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Wolfspeed SiC MOSFETs Enable Radical


Improvements in E�ciency, Power Density and
Cost for Three-Phase Industrial PFCs
Guy Moxey & Adam Barkley

13-17 minutos

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Figure 1:
Functional block diagram of a three-phase AC/DC system. Grid-connected
three-phase AC/DC (or DC/AC) power conversion is required in a
wide range of industrial applications—from power electronic
interfaces in renewable energy systems (solar, wind and batteries) to
vehicle charging and regenerative motor drives (elevators, mills, etc.).
These systems are designed to source/sink an AC current with a total
harmonic distortion (THDI) of less than �ve percent to meet regulation
standards. A practical example of such a three-phase grid-tied AC/DC
system would be a fast charging station for electric vehicles. Figure 1
shows a functional block diagram of a three-phase fast o�-board
charger for battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

Given known power semiconductor technology and known AC/DC


circuit topology, the achievable cost/performance space in this active
front end or active PFC system is limited. For bidirectional
applications, the two-level topologies using 1200 V IGBTs, three-level
topologies using SJ FETs or fast 650 V IGBTs are typically used. Two-
level topologies with 1200 V IGBTs o�er simplicity, low
semiconductor cost and high power capability (>20 kW), but
switching frequency is switching loss limited to <20 kHz, yielding
systems with lower power density, lower e�ciency and expensive
inductors.

Multi-level topologies such as the neutral point clamped (NPC)


recti�er o�er higher power density and e�ciency (lower switching
losses) at the expense of higher circuit complexity and cost.

Figure 2 shows the two-level IGBT and three-level NPC recti�er


topologies.

For unidirectional PFC applications, topologies such as the silicon


Vienna recti�er o�er a good tradeo� between cost, e�ciency, power
density and complexity. Previous research has found the Vienna
recti�er superior to the two-level, six-switch IGBT-based PFC for F SW
>16 kHz due to high IGBT switching losses.

Design Challenge

Figure 2: Two-level, six-


switch IGBT rectifier (top) and three-level NPC rectifier (bottom). Whilst
silicon IGBTs or silicon MOSFETs facilitate adequate AFEs, the need
for higher e�ciency, greater power density, lower cost and bi-
directionality pose signi�cant design challenges when using silicon in
traditional circuit approaches. However, an alternative approach
utilizing SiC MOSFETs drastically reduces switching losses (versus
1200 V IGBTs) and signi�cantly extends the usable switching
frequency range of the two-level, six-switch PFC recti�er, while
maintaining higher full-load and part-load e�ciency. Additionally,
when employing SiC MOSFETs, the device’s body diode can be used as
the anti-parallel diode, reducing circuit complexity and cost.

Figure 3 shows the two-level SiC MOSFET and three-level silicon


Vienna recti�er topologies.

Figure 3: Two-level SiC


MOSFET rectifier (top) and three-level, six-switch Vienna rectifier (bottom). In
reality, designers today are choosing between a well- known but
habitual silicon three-level Vienna recti�er for unidirectional PFC, or a
progressive SiC MOSFET-based two- level for both a uni- and bi-
directional approach.

This article showcases a cost-e�ective, highly e�cient design

alternative for an industrial PFC


TABLE I. PFC System Specifications.application with the entire design
based on SiC power MOSFET devices that are fully released, fully
quali�ed and manufactured in substantial volumes. Challenging the
traditional silicon-based Vienna recti�er with a two-level SiC PFC
system, this design meets the same system-level speci�cations as
presented in Table I. The proposed two-level SiC system follows the
power topology in Figure 3 (top), and is compared to a six-switch
Vienna recti�er, on the bottom of Figure 3.

Design of a Two-Level, Six-Switch SIC-Based


PFC System
To meet the system-level speci�cations presented in Table I,
dimensioning of semiconductors for the two-level six-switch SiC
system was performed using standard three-phase two-level voltage
source inverter design equations.

Figure
4: Switching loss as a funcion of drain current for a new 1000 V / 65 m? SiC
MOSFET.

For this power level a new 1000 V / 65 mΩ SiC MOSFET was selected.
This part delivers extremely low switching losses thanks to a four-lead
TO-247 package with dedicated Kelvin source connection. In addition,
the optimized 1000 V blocking and rugged body diode capability
allows for minimum die cost while supporting up to 800 VDC link
operation. Figure 4 shows the device switching loss behavior as a
function of drain current. Figure 5 shows the R DSON behavior versus
temperature.

