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Methods for Reducing Microbial

Contamination of Wheat Flour

and Effects on Functionality

and transport. As might be

D. J. Rose1 expected, microbial contaminants
Department of Food Science & are found mostly on the surface of
Technology, University of Nebraska the grain. Manthey et al. (32) tested
219 durum wheat samples from the
Lincoln, NE, U.S.A.
Northern Plains of the United States.
A. Bianchini, B. Martinez, and They found that wheat as received
tasted refrigerated cookie dough before from growers, farm bins, and elevators
R. A. Flores
baking and 80% have licked beaters contained 1.6 × 108 cfu of bacteria per
Department of Food Science & after mixing batter for cakes, brownies, gram. After cleaning with a dockage
Technology, The Food Processing or muffins. Other products, including tester and cyclone grain cleaner the
Center, University of Nebraska biscuit (24%), pie crust (22%), and pizza microbial load was reduced by 1 log.
Lincoln, NE, U.S.A. crust (11%) doughs are also occasionally Milling the cleaned wheat using a Buhler
consumed raw (7). experimental mill further reduced the

W heat flour is a raw agricultural

product and, thus, is subject to
contamination from soil, animal feces,
Based on these survey results,
the assumption that wheat flour is
microbiologically safe is risky for
microbial count to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in
the straight-grade flour. Laca et al. (27)
removed 1.4–22% of the outer portions
insects, diseased plants, and other agents consumers. For example, in a recent of wheat kernels using an abrasive test
(27). Historically contamination has been widely publicized case 77 people in 30 mill and analyzed the remaining grain
of little concern because it was assumed states in the United States fell ill in May for microbial load. They found a 1 log
that the low water activity of wheat 2009 due to an Escherichia coli infection. reduction in bacteria after removing only
flour cannot support bacterial growth While the specific strain responsible for the outermost 4% of the grain.
and that any pathogenic contaminant the outbreak was not isolated from any Although the milling process removes
would be destroyed during baking, food product, raw cookie dough was much of the outer layers of the wheat
frying, or cooking of the flour used in identified as the carrier, and the authors kernel, flour can still retain unsafe
final product processing. It has been of the case report argued that it was the contaminants. Several studies have
discovered, however, that although wheat wheat flour that was contaminated (35). determined the microbial load in a large
flour cannot support bacterial growth Processing wheat flour to reduce number of wheat flour samples (Table I).
at normal storage moisture contents, microbial contamination presents Total bacteria, mold, and yeast contents
bacteria can survive in a dormant state challenges—not the least of which is that were fairly consistent among flour
for extended periods in dry flour (12). these treatments can reduce or affect flour samples analyzed, but wide discrepancies
Moreover, a recent national survey of functionality. The purpose of this article existed with respect to specific pathogens.
1,032 individuals in the United States is to discuss processes aimed at reducing For example, the causative agent in the
indicated that 58% of consumers have microorganisms in flour and their abovementioned food-borne illness
potential effects on flour functionality. outbreak (35), E. coli, was identified at >9
cfu/g in a staggering 72 of 142 samples
1 Corresponding author. Department of Food Science & Wheat Flour Microbiology analyzed in Turkey (2), while only 2 of
Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 252 Food
Industry Complex, Lincoln, NE 68583, U.S.A. E-mail:
As a raw agricultural product, wheat 300 samples were positive for E. coli in
drose3@unl.edu; Tel: +1.402.472.2802. carries with it contaminants from the a study conducted in Australia (12). In
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-57-3-0104 environments it is exposed to during this same set of samples from Australia,
©2012 AACC International, Inc. production, including harvest, storage, Bacillus cereus was not detected in any

104 / MAY–JUNE 2012, VOL. 57, NO. 3

samples (12), while 93% of samples from dried in a forced-draft oven at 30°C to removed the differences were no longer
another study in Australia were positive 16.1 and 17% moisture for soft and hard evident (33). Ibanoglu (22) studied the
for B. cereus (4). Salmonella sp. was wheats, respectively, before experimental effects of washing wheat kernels with
detected in a few samples from the United milling. This treatment resulted in an ozonated water (1.5 mg/L at 2 L/kg of
States (39) (Table I). ≈1 log reduction in total bacteria, yeast, wheat for 30 min) on flour extraction
Although contamination with and mold compared with a similar water rate, farinograph and extensograph
pathogenic bacteria may seem low wash. characteristics, protein, falling number,
based on the data presented in Table I, Dhillon et al. (11) showed that and sedimentation volume of the
these bacteria can cause illness at very treatment with ozonated (16.5 mg/L) or resulting flour. Ozone treatment did
low doses. Moreover, with the wide chlorinated (700 mg/L) water at 2 L/kg not affect any of these properties except
distribution of food commodities that is of durum wheat for 3 min was effective dough extensibility, for which there was a
common in today’s marketplace, a single at reducing yeast and mold counts by small, albeit significant, increase.
