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Understanding

Cemented Carbide

SANDVI K
Hard Materials
S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

The material with


staying power
The most valuable property of provides an optimal solution in the established at an early stage of a
cemented carbide is that it offers a case of tools for metal cutting and development project, when it is still
safer and more dependable solution rock drilling . Over the years cemented possible to adjust the design and
than any other known material to carbides have also proven their take full advantage of the carbide .
one of the toughest problems which superiority in a great number of other The purpose of this document
engineers have to contend with - tooling and engineering applications . is to serve as a reference manual on
reliability . Looking at industrial equipment the design and application of cemen-
Reliability is often a problem and consumer products in general, ted carbide .
of wear. And wear resistance is the failures are often caused by the The data and graphs shown
most outstanding feature of cemen- breakdown of a single component represent typical values from labora-
ted carbide . If the material also has or structure . The solution may be tory tests .
to withstand deformation, impact, to switch to a high-performance Recommendations regarding
heavy load, high pressure, corrosion carbide part . the selection of grades for specific
and high temperature, cemented Experience shows that design applications are based on both
carbide is often the only material solutions result from the close co- laboratory tests and experience, and
that can fulfil these requirements operation of engineers representing can be used only to indicate the
satisfactorily . the application and carbide techno- fitness in other similar applications .
It has long been a well-known logies . The best results are attained
fact that the use of cemented carbide when these contacts have been

The term "hard materials"


refers to materials harder
than the hardest steel . The
hardest of these is diamond
followed by cubic boron
nitride and ceramics . After
these comes cemented
carbide - currently the most
important technical hard
material which covers a
wide range of hardness and
toughness combinations .

2
S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Cemented
carbide types
Cemented carbides are a range of carbide -cobalt compositions - carbide . In metallurgical terms, the
composite materials which consist cemented carbide may contain vary- tungsten carbide phase (WC) is
of hard carbide particles bonded ing proportions of titanium carbide referred to as the a-phase (alpha),
together by a metallic binder . The (TiC), tantalum carbide (TaQ and the binder phase (i .e . Co, Ni etc .) as
proportion of carbide phase is niobium carbide (NbC) . These car- the R-phase (beta), and any other
generally between 70-97 % of the bides are mutually soluble and can single or combination of carbide
total weight of the composite and also dissolve a high proportion of phases (TiC, Ta/NbC etc) as the -y-
its grain size averages between 0 .4 tungsten carbide . Also, cemented phase (gamma).
and 10 ytm . carbides are produced which have Other than for metal-cutting
Tungsten carbide (WC), the the cobalt binder phase alloyed with, applications, there is no internation-
hard phase, together with cobalt or completely replaced by, other ally accepted classification of
(Co), the binder phase, forms the metals such as iron (Fe), chromium cemented carbides . However, the
basic cemented carbide structure (Cr), nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo), cemented carbide grades developed
from which other types of cemented or alloys of these elements . by Sandvik fall into four main groups
carbide have been developed . In Thus, there are three individual as described on the next page .
addition to the straight tungsten phases which make up cemented

The application range of


straight grade cemented
1
Mining and civil
carbide .
engineer-ing-tools-__
Masonry and
stone cutting tools

Front cover illustration :


Microstructure of extra
coarse grained WC-Co
cemented carbide after
electrolytic etching .
Magnification : 1500x .