Using the device static and dynamic characteristics, the system


semiconductor losses can be estimated at switching frequencies as

shown in Figure 6.
Figure 5 : RDSON versus temperature for a new 1000 V / 65 mOhms SiC
MOSFET. The losses were calculated assuming a constant device
junction temperature of 110° C. As such, the heatsink size must be
increased accordingly as semiconductor losses increase. Lastly, since
the proposed two-level SiC system makes use of the MOSFET body
diode, the calculated switching losses do include body diode reverse
recovery losses.
Figure 6: Estimated
semiconductor losses for two-level SiC PFC (Conditions: VGRID = 380 V,
VLINK = 800 V, POUT = 20 kW assuming a constant Tj = 110 °C).Outside of
SiC MOSFET implementation, special attention was given to switching
frequency and the boost inductor design for size and optimization of
each inductor to yield the required inductance value, current rating,
switching frequency, and ripple; plus second order e�ects of high
switching frequency such as EMI �lter requirements, control platform
requirements and control complexity (i.e. sensor bandwidth, gate
driver delays, etc.).

For prototype implementation, a switching frequency of 48 kHz and


an inductor current ripple of approximately 20 percent (at 380 V
input) were selected as a compromise between low boost inductor cost
and low power semiconductor RMS current requirements. The �nal
inductance of 400 µH was selected. The selection of the 48 kHz
switching frequency allows minimization of di�erential-mode EMI
�ltering requirements (and associated cost) as in this case the �rst and
third harmonic of Fsw falls below the 150 kHz EMI requirement.

Hardware

Figure 7: Details of the


fabricated 20 kW 380/480 V two-level SiC PFC with 1000 V / 65 milliohms
SiC MOSFET in TO-247-4L packages.Figure 7 shows photographs of the
20 kW two-level SiC hardware prototype. The �gure shows the 400 µH
inductors along with a detailed view of the power board (bottom right
photograph). The power stage is composed of two paralleled 1,000
V/65 mΩ SiC MOSFETs per switch position. The devices are packaged
on TO-247-4L discrete packages with a dedicated source Kelvin
connection. They o�er a cost-optimized solution by eliminating the
needed for anti-parallel Schottky diodes. This also simpli�es power
PCB layout and heatsink mounting.

The twelve TO-247-4L discrete devices are bolted to an extruded


aluminum heatsink and soldered into the power PCB containing input
and output connectors, DC link �lm capacitors, isolated gate drivers,
gate drive bu�ers and isolated gate drive power supplies. The three
400 µH phase inductors were not mounted to the PCB. The control
PCB contains a �oating-point DSP, high-bandwidth Hall-e�ect phase
current sensors, isolated phase voltage sensing, diagnostic I/O access
and LED status indicators. ADC sampling and control loops execute
synchronously with every PWM switching cycle, and the �rmware has
been optimized to operate comfortably at an execution rate F SW of up
to 60 kHz.

Figure 8: Operating
waveforms at full power. VGRID = 480 V, VLINK = 800 V, POUT = 20 kW, and
FSW = 48 kHz (top) and FSW = 60 kHz (bottom).Figure 8 shows the input
voltage and input current for Phase A under full power conditions at
FSW = 48 Hz and 60 kHz, respectively.

Figure 9: Measued
efficiency and THDI as a funtion of output power for various input voltages
(FSW = 48 kHz and LPHASE = 400 µH).A power analyzer was used to
measure system e�ciency and THDI. Figure 9 summarizes the
collected results. The prototype demonstrated a full-load e�ciency of
98.4 percent and THDI of 2.39 percent at 480 V / 60 Hz input, 800 V
output and 48 kHz switching frequency with grid inductance of 400
µH. For 380 V input voltage, the prototype demonstrated a full-load
e�ciency of 98.2 percent and THDI of 1.65 percent. DC link voltage
and inductors were kept the same as the 480 V case.

Comparison to Vienna Recti�er


Referencing previous studies on a complete design of a 10 kW Vienna
recti�er optimized for e�ciency and density, the requirements of the
targeted system (Table I) and the referenced work are similar except
for power level. This project followed the design and optimization
approach previously done, while increasing the system power level
from 10 kW to 20 kW.

The Vienna recti�er requires the sizing of three active components,


MOSFETs S1-6, rectifying diodes DN 1-6, and fast recovery diodes DF
1-6. Using devices’ datasheet information and appropriate sizing
equations, semiconductor losses were estimated as a function of
switching frequency (see Figure 10). As expected, the semiconductor
losses in the Vienna recti�er are dominated by conduction losses
rather than switching losses; in particular, diode conduction losses.
While this can be slightly reduced with selecting higher current rating
components (at expense of increased cost), some of that was already
accomplished by selecting low-VF parts.
Figure 10:
Estimated semiconductor losses for Vienna rectifier (Conditions: VGRID = 380
V, VLINK = 800 V, POUT = 20 kW assuming a constant Tj = 110
°C).Comparing Figure 6 to Figure 10, it is clear that: 1) the Vienna
recti�er has higher semiconductor losses than the two-level, six-switch
SiC PFC, and 2) the semiconductor losses in the Vienna recti�er are
less susceptible to changes in switching frequency than the
semiconductor losses in the two-level, six-switch SiC PFC.