contaminated batch of flour can result 0.5 and 2 logs, respectively, although Desvignes et al. (8) exposed wheat to
in widespread illness and a tarnished neither treatment affected bacterial load. a much more extensive ozone treatment
company image. The lack of an effect on bacteria in this that lasted up to 5 hr. They found that
study may have been due to the short ozone treatment reduced the energy
Strategies to Reduce Microbial contact time with ozone compared with requirement at the break stage of
Count Prior to Milling the previous study. Acidic pH (1% acetic milling and reduced coarse bran yield.
When wheat is received at the mill, it acid) increased dissolved ozone in the Biochemical characterization of the
contains chaff, stones, and other foreign wash water and increased ozone half-life. flour indicated a reduction in starch
materials that must be removed before Therefore, Dhillon et al. (11) also treated damage, an increase in aleurone in
milling (37). Wheat kernels are cleaned wheat with ozonated water (20.5 mg/L) the flour, and an increase in insoluble
using screens, air currents, brushes, in 1% acetic acid at 2 L/kg of wheat for glutenin polymers. These changes in
and magnets prior to tempering (37). 3 min. This was remarkably effective at flour properties might be attributable to
Although these steps reduce the total reducing microbial contamination: the increased oxidation as a result of excessive
microbial load by ≈1 log, the wheat aerobic plate count was reduced from 7.9 ozonation.
kernels still contain a substantial number × 104 cfu/g to 50 cfu/g, and the yeast and Although fewer reports are available,
of contaminants (32), and there are no mold count was reduced from 1.9 × 104 strategies other than ozonation may be
reports on the effectiveness of these cfu/g to <10 cfu/g. In a follow-up study, used to reduce microbial contamination.
cleaning steps for pathogen reduction. Dhillon et al. (10) created a fluidized bed For instance, in the study by Dhillon et
Several authors have explored new of wheat using air currents and applied al. (11) in which they examined acidified
cleaning steps to further reduce total gaseous ozone or ozone dissolved in water (acetic acid) ozone treatment of wheat
bacterial populations. or acetic acid solution. A combination kernels, the 1% acetic acid solution
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent of gaseous ozone (6 ppm), acetic acid without addition of ozone was equally
that is used in the food industry as (0.5%), and ozonated water (26 mg/L) effective at reducing bacteria and almost
a disinfectant. It is effective against was most effective at reducing microbial as effective at reducing yeast and mold
insects (23) and pathogenic and spoilage load: 1.7 log for bacteria and 3.3 log for compared to the solution with added
microorganisms (38) and has been shown mold and yeast. ozone. Vojnovich et al. (46) studied the
to degrade mycotoxins (52). One of the Although ozone is a powerful oxidant, effectiveness of washing corn with hot
more attractive features of ozone is that Tiwari et al. (44) noted that oxidation water (64–100°C) or steam alone or in
it leaves no chemical residue because it by ozone is mostly confined to the outer combination with a variety of chlorine-
degrades to oxygen gas. With respect to layers of the grain. Thus, ozonation of based sanitizing agents. Submersing corn
wheat, ozone has been most extensively whole-kernel wheat is likely to have in water at 82°C for 60 min or steam for
studied as a fumigant applied during a minimal effect on the functional 30 min before milling reduced bacteria in
bulk storage of wheat grain to reduce pest properties of flour, which comes from the flour (hammer milled) from 1 × 106 to
contamination (8,19,51). the center of the grain. Indeed, in rice 7 × 102 cfu/g. Corn treated with chlorine-
Ibanoglu (22) washed wheat with treated with ozone, extensive damage based sanitizers dissolved in water at
ozonated water (1.5 mg/L). In the study, was observed in the intact grain after 65°C for 1–3 min reduced the bacterial
500 g of wheat was washed with 1 L of treatment, including a musty odor and load by 1–3 logs depending on treatment.
