 13.4 75 13 29 50 167
15 1.5 13.3 81 14 30 50 175
16 1.6 13.2 82 15 31 50 178
17 1.7 13.1 82 15 32 50 179
18 1.8 13 87 16 33 50 186
19 1.9 12.9 74 17 33 50 174
20 2 12.8 77 18 34 50 179
21 2.1 12.7 76 18 35 50 179
22 2.2 12.6 76 19 36 50 181
23 2.3 12.5 76 20 36 50 182
24 2.4 12.4 77 20 37 50 184
25 2.5 12.3 94 21 37 50 202
26 2.6 12.2 90 22 38 50 200
27 2.7 12.1 82 22 39 50 193
28 2.8 12 81 23 39 50 193
29 2.9 11.9 76 24 40 50 190
30 3 11.8 74 24 40 50 188
31 3.1 11.7 72 25 41 50 188
32 3.2 11.6 82 25 41 50 198
33 3.3 11.5 84 26 42 50 202
34 3.4 11.4 79 26 42 50 197
35 3.5 11.3 71 27 42 50 190
36 3.6 11.2 71 27 43 50 191
37 3.7 11.1 87 28 43 50 208
38 3.8 11 78 28 44 50 200
39 3.9 10.9 63 29 44 50 186
40 4 10.8 57 29 44 50 180
41 4.1 10.7 55 30 45 50 180
42 4.2 10.6 56 30 45 50 181
43 4.3 10.5 58 31 45 50 184
44 4.4 10.4 60 31 46 50 187

68
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
45 4.5 10.3 57 31 46 50 184
46 4.6 10.2 59 32 46 50 187
47 4.7 10.1 58 32 46 50 186
48 4.8 10 56 33 47 50 186
49 4.9 9.9 54 33 47 50 184
50 5 9.8 53 33 47 50 183
51 5.1 9.7 54 33 47 50 184
52 5.2 9.6 56 34 48 50 188
53 5.3 9.5 58 34 48 50 190
54 5.4 9.4 59 34 48 50 191
55 5.5 9.3 60 35 48 50 193
56 5.6 9.2 58 35 48 50 191
57 5.7 9.1 58 35 48 50 191
58 5.8 9 57 35 49 50 191
59 5.9 8.9 57 36 49 50 192
60 6 8.8 56 36 49 50 191
61 6.1 8.7 56 36 49 50 191
62 6.2 8.6 56 36 49 50 191
63 6.3 8.5 55 36 49 50 190
64 6.4 8.4 55 36 49 50 190
65 6.5 8.3 54 36 49 50 189
66 6.6 8.2 54 37 50 50 191
67 6.7 8.1 57 37 50 50 194
68 6.8 8 53 37 50 50 190
69 6.9 7.9 53 37 50 50 190
70 7 7.8 54 37 50 50 191
71 7.1 7.7 56 37 50 50 193
72 7.2 7.6 56 37 50 50 193
73 7.3 7.5 57 37 50 50 194
74 7.4 7.4 58 37 50 50 195
75 7.5 7.3 58 37 50 50 195
76 7.6 7.2 59 37 50 50 196
77 7.7 7.1 60 37 50 50 197
78 7.8 7 62 37 50 50 199
79 7.9 6.9 63 37 50 50 200
80 8 6.8 63 37 50 50 200
81 8.1 6.7 63 37 50 50 200
82 8.2 6.6 63 37 50 50 200
83 8.3 6.5 62 36 49 50 197
84 8.4 6.4 64 36 49 50 199
85 8.5 6.3 62 36 49 50 197

69
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
86 8.6 6.2 62 36 49 50 197
87 8.7 6.1 66 36 49 50 201
88 8.8 6 68 36 49 50 203
89 8.9 5.9 68 36 49 50 203
90 9 5.8 62 35 49 50 196
91 9.1 5.7 57 35 48 50 190
92 9.2 5.6 57 35 48 50 190
93 9.3 5.5 56 35 48 50 189
94 9.4 5.4 57 34 48 50 189
95 9.5 5.3 58 34 48 50 190
96 9.6 5.2 60 34 48 50 192
97 9.7 5.1 60 33 47 50 190
98 9.8 5 60 33 47 50 190
99 9.9 4.9 60 33 47 50 190
100 10 4.8 59 33 47 50 189
101 10.1 4.7 59 32 46 50 187
102 10.2 4.6 59 32 46 50 187
103 10.3 4.5 61 31 46 50 188
104 10.4 4.4 62 31 46 50 189
105 10.5 4.3 64 31 45 50 190
106 10.6 4.2 64 30 45 50 189
107 10.7 4.1 65 30 45 50 190
108 10.8 4 65 29 44 50 188
109 10.9 3.9 65 29 44 50 188
110 11 3.8 67 28 44 50 189
111 11.1 3.7 68 28 43 50 189
112 11.2 3.6 69 27 43 50 189
113 11.3 3.5 70 27 42 50 189
114 11.4 3.4 71 26 42 50 189
115 11.5 3.3 73 26 42 50 191
116 11.6 3.2 74 25 41 50 190
117 11.7 3.1 74 25 41 50 190
118 11.8 3 74 24 40 50 188
119 11.9 2.9 76 24 40 50 190
120 12 2.8 77 23 39 50 189
121 12.1 2.7 77 22 39 50 188
122 12.2 2.6 78 22 38 50 188
123 12.3 2.5 78 21 37 50 186
124 12.4 2.4 78 20 37 50 185
125 12.5 2.3 79 20 36 50 185
126 12.6 2.2 80 19 36 50 185

70
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
127 12.7 2.1 81 18 35 50 184
128 12.8 2 82 18 34 50 184
129 12.9 1.9 84 17 33 50 184
130 13 1.8 86 16 33 50 185
131 13.1 1.7 87 15 32 50 184
132 13.2 1.6 87 15 31 50 183
133 13.3 1.5 89 14 30 50 183
134 13.4 1.4 89 13 29 50 181
135 13.5 1.3 90 12 28 50 180
136 13.6 1.2 92 11 27 50 180
137 13.7 1.1 94 11 26 50 181
138 13.8 1 96 10 25 50 181
139 13.9 0.9 98 9 24 50 181
140 14 0.8 99 8 23 50 180
141 14.1 0.7 101 7 21 50 179
142 14.2 0.6 107 6 20 50 183
143 14.3 0.5 109 5 18 50 182
144 14.4 0.4 112 4 16 50 182
145 14.5 0.3 114 3 14 50 181
146 14.6 0.2 117 2 12 50 181
147 14.7 0.1 119 1 9 50 179
RX 14.8 0 121 0 0 50 171

EARTH’S CURVATURE COMPUTATION

FORMULA:

0.667(d1)(d2)
; ft
k

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

k = k factor

(0.667)(0.2)(14.6)
EC2: = 1.9476 ft
1

71
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
(0.667)(0.3)(14.5)
EC3 : = 2.9014 ft
1

(0.667)(0.4)(14.4)
EC4: = 3.84192 ft
1

(0.667)(0.5)(14.3)
EC5: = 4.76905 ft
1

(0.667)(0.6)(14.2)
EC6: = 5.6828 ft
1

NOTE: The complete computation of the Earth’s curvature is solved using excel.

FRESNEL CLEARANCE RADIUS

FORMULA:

d1d2
R 𝑛 = 72.1√ ; ft F = 7.9 GHz, D = d1 + d2
FD

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

F = frequency in Gigahertz

F2 : 72.1√0.2(14.6)/(7.9 ∗ 14.8) = 11.3941 ft

F3: 72.1√0.3(14.5)/(7.9 ∗ 14.8) = 13.9070 ft

F4: 72.1√0.4(14.4)/7.9 ∗ 14.8) = 16.0030 ft

F5: 72.1√0.5(14.3)/(7.9 ∗ 14.8) = 17.8296 ft

F6: 72.1√0.6(14.2)/(7.9 ∗ 14.8) = 19.4630 ft

72
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Note: The first channel of the frequency band is used in the formula.

ANTENNA AND TOWER HEIGHT


Antenna Height Tx: 145 ft

Antenna Height Rx: 96 ft

REFLECTION POINT / AREA

FORMULA:

Lower Antenna Height 96


Antenna Ratio = = = 0.6620
Higher Antenna Height 145

LINE OF SIGHT

FORMULA:

Yi = (Y/D ) Di; ft, LOSi = HT + Yi; ft

Y = HR – HT = 96 – 145ft = 49 ft.

D = Path length = 14.8 mi

Di = Distance from Rx

Point 1: Yi = (Y/D)

Di = (49/14.8)(0)=0 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 145 ft + 0 ft = 145

Point 2: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (49/14.8)(0.5)= 1.66 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 145 ft + 1.66 ft = 146.66

73
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Point 3: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (49/14.8)(1.0)= 3.31 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 145 ft + 3.31 ft = 148.31

Point 4: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (49/14.8) (1.5)= 4.97 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 145 ft + 4.97 ft. = 149.97

Point 5: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (49/14.8) (2.0)= 6.62 ft

LOSi = HT + Yi = 145 ft + 6.62 ft = 151.62

Figure 3.4 - Line of Sight for Link 2

FRESNEL ZONE
FORMULA:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi
Where Fi = Fresnel Clearance (ft)

74
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Point 1:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 145 ft. ± (0.3)(0) = 145 ft. ; 145 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 145 ft ± (0.6)(0) = 145 ft. ; 145 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 145 ft ± (1)(0) = 145 ft. ; 145 ft.
Point 2:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 146.66 ± (0.3)( 25) = 154.16 ft. ; 139.16 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 146.66 ± (0.6)( 25) = 161.66 ft.; 131.66 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 146.66 ± (1)( 25) = 171.66 ft. ; 121.66 ft.
Point 3:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 169.94 ± (0.3)( 35) = 180.44 ft; 159.44 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 169.94± (0.6)( 35) = 190.94 ft. ; 148.94 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 169.94± (1)( 35) = 204.94 ft. ; 134.94 ft.

Table 3.6 - Line of Sight Data for Link 2

LOS F1 NF1 F1 NF1 F1 NF1


208 208 208 208 208 208 208
209 218 200 214.4 203.6 211.7 206.3
209 221 197 216.2 201.8 212.6 205.4
209 223 195 217.4 200.6 213.2 204.8
209 225 193 218.6 199.4 213.8 204.2
209 227 191 219.8 198.2 214.4 203.6
209 229 189 221 197 215 203
209 230 188 221.6 196.4 215.3 202.7
209 232 186 222.8 195.2 215.9 202.1
209 233 185 223.4 194.6 216.2 201.8
209 234 184 224 194 216.5 201.5
209 235 183 224.6 193.4 216.8 201.2
209 236 182 225.2 192.8 217.1 200.9

75
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
209 237 181 225.8 192.2 217.4 200.6
209 238 180 226.4 191.6 217.7 200.3
209 239 179 227 191 218 200
209 240 178 227.6 190.4 218.3 199.7
210 242 178 229.2 190.8 219.6 200.4
210 243 177 229.8 190.2 219.9 200.1
210 243 177 229.8 190.2 219.9 200.1
210 244 176 230.4 189.6 220.2 199.8
210 245 175 231 189 220.5 199.5
210 246 174 231.6 188.4 220.8 199.2
210 246 174 231.6 188.4 220.8 199.2
210 247 173 232.2 187.8 221.1 198.9
210 247 173 232.2 187.8 221.1 198.9
210 248 172 232.8 187.2 221.4 198.6
210 249 171 233.4 186.6 221.7 198.3
210 249 171 233.4 186.6 221.7 198.3
210 250 170 234 186 222 198
210 250 170 234 186 222 198
210 251 169 234.6 185.4 222.3 197.7
210 251 169 234.6 185.4 222.3 197.7
211 253 169 236.2 185.8 223.6 198.4
211 253 169 236.2 185.8 223.6 198.4
211 253 169 236.2 185.8 223.6 198.4
211 254 168 236.8 185.2 223.9 198.1
211 254 168 236.8 185.2 223.9 198.1
211 255 167 237.4 184.6 224.2 197.8
211 255 167 237.4 184.6 224.2 197.8
211 255 167 237.4 184.6 224.2 197.8

76
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
211 256 166 238 184 224.5 197.5
211 256 166 238 184 224.5 197.5
211 256 166 238 184 224.5 197.5
211 257 165 238.6 183.4 224.8 197.2
211 257 165 238.6 183.4 224.8 197.2
211 257 165 238.6 183.4 224.8 197.2
211 257 165 238.6 183.4 224.8 197.2
211 258 164 239.2 182.8 225.1 196.9
211 258 164 239.2 182.8 225.1 196.9
212 259 165 240.2 183.8 226.1 197.9
212 259 165 240.2 183.8 226.1 197.9
212 260 164 240.8 183.2 226.4 197.6
212 260 164 240.8 183.2 226.4 197.6
212 260 164 240.8 183.2 226.4 197.6
212 260 164 240.8 183.2 226.4 197.6
212 260 164 240.8 183.2 226.4 197.6
212 260 164 240.8 183.2 226.4 197.6
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
212 261 163 241.4 182.6 226.7 197.3
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198

77
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
213 263 163 243 183 228 198
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 263 165 243.4 184.6 228.7 199.3
214 262 166 242.8 185.2 228.4 199.6
214 262 166 242.8 185.2 228.4 199.6
214 262 166 242.8 185.2 228.4 199.6
214 262 166 242.8 185.2 228.4 199.6
214 262 166 242.8 185.2 228.4 199.6
214 262 166 242.8 185.2 228.4 199.6

78
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
214 261 167 242.2 185.8 228.1 199.9
214 261 167 242.2 185.8 228.1 199.9
215 262 168 243.2 186.8 229.1 200.9
215 262 168 243.2 186.8 229.1 200.9
215 261 169 242.6 187.4 228.8 201.2
215 261 169 242.6 187.4 228.8 201.2
215 261 169 242.6 187.4 228.8 201.2
215 261 169 242.6 187.4 228.8 201.2
215 260 170 242 188 228.5 201.5
215 260 170 242 188 228.5 201.5
215 260 170 242 188 228.5 201.5
215 259 171 241.4 188.6 228.2 201.8
215 259 171 241.4 188.6 228.2 201.8
215 259 171 241.4 188.6 228.2 201.8
215 258 172 240.8 189.2 227.9 202.1
215 258 172 240.8 189.2 227.9 202.1
215 257 173 240.2 189.8 227.6 202.4
215 257 173 240.2 189.8 227.6 202.4
215 257 173 240.2 189.8 227.6 202.4
216 257 175 240.6 191.4 228.3 203.7
216 257 175 240.6 191.4 228.3 203.7
216 256 176 240 192 228 204
216 256 176 240 192 228 204
216 255 177 239.4 192.6 227.7 204.3
216 255 177 239.4 192.6 227.7 204.3
216 254 178 238.8 193.2 227.4 204.6
216 253 179 238.2 193.8 227.1 204.9
216 253 179 238.2 193.8 227.1 204.9

79
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
216 252 180 237.6 194.4 226.8 205.2
216 252 180 237.6 194.4 226.8 205.2
216 251 181 237 195 226.5 205.5
216 250 182 236.4 195.6 226.2 205.8
216 249 183 235.8 196.2 225.9 206.1
216 249 183 235.8 196.2 225.9 206.1
216 248 184 235.2 196.8 225.6 206.4
217 248 186 235.6 198.4 226.3 207.7
217 247 187 235 199 226 208
217 246 188 234.4 199.6 225.7 208.3
217 245 189 233.8 200.2 225.4 208.6
217 244 190 233.2 200.8 225.1 208.9
217 243 191 232.6 201.4 224.8 209.2
217 242 192 232 202 224.5 209.5
217 241 193 231.4 202.6 224.2 209.8
217 240 194 230.8 203.2 223.9 210.1
217 238 196 229.6 204.4 223.3 210.7
217 237 197 229 205 223 211
217 235 199 227.8 206.2 222.4 211.6
217 233 201 226.6 207.4 221.8 212.2
217 231 203 225.4 208.6 221.2 212.8
217 229 205 224.2 209.8 220.6 213.4
217 226 208 222.4 211.6 219.7 214.3
217 217 217 217 217 217 217

80
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LINK 3 PATH PROFILE

Table 3.7- Path Description of Link 3

DISTANCE FROM SITE 3 LENGTH IN MILES DESCRIPTION

0 0 – 3.2 Forest – Rice fields

3.2 3.2 – 5 Mountainous

5 5 – 7.12 Rice fields

7.12 7.12 – 12.5 Forest – Rice fields

12.5 12.5 - 18 Mountainous

OBSTACLE AND ELEVATION

Figure 3.5 - Path Elevation of Link 3

NOTE: Elevation is measured for every 0.1 miles.

