Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11

Social Networking as a

Whole
Social Networking as a Whole

What is Social Networking?


A social networking service (also social networking site or SNS) is a platform to build social
networks or social relations among people who share similar interests, activities, backgrounds or
real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a
profile), his or her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social network sites are web-
based services that allow individuals to create a public profile, create a list of users with whom to
share connections, and view and cross the connections within the system. Most social network
services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail
and instant messaging. Social network sites are varied and they incorporate new information and
communication tools such as mobile connectivity, photo/video/sharing and blogging. Online
community services are sometimes considered a social network service, though in a broader
sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online
community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas,
pictures, posts, activities, events, and interests with people in their network.

The main types of social networking services are those that contain category places (such as
former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description
pages), and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of
these, with American-based services such as Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn, Instagram, Reddit,
Pinterest, Vine, Tumblr, and Twitter widely used worldwide; Nexopia in Canada; Badoo, Bebo,
Vkontakte (Russia), Delphi, Draugiem.lv (Latvia), iWiW (Hungary), Nasza-Klasa (Poland),
Soup (Austria), Glocals in Switzerland, Skyrock, The Sphere, StudiVZ (Germany), Tagged,
Tuenti (mostly in Spain), Myspace, Xanga and XING in parts of Europe; Hi5 in South America
and Central America; Mxit in Africa; Cyworld, Mixi, Renren, Friendster, Sina Weibo and Wretch
in Asia and the Pacific Islands.

There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of
friends and interests (see the FOAF standard and the Open Source Initiative[clarification
needed]). A study reveals that India has recorded world's largest growth in terms of social media
users in 2013. A 2013 survey found that 73% of U.S adults use social networking sites.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_networking_service

Project in CSA 111A Page 1


Social Networking as a Whole

Number of social network users worldwide


from 2010 to 2018 (in billions)

This statistic shows the number of social network users worldwide from 2010 to 2014 with
projections until 2018. In 2016, it is estimated that there will be around 2.13 billion social
network users around the globe, up from 1.4 billion in 2012.

Social network usage


Social network penetration worldwide is ever-increasing. In 2012, 63.1 percent of internet users
were also social network users and these figures are expected to grow. Social networking is one
of the most popular online activities with high user engagement rates and expanding mobile
possibilities. Overall, US users spent more than 121.8 billion monthly minutes on social media.

The increased worldwide usage of smartphones and mobile devices has opened up the
possibilities of mobile social networks with increased features such as location-based services
like Foursquare. Most social networks are also available as mobile apps, whereas some networks
have been optimized for mobile internet browsing, enabling users to comfortably access visual
blogging sites such as Tumblr or Pinterest via tablet.

With over 1.1 billion monthly active users, social network Facebook is currently the market
leader in terms of reach and scope. The site has been shaping the social media landscape since its

Project in CSA 111A Page 2


Social Networking as a Whole

launch and has been an important factor in discussions about users’ privacy and differentiating
between the private and the public online self.

Social networks not only enable users to communicate beyond local or social boundaries, but
also offer possibilities to share user-generated content like photos and videos and features such
as social games. Social advertising and social gaming are two major points of revenue for social
networks.

Source: http://www.statista.com/statistics/278414/number-of-worldwide-social-network-
users/

The positives and negatives of using social


networking sites
Social networking is a topic that divides opinion - some people think it's an amazing tool
but others are worried about the impact it has on people's lives.

From students to journalists, One Direction to the Prime Minister - lots of people use social
media sites for both work and pleasure.

School Reporters from across the UK have reported on staying safe onlineand the perils
of Twitter 'addiction' in the last few months.

Students from The Crest Girls' Academy in London are also interested in the topic and recently
polled parents, carers and teachers at their school to get their views on social networking.

The survey found that 37% of those questioned had been left sleep-deprived as a result of social
networking and 75% didn't like the idea of phones being kept close by while they slept. Other
School Reporters have also looked into the issue of technology and its effect on teenagers'
sleeping habits.

The students decided to explore the issue further and have been taking a closer look at the
benefits - and potential risks - of using social networks. Here are some of their conclusions as to
the main benefits and drawbacks of social media.

Negatives
Not everyone in the 21st century thinks about the negative effects of having social networking
accounts - but simple things like not setting your privacy settings properly or liking someone's
photo can have bad results.

Project in CSA 111A Page 3


Social Networking as a Whole

Cyberbullying can be a problem as people can take advantage of the fact that there is no one who
can effectively stop the bullying when it happens, due to everything being performed behind a
screen. The only way for a bully to be stopped is if they are reported and victims may be too
intimidated to do it.

Social networking can also ruin relationships as people may get jealous if they find out their
boyfriend or girlfriend is exchanging messages with other people.