ozonated water for 30 min, drained, and darker color; however, after the bran was The effectiveness and appropriateness of
these strategies for reducing microbial
load in wheat and their effects on the
Table I. Microorganisms in wheat flour
functional properties of flour have not
Origina been explored.
Turkey Australia Australia United States A few investigators have studied the
Category (ref. 2) (ref. 4) (ref. 12) (ref. 39)
value of adding antimicrobial agents to
Bacteria (log cfu/g) 4.14 (142) NR 4.2 (100) 4.17 (1,354)
tempering water as a means of reducing
Mold (log cfu/g) 2.24 (142) NR 2.80 (50) 2.90 (1,682)
Yeast (log cfu/g) NR NR 3.70 (50) 2.12 (1,648)
bacterial contamination. Chlorinated
Escherichia coli (% positive) 51 (142) 1 (71) 2 (300) 12.8 (3,350) water (600–700 ppm) can be added to
Salmonella sp. (% positive) ND (142) NR ND (150) 1.3 (3,040) tempering water to reduce the bacterial
Bacillus cereus (% positive) 4.2 (142) 93 (71) ND (350) NR load (9). Chlorination, however,
a Values are means; sample sizes are provided in parentheses. NR = Not reported; ND = not detected. leaves potentially hazardous residues;


therefore, Dhillon et al. (9) tempered Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, wheat flour. For instance, Hanis et al.
durum and hard red spring wheats with Aspergillus flavus, or E. coli in a hot-air (18) treated whole milled wheat with 1,
water containing ozone at 16 mg/L. oven at 130°C for 45 min. This treatment 10, and 25 kGy of radiation from a 60Co
Ozone treatment did not appreciably was remarkably effective at reducing the source. In the study, 1 kGy reduced viable
affect microbial load (<1 log difference) viability of these organisms: B. cereus was microorganisms by 2 logs, while 10 kGy
compared with traditional tempering. reduced by 2 logs, Staphylococcus aureus completely eliminated bacteria. Zaied
In a similar experiment, Ibanoglu (21) was reduced by 4 logs, and A. flavus and et al. (53) treated flour with 2, 4, and 8
tempered hard red and soft white wheats E. coli, inoculated at 710 and 300 cfu/g, kGy of gamma radiation. They found a
to 16.5 and 15.5% moisture, respectively, were not detected after treatment. substantial increase in reducing sugars
with water containing ozone (11.5 mg/L). As stated previously, moisture content and decrease in dough development time
In hard wheat, bacteria, yeast, and mold is very important with respect to the effect and gluten strength in flours treated with
were reduced by ≈1 log. In soft wheat, of heat treatment on flour functionality. 4 and 8 kGy of gamma radiation. In a
bacteria was reduced by ≈2 logs, and Laroche et al. (28) demonstrated this sensory panel, participants ranked these
yeast and mold were reduced by 1 log. using flour samples that were spiked with samples as less acceptable than the control
Minor differences in ozone application Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Lactobacillus and the sample made from flour treated
or other methodologies between this plantarum. They found that the viability with 2 kGy of radiation. Koksel et al. (26)
and the previous study might account of the microorganisms after treatment also reported decreases in dough quality
for the different outcomes. Ibanoglu was reduced when the initial water parameters in flour treated with high
(21) also measured milling extraction activity of the flour was between 0.3 and doses of radiation (>2.5 kGy).
