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How planning, organizing, leading and controlling becomes a

challenge for the managers while managing the organizations?

Management is basically Art and Science. Such as manager’s job is to solve problem creatively,
efficiently and effectively is known as management. It’s an art of getting work through others. Moving
ahead, in actually manage the work that is done by others is known as principles of management.
Activities involved in principles of management are (P-O-L-C) Planning, Organizing. Leading, and
controlling. Decision making is a backbone or crucial for manager in organization whenever they are
engage in Planning, Organizing, Leading, and controlling. Such functions have a very profound effect
on organizational effectiveness. However, Managers face many challenges related to these functions
(Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling). In upcoming section such challenges related to
theses functions will be discussed.

Challenges in Planning
Planning is a primary management function. Provides directions and future course of action plan for
organization. It involves various level of decision making at every level of management that will give
various insight of ideas. Planning refer as a complex and difficult activity. They take risk and start
planning for future. Planning is done under uncertainty they are uncertain regarding future outcomes
of planning it may be positive or negative. Following are the challenges related to the planning such
as employee involvement, uncertainty, and decision making. In this task only 2 challenges are to be

 Employee involvement in planning:

Lower level managers are more familiar with current environment. They know what actually customer
demands. In planning phase organization should involve all level of employees to get more ideas and
to make planning effective and efficient. If Top level ignores the lower level of management then they
are unable to communicate the organization’s goals appropriately and in consequence their planning
fails because of lack of awareness and clarity of goals and course of action to achieve its goals.

 Uncertainty:
Due to the complexity and changes, managers do not have complete information about all factors
influencing the decision. Nevertheless, they have to make decisions despite their lack of information
about the ecosystem for which their decisions have consequences (Ewert et al. 2004; Mitchell 2002).

 Decision making:
It’s a major challenge for the managers to make intelligent decision making in today’s complex world.
They choose among various course of actions. As the battle among three big companies DELL, APPLE
and HP suggests, strategy is an outcome of planning. That means a cluster of decisions about what
goals to pursue, what actions to take, and how to use resources to achieve goals.

In 1984 Michael Dell (founder and chairman of Dell computer) saw an opportunity to enter a market
by making PCs and then selling them directly to the customers. He began to plan about practicing his
idea. First, he established his goals that was selling inexpensive PCs, to undercut the price of Apple
and other main competitors, after establishing goals he decided a course of actions to achieve his goals.
So, he decided to sell directly to customers by telephone and to bypass expensive computer stores that
sold Apple and Compaq PC. He also decided that how to tell potential customers by his product, he
also planned that how to allocate his limited funds (he had only $5,000) for using labor and other

He did the same as he planned but when his organization grew his plans changed and became
progressively more complex. Dell and his managers are continuously planning to maintain its position
as the highest performing PC maker.

In 2003, Dell announced it would begin to sell printers and Internet music players, which brought it
into direct competition with HP (the leading printer maker) and Apple, with its new PCs, and iPod.
Dell expanded his product line but dell’s new plan has not worked very successfully. As a consequence
decisions that were the outcome of Michael Dell’s planning formed a low cost strategy.

Challenges in Organizing
Organizing is a management function performed by the manager to create a structure of working
relationships that allow organizational members to interact and cooperate to achieve goals.
The outcome of the organizing is organizational structure. “A formal system of task and reporting
relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members so that the work together to
achieve organizational goals”.
The organizing function of management is comprised of numerous activities directly or indirectly
related to the allocation of resources in ways that support the achievement of goals and plans that were
developed in the planning function (Leung & Kleiner, 2004)
The biggest challenge for managers to find methods for organizing work and allocating resources (such
as chain of command, division of labour and assigning responsibilities) that are effective and efficient.
As organization grew it becomes more complex to manage.
Following challenges are to be discussed while performing organizing function in the organization.

 Staffing:
Managers are often responsible for screening, interviewing, hiring and training employees. This can
be a time-consuming process. It also can be challenging to match qualified employees with the
appropriate shifts and monitor employee interaction and productivity.

 Communicating:
Today’s challenge for managers to communicate appropriately with their employees and they are
responsible to communicate the technical knowledge, instructions, rules, and information required to
get the job done from employees. Communication is a two way process. Managers should be
responsive to feedback and upward communication.

Challenges in Leading
Leaders must have vision and are the role model. They articulate the clear vision of the organization
among organizational members to accomplish goals. Managers can be leader by servings as the role
model, motivate employees and influence the employee’s behavior by working with them. Managers
adapt their management style to the demand of the situation. Here are the challenges related to the

 Employee satisfaction:
Employee satisfaction leads to employee loyalty. To satisfy employee is a challenge for the managers.
If employees are satisfied, then there would be less turnover and absenteeism rate in the organization.
Highly motivated and satisfied employees perform efficiently and effectively to achieve organizational
goals. Employee retaining is the major challenge for the manager.

 Trust:
Building effective team there is a factor of trust that becomes challenging for the manager. Specifically,
building virtual teams. If employees have trust on each other then there are less chances of resistance
of change among employees.
When employees feel they can’t trust leadership they feel unsafe, like no one has their back, and then
spend more energy on self-preservation and job hunting than performing at their job.
The level of employees’ trust, in their supervisors impacts their concomitant attitude toward change
(Devos, Buelens, & Bouckenooghe, 2007)

Challenges in Controlling
Managers have to evaluate how well organization is performing and do monitor the employee
behaviors at the workplace. Determine whether employees working efficiently and effectively.
Manager compares the desired result with actual results and take corrective measures if a problem or
an issue occurs. And formulating new strategies or planning they consider past deviation. Managers
face challenges while measuring performance that which tools should be used and compensating
employees for their performances. The challenge is how to measure performance of the employees and
on the basis of performance to determine the reward or punishment for them.

 Measuring performance
Through personal observation
It is a challenge for the managers because it has drawback of personal biasness, time consuming and
Oral Reports
Information is limited and can’t be documented.
Written Reports
Take more time to prepare.

Cassidy, C., & Kreitner, R. (2011). Management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage.
Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. (2009). Contemporary management. New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw Hill.
Schraeder, M., Self, D. R., Jordan, M. H., & Portis, R. (2014). The Functions of Management as
Mechanisms for Fostering Interpersonal Trust. ADVANCES IN BUSINESS RESEARCH, 5, 50-
62. doi:http://journals.sfu.ca/abr