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

WC-Co Corrosion resistant content . Thus, each zone has


grades grades different properties - hence the
This group contains WC and Co This group contains cemented car- term "Dual Property" .
only (i .e . two-phases) and a few bide grades in which the binder phase More information on DP
trace elements . These grades are has been specifically designed to Carbide can be found on page 17 .
classified according to their cobalt improve corrosion resistance above
content and WC grain size . those grades which contain cobalt
Grades containing
The grades with a binder con- alone.
cubic carbides
tent in the range 10-20 % by weight This is achieved by alloying the
and WC-grain sizes between 1 and cobalt binder phase with elements This group consists of grades con-
5 ytm have high strength and such as nickel and chromium, or taining a significant proportion of
toughness, combined with good completely replacing it with a more -y-phase, (Ti, Ta, Nb)C together
wear resistance . corrosion resistant alloy . with WC and Co, (i .e ., three-phase
The grades with binder contents materials) .
in the range 3-15 % and grain sizes The main features of the -y-
Dual Property (DP) phase are good thermal stability,
below 1 ytm have high hardness and grades
compressive strength, combined with low grain growth, and resistance to
exceptionally high wear resistance . This group contains grades which oxidation .
The Sandvik grade programme have had the distribution of their These grades have been de-
also includes WC-Co grades which binder phase modified in such a signed to provide a good balance of
utilise a range of ultra-fine WC way as to create a material with wear resistance and toughness in
grain sizes (< 0 .5 ytm) . With such different properties in the surface applications in which there is intimate
fine, uniform grain sizes, a unique zone compared with the bulk . contact with ferrous materials and
combination of hardness, wear This entirely new concept, in which a high temperature is gene-
resistance and toughness can be developed by Sandvik, enables rated . Typically, these conditions
achieved . components to be produced which arise in metal cutting or high pres-
contain distinct microstructural sure sliding contact situations where
zones, each with a different binder welding and galling of the surfaces
are encountered .

i 5 pm

Microstructure of WC-Co grade Microstructure of -y-phase grade


4

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Grain size classification


Sandvik Hard Materials uses the following grain size classification for all standard grades .

Ultra fine Extra fine Fine Medium Medium coarse Coarse Extra coarse
< 0 .5 yc m 0 .5 - 0.9 ycm 1 .0- 1 .3 um 1 .4-2 .0ycm 2.1-3 .4ym 3 .5-5 .0 cm > 5 .0 um

i 5 µrn

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Material
properties
Wear resistance Both these processes, leading
The most important characteristic to loss of surface material, contri-
of cemented carbide is its wear bute to wear . In practice, the material
resistance . This property, or more loss is often also affected by the
correctly, combination of properties, local environment, particularly if
is related to surface phenomena . corrosion or oxidation is encountered .
When two surfaces slide against The nature of wear is very
each other, material will be removed complex and the wear rate depends Abrasive slurry

from both of them . At a low load, on many variables . General values


this loss of material will take place for comparative purposes should be In a test based on ASTM 13611-85,
the test sample is pressed against
through the loss of single grains or viewed critically . However, evalua- the periphery of a rotating disc,
parts of single grains . This process tions of wear resistance can be done partly immersed in a slurry of
is generally referred to as attrition . in the laboratory under standardised alumina (A1 2 03 ) particles in
water . The abrasive wear
At higher load, the loss of conditions . Such evaluations indi-
resistance is influenced by the
material takes place by clusters of cate the ranking between the tested cobalt content and the tungsten
grains becoming detached . This materials under these specified carbide grain size as shown
process is known as abrasion . conditions only . in the diagrams .

CM-3 Wear resistance


120

100 E tqa fine


I
I
80

60

40 -

20
Medium
Medium coarse

1000 1500 2000


Vickers hardness

Wear resistance as a function of the Co content at Wear resistance as a function of hardness


different WC grain sizes according to the ASTM 13611-85 (ASTM 13611-85) .
test method .

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Toughness A method commonly used lure . However, different cemented


When components are exposed to for determining the toughness of carbides show large differences in
external loads, static or dynamic, cemented carbides is the Palmgvist toughness behaviour . This is best
mechanical stresses occur within the method . In this case, the fracture explained by a close look at the
material . The mechanical strength toughness of the material is repre- microstructure . The types of frac-
and deformability of the material sented by its critical stress intensity ture seen are cleavage fractures in
are therefore important . In many factor K IC . carbide grains, grain boundary
cases, particularly when dealing with The results of toughness tests fractures between carbide grains
shock loading, both these properties show that this property increases and shear fractures in the binder .
must be considered simultaneously . with increasing binder content, and Generally, the amount of cleavage
This forms the background to the with increased WC grain size . fractures increases with increased
term "toughness" which can be de- In comparison with other me- grain size and the amount of shear
fined as "the ability to resist fracture", tallic materials, carbide is on the fractures with increased binder con-
i .e . a complete separation into at lower part of the toughness scale, tent . Expressed as fracture energy,
least two parts . approximately at the same level as the major contribution to toughness,
Toughness can be defined and hardened steel . is from the latter, i .e . the crack path
determined in many ways . With the By definition, and confirmed by through the binder .
above definition, the integrated pro- examining fractured surfaces, cemen- Modern fracture mechanics pro-
duct of force and deformation to ted carbide must be classified as a vide a means of explaining tough-
fracture, can be used as a toughness brittle material, as practically no ness as it deals with the conditions
value . plastic deformation precedes frac- for crack initiation and growth in non-
homogeneous materials under stress .