rate, farinograph and extensograph 0.5. However, when water activity was Other forms of radiation, such as
characteristics, protein, falling number, very low (0.1) or high (>0.5) the spiked ultraviolet (UV), have been used to
sedimentation volume, and color for organisms were effectively inactivated. inactivate microorganisms in foods.
ozone-tempered wheat. No changes Although this implies that very dry flour Laszlo et al. (29) used UV radiation to
were observed in any of these analyses might be treated to effectively inactivate reduce microorganisms in wheat flour,
compared with the control. microorganisms, Upreti et al. (45) showed but the treatment did not affect the
that heating flour with <1.5% moisture microbial load. When UV radiation
Strategies to Reduce Microbial content reduced functionality. Thus, was combined with ozone (20 mg/kg of
Counts After Milling heating flour with sufficient moisture to flour), microbial load was reduced by ≈2
Heat. Dry heating of wheat flour, effectively inactivate microorganisms logs, and it is probable that the reduction
especially substandard wheat flour, while not denaturing gluten or obtained in the combined treatment was
has long been recognized as a means gelatinizing starch is a constant challenge. caused by the ozone.
of improving functional properties More elaborate heat treatments than Microwave and radio frequency
such as water absorption, farinograph simply heating flour in an oven have been irradiation can also be used to reduce
quality number, gluten strength, developed to overcome some of these microbial contaminants in foods. These
adhesiveness, and color (6,14– challenges. In one new technology, a dry types of non-ionizing radiation mainly
16,25,34,36,40,42,43,45,50). The effects product is dehydrated at low temperature affect microorganisms through generation
of heat on wheat flour, when applied (70–90°C) and then treated with steam to of heat. An advantage of using this mode
appropriately, are similar to chemical inactivate microorganisms. The increased of heating is that it is rapid compared
bleaching. Appropriate treatments vary moisture generated by the steam is then with conventional heating methods.
widely: 80–180°C for 5 sec to 15 min. removed under vacuum (30). In another Unfortunately, heating is uneven, and
This is perhaps due to differences among approach, the dry product is fed into a steps to ensure more even heating must
wheat classes but more likely is due to chamber with a rotating, heated screw be taken (20).
differences in flour moisture contents and dry steam injection. As the product A new treatment process has been
and heating methods. Indeed, heating for is propelled through the chamber by the described that uses radio frequency
too long (e.g., 170°C for 15 min [49]) can rotating screw, moisture lost from the irradiation to inactivate microorganisms
result in browning of the flour, while too product is removed by air circulation in wheat flour (47). Flour was treated
much moisture (e.g., 80°C for 30 min at (www.safesteril.com). These technologies with a radio frequency device to increase
20% moisture [48]) can result in gluten have been used mainly for pasteurization the temperature to 75–100°C followed
denaturation. of spices and nuts but may also be by cooling with cold air. Depending on
Because heat treatments are often used applicable to flour. the severity of the treatment, a 4–7 log
to reduce or eliminate microorganisms Irradiation. Gamma rays are a type of reduction in bacteria was reported.
in foods, the possibility of using heat ionizing radiation that has been approved The authors claim this treatment
treatments to reduce contaminants in for inactivating microorganisms in resulted in minimal effects on flour
flour has been reported in a few studies. some foods. Irradiation is remarkably functionality.