Figure 11 shows the semiconductor e�ciency versus frequency for the


designed two-level, six-switch SiC PFC and three-level Vienna recti�er.
The plot shows that at low switching frequency (40-60 kHz) the two-
level SiC system delivers approximately 0.8 percent higher
semiconductor e�ciency. This e�ciency gain is also demonstrated via
hardware measurements when comparing results presented studied on
a 10 kW/72 kHz Vienna prototype and the results measured in this
work.

Figure 11:
Estimated semiconductor efficiency for Vienna rectifier (Conditions: VGRID =
380 V, VLINK = 800 V, POUT = 20 kW assuming a constant Tj = 110° C).The
design of the boost inductors for the Vienna recti�er follows the same
approach. In the case of the Vienna recti�er, the switching frequency
can be increased to just below 75 kHz to avoid having to �lter the
second harmonic when designing the EMI �lter (i.e. 2 × 75 kHz =
150 kHz).

A second important di�erence between the proposed two-level, six-


switch SiC PFC and the Vienna recti�er is cooling requirements. Based
on semiconductor e�ciency, the proposed two-level, six-switch SiC
PFC needs to dissipate a minimum power of 230 W while the Vienna
recti�er requirement is 358 W.

When estimating the overall volume of both systems, we can conclude


that the power density of the proposed two-level, six-switch SiC PFC is
higher than the power density of the Vienna recti�er. The Vienna
recti�er shows a slight reduction in inductor volume but a 2x increase
in cooling system volume.

When estimating the overall e�ciency, the proposed two-level, six-


switch SiC PFC delivers an approximately 0.8 percent e�ciency
improvement over the Vienna recti�er. This is primarily driven by the
semiconductor e�ciency gain. Losses on boost inductors and EMI
�lters are largely the same between the two systems. The slight
increase in boost inductor and EMI �lter losses for the proposed two-
level, six-switch SiC PFC is mostly compensated by the higher cooling
needs of the Vienna recti�er. As such, a 0.8 percent system-level
e�ciency gain is an acceptable estimate.

Using market knowledge on active and passive component cost


modeling, we can estimate the total cost of semiconductor devices for
each system. In the case of the Vienna recti�er, there are twelve 600
V/40 mΩ C7 CoolMOS devices (IPZ60R040C7), six 650 V/20 A low-V F
SiC Schottky diodes (CVFD20065) and six 800 V/40 A low-V F Si
rectifying diodes (VS-40EPS08PBF). Because the Vienna recti�er
design involves considerably more silicon, packaging, manufacturing
and assembly, from a long-term reliability perspective there are more
devices to potentially fail. The Wolfspeed-enabled two-level SiC
system requires only twelve 1000 V / 65 mΩ SiC MOSFETs
—approximately the same total semiconductor cost as the Vienna
recti�er, but with less assembly cost and higher MTTF.

Also, the silicon Vienna recti�er has unidirectional function only,


whereas the six switch SiC recti�er has full bidirectional functionality.

Summary
This article shows designers the improved performance versus cost
tradeo� space enabled by 1,000 V SiC MOSFETs and a simple two-
level, six-switch three-phase PFC topology. These devices promise to
breathe new life into this well-understood simple topology and, with
appropriate control systems, mitigate the conventional barriers to
achieving high performance at increased switching frequencies with
full bidirectional functionality

SiC MOSFETs used were TO-247-4L discrete packages with source


Kelvin connection. The 1000 V / 65 mΩ SiC MOSFETs in TO-247-4L
discrete o�er a cost-optimized solution that eliminates the need for
anti-parallel SiC Schottky diodes. The prototype was tested to full
power where measured results suggest a potential 0.8 percent
e�ciency improvement over the optimized 10 kW/72 kHz Vienna
prototype presented.

Such increase in e�ciency is signi�cant in server, UPS, battery


charging and other energy e�ciency sensitive applications where
operational cost of the electronics play an important role in total cost
of ownership. Lastly, simple control changes can be made to the two-
level, six-switch SiC based PFC to achieve bidirectional power �ow,
something not possible with a Vienna recti�er.