KIC , MN/M3/2 Fracture toughness


30

25
Coa se
' ' Medium
20 - - --

15 0 4-I
Extra one
10

Ultra ň e

10 5 20 25 30
% Co by weight

The Palmgvist method uses the corner crack length of a Fracture toughness as a function of the Co content for
Vickers hardness indentation to derive the fracture different WC grain sizes .
toughness . The critical stress intensity factor is defined
as : (HV50) v2 m. MN/M3/2
K 1C = 6 .2
IL

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Wear resistance and tough- Hardness Hardness increases with de-


ness are two complex properties, Hardness is normally determined creasing binder content and decreas-
both of which provide the ability to using the Vickers indentation method ing grain size. The hardness range
withstand the destruction of a according to EN 23 878 (ISO 3878) . extends roughly from that of tool
material . A high wear resistance is This method allows a range of loads steels, 700 HV30, up to 2200 HV30 .
possible only if the demand for but HV30 is preferred . The force of a Hardness decreases with increas-
high toughness is reduced and vice 30 kg weight, 294 N, is used to create ing temperature due to increasing
versa. However, high wear resis- a measurable indentation with plasticity .
tance and high toughness can be minimal cracking at the corners . For
achieved simultaneously, provided the hardest grades the size of the
these properties can be re-distributed . impression and cracking contribute
There are two ways of doing this : to reduced precision and accuracy .
DP carbide or coating with thin Sometimes other methods are
layers of wear resistant materials . used such as Rockwell A (ISO 3738) .
There are numerous potential com- The Rockwell method is similar to
binations and, consequently, only Vickers, but is based on the use of
homogeneous, conventional carbide a diamond cone and the depth of the
Y
will be dealt with below . indendation is used as a measure of
the hardness . There is no theoretical The Vickers method is based on inden-
ting a polished carbide surface with a
basis for conversion between the
diamond pyramid . The hardness is
two . Instead actual determination inversely proportional to the size of
must be used for comparisons . the impression .

HV30 Hardness
2500

Ultra floe
2000

Extra fi
1500

Medium
1000
1 tra coa se
Medium coarse
500

10 15 20 25 30
% Co by weight

Hardness as a function of the Co content for various Relative hardness at different temperatures .
WC grain sizes .

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Mechanical strength where a l and Q2 are the fracture increases the risk of both early fail-
All materials contain some amount stresses corresponding to the volumes ure and variations in performance .
of defects such as pores, inclusions V, and V2 , respectively, and m is a
and micro-cracks . These defects factor derived from the spread in Transverse rupture strength
lead to a reduced material strength . fracture stress of the material . Transverse rupture strength (TRS)
In the case of a ductile material Modern high quality carbide or bending strength testing is the
(copper, mild steels, etc .) defect fre- has an m-value of about 9 . High simplest and most common way of
quency and mean size are important m-values correspond with small determining the mechanical strength
factors, whereas in the case of a variations in fracture stress and a of cemented carbide . According to
brittle material (e .g . hardened steels less volume-dependent material . the standardised method EN 23 327
and carbide) the frequency above a In practice the stress distribu- (ISO 3327), a specimen of a specified
certain size limits the strength . Con- tion is complex and the Weibull length with a chamfered, rectangular
sequently, this latter phenomenon theory only provides a partial cross section is placed on two sup-
makes the mechanical strength description . However, a calculation ports and loaded centrally until
volume dependent as the probability of the fracture probability of a certain fracture occurs .
of finding a large defect increases carbide volume with a known stress TRS is taken as the median of
with increased material volume . distribution is possible . several observed values . TRS reaches
Weibull has related the volume A high quality carbide is norm- a maximum at a cobalt content of
dependence of critical defects within ally regarded as an extremely defect- about 15 % (by weight) and a
a material to the material strength . free material . medium to coarse WC grain size .
The conclusion of the Weibull However, shaping processes, The small portion of plastic
theory is that the relationship can such as grinding and spark erosion, deformation is generally disregarded
be described using the formula : may lead to the introduction of large as it is only noted in the toughest
surface defects, thereby reducing the carbides .
Q2 _ (V )/ 11M
Q I V2 / strength of the finished product . The test pieces should be either
The use of inferior quality car- as sintered or ground .
bide, in which defects already exist,