Table 3.8 - Path Profile Data of Link 3

POINT D1 D2 ELEVATION EARTH FRESNEL TREES AND GROWTH TOTAL


CURVATURE ZONE
TX 0 18 121 0 0 50 171
1 0.1 17.9 120 2 11 50 183
2 0.2 17.8 119 3 16 50 188
3 0.3 17.7 117 4 19 50 190

81
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
4 0.4 17.6 118 5 22 50 195
5 0.5 17.5 116 6 24 50 196
6 0.6 17.4 113 7 27 50 197
7 0.7 17.3 108 9 29 50 196
8 0.8 17.2 108 10 31 50 199
9 0.9 17.1 110 11 32 50 203
10 1 17 105 12 34 50 201
11 1.1 16.9 101 13 35 50 199
12 1.2 16.8 97 14 37 50 198
13 1.3 16.7 99 15 38 50 202
14 1.4 16.6 101 16 39 50 206
15 1.5 16.5 102 17 41 50 210
16 1.6 16.4 104 18 42 50 214
17 1.7 16.3 105 19 43 50 217
18 1.8 16.2 100 20 44 50 214
19 1.9 16.1 100 21 45 50 216
20 2 16 105 22 46 50 223
21 2.1 15.9 106 23 47 50 226
22 2.2 15.8 104 24 48 50 226
23 2.3 15.7 101 25 49 50 225
24 2.4 15.6 98 25 50 50 223
25 2.5 15.5 97 26 51 50 224
26 2.6 15.4 99 27 52 50 228
27 2.7 15.3 100 28 52 50 230
28 2.8 15.2 96 29 53 50 228
29 2.9 15.1 102 30 54 50 236
30 3 15 107 31 55 50 243
31 3.1 14.9 111 31 55 50 247
32 3.2 14.8 109 32 56 50 247
33 3.3 14.7 107 33 57 50 247
34 3.4 14.6 104 34 57 50 245
35 3.5 14.5 102 34 58 50 244
36 3.6 14.4 100 35 59 50 244
37 3.7 14.3 92 36 59 50 237
38 3.8 14.2 90 36 60 50 236
39 3.9 14.1 88 37 60 50 235
40 4 14 95 38 61 50 244
41 4.1 13.9 101 39 62 50 252
42 4.2 13.8 98 39 62 50 249
43 4.3 13.7 98 40 63 50 251
44 4.4 13.6 99 40 63 50 252

82
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
45 4.5 13.5 100 41 64 50 255
46 4.6 13.4 98 42 64 50 254
47 4.7 13.3 107 42 64 50 263
48 4.8 13.2 117 43 65 50 275
49 4.9 13.1 115 43 65 50 273
50 5 13 117 44 66 50 277
51 5.1 12.9 118 44 66 50 278
52 5.2 12.8 116 45 66 50 277
53 5.3 12.7 114 45 67 50 276
54 5.4 12.6 118 46 67 50 281
55 5.5 12.5 117 46 68 50 281
56 5.6 12.4 117 47 68 50 282
57 5.7 12.3 113 47 68 50 278
58 5.8 12.2 111 48 69 50 278
59 5.9 12.1 110 48 69 50 277
60 6 12 109 49 69 50 277
61 6.1 11.9 107 49 69 50 275
62 6.2 11.8 104 49 70 50 273
63 6.3 11.7 104 50 70 50 274
64 6.4 11.6 103 50 70 50 273
65 6.5 11.5 103 50 70 50 273
66 6.6 11.4 100 51 71 50 272
67 6.7 11.3 98 51 71 50 270
68 6.8 11.2 96 51 71 50 268
69 6.9 11.1 94 52 71 50 267
70 7 11 92 52 71 50 265
71 7.1 10.9 90 52 72 50 264
72 7.2 10.8 89 52 72 50 263
73 7.3 10.7 87 53 72 50 262
74 7.4 10.6 87 53 72 50 262
75 7.5 10.5 87 53 72 50 262
76 7.6 10.4 87 53 72 50 262
77 7.7 10.3 87 53 73 50 263
78 7.8 10.2 83 54 73 50 260
79 7.9 10.1 84 54 73 50 261
80 8 10 86 54 73 50 263
81 8.1 9.9 86 54 73 50 263
82 8.2 9.8 86 54 73 50 263
83 8.3 9.7 86 54 73 50 263
84 8.4 9.6 86 54 73 50 263
85 8.5 9.5 85 54 73 50 262

83
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
86 8.6 9.4 89 54 73 50 266
87 8.7 9.3 90 54 73 50 267
88 8.8 9.2 90 55 73 50 268
89 8.9 9.1 90 55 73 50 268
90 9 9 88 55 73 50 266
91 9.1 8.9 84 55 73 50 262
92 9.2 8.8 81 55 73 50 259
93 9.3 8.7 84 54 73 50 261
94 9.4 8.6 97 54 73 50 274
95 9.5 8.5 97 54 73 50 274
96 9.6 8.4 88 54 73 50 265
97 9.7 8.3 88 54 73 50 265
98 9.8 8.2 92 54 73 50 269
99 9.9 8.1 91 54 73 50 268
100 10 8 92 54 73 50 269
101 10.1 7.9 95 54 73 50 272
102 10.2 7.8 119 54 73 50 296
103 10.3 7.7 102 53 73 50 278
104 10.4 7.6 119 53 72 50 294
105 10.5 7.5 135 53 72 50 310
106 10.6 7.4 137 53 72 50 312
107 10.7 7.3 140 53 72 50 315
108 10.8 7.2 142 52 72 50 316
109 10.9 7.1 132 52 72 50 306
110 11 7 168 52 71 50 341
111 11.1 6.9 149 52 71 50 322
112 11.2 6.8 132 51 71 50 304
113 11.3 6.7 134 51 71 50 306
114 11.4 6.6 146 51 71 50 318
115 11.5 6.5 173 50 70 50 343
116 11.6 6.4 190 50 70 50 360
117 11.7 6.3 193 50 70 50 363
118 11.8 6.2 177 49 70 50 346
119 11.9 6.1 168 49 69 50 336
120 12 6 164 49 69 50 332
121 12.1 5.9 153 48 69 50 320
122 12.2 5.8 185 48 69 50 352
123 12.3 5.7 213 47 68 50 378
124 12.4 5.6 189 47 68 50 354
125 12.5 5.5 222 46 68 50 386
126 12.6 5.4 197 46 67 50 360

84
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
127 12.7 5.3 211 45 67 50 373
128 12.8 5.2 210 45 66 50 371
129 12.9 5.1 219 44 66 50 379
130 13 5 259 44 66 50 419
131 13.1 4.9 267 43 65 50 425
132 13.2 4.8 246 43 65 50 404
133 13.3 4.7 273 42 64 50 429
134 13.4 4.6 282 42 64 50 438
135 13.5 4.5 310 41 64 50 465
136 13.6 4.4 317 40 63 50 470
137 13.7 4.3 321 40 63 50 474
138 13.8 4.2 289 39 62 50 440
139 13.9 4.1 240 39 62 50 391
140 14 4 272 38 61 50 421
141 14.1 3.9 272 37 60 50 419
142 14.2 3.8 283 36 60 50 429
143 14.3 3.7 282 36 59 50 427
144 14.4 3.6 311 35 59 50 455
145 14.5 3.5 297 34 58 50 439
146 14.6 3.4 292 34 57 50 433
147 14.7 3.3 304 33 57 50 444
148 14.8 3.2 269 32 56 50 407
149 14.9 3.1 299 31 55 50 435
150 15 3 301 31 55 50 437
151 15.1 2.9 297 30 54 50 431
152 15.2 2.8 282 29 53 50 414
153 15.3 2.7 262 28 52 50 392
154 15.4 2.6 249 27 52 50 378
155 15.5 2.5 278 26 51 50 405
156 15.6 2.4 308 25 50 50 433
157 15.7 2.3 325 25 49 50 449
158 15.8 2.2 322 24 48 50 444
159 15.9 2.1 320 23 47 50 440
160 16 2 332 22 46 50 450
161 16.1 1.9 323 21 45 50 439
162 16.2 1.8 332 20 44 50 446
163 16.3 1.7 332 19 43 50 444
164 16.4 1.6 333 18 42 50 443
165 16.5 1.5 299 17 41 50 407
166 16.6 1.4 308 16 39 50 413
167 16.7 1.3 285 15 38 50 388

85
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
168 16.8 1.2 282 14 37 50 383
169 16.9 1.1 290 13 35 50 388
170 17 1 287 12 34 50 383
171 17.1 0.9 287 11 32 50 380
172 17.2 0.8 309 10 31 50 400
173 17.3 0.7 313 9 29 50 401
174 17.4 0.6 321 7 27 50 405
175 17.5 0.5 329 6 24 50 409
176 17.6 0.4 340 5 22 50 417
177 17.7 0.3 353 4 19 50 426
178 17.8 0.2 355 3 16 50 424
179 17.9 0.1 369 2 11 50 432
TX 18 0 341 0 0 50 391

EARTH’S CURVATURE COMPUTATION

FORMULA:

0.667(d1)(d2)
; ft
k

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

k = k factor

(0.667)(0.2)(17.8)
EC2: = 2.3745 ft
1

(0.667)(0.3)(17.7)
EC3 : = 3.5417 ft
1

(0.667)(0.4)(17.6)
EC4: = 4.6956 ft
1

(0.667)(0.5)(17.5)
EC5: = 5.8362 ft
1

86
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
(0.667)(0.6)(17.4)
EC6: = 6.9634 ft
1

NOTE: The complete computation of the Earth’s curvature is solved using excel.

FRESNEL CLEARANCE RADIUS

FORMULA:

d1d2
R 𝑛 = 72.1√ ; ft F = 4.4 GHz, D = d1 + d2
FD

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

F = frequency in Gigahertz

F2 : 72.1√0.2(17.8)/(4.4 ∗ 18) = 15.2861 ft

F3: 72.1√0.3(17.7)/(4.4 ∗ 18) = 18.6689 ft

F4: 72.1√0.4(17.6)/(4.4 ∗ 18) = 21.4960 ft

F5: 72.1√0.5(17.5)/(4.4 ∗ 18) = 23.9649 ft

F6: 72.1√0.6(17.4)/(4.4 ∗ 18) = 26.1771 ft

Note: The first channel of the frequency band is used in the formula.

ANTENNA AND TOWER HEIGHT


Antenna Height Tx: 90 ft

87
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Antenna Height Rx: 216 ft

REFLECTION POINT / AREA

FORMULA:

Lower Antenna Height 68


Antenna Ratio = = = 0.4166
Higher Antenna Height 216

LINE OF SIGHT

FORMULA:

Yi = (Y/D ) Di; ft, LOSi = HT + Yi; ft

Y = HR – HT = 216 – 68ft = 148 ft.

D = Path length = 18 mi

Di = Distance from Rx

Point 1: Yi = (Y/D)

Di = (148/18)(0)=0 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 68 ft + 0 ft = 68

Point 2: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (148/18)(0.5)= 4.11 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 68 ft + 4.11 ft = 72.11

Point 3: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (148/18)(1.0)= 8.22 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 68 ft + 8.22 ft = 76.22

Point 4: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (148/18) (1.5)= 12.33 ft.

88
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LOSi = HT + Yi = 68 ft + 12.33 ft. = 80.33

Point 5: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (148/18) (2.0)= 16.44 ft

LOSi = HT + Yi = 68 ft + 16.44 ft = 84.44

Figure 3.6 - Line of Sight for Link 3

FRESNEL ZONE
FORMULA:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi
where Fi = Fresnel Clearance (ft)
Point 1:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 68 ft. ± (0.3)(0) = 68 ft. ; 68 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 68 ft. ± (0.6)(0) = 68 ft. ; 68 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 68 ft. ± (1)(0) = 68 ft. ; 68 ft.
Point 2:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 72.11 ± (0.3)( 25) = 79.61 ; 64.61 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 72.11 ± (0.6)( 25) = 87.11 ft. ; 57.11 ft.

89
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 72.11 ± (1)( 25) = 97.11 ft. ; 47.11 ft.
Point3:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 76.22 ± (0.3)(35) = 86.72 ; 65.72 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 76.22 ± (0.6)(35) = 97.22 ft. ; 55.22 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 76.22 ± (1)(35) = 111.22 ft. ; 41.22 ft.

Table 3.9 – Line of Sight Data for Link 3

LOS F1 NF1 F1 NF1 F1 NF1


189 189 189 189 189 189 189
192 203 181 198.6 185.4 195.3 188.7
194 210 178 203.6 184.4 198.8 189.2
196 215 177 207.4 184.6 201.7 190.3
198 220 176 211.2 184.8 204.6 191.4
200 224 176 214.4 185.6 207.2 192.8
202 229 175 218.2 185.8 210.1 193.9
204 233 175 221.4 186.6 212.7 195.3
206 237 175 224.6 187.4 215.3 196.7
208 240 176 227.2 188.8 217.6 198.4
210 244 176 230.4 189.6 220.2 199.8
212 247 177 233 191 222.5 201.5
214 251 177 236.2 191.8 225.1 202.9
216 254 178 238.8 193.2 227.4 204.6
218 257 179 241.4 194.6 229.7 206.3
220 261 179 244.6 195.4 232.3 207.7
222 264 180 247.2 196.8 234.6 209.4
224 267 181 249.8 198.2 236.9 211.1
226 270 182 252.4 199.6 239.2 212.8
228 273 183 255 201 241.5 214.5
230 276 184 257.6 202.4 243.8 216.2
232 279 185 260.2 203.8 246.1 217.9
234 282 186 262.8 205.2 248.4 219.6
237 286 188 266.4 207.6 251.7 222.3
239 289 189 269 209 254 224
241 292 190 271.6 210.4 256.3 225.7
243 295 191 274.2 211.8 258.6 227.4
245 297 193 276.2 213.8 260.6 229.4
247 300 194 278.8 215.2 262.9 231.1
249 303 195 281.4 216.6 265.2 232.8

90
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
251 306 196 284 218 267.5 234.5
253 308 198 286 220 269.5 236.5
255 311 199 288.6 221.4 271.8 238.2
257 314 200 291.2 222.8 274.1 239.9
259 316 202 293.2 224.8 276.1 241.9
261 319 203 295.8 226.2 278.4 243.6
263 322 204 298.4 227.6 280.7 245.3
265 324 206 300.4 229.6 282.7 247.3
267 327 207 303 231 285 249
269 329 209 305 233 287 251
271 332 210 307.6 234.4 289.3 252.7
273 335 211 310.2 235.8 291.6 254.4
275 337 213 312.2 237.8 293.6 256.4
277 340 214 314.8 239.2 295.9 258.1
279 342 216 316.8 241.2 297.9 260.1
281 345 217 319.4 242.6 300.2 261.8
284 348 220 322.4 245.6 303.2 264.8
286 350 222 324.4 247.6 305.2 266.8
288 353 223 327 249 307.5 268.5
290 355 225 329 251 309.5 270.5
292 358 226 331.6 252.4 311.8 272.2
294 360 228 333.6 254.4 313.8 274.2
296 362 230 335.6 256.4 315.8 276.2
298 365 231 338.2 257.8 318.1 277.9
300 367 233 340.2 259.8 320.1 279.9
302 370 234 342.8 261.2 322.4 281.6
304 372 236 344.8 263.2 324.4 283.6
306 374 238 346.8 265.2 326.4 285.6
308 377 239 349.4 266.6 328.7 287.3
310 379 241 351.4 268.6 330.7 289.3
312 381 243 353.4 270.6 332.7 291.3
314 383 245 355.4 272.6 334.7 293.3
316 386 246 358 274 337 295
318 388 248 360 276 339 297
320 390 250 362 278 341 299
322 392 252 364 280 343 301
324 395 253 366.6 281.4 345.3 302.7
326 397 255 368.6 283.4 347.3 304.7
329 400 258 371.6 286.4 350.3 307.7
331 402 260 373.6 288.4 352.3 309.7
333 404 262 375.6 290.4 354.3 311.7

91
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
335 407 263 378.2 291.8 356.6 313.4
337 409 265 380.2 293.8 358.6 315.4
339 411 267 382.2 295.8 360.6 317.4
341 413 269 384.2 297.8 362.6 319.4
343 415 271 386.2 299.8 364.6 321.4
345 417 273 388.2 301.8 366.6 323.4
347 420 274 390.8 303.2 368.9 325.1
349 422 276 392.8 305.2 370.9 327.1
351 424 278 394.8 307.2 372.9 329.1
353 426 280 396.8 309.2 374.9 331.1
355 428 282 398.8 311.2 376.9 333.1
357 430 284 400.8 313.2 378.9 335.1
359 432 286 402.8 315.2 380.9 337.1
361 434 288 404.8 317.2 382.9 339.1
363 436 290 406.8 319.2 384.9 341.1
365 438 292 408.8 321.2 386.9 343.1
367 440 294 410.8 323.2 388.9 345.1
369 442 296 412.8 325.2 390.9 347.1
371 444 298 414.8 327.2 392.9 349.1
373 446 300 416.8 329.2 394.9 351.1
376 449 303 419.8 332.2 397.9 354.1
378 451 305 421.8 334.2 399.9 356.1
380 453 307 423.8 336.2 401.9 358.1
382 455 309 425.8 338.2 403.9 360.1
384 457 311 427.8 340.2 405.9 362.1
386 459 313 429.8 342.2 407.9 364.1
388 461 315 431.8 344.2 409.9 366.1
390 463 317 433.8 346.2 411.9 368.1
392 465 319 435.8 348.2 413.9 370.1
394 467 321 437.8 350.2 415.9 372.1
396 469 323 439.8 352.2 417.9 374.1
398 471 325 441.8 354.2 419.9 376.1
400 473 327 443.8 356.2 421.9 378.1
402 474 330 445.2 358.8 423.6 380.4
404 476 332 447.2 360.8 425.6 382.4
406 478 334 449.2 362.8 427.6 384.4
408 480 336 451.2 364.8 429.6 386.4
410 482 338 453.2 366.8 431.6 388.4
412 484 340 455.2 368.8 433.6 390.4
414 485 343 456.6 371.4 435.3 392.7
416 487 345 458.6 373.4 437.3 394.7