It can also be a waste of time as people can visit a site to check on thing and end up spending the
whole day 'behind the screen' and as a result, not doing anything useful with their lives.

Positives
Social networking has lots of good points

You can express yourself, showing off your favourite song lyrics or posting pictures of your new
outfit. It is a lot harder to feel embarrassment over the internet than in person, so people find it
easier to vent their feelings on sites like Facebook.

In fact, it has become so much a part of people's lives that you can learn someone's life story just
by checking their page. Their friends, likes and dislikes, relationship status, phone number,
address…everything.

You can share your feelings and your mental stresses - and it is a great way to entertain yourself
after a busy daily routine.

It also makes it a lot easier to keep in touch with family and friends, especially if they live far
away. But you can also make new friends by connecting with friends of friends that you might
not know.

Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolreport/22065333

10 Ways Social Media Affects Our Mental


Health
Since the face of psychology is constantly changing, it is impossible to end the “History of
Psychology” series with a definitive, “…and that’s how psychology came to be.” Separate
branches of the discipline have formed, medicine has become staggeringly important in
treatment and prevention of mental illnesses, theories have formed and crumbled, and scholars
have dedicated their careers to advancing the field. The science has been adapted by the masses,

Project in CSA 111A Page 4


Social Networking as a Whole

and has even become prevalent in pop culture – music (Blink 182’s “Stockholm Syndrome”
comes to mind), television, and films have all explored mental illnesses and treatments.

The series has only briefly outlined the science’s origins and growth, and it continues to inspire
many to study the workings of the human mind. Luckily, those who came before us provided us
with the tools and terminology to hit the ground running and discover incredible things they
couldn’t have even imagined.

More recently, the incorporation of technology into psychology has made it possible to
supplement therapeutic techniques with computer-based counseling, test brain activity, and
accurately record and analyze complex data – and that’s not even the beginnings of its potential
influence on the field. Although technology will undoubtedly open up doors for the next
generation of researchers, a Google search of “psychology technology” actually leads to a
number of pages dedicated to explaining the effects of technology on our own minds.

The topic is broad enough to expand into dozens of articles, so this top 10 list tackles only some
of the most staggering results of studies and surveys pertaining to social media. Chances are, if
you’re reading this you participate in social media in some way or another, so next time you go
to check your Facebook, retweet an interesting link, or choose an Instagram filter for a selfie,
think about the ways your brain is processing the seemingly endless stream of information it is
taking in.

1. Social media is addictive.


Studies show that 63% of Americans log on to Facebook daily, and 40% log on multiple times
each day. People use the site for myriad reasons; however, it usually serves, on some level, the
same basic purposes: distraction and boredom relief. “Likes” and comments are positive
reinforcement for posting information, making it difficult for a person to stop. Researchers have
found this so common that they created a scale to measure this addiction: The Berge Facebook
Addiction Scale.

2. Social media makes us compare our lives with others’.


Posts on social media many times present an idealized version of what’s happening, what
something looks like, or how things are going. This can lead users to constantly compare
themselves to others and think less of their own lives. If things are going particularly well for
people in your newsfeed and you’re having a rough day, of course this will likely negatively
affect your mood. In fact, in 2012 a team of researchers in the UK surveyed users, 53% of whom
said social media had changed their behavior; 51% said it was negative behavior because of
decline in confidence they felt due to unfair comparisons to others.

3. Social media makes us restless.

Project in CSA 111A Page 5


Social Networking as a Whole

Out of the same sample as the above example, two-thirds admitted to having difficultly relaxing
when unable to use their social media accounts.

4. Social media gives rise to cyberbullying.


Cyberbullying is an enormous concern, especially for adolescents. An organization that aims for
internet safety, called Enough is Enough, conducted a survey that found 95% of teenagers who
use social media have witnessed cyberbullying, and 33% have been victims themselves.

CDC data

5. Social media glamorizes drug and


alcohol use.
A study that explored the relationship between
teenagers, social media, and drug use found that 70%
of teenagers ages 12 to 17 use social media, and that
those who interact with it on a daily basis are five
times more likely to use tobacco, three times more
likely to use alcohol, and twice as likely to use
marijuana. In addition, 40% admitted they had been
exposed to pictures of people under the influence via
social media, suggesting correlation between the two factors. Although a correlation is all it is, it
makes sense that social media would amp up the amount of peer pressure to which teenagers are
exposed.

6. Social media can make us unhappy.


A study from the University of Michigan collected data about Facebook users and how it
correlated with their moods. Simply put, they found that the more avid users were overall more
unhappy than those who used the site less. Over more time, avid users also reported lower
satisfaction in their lives overall.