Upreti et al. (45), for instance, heated effective at reducing pathogen and total There are no reports on the destruction
flour that had been evenly dispersed on a microbial counts but may cause changes of microorganisms in flour using
baking sheet (0.1 cm thickness) at 290°C to the food product, such as darkening of microwave radiation. When exploring
for 5 min in a hot-air oven. Total bacteria meat (5) or destruction of antioxidants the effects of microwaves on the
was reduced from 2,700 cfu/g before (1). In wheat, irradiation has most often functional properties of flour, MacArthur
treatment to120 cfu/g after treatment. been used to kill insects during bulk and D’Appolonia (31) treated 2 kg of
Wiseblatt et al. (49) heated flour (6.5 mm storage of wheat kernels. Only a few flour at ≈14% moisture in a household
depth) that had been inoculated with studies have reported on irradiation of microwave oven (625 W) for periods of

106 / MAY–JUNE 2012, VOL. 57, NO. 3

up to 6 min. They noted a substantial Therefore, prevention of microbial for cooling. Traffic and processing flow
loss in baking quality when the flour establishment and growth within the mill patterns should be designed to avoid
was heated for more than 4 min. At 4 and throughout the supply chain is an contact between the finished product and
min, the temperature of the flour was integral part of the control measures used raw materials, and dedicated equipment,
61°C; thus, minimal microorganism to reduce the microbial load in flour. utensils, and tools should be used in
destruction would be expected. A higher In the prevention of microbial basic- and high-hygiene areas.
powered microwave or flours with establishment and growth within the mill, In addition to the measures discussed
different moisture contents might result the roles played by sanitary facilities and here, an environmental monitoring
in an effective treatment for reducing sanitary equipment design are important. program (EMP) can also be used to verify
microorganism viability without affecting The facilities should 1) be of adequate the effectiveness of the control program
the functional properties of flour. size to produce the volume of product on an ongoing basis through evaluation
Ozone. Ozone may be used to required; 2) have an adequate storage of the production environment, its
inactivate microorganisms in wheat capacity for the finished product and cleanliness, and the microbial load
flour; however, because the flour is not ingredients in the event that a load of present in the facility and on equipment.
protected from oxidation by the pericarp, ingredients needs to be rejected; 3) allow Data generated from an EMP can be used
as when treating whole-kernel wheat, for adequate cleaning and sanitization; for trend analysis to identify harborage
ozone readily oxidizes flour components. and 4) have an adequate potable water sites for microorganisms and assess the
When applied at moderate doses, ozone source with pressure and temperature effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing
can act similarly to other oxidizing control. The equipment should have a programs.
agents such as potassium bromate (41). sanitary design, including construction The concept of zone sampling,
Sandhu et al. (41) packed wheat flour in with materials that are compatible with introduced by Kraft Foods, is widely
a cylinder through which ozone gas was wheat and flour, are easy to clean, are used for determining sampling sites in
pumped. They found that after 45 min of accessible, do not have hollow areas an EMP (3). The concept divides plant
treatment with ozone at 1,500 mg/kg, the or niches, provide dust extraction operations into four zones based on
flour was fully oxidized (no further ozone capability, and have sanitary operational level of risk: 1) product contact surfaces
consumption) and produced unacceptable performance (17). (e.g., conveyors, filter hoppers, scrapers,
bread. However, if flour was treated for In a dry environment such as a packaging equipment, and employee
only 4.5 min or if fully oxidized flour milling facility, it is also critical to hands); 2) non-product contact surfaces
was mixed with untreated flour at 1:9 avoid any potential introduction of (e.g., equipment exterior, catwalks,
(wt/wt), respectively, bread appearance water or moisture, because it is a main control panels, HVAC vents, and weight
and volume were improved. The effect of contributing factor to the growth and scales); 3) other non-product contact
this treatment on microbial load was not establishment of microorganisms. If surfaces within the high-hygiene area
reported. microbial inactivation is obtained by (e.g., cleaning tools, transition rooms,
Other. As is evidenced in this article, thermal treatment, the product should be floor drains, and wash stations); and 4)