92
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
418 489 347 460.6 375.4 439.3 396.7
421 492 350 463.6 378.4 442.3 399.7
423 494 352 465.6 380.4 444.3 401.7
425 495 355 467 383 446 404
427 497 357 469 385 448 406
429 499 359 471 387 450 408
431 501 361 473 389 452 410
433 502 364 474.4 391.6 453.7 412.3
435 504 366 476.4 393.6 455.7 414.3
437 506 368 478.4 395.6 457.7 416.3
439 508 370 480.4 397.6 459.7 418.3
441 509 373 481.8 400.2 461.4 420.6
443 511 375 483.8 402.2 463.4 422.6
445 513 377 485.8 404.2 465.4 424.6
447 514 380 487.2 406.8 467.1 426.9
449 516 382 489.2 408.8 469.1 428.9
451 517 385 490.6 411.4 470.8 431.2
453 519 387 492.6 413.4 472.8 433.2
455 521 389 494.6 415.4 474.8 435.2
457 522 392 496 418 476.5 437.5
459 524 394 498 420 478.5 439.5
461 525 397 499.4 422.6 480.2 441.8
463 527 399 501.4 424.6 482.2 443.8
465 529 401 503.4 426.6 484.2 445.8
468 531 405 505.8 430.2 486.9 449.1
470 533 407 507.8 432.2 488.9 451.1
472 534 410 509.2 434.8 490.6 453.4
474 536 412 511.2 436.8 492.6 455.4
476 537 415 512.6 439.4 494.3 457.7
478 538 418 514 442 496 460
480 540 420 516 444 498 462
482 541 423 517.4 446.6 499.7 464.3
484 543 425 519.4 448.6 501.7 466.3
486 544 428 520.8 451.2 503.4 468.6
488 545 431 522.2 453.8 505.1 470.9
490 547 433 524.2 455.8 507.1 472.9
492 548 436 525.6 458.4 508.8 475.2
494 549 439 527 461 510.5 477.5
496 551 441 529 463 512.5 479.5
498 552 444 530.4 465.6 514.2 481.8
500 553 447 531.8 468.2 515.9 484.1

93
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
502 554 450 533.2 470.8 517.6 486.4
504 556 452 535.2 472.8 519.6 488.4
506 557 455 536.6 475.4 521.3 490.7
508 558 458 538 478 523 493
510 559 461 539.4 480.6 524.7 495.3
513 561 465 541.8 484.2 527.4 498.6
515 562 468 543.2 486.8 529.1 500.9
517 563 471 544.6 489.4 530.8 503.2
519 564 474 546 492 532.5 505.5
521 565 477 547.4 494.6 534.2 507.8
523 566 480 548.8 497.2 535.9 510.1
525 567 483 550.2 499.8 537.6 512.4
527 568 486 551.6 502.4 539.3 514.7
529 568 490 552.4 505.6 540.7 517.3
531 569 493 553.8 508.2 542.4 519.6
533 570 496 555.2 510.8 544.1 521.9
535 570 500 556 514 545.5 524.5
537 571 503 557.4 516.6 547.2 526.8
539 571 507 558.2 519.8 548.6 529.4
541 572 510 559.6 522.4 550.3 531.7
543 572 514 560.4 525.6 551.7 534.3
545 572 518 561.2 528.8 553.1 536.9
547 571 523 561.4 532.6 554.2 539.8
549 571 527 562.2 535.8 555.6 542.4
551 570 532 562.4 539.6 556.7 545.3
553 569 537 562.6 543.4 557.8 548.2
555 566 544 561.6 548.4 558.3 551.7
557 557 557 557 557 557 557
LINK 4 PATH PROFILE

Table 3.10 - Path Description of Link 4

DISTANCE FROM SITE 4 LENGTH IN MILES DESCRIPTION

0 0 – 1.2 Residential

1.2 1.2 – 8.72 Rice fields

8.72 8.72 – 10.9 Forest - Rice fields

94
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
OBSTACLE AND ELEVATION

Figure 3.7 - Path Elevation of Link 4

NOTE: Elevation is measured for every 0.1 miles.

Table 3.11 - Path Profile Data of Link 4

POINT D1 D2 ELEVATION EARTH FRESNEL ZONE TREES AND TOTAL


CURVATURE GROWTH
TX 0 10.9 341 0 0 50 391
1 0.1 10.8 317 1 9 50 377
2 0.2 10.7 295 2 12 50 359
3 0.3 10.6 300 3 14 50 367
4 0.4 10.5 334 3 16 50 403
5 0.5 10.4 367 4 18 50 439
6 0.6 10.3 380 5 20 50 455
7 0.7 10.2 388 5 21 50 464
8 0.8 10.1 387 6 23 50 466
9 0.9 10 341 7 24 50 422
10 1 9.9 315 7 25 50 397
11 1.1 9.8 324 8 26 50 408
12 1.2 9.7 318 8 27 50 403
13 1.3 9.6 323 9 28 50 410
14 1.4 9.5 335 9 29 50 423
15 1.5 9.4 364 10 30 50 454
16 1.6 9.3 386 10 30 50 476
17 1.7 9.2 400 11 31 50 492
18 1.8 9.1 420 11 32 50 513
19 1.9 9 431 12 33 50 526
20 2 8.9 464 12 33 50 559
21 2.1 8.8 488 13 34 50 585
22 2.2 8.7 484 13 34 50 581

95
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
23 2.3 8.6 479 14 35 50 578
24 2.4 8.5 512 14 36 50 612
25 2.5 8.4 526 15 36 50 627
26 2.6 8.3 501 15 37 50 603
27 2.7 8.2 487 15 37 50 589
28 2.8 8.1 471 16 37 50 574
29 2.9 8 458 16 38 50 562
30 3 7.9 449 16 38 50 553
31 3.1 7.8 455 17 39 50 561
32 3.2 7.7 465 17 39 50 571
33 3.3 7.6 464 17 39 50 570
34 3.4 7.5 465 18 40 50 573
35 3.5 7.4 472 18 40 50 580
36 3.6 7.3 472 18 40 50 580
37 3.7 7.2 490 18 41 50 599
38 3.8 7.1 483 18 41 50 592
39 3.9 7 477 19 41 50 587
40 4 6.9 484 19 41 50 594
41 4.1 6.8 498 19 41 50 608
42 4.2 6.7 547 19 42 50 658
43 4.3 6.6 576 19 42 50 687
44 4.4 6.5 550 20 42 50 662
45 4.5 6.4 526 20 42 50 638
46 4.6 6.3 519 20 42 50 631
47 4.7 6.2 503 20 42 50 615
48 4.8 6.1 497 20 43 50 610
49 4.9 6 507 20 43 50 620
50 5 5.9 496 20 43 50 609
51 5.1 5.8 494 20 43 50 607
52 5.2 5.7 483 20 43 50 596
53 5.3 5.6 484 20 43 50 597
54 5.4 5.5 482 20 43 50 595
55 5.5 5.4 481 20 43 50 594
56 5.6 5.3 504 20 43 50 617
57 5.7 5.2 509 20 43 50 622
58 5.8 5.1 530 20 43 50 643
59 5.9 5 522 20 43 50 635
60 6 4.9 522 20 43 50 635
61 6.1 4.8 534 20 43 50 647
62 6.2 4.7 545 20 42 50 657
63 6.3 4.6 528 20 42 50 640

96
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
64 6.4 4.5 520 20 42 50 632
65 6.5 4.4 506 20 42 50 618
66 6.6 4.3 499 19 42 50 610
67 6.7 4.2 492 19 42 50 603
68 6.8 4.1 458 19 41 50 568
69 6.9 4 433 19 41 50 543
70 7 3.9 455 19 41 50 565
71 7.1 3.8 506 18 41 50 615
72 7.2 3.7 549 18 41 50 658
73 7.3 3.6 529 18 40 50 637
74 7.4 3.5 498 18 40 50 606
75 7.5 3.4 465 18 40 50 573
76 7.6 3.3 468 17 39 50 574
77 7.7 3.2 526 17 39 50 632
78 7.8 3.1 532 17 39 50 638
79 7.9 3 463 16 38 50 567
80 8 2.9 405 16 38 50 509
81 8.1 2.8 406 16 37 50 509
82 8.2 2.7 405 15 37 50 507
83 8.3 2.6 403 15 37 50 505
84 8.4 2.5 402 15 36 50 503
85 8.5 2.4 400 14 36 50 500
86 8.6 2.3 399 14 35 50 498
87 8.7 2.2 444 13 34 50 541
88 8.8 2.1 447 13 34 50 544
89 8.9 2 445 12 33 50 540
90 9 1.9 439 12 33 50 534
91 9.1 1.8 442 11 32 50 535
92 9.2 1.7 434 11 31 50 526
93 9.3 1.6 441 10 30 50 531
94 9.4 1.5 440 10 30 50 530
95 9.5 1.4 438 9 29 50 526
96 9.6 1.3 450 9 28 50 537
97 9.7 1.2 485 8 27 50 570
98 9.8 1.1 506 8 26 50 590
99 9.9 1 548 7 25 50 630
100 10 0.9 622 7 24 50 703
101 10.1 0.8 670 6 23 50 749
102 10.2 0.7 701 5 21 50 777
103 10.3 0.6 700 5 20 50 775
104 10.4 0.5 712 4 18 50 784

97
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
105 10.5 0.4 709 3 16 50 778
106 10.6 0.3 692 3 14 50 759
107 10.7 0.2 683 2 12 50 747
108 10.8 0.1 632 1 9 50 692
109 10.9 0 604 0 0 50 654

EARTH’S CURVATURE COMPUTATION

FORMULA:

0.667(d1)(d2)
; ft
k

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

k = k factor

(0.667)(0.2)(10.7)
EC2: = 1.4273 ft
1

(0.667)(0.3)(10.6)
EC3 : =2.1210 ft
1

(0.667)(0.4)(10.5)
EC4: = 2.8014 ft
1

(0.667)(0.5)(10.4)
EC5: = 3.4684 ft
1

(0.667)(0.6)(10.3)
EC6: = 4.1220 ft
1

NOTE: The complete computation of the Earth’s curvature is solved using excel.

FRESNEL CLEARANCE RADIUS

98
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
FORMULA:

d1d2
R 𝑛 = 72.1√ ; ft F = 7.9 GHz, D = d1 + d2
FD

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

F = frequency in Gigahertz

F2 : 72.1√0.2(10.7)/(7.9 ∗ 10.9) = 11.3662 ft

F3: 72.1√0.3(10.6)/(7.9 ∗ 10.9) = 13.8554 ft

F4: 72.1√0.4(10.5)/(7.9 ∗ 10.9) = 15.9233 ft

F5: 72.1√0.5(10.4)/(7.9 ∗ 10.9) = 17.7178 ft

F6: 72.1√0.6(10.3)/(7.9 ∗ 10.9) = 19.3153 ft

Note: The first channel of the frequency band is used in the formula.

ANTENNA AND TOWER HEIGHT

Antenna Height Tx: 299 ft

Antenna Height Rx: 187 ft

99
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
REFLECTION POINT / AREA

FORMULA:

Lower Antenna Height 187


Antenna Ratio = = = 0.6254
Higher Antenna Height 299

LINE OF SIGHT

FORMULA:

Yi = (Y/D ) Di; ft, LOSi = HT + Yi; ft

Y = HR – HT = 187 – 299ft = 112 ft.

D = Path length = 10.9 mi

Di = Distance from Rx

Point 1: Yi = (Y/D)

Di = (112/10.9)(0)=0 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 299 ft + 0 ft = 299

Point 2: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (112/10.9)(0.5)= 5.14 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 299ft + 5.14 ft = 304.14

Point 3: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (112/10.9)(1.0)= 10.27 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 299 ft + 10.27 ft = 309.27

Point 4: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (112/10.9) (1.5)= 15.405 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 112 ft + 15.405 ft. = 127.405

Point 5: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (112/10.9) (2.0)= 20.54 ft

100
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LOSi = HT + Yi = 112 ft + 20.54 ft = 132.54

Figure 3.8 - Line of Sight for Link 4

FRESNEL ZONE
FORMULA:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi
Where Fi = Fresnel Clearance (ft)

101
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Point 1:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 299 ft. ± (0.3)(0) = 299 ft. ; 299ft
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 299 ft ± (0.6)(0) = 299 ft. ; 299 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 299 ft ± (1)(0) = 299 ft. ; 299 ft.
Point 2:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 304.14 ± (0.3)( 25) = 311.64 ft. ; 296.64 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 304.14 ± (0.6)( 25) = 319.14 ; 289.14 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 304.14 ± (1)( 25) = 329.14 ft ; 279.14 ft.
Point 3:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 309.27± (0.3)( 35) = 319.77 ft; 298.77 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 309.27± (0.6)( 35) = 330.27 ft ; 288.27 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 309.27± (1)( 35) = 344.27 ft ; 274.27 ft.

Table 3.12 - Line of Sight Data for Link 4

LOS F1 NF1 F1 NF1 F1 NF1


640 640 640 640 640 640 640
642 651 633 647.4 636.6 644.7 639.3
643 655 631 650.2 635.8 646.6 639.4
645 659 631 653.4 636.6 649.2 640.8
646 662 630 655.6 636.4 650.8 641.2
647 665 629 657.8 636.2 652.4 641.6
649 669 629 661 637 655 643
650 671 629 662.6 637.4 656.3 643.7
652 675 629 665.8 638.2 658.9 645.1
653 677 629 667.4 638.6 660.2 645.8
654 679 629 669 639 661.5 646.5
656 682 630 671.6 640.4 663.8 648.2
657 684 630 673.2 640.8 665.1 648.9
659 687 631 675.8 642.2 667.4 650.6
660 689 631 677.4 642.6 668.7 651.3
661 691 631 679 643 670 652
663 693 633 681 645 672 654
664 695 633 682.6 645.4 673.3 654.7
665 697 633 684.2 645.8 674.6 655.4

102
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
667 700 634 686.8 647.2 676.9 657.1
668 701 635 687.8 648.2 677.9 658.1
670 704 636 690.4 649.6 680.2 659.8
671 705 637 691.4 650.6 681.2 660.8
672 707 637 693 651 682.5 661.5
674 710 638 695.6 652.4 684.8 663.2
675 711 639 696.6 653.4 685.8 664.2
677 714 640 699.2 654.8 688.1 665.9
678 715 641 700.2 655.8 689.1 666.9
679 716 642 701.2 656.8 690.1 667.9
681 719 643 703.8 658.2 692.4 669.6
682 720 644 704.8 659.2 693.4 670.6
683 722 644 706.4 659.6 694.7 671.3
685 724 646 708.4 661.6 696.7 673.3
686 725 647 709.4 662.6 697.7 674.3
688 728 648 712 664 700 676
689 729 649 713 665 701 677
690 730 650 714 666 702 678
692 733 651 716.6 667.4 704.3 679.7
693 734 652 717.6 668.4 705.3 680.7
695 736 654 719.6 670.4 707.3 682.7
696 737 655 720.6 671.4 708.3 683.7
697 738 656 721.6 672.4 709.3 684.7
699 741 657 724.2 673.8 711.6 686.4
700 742 658 725.2 674.8 712.6 687.4
701 743 659 726.2 675.8 713.6 688.4
703 745 661 728.2 677.8 715.6 690.4
704 746 662 729.2 678.8 716.6 691.4
706 748 664 731.2 680.8 718.6 693.4
707 750 664 732.8 681.2 719.9 694.1
708 751 665 733.8 682.2 720.9 695.1
710 753 667 735.8 684.2 722.9 697.1
711 754 668 736.8 685.2 723.9 698.1
713 756 670 738.8 687.2 725.9 700.1
714 757 671 739.8 688.2 726.9 701.1
715 758 672 740.8 689.2 727.9 702.1
717 760 674 742.8 691.2 729.9 704.1
718 761 675 743.8 692.2 730.9 705.1
719 762 676 744.8 693.2 731.9 706.1
721 764 678 746.8 695.2 733.9 708.1
722 765 679 747.8 696.2 734.9 709.1

103
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
724 767 681 749.8 698.2 736.9 711.1
725 768 682 750.8 699.2 737.9 712.1
726 768 684 751.2 700.8 738.6 713.4
728 770 686 753.2 702.8 740.6 715.4
729 771 687 754.2 703.8 741.6 716.4
731 773 689 756.2 705.8 743.6 718.4
732 774 690 757.2 706.8 744.6 719.4
733 775 691 758.2 707.8 745.6 720.4
735 776 694 759.6 710.4 747.3 722.7
736 777 695 760.6 711.4 748.3 723.7
737 778 696 761.6 712.4 749.3 724.7
739 780 698 763.6 714.4 751.3 726.7
740 781 699 764.6 715.4 752.3 727.7
742 782 702 766 718 754 730
743 783 703 767 719 755 731
744 784 704 768 720 756 732
746 785 707 769.4 722.6 757.7 734.3
747 786 708 770.4 723.6 758.7 735.3
749 788 710 772.4 725.6 760.7 737.3
750 788 712 772.8 727.2 761.4 738.6
751 789 713 773.8 728.2 762.4 739.6
753 790 716 775.2 730.8 764.1 741.9
754 791 717 776.2 731.8 765.1 742.9
755 792 718 777.2 732.8 766.1 743.9
757 793 721 778.6 735.4 767.8 746.2
758 794 722 779.6 736.4 768.8 747.2
760 795 725 781 739 770.5 749.5
761 795 727 781.4 740.6 771.2 750.8
762 796 728 782.4 741.6 772.2 751.8
764 797 731 783.8 744.2 773.9 754.1
765 798 732 784.8 745.2 774.9 755.1
767 799 735 786.2 747.8 776.6 757.4
768 799 737 786.6 749.4 777.3 758.7
769 799 739 787 751 778 760
771 801 741 789 753 780 762
772 801 743 789.4 754.6 780.7 763.3
773 801 745 789.8 756.2 781.4 764.6
775 802 748 791.2 758.8 783.1 766.9
776 802 750 791.6 760.4 783.8 768.2
778 803 753 793 763 785.5 770.5
779 803 755 793.4 764.6 786.2 771.8

104
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
780 803 757 793.8 766.2 786.9 773.1
782 803 761 794.6 769.4 788.3 775.7
783 803 763 795 771 789 777
785 803 767 795.8 774.2 790.4 779.6
786 802 770 795.6 776.4 790.8 781.2
787 801 773 795.4 778.6 791.2 782.8
789 801 777 796.2 781.8 792.6 785.4
790 799 781 795.4 784.6 792.7 787.3
791 791 791 791 791 791 791

105
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LINK 5 PATH PROFILE

Table 3.13 - Path Description of Link 5

DISTANCE FROM SITE RPT. LENGTH IN MILES DESCRIPTION

0 0 – 10.6 Mountainous

10.6 10.6 – 16.7 Residential - Rice fields

16.7 16.7 – 23.2 Forest - Rice fields

OBSTACLE AND ELEVATION

Figure 3.9 - Path Elevation of Link 4

NOTE: Elevation is measured for every 0.1 miles.