The probability of a large defect occurring is higher The transverse rupture strength is determined as the
in a large volume . fracture stress in the surface zone :

Rbm
__ 3FLk
2bh2
k = chamfer correction factor (normally 1 .00-1 .02)

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

A careful grinding, conducted In this test a modification of the As a result, the data gained
without any introduction of cracks standard test specimen according to from this test shows higher TRS
or surface defects, will increase the EN 23 327 (ISO 3327) is used . This values than with the rectangular
TRS values compared to values comprises a cylindrical specimen, test piece . Typically, the TRS values
obtained from assintered specimens . Ø 3 .25 x 38 mm . This modified test obtained from the cylindrical speci-
The carbide rotary toolmaking has been adopted as an industry mens exceed the level of the square
sector in industry has adopted a standard and is now proposed to be specimens by about 20% . Thus,
modified TRS testing method more included in the ISO-standard . By caution must be used when data are
applicable to the geometry of solid using this cylindrical test specimen, compared .
carbide tooling and allowing a rapid the edge effect of the rectangular Transverse rupture strength
testing procedure . standard specimen is avoided . decreases with increasing tempera-
ture . At prolonged load times and
high temperatures, the cemented
Relative transverse rupture strength
carbides will exhibit creep behaviour .
Rbm2/Rbml
2.0 -

1 .0

0 .5 -

0.2 mq bqbbb,

0 .1
10 2 10 ° 10 2 10 4 106
Volume ratio V2/V1

Volume dependence of transverse rupture strength .

Relative transverse rupture strength as a function of Transverse rupture strength as a junction of Co


the temperature for an I I % Co, medium WC grain size content. Above 20% Co, the relationship is disturbed
cemented carbide . by interference from other fracture mechanisms .

10

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Tensile strength A suitable method of compres- residual strain values and the fracture
Tensile strength testing of brittle sive strength determination is defined stress . The degree of plastic defor-
materials is difficult . The accuracy by EN 24 506 (ISO 4506) . To obtain mation decreases with increasing
of the test is extremely sensitive to accurate values with cemented car- compressive strength .
sample preparation (the surface must bide, a modified specimen geometry The compressive strength in-
be "perfect") and to superimposed must be used in order to overcome creases with decreasing binder
loads from the fixtures, resulting in the edge and contact effects associ- content and decreasing grain size .
complex additional stresses . ated with a simple cylindrical test A carbide grade with a small WC
However, by using the Weibull piece . grain size and a low binder content
theory, it is possible to derive the When the load is applied, there has a typical compressive strength
tensile strength from the TRS value. is first an elastic deformation, but approaching 7000 N/mm 2 .
With m=9 the tensile strength is prior to fracture there will also be a The compressive strength de-
56% of the TRS value . certain amount of plastic deformation . creases with increasing temperature .
The stress/strain curve can be char- The proportion of plastic deformation
Compressive strength acterised in the normal fashion, with, increases dramatically with tempera-
One of the most important properties the inclination from the origin ture, leading to a barrel shaped speci-
of cemented carbides are their (Young's modulus), one or more men before fracture, thereby making
extremely high compressive strength results uncertain .
under uniaxial loads . The stress
mode with this type of load does Shear strength
not actually lead to "compressive Pure shear tests are difficult to carry
fracture", but to a situation closer out . Studies of fractured pieces, how-
to a shear fracture . The shear stress ever, indicate that the shear strength
at fracture of the compressed speci- is at the same level, or slightly higher,
men is about half of the compressive than that of the tensile strength .
stress which is much higher than
the pure shear strength.

F
Relative compressive strength
100
N/mm2 Compressive strength

50

0
0 10 15 20 25 0 200 400 600 800
% Co by weight Temperature, °C

Compressive strength as a junction of the Co content Compressive strength as a function of the temperature
for different WC grain sizes . for 13% Co, coarse grain size carbide .