7. Social media can lead to fear of missing out, aka FOMO.


Fear of missing out is a phenomenon that occurs when you feel pressure to be doing what
everyone else is doing, attend every event, and share every life experience. It can evoke anxiety
and cause social media users to question why everyone is “having fun without them.” Surveys
have even found that people feel insecure after using Pinterest because they feel that they aren’t
crafty or creative enough. Facebook and Twitter can make people feel like they aren’t successful
or smart enough.

Project in CSA 111A Page 6


Social Networking as a Whole

8. Social media often leads to multitasking.


How many tabs do you have open right now? How are you even concentrating on one thing? The
thing is, you’re probably not – especially if one of those tabs is a social media site. Research has
shown that our brains don’t have the capacity to fully focus our attention on two things at once,
and instead multitasking causes our brain to quickly switch from one task to another. This
hinders information processing and productivity. Closing out your Twitter feed can seriously help
you get some work done.

Social media isn’t all about selfie-


taking narcissists, cyberbullies, and
killing productivity. When used in
moderation with the right intentions, it
really can achieve what it was first set
out to do: connect people. Which
brings us to…

9. Social media enhances our


connectivity.
A paper linking social media usage to
the Freudian ideas of the id, ego, and super-ego cites many examples of positive psychological
effects of social media. Perhaps one of the most important points is that social media doesn’t
necessarily take us out of the real world. It can instead be used to revive and preserve
relationships with other people. Even more exciting about this technological world is that there is
an incredible number of like-minded people who can connect in just one click. Research
presented in the journal The British Psychological Society found that students who experience
low self-esteem can take advantage of social media and its capability to bond them with others in
order to pull themselves up from slumps in their mood.

10. Social media can help with socialization.


Research presented at the 119th annual American Psychological Association found that
introverted adolescents can actually gain social skills by using social media. In part, this is
because shy individuals may feel safer behind a computer screen (or smartphone, or tablet, or…
well, you get the idea…it’s everywhere). Dr. Larry D. Rosen, who presented the information,
also stated that teens were becoming very good at virtually expressing empathy towards others.

Source: http://blog.degreed.com/10-ways-social-media-affects-our-mental-health/

Project in CSA 111A Page 7


Social Networking as a Whole

Interesting Statistics for the Top 10 Social


Media Sites

Social media is that dominating force in the modern world that can change minds, catch more
business, increase sales or build and shape a brand or business.

Have you fallen prey to spending hours on Facebook, or waking up at midnight to check for
Tweets?

This is because of the impact social media has on all of us these days. Over the years, social
media sites have also proven to be effective platforms for marketing.

Below are a few interesting stats for the top 10 popular social media sites.

1. Facebook
This is the biggest social networking site with the largest number of users. There are more than 1
million small or medium sized businesses advertising here and it is estimated that larger
companies are spending as much as $100 million on Facebook advertising per year.

2. Twitter

Project in CSA 111A Page 8


Social Networking as a Whole

Twitter is loved for spreading the word via tweets. This site has revolutionized social media.
Approximately 81 percent of Twitter’s advertising revenue comes from mobile and there is a
$200,000 cost estimated for a 24-Hour Promoted Trend on Twitter.

3. LinkedIn
LinkedIn helps to build professional networks and engagement with other users. It is the world’s
largest professional network being used for this purpose. Today, it has over 332 million users and
each second adds two new members, all of which attracts marketers.

4. Google +
This site has 300 million monthly active users and is used for relationship marketing. It has over
a 53 percent positive interaction between Google+ users and brands.

5. YouTube
YouTube is expected to generate $5.6 billion in gross revenue in 2016. Currently, there are 6
billion hours of video watched on YouTube per month and 1 billion videos watched over mobile
phones per day.

6. Pinterest
Pinterest marketing is another social media tool helping brands to grow rapidly. There are over
70 million users of Pinterest of which 80 percent are women and 20 percent are men. Over 9
million users have connected their accounts to Facebook.

7. Instagram
Marketers know the usefulness of Instagram marketing and use Instagram to market products
and services. It is a wonderful platform to share visual stories.

There are more than 300 million monthly active users on Instagram, of which 75 million are
daily active users. Instagram is widely being used for business marketing.

8. Tumblr
This microblogging platform is used for sharing photos, videos, audio, quotes, text or anything
that you’d like to market. It has more than 420 million users and 217 million blogs created,
making it a favorite.

9. Flickr
This image and video hosting social network has over 3.5 million images uploaded daily by users
and offers massive online photo storage.

Project in CSA 111A Page 9


Social Networking as a Whole

10. Reddit
Reddit is a social networking site used for entertainment purposes, where registered
members share content and direct links. It has 174 million monthly unique visitors.

Source: http://smallbiztrends.com/2015/07/social-media-sites-statistics.html

Project in CSA 111A Page 10