Table 3.14 - Path Profile Data of Link 5

POINT D1 D2 ELEVATION EARTH CURVATURE FRESNEL ZONE TREES AND GROWTH TOTAL
TX 0 23.2 604 0 0 50 654
1 0.1 23.1 530 2 15 50 597
2 0.2 23 495 4 22 50 571
3 0.3 22.9 478 5 26 50 559
4 0.4 22.8 451 7 30 50 538
5 0.5 22.7 407 8 34 50 499
6 0.6 22.6 415 10 37 50 512
7 0.7 22.5 427 11 40 50 528
8 0.8 22.4 436 12 42 50 540
9 0.9 22.3 445 14 45 50 554
10 1 22.2 446 15 47 50 558

106
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
11 1.1 22.1 433 17 49 50 549
12 1.2 22 414 18 51 50 533
13 1.3 21.9 403 19 53 50 525
14 1.4 21.8 457 21 55 50 583
15 1.5 21.7 458 22 57 50 587
16 1.6 21.6 458 24 58 50 590
17 1.7 21.5 459 25 60 50 594
18 1.8 21.4 453 26 62 50 591
19 1.9 21.3 439 27 63 50 579
20 2 21.2 426 29 65 50 570
21 2.1 21.1 408 30 66 50 554
22 2.2 21 403 31 67 50 551
23 2.3 20.9 407 33 69 50 559
24 2.4 20.8 413 34 70 50 567
25 2.5 20.7 403 35 71 50 559
26 2.6 20.6 404 36 73 50 563
27 2.7 20.5 402 37 74 50 563
28 2.8 20.4 411 39 75 50 575
29 2.9 20.3 439 40 76 50 605
30 3 20.2 431 41 77 50 599
31 3.1 20.1 425 42 78 50 595
32 3.2 20 423 43 79 50 595
33 3.3 19.9 418 44 80 50 592
34 3.4 19.8 415 45 81 50 591
35 3.5 19.7 411 46 82 50 589
36 3.6 19.6 417 48 83 50 598
37 3.7 19.5 418 49 84 50 601
38 3.8 19.4 418 50 85 50 603
39 3.9 19.3 418 51 86 50 605
40 4 19.2 417 52 87 50 606
41 4.1 19.1 417 53 88 50 608
42 4.2 19 417 54 88 50 609
43 4.3 18.9 416 55 89 50 610
44 4.4 18.8 407 56 90 50 603
45 4.5 18.7 399 57 91 50 597
46 4.6 18.6 390 58 92 50 590
47 4.7 18.5 379 58 92 50 579
48 4.8 18.4 371 59 93 50 573
49 4.9 18.3 360 60 94 50 564
50 5 18.2 352 61 94 50 557
51 5.1 18.1 343 62 95 50 550

107
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
52 5.2 18 332 63 96 50 541
53 5.3 17.9 332 64 96 50 542
54 5.4 17.8 355 65 97 50 567
55 5.5 17.7 391 65 98 50 604
56 5.6 17.6 365 66 98 50 579
57 5.7 17.5 342 67 99 50 558
58 5.8 17.4 286 68 99 50 503
59 5.9 17.3 260 69 100 50 479
60 6 17.2 365 69 100 50 584
61 6.1 17.1 214 70 101 50 435
62 6.2 17 207 71 102 50 430
63 6.3 16.9 237 72 102 50 461
64 6.4 16.8 229 72 103 50 454
65 6.5 16.7 211 73 103 50 437
66 6.6 16.6 235 74 103 50 462
67 6.7 16.5 249 74 104 50 477
68 6.8 16.4 215 75 104 50 444
69 6.9 16.3 181 76 105 50 412
70 7 16.2 181 76 105 50 412
71 7.1 16.1 185 77 106 50 418
72 7.2 16 166 77 106 50 399
73 7.3 15.9 167 78 106 50 401
74 7.4 15.8 188 78 107 50 423
75 7.5 15.7 175 79 107 50 411
76 7.6 15.6 156 80 108 50 394
77 7.7 15.5 166 80 108 50 404
78 7.8 15.4 150 81 108 50 389
79 7.9 15.3 144 81 109 50 384
80 8 15.2 152 82 109 50 393
81 8.1 15.1 188 82 109 50 429
82 8.2 15 205 83 110 50 448
83 8.3 14.9 196 83 110 50 439
84 8.4 14.8 216 83 110 50 459
85 8.5 14.7 235 84 110 50 479
86 8.6 14.6 193 84 111 50 438
87 8.7 14.5 181 85 111 50 427
88 8.8 14.4 170 85 111 50 416
89 8.9 14.3 240 85 111 50 486
90 9 14.2 294 86 112 50 542
91 9.1 14.1 303 86 112 50 551
92 9.2 14 308 86 112 50 556

108
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
93 9.3 13.9 317 87 112 50 566
94 9.4 13.8 319 87 113 50 569
95 9.5 13.7 323 87 113 50 573
96 9.6 13.6 292 88 113 50 543
97 9.7 13.5 263 88 113 50 514
98 9.8 13.4 240 88 113 50 491
99 9.9 13.3 243 88 113 50 494
100 10 13.2 226 89 114 50 479
101 10.1 13.1 193 89 114 50 446
102 10.2 13 211 89 114 50 464
103 10.3 12.9 210 89 114 50 463
104 10.4 12.8 176 89 114 50 429
105 10.5 12.7 164 89 114 50 417
106 10.6 12.6 161 90 114 50 415
107 10.7 12.5 159 90 114 50 413
108 10.8 12.4 145 90 114 50 399
109 10.9 12.3 147 90 114 50 401
110 11 12.2 151 90 114 50 405
111 11.1 12.1 140 90 115 50 395
112 11.2 12 137 90 115 50 392
113 11.3 11.9 133 90 115 50 388
114 11.4 11.8 130 90 115 50 385
115 11.5 11.7 127 90 115 50 382
116 11.6 11.6 122 90 115 50 377
117 11.7 11.5 122 90 115 50 377
118 11.8 11.4 122 90 115 50 377
119 11.9 11.3 123 90 115 50 378
120 12 11.2 124 90 115 50 379
121 12.1 11.1 121 90 115 50 376
122 12.2 11 114 90 114 50 368
123 12.3 10.9 114 90 114 50 368
124 12.4 10.8 114 90 114 50 368
125 12.5 10.7 113 90 114 50 367
126 12.6 10.6 113 90 114 50 367
127 12.7 10.5 113 89 114 50 366
128 12.8 10.4 112 89 114 50 365
129 12.9 10.3 112 89 114 50 365
130 13 10.2 107 89 114 50 360
131 13.1 10.1 106 89 114 50 359
132 13.2 10 105 89 114 50 358
133 13.3 9.9 104 88 113 50 355

109
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
134 13.4 9.8 103 88 113 50 354
135 13.5 9.7 102 88 113 50 353
136 13.6 9.6 101 88 113 50 352
137 13.7 9.5 100 87 113 50 350
138 13.8 9.4 100 87 113 50 350
139 13.9 9.3 99 87 112 50 348
140 14 9.2 99 86 112 50 347
141 14.1 9.1 98 86 112 50 346
142 14.2 9 98 86 112 50 346
143 14.3 8.9 97 85 111 50 343
144 14.4 8.8 97 85 111 50 343
145 14.5 8.7 96 85 111 50 342
146 14.6 8.6 96 84 111 50 341
147 14.7 8.5 95 84 110 50 339
148 14.8 8.4 95 83 110 50 338
149 14.9 8.3 96 83 110 50 339
150 15 8.2 92 83 110 50 335
151 15.1 8.1 92 82 109 50 333
152 15.2 8 94 82 109 50 335
153 15.3 7.9 94 81 109 50 334
154 15.4 7.8 93 81 108 50 332
155 15.5 7.7 90 80 108 50 328
156 15.6 7.6 89 80 108 50 327
157 15.7 7.5 93 79 107 50 329
158 15.8 7.4 95 78 107 50 330
159 15.9 7.3 91 78 106 50 325
160 16 7.2 92 77 106 50 325
161 16.1 7.1 94 77 106 50 327
162 16.2 7 93 76 105 50 324
163 16.3 6.9 91 76 105 50 322
164 16.4 6.8 91 75 104 50 320
165 16.5 6.7 92 74 104 50 320
166 16.6 6.6 88 74 103 50 315
167 16.7 6.5 88 73 103 50 314
168 16.8 6.4 91 72 103 50 316
169 16.9 6.3 99 72 102 50 323
170 17 6.2 103 71 102 50 326
171 17.1 6.1 107 70 101 50 328
172 17.2 6 109 69 100 50 328
173 17.3 5.9 110 69 100 50 329
174 17.4 5.8 109 68 99 50 326

110
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
175 17.5 5.7 114 67 99 50 330
176 17.6 5.6 106 66 98 50 320
177 17.7 5.5 108 65 98 50 321
178 17.8 5.4 101 65 97 50 313
179 17.9 5.3 17.9 64 96 50 227.9
180 18 5.2 109 63 96 50 318
181 18.1 5.1 108 62 95 50 315
182 18.2 5 108 61 94 50 313
183 18.3 4.9 108 60 94 50 312
184 18.4 4.8 108 59 93 50 310
185 18.5 4.7 100 58 92 50 300
186 18.6 4.6 92 58 92 50 292
187 18.7 4.5 84 57 91 50 282
188 18.8 4.4 85 56 90 50 281
189 18.9 4.3 86 55 89 50 280
190 19 4.2 87 54 88 50 279
191 19.1 4.1 81 53 88 50 272
192 19.2 4 80 52 87 50 269
193 19.3 3.9 73 51 86 50 260
194 19.4 3.8 74 50 85 50 259
195 19.5 3.7 77 49 84 50 260
196 19.6 3.6 81 48 83 50 262
197 19.7 3.5 85 46 82 50 263
198 19.8 3.4 88 45 81 50 264
199 19.9 3.3 89 44 80 50 263
200 20 3.2 94 43 79 50 266
201 20.1 3.1 97 42 78 50 267
202 20.2 3 100 41 77 50 268
203 20.3 2.9 94 40 76 50 260
204 20.4 2.8 86 39 75 50 250
205 20.5 2.7 87 37 74 50 248
206 20.6 2.6 82 36 73 50 241
207 20.7 2.5 85 35 71 50 241
208 20.8 2.4 81 34 70 50 235
209 20.9 2.3 91 33 69 50 243
210 21 2.2 94 31 67 50 242
211 21.1 2.1 90 30 66 50 236
212 21.2 2 86 29 65 50 230
213 21.3 1.9 85 27 63 50 225
214 21.4 1.8 85 26 62 50 223
215 21.5 1.7 78 25 60 50 213

111
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
216 21.6 1.6 79 24 58 50 211
217 21.7 1.5 80 22 57 50 209
218 21.8 1.4 81 21 55 50 207
219 21.9 1.3 81 19 53 50 203
220 22 1.2 81 18 51 50 200
221 22.1 1.1 79 17 49 50 195
222 22.2 1 81 15 47 50 193
223 22.3 0.9 82 14 45 50 191
224 22.4 0.8 84 12 42 50 188
225 22.5 0.7 87 11 40 50 188
226 22.6 0.6 86 10 37 50 183
227 22.7 0.5 85 8 34 50 177
228 22.8 0.4 86 7 30 50 173
229 22.9 0.3 84 5 26 50 165
230 23 0.2 82 4 22 50 158
231 23.1 0.1 83 2 15 50 150
RX 23.2 0 83 0 0 50 133

EARTH’S CURVATURE COMPUTATION

FORMULA:

0.667(d1)(d2)
; ft
k

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

k = k factor

(0.667)(0.2)(23.2)
EC2: = 3.0948 ft
1

(0.667)(0.3)(23.2)
EC3 : = 4.6423 ft
1

(0.667)(0.4)(23.2)
EC4: = 6.1897 ft
1

112
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
(0.667)(0.5)(23.2)
EC5: = 7.7372 ft
1

(0.667)(0.6)(23.2)
EC6: = 9.2846 ft
1

NOTE: The complete computation of the Earth’s curvature is solved using excel.

FRESNEL CLEARANCE RADIUS

FORMULA:

d1d2
R 𝑛 = 72.1√ ; ft F = 2.3 GHz, D = d1 + d2
FD

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

F = frequency in Gigahertz

F2 : 72.1√0.2(23)/(2.3 ∗ 23.2) = 21.1692 ft

F3: 72.1√0.3(22.9)/(2.3 ∗ 23.2) = 25.8705 ft

F4: 72.1√0.4(22.8)/(2.3 ∗ 23.2) = 29.8074 ft

F5: 72.1√0.5(22.7)/(2.3 ∗ 23.2) = 33.2525 ft

F6: 72.1√0.6(22.6)/(2.3 ∗ 23.2) = 36.3460 ft

Note: The first channel of the frequency band is used in the formula.

113
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
ANTENNA AND TOWER HEIGHT
Antenna Height Tx: 130 ft

Antenna Height Rx: 180 ft

REFLECTION POINT / AREA

FORMULA:

Lower Antenna Height 130


Antenna Ratio = = = 0.85
Higher Antenna Height 180

LINE OF SIGHT

FORMULA:

Yi = (Y/D ) Di; ft, LOSi = HT + Yi; ft

Y = HR – HT = 180 – 130 = 50 ft.

D = Path length = 23.2 mi

Di = Distance from Rx

Point 1: Yi = (Y/D)

Di = (50/23.2)(0)=0 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 180 ft + 0 ft = 180

Point 2: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (50/23.2)(0.5)= 0.65 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 180ft + 0.65 ft = 180.65

114
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Point 3: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (50/23.2)(1.0)= 1.29 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 180 ft + 1.29 ft = 181.29

Point 4: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (50/23.2) (1.5)= 1.94 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 180 ft + 1.94 ft. = 181.94

Point 5: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (50/23.2) (2.0)= 2.58 ft

LOSi = HT + Yi = 180 ft + 2.58 ft = 182.58

Figure 3.10 - Line of Sight for Link 5

FRESNEL ZONE
FORMULA:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi
Where Fi = Fresnel Clearance (ft)
Point 1:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 180ft. ± (0.3)(0) = 180 ft. ; 180 ft.

115
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 180ft. ± (0.6)(0) = 180 ft. ; 180 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 180ft. ± (1)(0) = 180 ft. ; 180 ft.
Point 2:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 180.65 ft. ± (0.3)( 24) = 187.85 ft. ; 173.45 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 180.65ft. ± (0.6)( 24) = 195.05 ft. ; 166.25 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 180.65ft. ± (1)( 24) = 204.65 ft. ; 156.65 ft
Point 3:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 181.29ft. ± (0.3)(34) = 191.49 ft. ; 171.09 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 181.29ft. ± (0.6)(34) = 191.49 ft. ; 160.89 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 181.29ft ± (1)(34) = 215.29 ft. ; 147.29 ft.