11

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Fatigue strength

The fatigue strength of cemented Compressive fatigue strength


carbide under pulsating compression
Ultra fine, 6 wt- % Co
loading is normally 65-85% of the
static compressive strength at 2x 10 6
cycles . No definite fatigue strength
limit, which corresponds to an in-
finite life, has been found as in the
case of steel and other metals .
The fatigue strength increases
with decreasing WC grain size and
10 ° 10 2 10' 106 108
decreasing binder content . Number of loading cycles

Wóhler curves from compressive fatigue testing of


different carbides . Lower load limit is 250 NImm 2 .

Young's modulus, shear


modulus and Poisson's ratio
Cemented carbide is a very rigid
material . Its modulus of elasticity
or Young's modulus (E) is 2-3 times
higher than that of steel and increases
kN/mm2 Young's modulus and Poisssons's ratio v
linearly with decreasing binder con-
700 0,26
tent . Additions of -y-phase reduce
Young's modulus . Accurate measure-
650 0,25
ments are hard to accomplish by
means of stress/strain curves alone .
600 0,24
Thus, resonance measurements of V

transverse or longitudinal waves are 550 -- -- 0,23


used to provide more reliable results .
Young's modulus is determined 500 0,22
according to EN 23 312 (ISO 3312) .
The shear modulus (G) is best 450 0,21
0 5 10 15 20 25

determined in a similar way using % Co by weight

torsion waves . Values for cemented Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as a function of
carbide lie between 180 and 270 the Co content .
kN/mm2 .
With E- and G-values, Poisson's
ratio (v) can be calculated according
to the formula :

v=
2G -1
12

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Density
Density is determined according to
the standard EN 23 369 (ISO 3369) .
The wide variation in the density
of the constituents of cemented
carbide (i .e . WC=15 .7 g/cm 3 ,
Co=8 .9 g/cm 3 , TaC 13 .2 g/cm3 and
TiC=4 .9 g/cm 3 ) result in large vari-
ations in the density of cemented
carbides in line with their compo-
sition .
Typically, the density of the
cemented carbides can be 50-100%
Density as a function of the Co content .
greater than that of the steel . This (WC-Co carbides only) .
is an important consideration when
weight is a major factor in component
design .

Thermal properties
Linear expansion coefficient
As tungsten carbide has a very low
6
linear expansion coefficient, WC- 10_ /°C Linear expansion coefficient
Co cemented carbides have values
of approximately half that of ferritic
and martensitic steels while the ratio 20-800 °C
to austenitic steels is about 1 :3 .
If titanium carbide is included, 20-400 °C

the values will be slightly higher


than for straight WC-Co cemented
carbides . 20
5 10 15 25
% Co by weight

Thermal expansion as a function of the Co content for


two different temperature intervals .

13

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Thermal conductivity
The thermal conductivity of WC-
W/(m .°C) Thermal conductivity
Co cemented carbides is approxi- 120 -
mately twice that of unalloyed steels Coarse
Medium
and one third of that of copper . The 100
Fine
tungsten carbide grain size has a
80
minor effect but the presence of y-
phase decreases the thermal con- 60
ductivity considerably .
40 Low y-phase ontent
High -y-phase content
Specific heat capacity
20 -
At room temperature, the specific
heat capacity for straight WC-Co
0
20 300 600 800
grades is about 150-350 J/(kg •° C), Temperature, °C
which is nearly half the value of
Thermal conductivity as a function of temperature,
unalloyed steels . different microstructures and WC grain sizes .

Electrical and
magnetic properties

Resistivity Permeability
WC-Co cemented carbides have Due to the presence of cobalt Although WC-Co cemented carbides
low resistivity and a typical value is (and nickel) in the binder phase, contain a ferromagnetic binder phase,
20 p fťcm . Cemented carbides with cemented carbides show ferromagne- they usually have low magnetic
,y-phase have a higher resistivity . tic properties at room temperature . permeability . It increases with the
cobalt content and the typical range
Conductivity Curie temperature of values is 2 to about 12 when the
As a consequence of the low resis- The transition of the cobalt binder vacuum value is equal to 1 .
tivity, the WC-Co cemented carbides phase from the ferromagnetic to the
are good conductors, having a value paramagnetic state occurs in a tem-
around 10% of the copper standard . perature range between approxi-
Alloying with -y-phase forming car- mately 950 to 1,050 °C depending
bides, e .g . titanium carbide, reduces on the alloy composition .
this value considerably .

