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Transcript of Foundation of Guidance

→ Philosophy
→ Psychology
→ Biology
→ Anthropology
→ Sociology Various disciplines provide the basis of Guidance and Counseling Foundation of
Guidance The Field of Philosophy has asked significant questions that led to be the
understanding of what human being is and how he/she must be handled.
This is why Philosophy is a very important foundation of Guidance and Counseling.
Every counseling practitioner should have a philosophy of human beings and how their problems
evolve in order to establish a philosophy of helping. Philosophy Two major concerns:
→ mind- body question
→ human nature Lupdag (2007) has very succinctly summarized the Philosophical Foundations
and Dr. Imelda Villar interspersing his summary with the currents in the field of Guidance and
Counseling. Questions of how much of behavior was learned or acquired through experience
with the environment and how much of it was instinctual or not learned arose.
Monism- belived that there was only one underlying reality. (the mind or the body, but not both)
Dualism- contended that both existed.

Since Guidance Principles see individuals holistically, these beliefs have to be settled in the mind
of the practitioner if a comprehensive program is desired. Mind- body question The concern on
human nature also sparked a lot of controversies.
Materialism- humans were entirely physical
Determinist- asserted that all human choices were determined by the laws of nature.
Mechanism- human beings were slaves to nature and like machines, they could be known totally
and completely.
Rationalism- emphasized that reason, innate ideas, and deductions guide knowledge. Self-
awareness was highlighted.
Empiricism- experience was the source of knowledge and that learning was a process of
accumulating a series of sensory experiences.
Positivism- concentrated on natural phenomena or facts that were objectively observable.
Existentialism- focused on the uniqueness of human beings & highlighted this as the only reality.
Therefore, subjective reality became more important than objective reality. Human Nature
Psychology Gibson and Mitchell (1999) affirm the foundations of Guidance and Counseling as
largely derived from the field of Psychology. Fields of study in Psychology General Psychology-
lays the foundation of understanding human behavior. The study of motivation, perception, and
cognition helps professionals understand a person’s goals and sheds light on how he/she
perceives, thinks and learns( Krech, Crutchfield and Ballachey, 1962).
Developmental Psychology- critical stages over the life span (what happens to individuals as
they grow and change) are understood better in this area.
Educational Psychology- this field of study is concerned with theories of the relationship
between learning and human growth and development.
Social Psychology- deals with the impact of social situations on individuals and their behavior. It
helps to explain the actions of a person in relation to other persons and the different interpersonal
behavior events.
Ecological Psychology also known as Environmental Psychology- examines the interrelationship
between human behavior and environments(social things), built environments, learning
environments and informational environment and everything natural on the planet(De Young,
1999). It includes the study of attention, perception and cognitive maps, attitudes and values as
they relate to the environment. The science of life & living organisms, including their structure,
function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution describes human beings and explains them on
the basis of the biological and cultural characteristics of the population to which they belong. It
explains the vital process of human beings which impacts on their thoughts, feelings, behaviors,
plans and goals, social relationships and more- areas which counselors must attend to, if
assistance is to be holistic. Biology Provides counselors with insights into the cultures of
peoples, cultures that in turn provide guidelines for the behaviors & viewpoints of their
members. Anthropology It focuses on understanding social rules & process that connect &
separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, and institutions.
It helps counselors understand human groups and their influence on human behavior.