Table 3.15 - Line of Sight Data for Link 5

LOS F1 NF1 F1 NF1 F1 NF1


734 734 734 734 734 734 734
732 747 717 741 723 736.5 727.5
730 752 708 743.2 716.8 736.6 723.4
728 754 702 743.6 712.4 735.8 720.2
726 756 696 744 708 735 717
724 758 690 744.4 703.6 734.2 713.8
722 759 685 744.2 699.8 733.1 710.9
720 760 680 744 696 732 708
718 760 676 743.2 692.8 730.6 705.4
716 761 671 743 689 729.5 702.5
714 761 667 742.2 685.8 728.1 699.9
712 761 663 741.4 682.6 726.7 697.3
710 761 659 740.6 679.4 725.3 694.7
708 761 655 739.8 676.2 723.9 692.1
706 761 651 739 673 722.5 689.5
704 761 647 738.2 669.8 721.1 686.9

116
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
702 760 644 736.8 667.2 719.4 684.6
700 760 640 736 664 718 682
698 760 636 735.2 660.8 716.6 679.4
696 759 633 733.8 658.2 714.9 677.1
694 759 629 733 655 713.5 674.5
692 758 626 731.6 652.4 711.8 672.2
690 757 623 730.2 649.8 710.1 669.9
688 757 619 729.4 646.6 708.7 667.3
686 756 616 728 644 707 665
684 755 613 726.6 641.4 705.3 662.7
682 755 609 725.8 638.2 703.9 660.1
680 754 606 724.4 635.6 702.2 657.8
678 753 603 723 633 700.5 655.5
676 752 600 721.6 630.4 698.8 653.2
674 751 597 720.2 627.8 697.1 650.9
672 750 594 718.8 625.2 695.4 648.6
670 749 591 717.4 622.6 693.7 646.3
668 748 588 716 620 692 644
665 746 584 713.6 616.4 689.3 640.7
663 745 581 712.2 613.8 687.6 638.4
661 744 578 710.8 611.2 685.9 636.1
659 743 575 709.4 608.6 684.2 633.8
657 742 572 708 606 682.5 631.5
655 741 569 706.6 603.4 680.8 629.2
653 740 566 705.2 600.8 679.1 626.9
651 739 563 703.8 598.2 677.4 624.6
649 737 561 701.8 596.2 675.4 622.6
647 736 558 700.4 593.6 673.7 620.3

117
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
645 735 555 699 591 672 618
643 734 552 697.6 588.4 670.3 615.7
641 733 549 696.2 585.8 668.6 613.4
639 731 547 694.2 583.8 666.6 611.4
637 730 544 692.8 581.2 664.9 609.1
635 729 541 691.4 578.6 663.2 606.8
633 727 539 689.4 576.6 661.2 604.8
631 726 536 688 574 659.5 602.5
629 725 533 686.6 571.4 657.8 600.2
627 723 531 684.6 569.4 655.8 598.2
625 722 528 683.2 566.8 654.1 595.9
623 721 525 681.8 564.2 652.4 593.6
621 719 523 679.8 562.2 650.4 591.6
619 718 520 678.4 559.6 648.7 589.3
617 716 518 676.4 557.6 646.7 587.3
615 715 515 675 555 645 585
613 713 513 673 553 643 583
611 712 510 671.6 550.4 641.3 580.7
609 711 507 670.2 547.8 639.6 578.4
607 709 505 668.2 545.8 637.6 576.4
605 708 502 666.8 543.2 635.9 574.1
603 706 500 664.8 541.2 633.9 572.1
601 704 498 662.8 539.2 631.9 570.1
598 702 494 660.4 535.6 629.2 566.8
596 700 492 658.4 533.6 627.2 564.8
594 699 489 657 531 625.5 562.5
592 697 487 655 529 623.5 560.5
590 696 484 653.6 526.4 621.8 558.2

118
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
588 694 482 651.6 524.4 619.8 556.2
586 692 480 649.6 522.4 617.8 554.2
584 691 477 648.2 519.8 616.1 551.9
582 689 475 646.2 517.8 614.1 549.9
580 688 472 644.8 515.2 612.4 547.6
578 686 470 642.8 513.2 610.4 545.6
576 684 468 640.8 511.2 608.4 543.6
574 683 465 639.4 508.6 606.7 541.3
572 681 463 637.4 506.6 604.7 539.3
570 679 461 635.4 504.6 602.7 537.3
568 678 458 634 502 601 535
566 676 456 632 500 599 533
564 674 454 630 498 597 531
562 672 452 628 496 595 529
560 671 449 626.6 493.4 593.3 526.7
558 669 447 624.6 491.4 591.3 524.7
556 667 445 622.6 489.4 589.3 522.7
554 665 443 620.6 487.4 587.3 520.7
552 664 440 619.2 484.8 585.6 518.4
550 662 438 617.2 482.8 583.6 516.4
548 660 436 615.2 480.8 581.6 514.4
546 658 434 613.2 478.8 579.6 512.4
544 657 431 611.8 476.2 577.9 510.1
542 655 429 609.8 474.2 575.9 508.1
540 653 427 607.8 472.2 573.9 506.1
538 651 425 605.8 470.2 571.9 504.1
536 649 423 603.8 468.2 569.9 502.1
534 647 421 601.8 466.2 567.9 500.1

119
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
531 645 417 599.4 462.6 565.2 496.8
529 643 415 597.4 460.6 563.2 494.8
527 641 413 595.4 458.6 561.2 492.8
525 639 411 593.4 456.6 559.2 490.8
523 637 409 591.4 454.6 557.2 488.8
521 635 407 589.4 452.6 555.2 486.8
519 633 405 587.4 450.6 553.2 484.8
517 631 403 585.4 448.6 551.2 482.8
515 629 401 583.4 446.6 549.2 480.8
513 627 399 581.4 444.6 547.2 478.8
511 625 397 579.4 442.6 545.2 476.8
509 624 394 578 440 543.5 474.5
507 622 392 576 438 541.5 472.5
505 620 390 574 436 539.5 470.5
503 618 388 572 434 537.5 468.5
501 616 386 570 432 535.5 466.5
499 614 384 568 430 533.5 464.5
497 612 382 566 428 531.5 462.5
495 610 380 564 426 529.5 460.5
493 608 378 562 424 527.5 458.5
491 606 376 560 422 525.5 456.5
489 604 374 558 420 523.5 454.5
487 601 373 555.4 418.6 521.2 452.8
485 599 371 553.4 416.6 519.2 450.8
483 597 369 551.4 414.6 517.2 448.8
481 595 367 549.4 412.6 515.2 446.8
479 593 365 547.4 410.6 513.2 444.8
477 591 363 545.4 408.6 511.2 442.8

120
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
475 589 361 543.4 406.6 509.2 440.8
473 587 359 541.4 404.6 507.2 438.8
471 585 357 539.4 402.6 505.2 436.8
469 583 355 537.4 400.6 503.2 434.8
467 581 353 535.4 398.6 501.2 432.8
464 577 351 531.8 396.2 497.9 430.1
462 575 349 529.8 394.2 495.9 428.1
460 573 347 527.8 392.2 493.9 426.1
458 571 345 525.8 390.2 491.9 424.1
456 569 343 523.8 388.2 489.9 422.1
454 567 341 521.8 386.2 487.9 420.1
452 564 340 519.2 384.8 485.6 418.4
450 562 338 517.2 382.8 483.6 416.4
448 560 336 515.2 380.8 481.6 414.4
446 558 334 513.2 378.8 479.6 412.4
444 555 333 510.6 377.4 477.3 410.7
442 553 331 508.6 375.4 475.3 408.7
440 551 329 506.6 373.4 473.3 406.7
438 549 327 504.6 371.4 471.3 404.7
436 546 326 502 370 469 403
434 544 324 500 368 467 401
432 542 322 498 366 465 399
430 540 320 496 364 463 397
428 537 319 493.4 362.6 460.7 395.3
426 535 317 491.4 360.6 458.7 393.3
424 533 315 489.4 358.6 456.7 391.3
422 530 314 486.8 357.2 454.4 389.6
420 528 312 484.8 355.2 452.4 387.6

121
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
418 526 310 482.8 353.2 450.4 385.6
416 523 309 480.2 351.8 448.1 383.9
414 521 307 478.2 349.8 446.1 381.9
412 518 306 475.6 348.4 443.8 380.2
410 516 304 473.6 346.4 441.8 378.2
408 514 302 471.6 344.4 439.8 376.2
406 511 301 469 343 437.5 374.5
404 509 299 467 341 435.5 372.5
402 506 298 464.4 339.6 433.2 370.8
400 504 296 462.4 337.6 431.2 368.8
397 500 294 458.8 335.2 427.9 366.1
395 498 292 456.8 333.2 425.9 364.1
393 496 290 454.8 331.2 423.9 362.1
391 493 289 452.2 329.8 421.6 360.4
389 491 287 450.2 327.8 419.6 358.4
387 488 286 447.6 326.4 417.3 356.7
385 485 285 445 325 415 355
383 483 283 443 323 413 353
381 480 282 440.4 321.6 410.7 351.3
379 478 280 438.4 319.6 408.7 349.3
377 475 279 435.8 318.2 406.4 347.6
375 473 277 433.8 316.2 404.4 345.6
373 470 276 431.2 314.8 402.1 343.9
371 467 275 428.6 313.4 399.8 342.2
369 465 273 426.6 311.4 397.8 340.2
367 462 272 424 310 395.5 338.5
365 459 271 421.4 308.6 393.2 336.8
363 457 269 419.4 306.6 391.2 334.8

122
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
361 454 268 416.8 305.2 388.9 333.1
359 451 267 414.2 303.8 386.6 331.4
357 449 265 412.2 301.8 384.6 329.4
355 446 264 409.6 300.4 382.3 327.7
353 443 263 407 299 380 326
351 440 262 404.4 297.6 377.7 324.3
349 437 261 401.8 296.2 375.4 322.6
347 435 259 399.8 294.2 373.4 320.6
345 432 258 397.2 292.8 371.1 318.9
343 429 257 394.6 291.4 368.8 317.2
341 426 256 392 290 366.5 315.5
339 423 255 389.4 288.6 364.2 313.8
337 420 254 386.8 287.2 361.9 312.1
335 417 253 384.2 285.8 359.6 310.4
333 414 252 381.6 284.4 357.3 308.7
330 410 250 378 282 354 306
328 407 249 375.4 280.6 351.7 304.3
326 404 248 372.8 279.2 349.4 302.6
324 401 247 370.2 277.8 347.1 300.9
322 398 246 367.6 276.4 344.8 299.2
320 395 245 365 275 342.5 297.5
318 392 244 362.4 273.6 340.2 295.8
316 389 243 359.8 272.2 337.9 294.1
314 385 243 356.6 271.4 335.3 292.7
312 382 242 354 270 333 291
310 379 241 351.4 268.6 330.7 289.3
308 375 241 348.2 267.8 328.1 287.9
306 372 240 345.6 266.4 325.8 286.2

123
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
304 369 239 343 265 323.5 284.5
302 365 239 339.8 264.2 320.9 283.1
300 362 238 337.2 262.8 318.6 281.4
298 358 238 334 262 316 280
296 354 238 330.8 261.2 313.4 278.6
294 351 237 328.2 259.8 311.1 276.9
292 347 237 325 259 308.5 275.5
290 343 237 321.8 258.2 305.9 274.1
288 339 237 318.6 257.4 303.3 272.7
286 335 237 315.4 256.6 300.7 271.3
284 331 237 312.2 255.8 298.1 269.9
282 327 237 309 255 295.5 268.5
280 322 238 305.2 254.8 292.6 267.4
278 318 238 302 254 290 266
276 313 239 298.2 253.8 287.1 264.9
274 308 240 294.4 253.6 284.2 263.8
272 302 242 290 254 281 263
270 296 244 285.6 254.4 277.8 262.2
268 290 246 281.2 254.8 274.6 261.4
266 281 251 275 257 270.5 261.5
263 263 263 263 263 263 263

124
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
LINK 6 PATH PROFILE

Table 3.16 - Path Description of Link 6

DISTANCE FROM SITE 5 LENGTH IN MILES DESCRIPTION

0 0 – 1.76 Residential – Rice fields

1.76 1.76 - 2.7 Forest

2.7 2.7 – 5.6 Forest - Rice fields

5.6 5.6 – 12.7 Mountainous

12.7 12.7 – 15.5 Forest - Rice fields

EARTH’S CURVATURE COMPUTATION

FORMULA:

0.667(d1)(d2)
; ft
k

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

k = k factor

(0.667)(0.2)(15.5)
EC2: = 2.0677 ft
1

(0.667)(0.3)(15.5)
EC3 : = 3.1015 ft
1

(0.667)(0.4)(15.5)
EC4: = 4.1354 ft
1

(0.667)(0.5)(15.5)
EC5: =5.1692 ft
1

125
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
(0.667)(0.6)(15.5)
EC6: = 6.2031 ft
1

NOTE: The complete computation of the Earth’s curvature is solved using excel.

FRESNEL CLEARANCE RADIUS

FORMULA:

d1d2
R 𝑛 = 72.1√ ; ft F = 4.4 GHz, D = d1 + d2
FD

Where: d1 = distance from the transmitter side

d2 = distance from the receiver side

F = frequency in Gigahertz

F2 : 72.1√0.2(15.3)/(4.4 ∗ 15.5) = 3.2349 ft

F3: 72.1√0.3(15.2)/(4.4 ∗ 15.5) = 4.2807 ft

F4: 72.1√0.4(15.1)/(4.4 ∗ 15.5) =6.3853 ft

F5: 72.1√0.5(15)/(4.4 ∗ 15.5) = 7.9288 ft

F6: 72.1√0.6(14.9)/(4.4 ∗ 15.5) = 9.4512 ft

Note: The first channel of the frequency band is used in the formula.

ANTENNA AND TOWER HEIGHT


Antenna Height Tx: 137 ft

126
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Antenna Height Rx: 140 ft

REFLECTION POINT / AREA

FORMULA:

Lower Antenna Height 137


Antenna Ratio = = = 0.97
Higher Antenna Height 140

LINE OF SIGHT

FORMULA:

Yi = (Y/D ) Di; ft, LOSi = HT + Yi; ft

Y = HR – HT = 137 – 140 = 3 ft.

D = Path length = 15.5 mi

Di = Distance from Rx

Point 1: Yi = (Y/D)

Di = (3/15.5)(0)=0 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 137 ft + 0 ft = 137

Point 2: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (3/15.5)(0.5)= 0.09 ft.

LOSi = HTx + Yi = 137ft + 0.09 ft = 137.09

Point 3: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (3/15.5)(1.0)= 0.19 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 137 ft + 0.19 ft = 137.19

127
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Point 4: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (3/15.5) (1.5)= 0.29 ft.

LOSi = HT + Yi = 137 ft + 0.29 ft. = 137.29

Point 5: Yi = (Y/D)Di = (3/215.5) (2.0)= 0.38 ft

LOSi = HT + Yi = 137 ft + 0.38 ft = 137.38

Figure 3.12 - Line of Sight for Link 6

FRESNEL ZONE
FORMULA:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi
where Fi = Fresnel Clearance (ft)
Point 1:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 137ft. ± (0.3)(0) = 137 ft. ; 137 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 137 ft. ± (0.6)(0) = 137 ft. ; 137 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 137 ft. ± (1)(0) = 137 ft. ; 137 ft.
Point 2:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 137.09ft. ± (0.3)( 27) = 145.19 ft. ; 128.99ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 137.09ft. ± (0.6)( 27) = 153.29 ft. ; 120.89 ft.

128
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 137.09ft. ± (1)( 27) = 164.09 ft. ; 110.09 ft
Point 3:
R0.3 = LOSi + 0.3Fi = 137.19ft. ± (0.3)( 38) = 18.59 ft. ; 125.79 ft.
R0.6 = LOSi + 0.6Fi = 137.19ft. ± (0.6)( 38) = 159.99 ft. ; 114.39 ft.
R1.0 = LOSi + 1.0Fi = 137.19ft ± (1)(38) = 175.19 ft. ; 99.19 ft.

Table 3.18: Line of Sight Data for Link 6

LOS F1 NF1 F1 NF1 F1 NF1


227 227 227 227 227 227 227
227 238 216 233.6 220.4 230.3 223.7
227 243 211 236.6 217.4 231.8 222.2
227 246 208 238.4 215.6 232.7 221.3
226 248 204 239.2 212.8 232.6 219.4
226 250 202 240.4 211.6 233.2 218.8
226 253 199 242.2 209.8 234.1 217.9
226 255 197 243.4 208.6 234.7 217.3
225 255 195 243 207 234 216
225 257 193 244.2 205.8 234.6 215.4
225 259 191 245.4 204.6 235.2 214.8
225 260 190 246 204 235.5 214.5
224 261 187 246.2 201.8 235.1 212.9
224 262 186 246.8 201.2 235.4 212.6
224 263 185 247.4 200.6 235.7 212.3
224 264 184 248 200 236 212
223 265 181 248.2 197.8 235.6 210.4
223 266 180 248.8 197.2 235.9 210.1
223 267 179 249.4 196.6 236.2 209.8
223 268 178 250 196 236.5 209.5
222 268 176 249.6 194.4 235.8 208.2
222 269 175 250.2 193.8 236.1 207.9
222 270 174 250.8 193.2 236.4 207.6
222 271 173 251.4 192.6 236.7 207.3
221 270 172 250.4 191.6 235.7 206.3
221 271 171 251 191 236 206
221 272 170 251.6 190.4 236.3 205.7
221 273 169 252.2 189.8 236.6 205.4
220 272 168 251.2 188.8 235.6 204.4

129
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
220 273 167 251.8 188.2 235.9 204.1
220 274 166 252.4 187.6 236.2 203.8
219 274 164 252 186 235.5 202.5
219 274 164 252 186 235.5 202.5
219 275 163 252.6 185.4 235.8 202.2
219 275 163 252.6 185.4 235.8 202.2
218 275 161 252.2 183.8 235.1 200.9
218 276 160 252.8 183.2 235.4 200.6
218 276 160 252.8 183.2 235.4 200.6
218 277 159 253.4 182.6 235.7 200.3
217 276 158 252.4 181.6 234.7 199.3
217 277 157 253 181 235 199
217 277 157 253 181 235 199
217 278 156 253.6 180.4 235.3 198.7
216 277 155 252.6 179.4 234.3 197.7
216 277 155 252.6 179.4 234.3 197.7
216 278 154 253.2 178.8 234.6 197.4
216 278 154 253.2 178.8 234.6 197.4
215 278 152 252.8 177.2 233.9 196.1
215 278 152 252.8 177.2 233.9 196.1
215 278 152 252.8 177.2 233.9 196.1
215 279 151 253.4 176.6 234.2 195.8
214 278 150 252.4 175.6 233.2 194.8
214 278 150 252.4 175.6 233.2 194.8
214 279 149 253 175 233.5 194.5
214 279 149 253 175 233.5 194.5
213 278 148 252 174 232.5 193.5
213 278 148 252 174 232.5 193.5
213 279 147 252.6 173.4 232.8 193.2
213 279 147 252.6 173.4 232.8 193.2
212 278 146 251.6 172.4 231.8 192.2
212 278 146 251.6 172.4 231.8 192.2
212 278 146 251.6 172.4 231.8 192.2
211 278 144 251.2 170.8 231.1 190.9
211 278 144 251.2 170.8 231.1 190.9
211 278 144 251.2 170.8 231.1 190.9
211 278 144 251.2 170.8 231.1 190.9
210 277 143 250.2 169.8 230.1 189.9
210 277 143 250.2 169.8 230.1 189.9
210 278 142 250.8 169.2 230.4 189.6
210 278 142 250.8 169.2 230.4 189.6