there is a lack of data showing inactivation cooled and, if needed, dried immediately non-product surfaces outside the high-
of pathogens in wheat or flour as a after processing to avoid formation of hygiene area (e.g., raw materials area,
result of specific treatments. This is condensation in buildings and equipment. employee break room, storage rooms, and
because, as was mentioned previously, After processing, it is also important to laboratories). Indicator organisms are
the issue of pathogens in wheat flour is package the product aseptically and in usually monitored in zone 1. Pathogen
a new concern for the baking industry. containers that will minimize any form of monitoring is performed only under
Therefore, there remain many unexplored condensation. special circumstances in this zone, while
treatments and technologies that may It is also important that current Good zones 2–4 are monitored for the pathogen
prove effective at reducing pathogens in Manufacturing Practices be followed of interest. Analyses may include
flour. Included among these technologies throughout the facility (described in the nonpathogenic E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae,
are pulsed electric field (24) and high- Code of Federal Regulations, title 21, part yeast and mold, and pathogenic
pressure processing (13), although 110). If an inactivation step is introduced organisms. Positive results or trend data
these treatments may not be effective as part of the milling process, segregation above the established baseline require
without added moisture. Ensuring the into a basic-hygiene area and a high- corrective actions. Thus, as part of the
safety of wheat flour without affecting hygiene area could be incorporated as EMP, measures should be established to
its functional properties may require a part of the effort to minimize cross- contain potential contamination, identify
combination of treatments in a hurdle- contamination between untreated and potential sources of contamination,
like approach. final products. The high-hygiene area assess the potential for finished product
is defined as the area where handling contamination, and eliminate problems.
Post-treatment Considerations of ingredients and products requires Problem areas should be retested with
Most wheat flour mills and supply the highest level of hygiene control and increased frequency after corrective
chains are not designed to deliver a is subsequent to the lethality step (17). actions are taken until negative results or
ready-to-eat product. Postprocessing Employees working in this area should baseline results are achieved.
contamination can occur during milling be properly trained so they understand A well-established EMP can be a
if the treatment to reduce microbial load their critical role in preventing cross very good measuring tool to evaluate
is applied to the whole wheat kernels or and postprocessing contamination. The how effective efforts applied during all
during packaging, shipping, or receiving use of positive air pressure is generally phases of processing are at reducing or
if the treatment is applied to the flour. recommended, as well as filtered air maintaining the microbial load in the


final product. It is also more practical mechanical properties following ozone ozonated water on the selected properties
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37. Posner, E. S., and Hibbs, A. N. Wheat Flour
Milling. AACC International, St. Paul, MN,
1997. Devin Rose received his Ph.D. degree from Purdue University;
38. Restaino, L., Frampton, E., Hemphill, his with research focused on creating slowly fermentable
J., and Palnikar, P. Efficacy of ozonated dietary fibers for improving gut health. After completing
water against various food related micro- his Ph.D. degree, he worked as a post-doc with the USDA
organisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Agriculture Agricultural Research Service on creating healthy,
61:3471, 1995. functional food ingredients from by-products of the grain
39. Richter, K. S., Dorneanu, E., Eskridge, K. milling industries. Devin is currently an assistant professor at the
M., and Rao, C. S. Microbiological quality University of Nebraska-Lincoln with research interests in whole-
of flours. Cereal Foods World 38:367, grain processing and gut health. Devin is an AACC International
1993. member and can be reached at drose3@unl.edu.
40. Russo, J. V., and Doe, C. A. Heat treatment
Andréia Bianchini is a research assistant professor in The Food
of flour as an alternative to chlorination.
Processing Center at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. She
Food Technol. 5:363, 1970.
has a B.S. degree in food engineering and an M.S. degree in
41. Sandhu, H. P. S., Manthey, F. A., and
environmental and agricultural microbiology, both from Brazil.