130
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
209 277 141 249.8 168.2 229.4 188.6
209 277 141 249.8 168.2 229.4 188.6
209 277 141 249.8 168.2 229.4 188.6
209 277 141 249.8 168.2 229.4 188.6
208 276 140 248.8 167.2 228.4 187.6
208 276 140 248.8 167.2 228.4 187.6
208 276 140 248.8 167.2 228.4 187.6
208 276 140 248.8 167.2 228.4 187.6
207 275 139 247.8 166.2 227.4 186.6
207 275 139 247.8 166.2 227.4 186.6
207 275 139 247.8 166.2 227.4 186.6
207 275 139 247.8 166.2 227.4 186.6
206 274 138 246.8 165.2 226.4 185.6
206 274 138 246.8 165.2 226.4 185.6
206 274 138 246.8 165.2 226.4 185.6
206 274 138 246.8 165.2 226.4 185.6
205 273 137 245.8 164.2 225.4 184.6
205 273 137 245.8 164.2 225.4 184.6
205 272 138 245.2 164.8 225.1 184.9
205 272 138 245.2 164.8 225.1 184.9
204 271 137 244.2 163.8 224.1 183.9
204 271 137 244.2 163.8 224.1 183.9
204 271 137 244.2 163.8 224.1 183.9
203 270 136 243.2 162.8 223.1 182.9
203 269 137 242.6 163.4 222.8 183.2
203 269 137 242.6 163.4 222.8 183.2
203 269 137 242.6 163.4 222.8 183.2
202 268 136 241.6 162.4 221.8 182.2
202 268 136 241.6 162.4 221.8 182.2
202 267 137 241 163 221.5 182.5
202 267 137 241 163 221.5 182.5
201 266 136 240 162 220.5 181.5
201 266 136 240 162 220.5 181.5
201 265 137 239.4 162.6 220.2 181.8
201 265 137 239.4 162.6 220.2 181.8
200 264 136 238.4 161.6 219.2 180.8
200 263 137 237.8 162.2 218.9 181.1
200 263 137 237.8 162.2 218.9 181.1
200 263 137 237.8 162.2 218.9 181.1
199 261 137 236.2 161.8 217.6 180.4
199 261 137 236.2 161.8 217.6 180.4

131
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
199 260 138 235.6 162.4 217.3 180.7
199 260 138 235.6 162.4 217.3 180.7
198 259 137 234.6 161.4 216.3 179.7
198 258 138 234 162 216 180
198 258 138 234 162 216 180
198 257 139 233.4 162.6 215.7 180.3
197 256 138 232.4 161.6 214.7 179.3
197 255 139 231.8 162.2 214.4 179.6
197 255 139 231.8 162.2 214.4 179.6
197 254 140 231.2 162.8 214.1 179.9
196 252 140 229.6 162.4 212.8 179.2
196 252 140 229.6 162.4 212.8 179.2
196 251 141 229 163 212.5 179.5
195 250 140 228 162 211.5 178.5
195 249 141 227.4 162.6 211.2 178.8
195 248 142 226.8 163.2 210.9 179.1
195 247 143 226.2 163.8 210.6 179.4
194 246 142 225.2 162.8 209.6 178.4
194 245 143 224.6 163.4 209.3 178.7
194 244 144 224 164 209 179
194 243 145 223.4 164.6 208.7 179.3
193 242 144 222.4 163.6 207.7 178.3
193 241 145 221.8 164.2 207.4 178.6
193 240 146 221.2 164.8 207.1 178.9
193 239 147 220.6 165.4 206.8 179.2
192 237 147 219 165 205.5 178.5
192 236 148 218.4 165.6 205.2 178.8
192 235 149 217.8 166.2 204.9 179.1
192 234 150 217.2 166.8 204.6 179.4
191 231 151 215 167 203 179
191 230 152 214.4 167.6 202.7 179.3
191 229 153 213.8 168.2 202.4 179.6
191 228 154 213.2 168.8 202.1 179.9
190 225 155 211 169 200.5 179.5
190 224 156 210.4 169.6 200.2 179.8
190 222 158 209.2 170.8 199.6 180.4
190 220 160 208 172 199 181
189 218 160 206.4 171.6 197.7 180.3
189 216 162 205.2 172.8 197.1 180.9
189 213 165 203.4 174.6 196.2 181.8
189 211 167 202.2 175.8 195.6 182.4

132
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
188 207 169 199.4 176.6 193.7 182.3
188 204 172 197.6 178.4 192.8 183.2
188 199 177 194.6 181.4 191.3 184.7
187 187 187 187 187 187 187

133
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
134
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
UNFADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK1

Transmission line losses (A):

Length: 238 ft.


Attenuation: 0.33dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(0.33dbm/100ft) (50 ft.) = 0.7854 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 0.7854 dBm

Antenna (A) diameter: 12 ft


Antenna Gain: 20 log10 (Dft) + 20 log10 (Freq.) +7.5 dBm
20 log10 (12 ft.) + 20 log10 (2.5 GHz) + 7.5 dBm = 37.0424 dB
Tx Power Output: 50 dBm
Noise figure: 5 dBm

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


50 dBm + 37.0424 dBm - 0.7854 dBm = 86.2546 dB

Free-space loss (FSL): 96.6 + 20logDmiles + 20log (Freq.)


96.6 + 20log (21.6 miles) + 20log (2.5 GHz) = 131.2478 dB

Unfaded Isotropic Received Level (B): EIRP – FSL


86.2546 dB – 131.2478 dB = -44.9932 dB

Antenna (B) diameter: 12 ft Antenna Gain: 37.0424 dB


Transmission line losses (B):

Length: 312 ft.


Attenuation: 0.33dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(0.33dbm/100ft) (312 ft.) = 1.0296 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB

135
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 1.0296 dBm

Unfaded Received Signal Level: Unfaded IRL + antennaGain – TTLrx


-44.9932 dB + 37.0424 – 1.0296 dB = -8.9192 dB

Receiver noise figure: 5 dB


IF Bandwidth; BIF: 40 MHz
Receiver thermal noise power: -174dbm/Hz + noise figure + 10log10(IF bandwidth)
-174dbm/Hz + 5 dB + 10log10(40 MHz ) = -92.9794 dB
Unfaded C/N: UnfadedRSL – PN
-8.9192 dB – (-92.9794 dB) = 84.0602 dB

Receiving Equipment Threshold: - 80 dBm


Allowable Fade Margin: 56 dbm
Reliability requirement: 99.999%
No: -174 dBm/Hz + NF
-174 dBm/Hz + 5 dB = -169 dBm/Hz
Eb: RSL – 10 log bitrate(60MHZ)
-8.9192 – 10 log(60Mbps) = -86.7007 dB
Eb/No: EB – No
-86.7007 dB – (-169dBm/Hz) = 82.2993 dB
Modulation type: QPSK

BER: BER is more than 10−4

System Gain: Gain A + Gain B


37.0424 dB + 37.0424 dB = 74.0848 dB

System Loss: FSL + System gain


131.2478 dB + 74.0848 dB = 205.3326 dB

136
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Net Path Loss: System loss – gain
205.3326 dB – 74.0848 dB = 131.2478 dB
Is the link feasible: YES

FADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 1

ATTENUATION DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION

Fband: 2.3-2.5 GHz Path Length: 21.6 Miles

Attenuation due to oxygen:


6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 𝑓2 +0.229 + (𝑓−57)2 +7.5 (𝑓 2 (10−3))
6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 2.4852 +0.229 + (2.485−57)2 +7.5 ) (2.4852 (10−3))
Loxygen(dB/km) = 5.966X10-3 dB/km
Loxygen = (5.966X10-3/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 9.6070 X10-3 dB/mi
Loxygen = 9.6070 X10-3 dB/mi x 21.6 mi = 0.2075 dB
Attenuation due to vapor:
𝑑𝐵 3 9 4.3
LVapor( ) = (0.067 + + + )(12𝑓 2 (10−4 ))
𝑘𝑚 (𝑓−22.3)2 +7.3 (𝑓−183.3)2 +6 (𝑓−323.8)2 +10
3 9 4.3
LVapor=(0.067+(2.485−22.3)2 +7.3 +(2.485−183.3)2 +6 +(2.485−323.8)2 +10 ) (12(2.485)2 (10−4))
𝑑𝐵
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = 5.5442 dB/km
Lvapor = (5.542x10-4 db/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 8.9278x10-4 dB
Lvapor = 8.9278x10-4 dB x 21.6 mi = 0.0192 dB
Diffraction Loss:
The most significant elevation does not cause obtrusion to the 1st Fresnel Radius
Ldiff= 0db

137
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Attenuation due to Atmospheric Gases:
At 8Ghz;
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi (21.6mi) = 0.0432 dB

Attenuation due to Rainfall and Fog:

According toweb.pagasa.dost.gov.ph the average annual rainfall is only 511.8 mm/yr or 0.0629
mm/hr.

138
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
At 0.25 mm/hr (Type A rainfall intensity)
Attenuation due to Rainfall: Attenuation due to fog:
Lrainfall = 0 dB Lfog = 0dB

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth +Other losse
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 131.1956 dB + 30.9950 + 0.2075 dB + 0 dB+ 0.0192 dB + 0.0432 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 162.4605 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 86.7551 dBm – 162.4605 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -75.7054 dB

Antenna Gain: 36.9901 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -75.7054 dB + 36.9901 dB – 1.4664dB
RSL = -40.1817 dBm

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -40.1817 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 52.7983 dB

Availability:
Using Rayleigh
By similar triangles:
Since the Faded C/N is greater than 48, therefore
Availability x = 99.999 %

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth +Other losse
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 131.1956 dB + 26.8165 + 0.2075 dB + 0 dB+ 0.0192 dB + 0.0432 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 158.282 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 86.7551 dBm – 158.282 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -71.5269 dB

Antenna Gain: 36.9901 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -71.5269 dB + 36.9901 dB – 1.4664dB
RSL = -36.0032 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

140
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -36.0032 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 56.9768 dB

Using Siemens:
Type A Path:
Type A: W=16x10-7fxd2x10-A/10
W=16x10-7(2.485)(34.7618)2x10-56.9768/10
W=9.6376x10-9
Availability = 1 – W =( 1 – 9.6376x10-9)x100
Availability = 99.999%

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth +Other losse
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 131.1956 dB + 49.1951 + 0.2075 dB + 0 dB+ 0.0192 dB + 0.0432 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 180.6606 dB

Faded IRL:
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 86.7551 dBm – 180.6606 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -93.9055 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -93.9055 dB + 36.9901 dB – 1.4664dB
RSL = -58.3818 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn

141
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Faded C/N = -58.3818 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 34.5982 dB

Using ITU-R:
K=10-(6.5-Clat-Clon)pL1.5
K=10-(6.5-0-0)(30)1.5
K=51.96x10-6

For Philippines: pL=30; Clat=0; Clon=0


|ɛp|=|hr-he|/d
|ɛp|=|89.0016-66.4464|/34.7618
|ɛp|=0.6488

Pw=Kd3.6 f 0.89(1+|ɛp|)-1.4x10-A/10
Pw=(51.96x10-6)(34.7618 )3.6(2.485)0.89(1+|0.6488|)-1.4x10-34.5982/10
Pw= 7.1059x10-3
Pw= 1-Pw=(1-7.1059x10-3)x100
Pw= 99.2894%

142
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
IMPROVED CNR & EB AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK1

Table 4.1: Channel list of Link 1

NO. OF CHANNEL TRANSMITTER RECEIVER


1 2.315 2.441
2 2.359 2.485

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

At channel 1(Tx) – channel 1 ( Rx)


(2.441 – 2.315)/2.441 = 0.0516 X 100 = 5.16%

At 5% the availability is 99.999%

At channel 2 (Rx) – channel 2 ( Tx)


(2.441 – 2.359)/2.441 = 3.35 = 4%

At 4% the availability is 99.999%

143
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
EQUIPTMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS

Transceiver, Waveguide, Connector, Antenna, Tower

144
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
145
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
UNFADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 2

Transmission line losses (A):

Length: 165 ft.


Attenuation: 1.77dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(1.77dBm/100ft) (165 ft.) = 2.9205 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 2.9205 dBm

Antenna (A) diameter: 12 ft


Antenna Gain: 20 log10 (Dft) + 20 log10 (Freq.) +7.5 dBm
20 log10 (12 ft.) + 20 log10 (8.4 GHz) + 7.5 dBm = 47.5692 dB

Tx Power Output: 44 dBm


Noise figure: 5 dBm

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


44 dBm + 47.5692dBm –2.9205 dBm = 88.6487 dB

Free-space loss (FSL): 96.6 + 20logDmiles + 20log (Freq.)


96.6 + 20log (14.8 miles) + 20log (8.4 GHz) = 138.4908 dB

Unfaded Isotropic Received Level (B): EIRP – FSL


88.6487 dB – 138.4908 dB = -49.8421 dB

Antenna (B) diameter: 12 ft Antenna Gain: 47.5692 dB


Transmission line losses (B):

Length: 116 ft.


Attenuation: 1.77dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(1.77dbm/100ft) (50 ft.) = 0.3828 dBm

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LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 0.3828 dBm

Unfaded Received Signal Level: Unfaded IRL + antennaGain – TTLrx


-49.8421 dB + 47.5692 – 0.3828 dB = -2.6557 dB

Receiver noise figure: 5 dB


IF Bandwidth; BIF: 40 MHz
Receiver thermal noise power: -174dbm/Hz + noise figure + 10log10(IF bandwidth)
-174dbm/Hz + 5 dB + 10log10(40 MHz ) = -92.9794 dB
Unfaded C/N: UnfadedRSL – PN
-2.6557 dB – (-92.9794 dB) =90.3237 dB

Receiving Equipment Threshold: - 80 dBm


Allowable Fade Margin: 56 dbm
Reliability requirement: 99.999%
No: -174 dBm/Hz + NF
-174 dBm/Hz + 5 dB = -169 dBm/Hz
Eb: RSL – 10 log bitrate(60Mbps)
-2.6557 – 10 log(60 Mbps) = -80.4372 dB
Eb/No: EB – No
-80.4372 dB – (-169dBm/Hz) = 88.5628 dB

Modulation type: QPSK


BER: BER is more than 10−4
System Gain: Gain A + Gain B
47.5692 dB + 47.5692 dB = 95.1384 dB
System Loss: FSL + System gain
138.4908 dB + 95.1384 dB = 233.6292 dB
Net Path Loss: System loss – gain
233.6292 dB – 95.1384 dB = 138.4908 dB

147
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Is the link feasible: YES

FADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 2

ATTENUATION DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION

Fband: 7.9-8.4 GHz Path Length: 14.8 Miles

Attenuation due to oxygen:


6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 𝑓2 +0.229 + (𝑓−57)2 +7.5 (𝑓 2 (10−3))
6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 8.3852 +0.229 + (8.385−57)2 +7.5 ) (8.3852 (10−3))
Loxygen(dB/km) = 6.7183X10-3 dB/km
Loxygen = (6.7183X10-3/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 9.9489 X10-3 dB/mi
Loxygen = 9.9489 X10-3 dB/mi x 14.8 mi = 0.1472 dB
Attenuation due to vapor:
𝑑𝐵 3 9 4.3
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = (0.067 + (𝑓−22.3)2 +7.3 + (𝑓−183.3)2 +6 + (𝑓−323.8)2 +10 )(12𝑓 2 (10−4 ))
3 9 4.3
LVapor=(0.067+(8.385−22.3)2 +7.3 +(8.385−183.3)2 +6 +(8.385−323.8)2 +10 ) (12(8.385)2 (10−4))
𝑑𝐵
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = 6.9409x10-4 dB/km
Lvapor = (6.9409x10-3 db/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 0.0104 dB
Lvapor = 0.0104 dB x 14.8 mi = 0.1539 dB
Diffraction Loss:
The most significant elevation does not cause obtrusion to the 1st Fresnel Radius
Ldiff= 0db
Attenuation due to Atmospheric Gases:
At 8Ghz;

148
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi (14.8 mi) = 0.0296 dB

Attenuation due to Rainfall and Fog:

According toweb.pagasa.dost.gov.ph the average annual rainfall is only 197.3 mm/yr or


0.0225mm/hr.

At 0.25 mm/hr (Type A rainfall intensity)


Attenuation due to Rainfall: Attenuation due to fog:

149
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Lrainfall = 0 dB Lfog = 0dB

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Aoxygen + Fading depth + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 138.4752 dB + 31.3406 + 0.1472 dB + 0 dB + 0.1539 dB + 0.0296 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 170.1465 dB

Faded IRL:
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 88.6331 dBm – 170.1465 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -81.5134 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -81.5134 dB + 47.5536 dB – 2.0532dB
RSL = -36.013 dBm
PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm
Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -36.013 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 56.967 dB

Availability:
Using Rayleigh
By similar triangles:
Since the Faded C/N is greater than 48, therefore
Availability x = 99.999 %

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Aoxygen + Fading depth + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 138.4752 dB + 24.6814 + 0.1472 dB + 0 dB + 0.1539 dB + 0.0296 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 163.4873 dB

Faded IRL:

150
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 88.6331 dBm – 163.4873 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -74.8542 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -74.8542 dB + 47.5536 dB – 2.0532dB
RSL = -29.3538 dBm
PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm
Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -29.3538 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 63.6262 dB

Using Siemens:
Type A Path:
Type A: W=16x10-7fxd2x10-A/10
W=16x10-7(8.385)(23.8182)2x10-63.6262/10
W=3.3023x10-9
Availability = 1 – W =( 1 – 3.3023x10-9)x100
Availability = 99.999%

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Aoxygen + Fading depth + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 138.4752 dB + 49.1951 + 0.1472 dB + 0 dB + 0.1539 dB + 0.0296 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 188.001 dB
Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 88.6331 dBm – 188.001 dB

151
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -99.3679 dB

Antenna Gain: 47.5536 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -99.3679 dB + 47.5536 dB – 2.0532dB
RSL = -53.8675 dBm
PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm
Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -53.8675 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 39.1125 dB

Using ITU-R:

K=10-(6.5-Clat-Clon)pL1.5
K=10-(6.5-0-0)(30)1.5
K=51.96x10-6

152
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
For Philippines: pL=30; Clat=0; Clon=0
|ɛp|=|hr-he|/d
|ɛp|=|29.2608-44.196|/23.8182
|ɛp|=0.6270

Pw=Kd3.6 f 0.89(1+|ɛp|)-1.4x10-A/10
Pw =(51.96x10-6)(23.8182 )3.6(8.385)0.89(1+|0.6270|)-1.4x10-39.1125/10
Pw= 1.9376x10-3
Pw= 1-Pw=(1- 1.9376x10-3)x100
Pw= 99.8062%

IMPROVED CNR & EB AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 2

Table 4.2: Channel list of Link 2

NO. OF CHANNEL TRANSMITTER RECEIVER


1 7.915 8.211
2 7.973 8.269
3 8.031 8.327
4 8.385 8.385

SPECTRUM

153
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
At channel 1 (Tx) – Channel 1 (Rx)

(8.211 – 7.915)/8.211 = 3.6% = 4%

At 4% the availability is 99.999%

At channel 2 (Tx) – Channel 2 (Rx)

(8.269 – 7.973)/8.269 = 3.18% = 4%

At 4% the availability is 99.999%

154
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
EQUIPTMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS

Transceiver, Waveguide, Connector, Antenna, Tower

155
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
156
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
UNFADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 3
Transmission line losses (A):

Length: 110 ft.


Attenuation: 0.911dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(0.911 dbm/100ft) (110 ft.) = 1.0021 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 1.0021 dBm

Antenna (A) diameter: 12 ft


Antenna Gain: 20 log10 (Dft) + 20 log10 (Freq.) +7.5 dBm
20 log10 (12 ft.) + 20 log10 (5.0 GHz) + 7.5 dBm = 43.0630 dB

Tx Power Output: 46 dBm


Noise figure: 5 dBm

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


46 dBm + 43.0630 dBm – 1.0021 dBm = 88.0609 dB

Free-space loss (FSL): 96.6 + 20logDmiles + 20log (Freq.)


96.6 + 20log (18 miles) + 20log (5.0 GHz) = 135.6848 dB

Unfaded Isotropic Received Level (B): EIRP – FSL


88.0609 dB – 135.6848 dB = -47.6239 dB

Antenna (B) diameter: 12 ft Antenna Gain: 43.0630 dB


Transmission line losses (B):

Length: 236 ft.


Attenuation: 0.911dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L

157
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
(0.911dbm/100ft) (236 ft.) = 2.1499 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 2.1499 dBm

Unfaded Received Signal Level: Unfaded IRL + antennaGain – TTLrx


-47.6239 dB + 43.0630 dB – 2.1499 dB = -6.7108 dB

Receiver noise figure: 5 dB


IF Bandwidth; BIF: 40 MHz
Receiver thermal noise power: -174dbm/Hz + noise figure + 10log10(IF bandwidth)
-174dbm/Hz + 5 dB + 10log10(40 MHz ) = -92.9794 dB
Unfaded C/N: UnfadedRSL – PN
-6.7108 dB – (-92.9794 dB) = 86.2686 dB

Receiving Equipment Threshold: - 80 dBm


Allowable Fade Margin: 56 dbm
Reliability requirement: 99.999%
No: -174 dBm/Hz + NF
-174 dBm/Hz + 5 dB = -169 dBm/Hz
Eb: RSL – 10 log bitrate(60Mbps)
-6.7108 – 10 log(60 Mbps) = -84.4923 dB
Eb/No: EB – No
-84.4923– (-169dBm/Hz) = 84.5077 dB
Modulation type: QPSK
BER: BER is more than 10−4
System Gain: Gain A + Gain B
43.0630 dB + 43.0630 dB = 86.126 dB

System Loss: FSL + System gain


135.6848 dB + 86.126 dB = 221.8108 dB
Net Path Loss: System loss – gain

158
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
221.8108 dB – 86.126 dB = 135.6848 dB
Is the link feasible: YES

FADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 3

ATTENUATION DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION

Fband: 4.0-5.0 GHz Path Length: 18 Miles

Attenuation due to oxygen:


6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + + (𝑓 2 (10−3))
𝑓 2 +0.229 (𝑓−57)2 +7.5
6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 4.9852 +0.229 + (4.985−57)2 +7.5 ) (4.985(10−3))
Loxygen(dB/km) = 1.2551X10-3 dB/km
Loxygen = (1.2551X10-3/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 2.0210 X10-3 dB/mi
Loxygen = 2.0210 X10-3 dB/mi x 18 mi = 0.0363 dB
Attenuation due to vapor:
𝑑𝐵 3 9 4.3
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = (0.067 + (𝑓−22.3)2 +7.3 + (𝑓−183.3)2 +6 + (𝑓−323.8)2 +10 )(12𝑓 2 (10−4 ))
3 9 4.3
LVapor=(0.067+(4.985−22.3)2 +7.3 +(4.985−183.3)2 +6 +(4.985+10) ) (12(4.985)2 (10−4))
𝑑𝐵
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = 0.0108 dB/km
Lvapor = (0.0108 db/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 0.0173 dB
Lvapor = 0.0173 dB x 18 mi = 0.3114 dB
Diffraction Loss:
The most significant elevation does not cause obtrusion to the 1st Fresnel Radius
Ldiff= 0db
Attenuation due to Atmospheric Gases:
At 8Ghz;
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi

159
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi (18mi) = 0.036 dB

Attenuation due to Rainfall and Fog:

According toweb.pagasa.dost.gov.ph the average annual rainfall is only 197.3 mm/yr or


0.0225mm/hr.

160
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
At 0.25 mm/hr (Type A rainfall intensity)
Attenuation due to Rainfall: Attenuation due to fog:
Lrainfall = 0 dB Lfog = 0dB

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


46 dBm + 43.0369 dBm – 1.0021 dBm = 88.0348 dB

Faded FSL:

FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Other losses


FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 135.6587 dB + 31.6339 + 0.0363 dB + 0 dB + 0.3114 dB + 0.036 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 167.6763 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 88.0348 dB – 167.6763 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -79.6415 dB

Antenna Gain: 43.0369 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx

161
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
RSL = -79.6415 dB + 43.0369 dB – 2.1499dB
RSL = -38.7545 dBm

PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -38.7545 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 54.2255 dB

Availability:
Using Rayleigh
By similar triangles:
Since the Faded C/N is greater than 48, therefore
Availability x = 99.999 %

Faded FSL:

FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Other losses


FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 135.6587 dB + 28.2562 + 0.0363 dB + 0 dB + 0.3114 dB + 0.036 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 164.2986 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 88.0348 dB – 164.2986 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -76.2638 dB

Antenna Gain: 43.0369 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -76.2638 dB + 43.0369 dB – 2.1499dB

162
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
RSL = -35.3768 dBm

PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -35.3768 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 57.6032 dB

Using Siemens:
Type A Path:
Type A: W=16x10-7fxd2x10-A/10
W=16x10-7(4.985)(28.9681)2x10-57.6032/10
W=1.1622x10-8
Availability = 1 – W =( 1 – 1.1622x10-8)x100
Availability = 99.999%

Faded FSL:

FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Other losses


FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 135.6587 dB + 40.2863 + 0.0363 dB + 0 dB + 0.3114 dB + 0.036 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 176.3287 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 88.0348 dB – 176.3287 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -88.2939 dB

Antenna Gain: 43.0369 dB

163
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -88.2939 dB + 43.0369 dB – 2.1499dB
RSL = -47.4069 dBm

PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -47.4069 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 45.5731 dB

Using ITU-R:

K=10-(6.5-Clat-Clon)pL1.5
K=10-(6.5-0-0)(30)1.5
K=51.96x10-6

164
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
For Philippines: pL=30; Clat=0; Clon=0
|ɛp|=|hr-he|/d
|ɛp|=|65.8368-20.7264|/28.9681
|ɛp|=1.5572

Pw=Kd3.6 f 0.89(1+|ɛp|)-1.4x10-29.8549/10
Pw=(51.96x10-6)(28.9681 )3.6(4.985)0.89(1+|1.5572|)-1.4x10-45.5731/10
Pw= 2.9602x10-4
Pw= 1-Pw=(1 - 2.9602x10-4)x100
Pw= 99.9703%

IMPROVED CNR & EB AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 3

Table 4.3: Channel list of Link 3

NO. OF CHANNEL TRANSMITTER RECEIVER


1 4.415 4.753
2 4.473 4.811
3 4.531 4.869
4 4.589 4.927
5 4.647 4.985

165
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SPECTRUM

At channel 1 (Tx) – Channel 1 (Rx)

(4.753 – 4.415)/4.753 = 7.11% = 8%

At 8% the availability is 99.999%

At channel 2 (Tx) – Channel 2 (Rx)

(4.811 – 4.473)/4.811 = 7.02% = 85

At 8% the availability is 99.999%

166
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
EQUIPTMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS

Transceiver, Waveguide, Connector, Antenna, Tower

167
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
168
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
UNFADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 4

Transmission line losses (A):

Length: 319 ft.


Attenuation: 1.77dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(1.77dBm/100ft) (319 ft.) = 5.6463 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 5.6463 dBm

Antenna (A) diameter: 12 ft


Antenna Gain: 20 log10 (Dft) + 20 log10 (Freq.) +7.5 dBm
20 log10 (12 ft.) + 20 log10 (8.4 GHz) + 7.5 dBm = 47.5692 dB

Tx Power Output: 44 dBm


Noise figure: 5 dBm

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


44 dBm + 47.5692dBm –2.9205 dBm = 88.6487 dB

Free-space loss (FSL): 96.6 + 20logDmiles + 20log (Freq.)


96.6 + 20log (10.8 miles) + 20log (8.4 GHz) = 138.7540 dB

Unfaded Isotropic Received Level (B): EIRP – FSL


88.6487 dB – 138.7540 dB = -50.1053 dB

Antenna (B) diameter: 12 ft Antenna Gain: 47.5692 dB


Transmission line losses (B):

Length: 207 ft.


Attenuation: 1.77dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(1.77dbm/100ft) (207 ft.) = 3.6639 dBm

169
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 3.6639 dBm

Unfaded Received Signal Level: Unfaded IRL + antennaGain – TTLrx


-50.1053 dB + 47.5692 –3.6639dB = -6.2 dB

Receiver noise figure: 5 dB


IF Bandwidth; BIF: 40 MHz
Receiver thermal noise power: -174dbm/Hz + noise figure + 10log10(IF bandwidth)
-174dbm/Hz + 5 dB + 10log10(40 MHz ) = -92.9794 dB
Unfaded C/N: UnfadedRSL – PN
-6.2 dB – (-92.9794 dB) = 86.7794 dB

Receiving Equipment Threshold: - 80 dBm


Allowable Fade Margin: 56 dbm
Reliability requirement: 99.999%
No: -174 dBm/Hz + NF
-174 dBm/Hz + 5 dB = -169 dBm/Hz
Eb: RSL – 10 log bitrate(60Mbps)
-6.2 – 10 log(60 Mbps) = -83.9815 dB
Eb/No: EB – No
-83.9815 dB – (-169dBm/Hz) = 85.0185 dB

Modulation type: QPSK


BER: BER is more than 10−4
System Gain: Gain A + Gain B
47.5692 dB + 47.5692 dB = 95.1384 dB
System Loss: FSL + System gain
138.7540 dB + 95.1384 dB = 233.8924 dB
Net Path Loss: System loss – gain
233.8924 dB – 95.1384 dB = 138.754 dB

170
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Is the link feasible: YES

FADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 4

ATTENUATION DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION

Fband: 7.9-8.4 GHz Path Length: 10.9 Miles

Attenuation due to oxygen:


6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 𝑓2 +0.229 + (𝑓−57)2 +7.5 (𝑓 2 (10−3))
6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 8.3852 +0.229 + (8.385−57)2 +7.5 ) (8.3852 (10−3))
Loxygen(dB/km) = 6.7183X10-3 dB/km
Loxygen = (6.7183X10-3/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 9.9489 X10-3 dB/mi
Loxygen = 9.9489 X10-3 dB/mi x 10.9 mi = 0.1084 dB
Attenuation due to vapor:
𝑑𝐵 3 9 4.3
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = (0.067 + (𝑓−22.3)2 +7.3 + (𝑓−183.3)2 +6 + (𝑓−323.8)2 +10 )(12𝑓 2 (10−4 ))
3 9 4.3
LVapor=(0.067+(8.385−22.3)2 +7.3 +(8.385−183.3)2 +6 +(8.385−323.8)2 +10 ) (12(8.385)2 (10−4))
𝑑𝐵
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = 6.9409x10-4 dB/km
Lvapor = (6.9409x10-3 db/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 0.0104 dB
Lvapor = 0.0104 dB x 10.9 mi = 0.1133 dB
Diffraction Loss:
The most significant elevation does not cause obtrusion to the 1st Fresnel Radius
Ldiff= 0db
Attenuation due to Atmospheric Gases:
At 8Ghz;

171
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi (10.9 mi) = 0.0218 dB

Attenuation due to Rainfall and Fog:

According toweb.pagasa.dost.gov.ph the average annual rainfall is only 197.3 mm/yr or


0.0225mm/hr.

172
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
At 0.25 mm/hr (Type A rainfall intensity)
Attenuation due to Rainfall: Attenuation due to fog:
Lrainfall = 0 dB Lfog = 0dB

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


44 dBm + 47.5536 dBm –5.6463 dBm = 85.9073 dB

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 135.8185 dB + 27.3508 + 0.1084 dB + 0 dB + 0.1133 dB + 0.0218 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 163.4128 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 85.9073 dBm – 163.4128 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -77.5055 dB

Antenna Gain: 47.5536 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx

173
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
RSL = -77.5055 dB + 47.5536 dB – 3.6639dB
RSL = -33.6158 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -33.6158 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 59.3642 dB

Availability:
Using Rayleigh
By similar triangles:
Since the Faded C/N is greater than 48, therefore
Availability x = 99.999 %

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 135.8185 dB + 22.0247 + 0.1084 dB + 0 dB + 0.1133 dB + 0.0218 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 158.0867 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 85.9073 dBm – 158.0867 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -72.1794 dB

Antenna Gain: 47.5536 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -72.1794 dB + 47.5536 dB – 3.6639dB

174
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
RSL = -28.2897 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -28.2897 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 64.6903 dB

Using Siemens:
Type A Path:
Type A: W=16x10-7fxd2x10-A/10
W=16x10-7(8.385)(17.5418)2x10-64.6903/10
W=1.4019x10-9
Availability = 1 – W =( 1 – 1.4019x10-9)x100
Availability = 99.999%

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 135.8185 dB + 33.5928 + 0.1084 dB + 0 dB + 0.1133 dB + 0.0218 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 169.6584 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 85.9073 dBm – 169.6584 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -83.7475 dB

Antenna Gain: 47.5536 dB

Faded RSL:

175
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -83.7475 dB + 47.5536 dB – 3.6639dB
RSL = -39.8578 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:

Faded C/N = RSL – Pn


Faded C/N = -39.8578 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 53.1222 dB

Using ITU-R:

K=10-(6.5-Clat-Clon)pL1.5
K=10-(6.5-0-0)(30)1.5
K=51.96x10-6

For Philippines: pL=30; Clat=0; Clon=0


|ɛp|=|hr-he|/d

176
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
|ɛp|=|56.9976-91.1352|/17.5418
|ɛp|=1.9462

Pw=Kd3.6 f 0.89(1+|ɛp|)-1.4x10-A/10
Pw=(51.96x10-6)(17.5418 )3.6(8.385)0.89(1+|1.9462|)-1.4x10-53.1222/10
Pw=1.1144x10-5
Pw= 1-Pw=(1- 1.1144x10-5)x100
Pw= 99.998%

IMPROVED CNR & EB AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 4

Table 4.4: Channel list of Link 4

NO. OF CHANNEL TRANSMITTER RECEIVER


1 7.915 8.211
2 7.973 8.269
3 8.031 8.327
4 8.385 8.385

177
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
SPECTRUM

At channel 1 (Tx) – Channel 1 (Rx)

(8.211 – 7.915)/8.211 = 3.6% = 4%

At 4% the availability is 99.999%

At channel 2 (Tx) – Channel 2 (Rx)

(8.269 – 7.973)/8.269 = 3.18% = 4%

At 4% the availability is 99.999%

178
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
EQUIPTMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS
Transceiver, Waveguide, Connector, Antenna, Tower

179
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
180
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
UNFADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 5

Transmission line losses (A):

Length: 530 ft.


Attenuation: 0.33dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(0.33dbm/100ft) (530 ft.) = 1.749 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 1.749 dBm

Antenna (A) diameter: 12 ft


Antenna Gain: 20 log10 (Dft) + 20 log10 (Freq.) +7.5 dBm
20 log10 (12 ft.) + 20 log10 (2.5 GHz) + 7.5 dBm = 37.0424 dB

Tx Power Output: 50 dBm


Noise figure: 5 dBm

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


50 dBm + 37.0424 dBm – 1.749 dBm = 85.2934 dB

Free-space loss (FSL): 96.6 + 20logDmiles + 20log (Freq.)


96.6 + 20log (23.2 miles) + 20log (2.5 GHz) = 131.8685 dB

Unfaded Isotropic Received Level (B): EIRP – FSL


85.2934 dB – 131.8685 dB = -46.5751 dB

Antenna (B) diameter: 12 ft Antenna Gain: 37.0424 dB


Transmission line losses (B):

Length: 115 ft.