Simsek, S. Quality of bread made from Her Ph.D. degree is in food science and technology from the
ozonated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) University of Nebraska-Lincoln. With a strong background in
flour. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91:1576, 2011. food safety and molds and mycotoxins, her area of interest
42. Seguchi, M. Effect of heat-treatment of includes the development of quality control mechanisms and
wheat flour on pancake springiness. J. HACCP assistance, focusing on food, dairy, and feed products.
Food Sci. 55:784, 1990. Andréia conducts applied research and provides technical
43. Thomasson, C. A., Miller, R. A., and advice and training activities for improvement of the safety and
Hoseney, R. C. Replacement of chlorine quality of food and pet food processes. She is a member of the International Association for
treatment for cake flour. Cereal Chem. Food Protection and the Institute of Food Technologists. Andréia is an AACC International
72:616, 1995. member and can be reached at abianchini2@unl.edu.
44. Tiwari, B. K., Brennan, C. S., Curran, T.,
Gallagher, E., Cullen, P. J., and O’Donnell, Bismarck Martinez is from Nicaragua. He received his B.S.
C. P. Application of ozone in grain degree in food science and technology from Zamorano
processing. J. Cereal Sci. 51:248, 2010. University in Honduras. Currently, he is a graduate student in
45. Upreti, P., Roberts, J. S., and Jalali, R. the Department of Food Science & Technology at the University
Heat-treated flour. U.S. patent application of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is working for the Food Processing
Center in the microbiological analysis laboratory. His research is
20100092639, 2010.
on E. coli O157:H7 contamination of field crops. Bismarck can be
46. Vojnovich, C., Pfiefer, V. F., and Griffin, E.
reached at bamt3682@hotmail.com.
L. Reducing microbial populations in dry-
milled corn products. Cereal Sci. Today
15:401, 1970.
47. Weaver, G., Akins-Lewenthal, E., Allen, Rolando A. Flores is professor and head of the Food Science
B., Baker, S., Hoerning, D., Peterson, A., and Technology Department and director of The Food
Schumacher, R., and Warren, B. Microbial Processing Center at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
reduction in a processing stream of a He holds a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the
milled product. U.S. patent application Universidad de Costa Rica; an M.S. degree in agricultural
20110177216, 2011. engineering from Iowa State University (ISU); and a Ph.D. degree
48. Weegels, P. L., Verhoek, J. A., de Groot, A. in grain science and industry from Kansas State University (KSU).
M. G., and Hamer, R. J. Effects on gluten Rolando began his career working with the production, storage,
of heating at different moisture contents. I. and transportation of agricultural products at the National
Changes in functional properties. J. Cereal Production Bureau in Costa Rica. He has held faculty positions
Sci. 19:31, 1994. at KSU and ISU and research positions at the Eastern Regional
49. Wiseblatt, L. Reduction of the microbial Research Center of the USDA Agricultural Research Service. He has conducted research on
populations in flour incorporated into value-added agricultural products, particle reduction and fractionation of grain products,
refrigerated foods. Cereal Chem. 44:269, modeling and simulation of food processing systems, food safety risk process analysis, and
1967. optimization of coproduct utilization of ethanol from corn and barley. He has published
more than 80 articles in refereed journals and given more than 130 presentations at
50. Wolt, M., Chigurupati, S. R., and
scholarly conferences. Rolando has received several professional awards, such as the
Pulverenti, J. Method for heat treating a
AACC International Engineering and Processing Division Stanley Watson Award and
bread baking wheat flour and resulting
the USDA–ARS 2010 Technology Transfer Award. Rolando is an AACC International member
flour and dough. U.S. patent 5,433,966,
and can be reached at rflores2@unl.edu.
51. Wu, J. N., Doan, H., and Cuenca, M.
A. Investigation of gaseous ozone as an