Attenuation: 0.33dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L

181
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
(0.33dbm/100ft) (115 ft.) = 0.3795 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 0.3795 dBm

Unfaded Received Signal Level: Unfaded IRL + antennaGain – TTLrx


-46.5751 dB + 37.0424 – 0.3795 dB = -9.9122 dB
Receiver noise figure: 5 dB
IF Bandwidth; BIF: 40 MHz
Receiver thermal noise power: -174dbm/Hz + noise figure + 10log10(IF bandwidth)
-174dbm/Hz + 5 dB + 10log10(40 MHz ) = -92.9794 dB
Unfaded C/N: UnfadedRSL – PN
-9.9122 dB – (-92.9794 dB) = 83.0672 dB

Receiving Equipment Threshold: - 80 dBm


Allowable Fade Margin: 56 dbm
Reliability requirement: 99.999%
No: -174 dBm/Hz + NF
-174 dBm/Hz + 5 dB = -169 dBm/Hz
Eb: RSL – 10 log bitrate(60MHZ)
-8.951 – 10 log(60Mbps) = -86.7325 dB
Eb/No: EB – No
-86.7325 dB – (-169dBm/Hz) = 82.2675 dB

Modulation type: QPSK


BER: BER is more than 10−4
System Gain: Gain A + Gain B
37.0424 dB + 37.0424 dB = 74.0848 dB
System Loss: FSL + System gain
131.8685 dB + 74.0848 dB = 205.9533 dB
Net Path Loss: System loss – gain
205.9533 dB – 74.0848 dB = 131.8685 dB

182
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Is the link feasible: YES

FADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 5

ATTENUATION DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION

Fband: 2.3-2.5 GHz Path Length: 21.8 Miles

Attenuation due to oxygen:


6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 𝑓2 +0.229 + (𝑓−57)2 +7.5 (𝑓 2 (10−3))
6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 2.4852 +0.229 + (2.485−57)2 +7.5 ) (2.4852 (10−3))
Loxygen(dB/km) = 5.966X10-3 dB/km
Loxygen = (5.966X10-3/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 9.6070 X10-3 dB/mi
Loxygen = 9.6070 X10-3 dB/mi x 23.2 mi = 0.2228 dB
Attenuation due to vapor:
𝑑𝐵 3 9 4.3
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = (0.067 + (𝑓−22.3)2 +7.3 + (𝑓−183.3)2 +6 + (𝑓−323.8)2 +10 )(12𝑓 2 (10−4 ))
3 9 4.3
LVapor=(0.067+(2.485−22.3)2 +7.3 +(2.485−183.3)2 +6 +(2.485−323.8)2 +10 ) (12(2.485)2 (10−4))
𝑑𝐵
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = 5.5442 dB/km
Lvapor = (5.542x10-4 db/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 8.9278x10-4 dB
Lvapor = 8.9278x10-4 dB x 23.2 mi = 0.0207 dB
Diffraction Loss:
The most significant elevation does not cause obtrusion to the 1st Fresnel Radius
Ldiff= 0db
Attenuation due to Atmospheric Gases:
At 8Ghz;
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi

183
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi (23.2 mi) = 0.0464 dB

Attenuation due to Rainfall and Fog:

According toweb.pagasa.dost.gov.ph the average annual rainfall is only 1229.59 mm/yr or 0.1483
mm/hr.

184
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
At 0.25 mm/hr (Type A rainfall intensity)
Attenuation due to Rainfall: Attenuation due to fog:
Lrainfall = 0 dB Lfog = 0dB

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


50 dBm + 36.9901 dBm – 2.491 dBm = 84.4991 dB

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodlan
FSL(Faded) = 131.8162dB + 31.93 + 0.2228 dB + 0 dB + 0.0207 dB + 0.0464 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 164.0361 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 84.4991 dBm – 164.0361 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -79.537 dB

Antenna Gain: 36.9901 dB

185
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -79.537 dB + 36.9901 dB – 0.5405dB
RSL = -43.0874 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -43.0874 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 49.8926 dB

Availability:
Using Rayleigh
By similar triangles:
Since the Faded C/N is greater than 48, therefore
Availability x = 99.999 %

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodlan
FSL(Faded) = 131.8162dB + 27.4371 + 0.2228 dB + 0 dB + 0.0207 dB + 0.0464 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 159.5432 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 84.4991 dBm – 159.5432 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -75.0441 dB

Antenna Gain: 36.9901 dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx

186
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
RSL = -75.0441 dB + 36.9901 dB – 0.5405dB
RSL = -38.5945 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -38.5945 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 54.3855 dB

Using Siemens:
Type A Path:
Type A: W=16x10-7fxd2x10-A/10
W=16x10-7(2.485)(37.3367)2x10-54.3855/10
W=2.0191x10-8
Availability = 1 – W =( 1 – 2.0191x10-8)x100
Availability = 99.999%

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+ Fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + + Fading depth + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodlan
FSL(Faded) = 131.8162dB + 45.5540 + 0.2228 dB + 0 dB + 0.0207 dB + 0.0464 dB + 0 dB + 0 dB
FSL(Faded) = 177.6601 dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 84.4991 dBm – 177.6601 dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -93.161 dB

Antenna Gain: 36.9901 dB

187
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -93.161 dB + 36.9901 dB – 0.5405dB
RSL = -56.7114 dBm

PndBm:
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -56.7114 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N = 36.2686 dB

Using ITU-R:

K=10-(6.5-Clat-Clon)pL1.5
K=10-(6.5-0-0)(30)1.5
K=51.96x10-6

For Philippines: pL=30; Clat=0; Clon=0

188
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
|ɛp|=|hr-he|/d
|ɛp|=|64.008-51.816|/37.3367
|ɛp|=0.3265

Pw=Kd3.6 f 0.89(1+|ɛp|)-1.4x10-A/10
Pw=(51.96x10-6)(37.3367 )3.6(2.485)0.89(1+|0.3265|)-1.4x10-36.2686/10
Pw=8.4829x10-3
Pw= 1-Pw=(1-8.4829x10-3)x100
Pw= 99.1517%

IMPROVED CNR & EB AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 4

Table 4.5: Channel list of Link 5

NO. OF CHANNEL TRANSMITTER RECEIVER


1 2.315 2.441
2 2.359 2.485

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

189
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
At channel 1(Tx) – channel 1 ( Rx)
(2.441 – 2.315)/2.441 = 0.0516 X 100 = 5.16%

At 5% the availability is 99.999%

At channel 2 (Rx) – channel 2 ( Tx)


(2.441 – 2.359)/2.441 = 3.35 = 4%

At 4% the availability is 99.999%

190
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
EQUIPTMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS

Transceiver, Waveguide, Connector, Antenna, Tower

191
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
192
LOS MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
UNFADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 6

Transmission line losses (A):

Length: 115 ft.


Attenuation: 0.911dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L


(0.911 dbm/100ft) (115 ft.) = 1.0476 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 1.0476 dBm

Antenna (A) diameter: 12 ft


Antenna Gain: 20 log10 (Dft) + 20 log10 (Freq.) +7.5 dBm
20 log10 (12 ft.) + 20 log10 (5.0 GHz) + 7.5 dBm = 43.0630 dB

Tx Power Output: 46 dBm


Noise figure: 5 dBm

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


46 dBm + 43.0630 dBm – 1.0476 dBm = 88.0154 dB

Free-space loss (FSL): 96.6 + 20logDmiles + 20log (Freq.)


96.6 + 20log (15.5 miles) + 20log (5.0 GHz) = 134.3860 dB

Unfaded Isotropic Received Level (B): EIRP – FSL


88.0154 dB – 134.3860 dB = -46.3706 dB

Antenna (B) diameter: 12 ft Antenna Gain: 43.0630 dB


Transmission line losses (B):

Length: 107 ft.


Attenuation: 0.911dbm/100 ft

A.WG loss: Att * L

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(0.911dbm/100ft) (107 ft.) = 0.9747 dBm
B. Flex guide loss: 0 dB
C. Connector losses: 0 dB
D. Directional coupler loss: 0 dB
E. Circulator or hybrid losses: 0 dB
F. Radome loss: 0 dB
G. Other losses: 0 dB
H. Total Losses: 0.9747 dBm

Unfaded Received Signal Level: Unfaded IRL + antennaGain – TTLrx


-46.3706 dB + 43.0630 dB – 1.0476 dB = -4.3552 dB

Receiver noise figure: 5 dB


IF Bandwidth; BIF: 40 MHz
Receiver thermal noise power: -174dbm/Hz + noise figure + 10log10(IF bandwidth)
-174dbm/Hz + 5 dB + 10log10(40 MHz ) = -92.9794 dB
Unfaded C/N: UnfadedRSL – PN
-4.3552 dB – (-92.9794 dB) = 88.6242 dB

Receiving Equipment Threshold: - 80 dBm


Allowable Fade Margin: 56 dbm
Reliability requirement: 99.999%
No: -174 dBm/Hz + NF
-174 dBm/Hz + 5 dB = -169 dBm/Hz
Eb: RSL – 10 log bitrate(60Mbps)
-4.3552 – 10 log(60 Mbps) = -82.1367 dB
Eb/No: EB – No
-82.1367– (-169dBm/Hz) = 86.8632 dB

Modulation type: QPSK


BER: BER is more than 10−4
System Gain: Gain A + Gain B
43.0630 dB + 43.0630 dB = 86.126 dB
System Loss: FSL + System gain
134.3860 dB + 86.126 dB = 220.512 dB
Net Path Loss: System loss – gain

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220.512 dB – 86.126 dB = 134.386 dB
Is the link feasible: YES

FADED C/N AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 6

ATTENUATION DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION

Fband: 4.0-5.0 GHz Path Length: 15.5 Miles

Attenuation due to oxygen:


6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 𝑓2 +0.229 + (𝑓−57)2 +7.5 (𝑓 2 (10−3))
6.09 4.81
Loxygen (dB/km) = (7.19 x 10 -3 + 4.9852 +0.229 + (4.985−57)2 +7.5 ) (4.985(10−3))
Loxygen(dB/km) = 1.2551X10-3 dB/km
Loxygen = (1.2551X10-3/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 2.0210 X10-3 dB/mi
Loxygen = 2.0210 X10-3 dB/mi x 15.5 mi = 0.0313 dB
Attenuation due to vapor:
𝑑𝐵 3 9 4.3
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = (0.067 + (𝑓−22.3)2 +7.3 + (𝑓−183.3)2 +6 + (𝑓−323.8)2 +10 )(12𝑓 2 (10−4 ))
3 9 4.3
LVapor=(0.067+(4.985−22.3)2 +7.3 +(4.985−183.3)2 +6 +(4.985+10) ) (12(4.985)2 (10−4))
𝑑𝐵
LVapor(𝑘𝑚) = 0.0108 dB/km
Lvapor = (0.0108 db/km)(1km/0.621mi) = 0.0173 dB
Lvapor = 0.0173 dB x 15.5 mi = 0.2681 dB
Diffraction Loss:
The most significant elevation does not cause obtrusion to the 1st Fresnel Radius
Ldiff= 0db
Attenuation due to Atmospheric Gases:
At 8Ghz;

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Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi
Latmgases = 0.002 db/mi (15.5 mi) = 0.031 dB

Attenuation due to Rainfall and Fog:

According toweb.pagasa.dost.gov.ph the average annual rainfall is only 537.73 mm/yr or


0.0613mm/hr.

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At

0.25 mm/hr (Type A rainfall intensity)


Attenuation due to Rainfall: Attenuation due to fog:
Lrainfall = 0 dB Lfog = 0dB

EIRP: Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx


46 dBm + 43.0369 dBm – 1.0476 dBm = Power output + Antenna gain – TLLtx
46 dBm + 43.0369 dBm – 1.0476 dBm = 87.9893 dB

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 134.3599 dB +26.9574+ 0.0313 dB + 0 dB + 0.2681 dB + 0.031 dB + 0 dB + 0
dB +0.376
FSL(Faded) = 162.0237dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 87.9893 dB – 162.0237dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -74.0344 dB

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Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -74.0344 dB + 43.0369 dB – 0.9747dB
RSL = -31.9272 dBm

PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -31.9272 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N 61.0078 dB

Availability:

Using Siemens:
Type A Path:
Type A: W=16x10-7fxd2x10-A/10
W=16x10-7(4.985)(24.9448)2x10-61.0078/10
W=2.8948x10-6
Availability = 1 – W (100)
Availability = 99.999%

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 134.3599 dB +29.6825 dB + 0.0313 dB + 0 dB + 0.2681 dB + 0.031 dB + 0 dB +
0 dB +0.376
FSL(Faded) = 164.7488dB

Faded IRL:

faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL


faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 87.9893 dB – 164.7488dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -76.7595 dB

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Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -76.7595 dB dB + 43.0369 dB – 0.9747dB
RSL = -34.6973 dBm

PndBm
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -34.6973 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N :58.2827 dB

Availability:
Using Rayleigh
By similar triangles:
Since the Faded C/N is greater than 48, therefore
Availability x = 99.999 %

Faded FSL:
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded)+fading depth + Other losses
FSL(Faded) = FSL(Unfaded) + Aoxygen + + Afog + Awater vapor + Aatmgasses + Arainfall+Awoodland
FSL(Faded) = 134.3599 dB +42.0367dB + 0.0313 dB + 0 dB + 0.2681 dB + 0.031 dB + 0 dB +
0 dB +0.376
FSL(Faded) = 177.103dB

Faded IRL:
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = EIRP – FSL
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = 87.9893 dB – 177.103dB
faded Isotropic Receiver Level = -89.1137dB

Faded RSL:
RSL = Faded IRL+ GRx – TLLRx
RSL = -89.1137dB + 43.0369 dB – 0.9747dB
RSL = -47.0515 dBm

PndBm

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PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + NFdB+ 10log10IFBWHz
PndBm = −174dBm/Hz + 5 + 10log (40x106)
PndBm = -92.98 dBm

Faded C/N:
Faded C/N = RSL – Pn
Faded C/N = -47.0515 dBm – (-92.98 dBm)
Faded C/N :45.9285 dB

Availability
ITU-R method
K=10-(6.5-Clat-Clon)pL1.5
K=10-(6.5-0-0)(30)1.5
K=51.96x10-6

For Philippines: pL=30; Clat=0; Clon=0


|ɛp|=|hr-he|/d
|ɛp|=|48.768-56.388|/24.9448
|ɛp|=0.3054

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Pw=Kd3.6 f 0.89(1+|ɛp|)-1.4x10-A/10
Pw=(51.96x10-6)(24.9448 )3.6(4.985)0.89(1+|0.3054|)-1.4x10-45.9285/10
Pw= 4.0816 x 10-4
Pw= 1-Pw=(4.0816 x 10-4)x100
Pw= 99.959%

MPROVED CNR & EB AND AVAILABILITY OF LINK 6

Table 4.6: Channel list of Link 6

NO. OF CHANNEL TRANSMITTER RECEIVER


1 4.415 4.753
2 4.473 4.811
3 4.531 4.869
4 4.589 4.927
5 4.647 4.985

SPECTRUM

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At channel 1 (Tx) – Channel 1 (Rx)

(4.753 – 4.415)/4.753 = 7.11% = 8%

At 8% the availability is 99.999%

At channel 2 (Tx) – Channel 2 (Rx)

(4.811 – 4.473)/4.811 = 7.02% = 85

At 8% the availability is 99.999%

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EQUIPTMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS

Transceiver, Waveguide, Connector, Antenna, Tower

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SUMMARY

In chapter 1 it comprises of the introduction follow by the objectives and scope that
needed to be done next is the initial planning of the sites that you will used in the entire
microwave link design next is the site selection were you will select where you will put your sites
next is the map of what region or place you will placed your design and lastly the kind of topology
you will used.

In the Next chapter is all about LOS Microwave Radio Links Information Listing of every

links. It is composed of different information like the history, location, landmarks about the

selected site. It also includes the precise location, description, layout plan of the site. Even the

availability of power, restrictions, seismic data, weather data in a year, and EMI survey

Chapter 3 is about link profiles were you will compute for Obstacle and Elevation, Earth
Curvature, Fresnel clearance radius, Antenna and tower height, Reflection Point/Area Line of
Sight and Fresnel Zone. And in chapter 4 you will also compute for path analysis and its
corresponding availability thru the use of Rayleigh Method, ITU-R Method and Seimen’s Method
using different factors that may affect the site’s availability.

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CONCLUSION

In this Microwave link design, I was able to learned what is the used of microwave links,
how hard it is being done and also I was able to used my skills in solving because in designing
links you will be facing many computations. I was able to understand how signals being
transmitted in different places around the world.

And lastlsy in faded C/N, the all the links obtain the availability of 99.999% with th used

of two methods which is the Siemens and Rayleigh method but in the ITU-R method all the

links did not get an availability of 99.999%, so I need to improved all the links.

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GLOSSARY

Attenuation – is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal. It is a
natural consequence of signal transmission over long distances.
Availability - is percentage of the time the link meets BER performance requirements.
Diffraction – is described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens Fresnel principle.
These characteristic behaviors are exhibited when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit that is
comparable in size to its wavelength.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) – is disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either
electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.
Fade Margin - Is the difference between the RSL and the receiver sensitivity threshold.
Fading – is deviation of the attenuation affecting a signal over certain propagation media.
Line-of-sight – is a type of propagation that can transmit and receive data only where transmit
and receive stations are in view of each other without any sort of an obstacle between them.
Microwave communication – is the sending of signals via radio using a series of microwave
towers.
Microwave link – is a communications system that uses a beam of radio waves in the microwave
frequency range to transmit video, audio, or data between two locations, which can be from just
a few feet or meters to several miles or kilometers apart.
Microwave transmission – is the transmission of information or energy by
Electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in small numbers of
centimeter; (frequencies of roughly 1.0 GHz to 30 GHz)
Parabolic antenna – is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with the cross-
sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves. The most common form is shaped like a
dish and is popularly called a dish antenna or parabolic dish
Rain fade – refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency (RF) signal by
atmospheric rain, snow or ice, and losses which are especially prevalent at frequencies
above 11 GHz.

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REFERENCES

 http://worldweatheronline.com/
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
 GOOGLE EARTH

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