14

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Corrosion resistance
Corrosion of cemented carbide leads In most corrosion-wear situa- is dependent on the ion concentra-
generally to a surface depletion of tions, the better choice is specially tion, i .e . the amount of dissolved
the binder phase and, thus, the sur- alloyed WC-Ni grades, which are salts in the solution. Thus, one
face region will remain only as a resistant down to pH 2-3 . Even in cannot define the corrosivity of a
carbide skeleton . The bonds between certain solutions with pH values certain medium in a simple way
adjacent carbide grains are rather less than 2 they have proved to be and, accordingly, no general rules
weak and the deterioration rate will resistant to corrosion . As they have are valid in all situations . However,
increase accordingly . At low binder WC as the hard principle, and Ni and as a first indication of the corrosion
phase contents, the carbide skeleton Co are similar metals in most res- resistance of cemented carbides, the
is more developed and, accordingly, pects, their mechanical and thermal Sandvik datasheet "Cemented carbide
such grades exhibit a somewhat properties are comparable to those selection guide for corrosion resistance"
higher combined wear and corrosion of the straight WC-Co grades . shows different types of cemented
resistance than corresponding grades The pH value is one of the carbides exposed to some common
with higher binder phase contents . most important parameters when media .
However, in practice, this effect determining the corrosivity of a For a particular choice of
is insufficient to offer a significant medium, but other factors also grade, we recommend that tests are
life improvement . The limited cor- have a major influence, such as the carried out in the medium considered
rosion resistance of straight WC-Co temperature and the electric con- or, for orientation only, an analysis
grades often makes them unsuitable ductivity of the medium . The latter of the medium concerned .
in applications where the corrosive
conditions are severe . For these Corrosion rate
mm/year
applications Sandvik has developed
a series of highly corrosion resistant Not resistant
grades . 0.5
As shown in the diagram, Straight
WC-Co
straight WC-Co grades are resistant grades
0.4
down to pH 7 . This is also valid for Poor resistance
WC-Co grades containing cubic Alloyed
WC-Ni
carbides like TiC, TaC and NbC . 0.3
grades

The highest corrosion resistance is


obtained for certain alloyed TiC-Ni
0.2
based grades, which are resistant
Resistant
down to about pH 1, but compared
to the straight WC-Co grades they 0.1 Alloyed
are brittle and have inferior thermal TiC-Ni
rades High resistance
conductivity . They also have the
disadvantages of being difficult to Ph
0 5 10
grind and braze and, therefore, they
are only used in specific applica- Corrosion rate as a function of the pH value for different types of cemented
tions with high demands on cor- carbides tested in buffered solutions . These tests include a final surface wear
rosion and wear resistance but in treatment by tumbling in order to obtain a true value of the depth of the
corroded surface zone .
which mechanical strength and
thermal shock resistance are less
important .
15
S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Gradient and
compound materials
The material properties required in materials have also been developed duced two product concepts to offer
the core of many products are often for cutting tool applications where solutions to such problems . Solutions
quite different from those needed a thin coating offers suitable wear which offer unique properties and
in their surface zone or on the very resistance and a cemented carbide which are not achieved with a single
surface of the finished part . the mechanical strength needed in homogenous material .
A stiff and rigid body might heavy operations . For wear parts, The first group is based on the
be needed from a mechanical point the situation is often very similar . In Sandvik DP-carbide, which is com-
of view, but high wear and corrosion the case of a mandrel, the wear posed of a cemented carbide with
resistance might be equally important resistance of the surface is very different amounts of hard constituents
service requirements for the compo- important but at the same time in the surface and the core to achieve
nent . Materials which meet these toughness and mechanical strength the optimum combination of hard-
different demands do not necessarily are needed to support the surface ness, wear resistance and toughness .
need to have the same composition zone . The wear on mineral tools and The other group consists of a
and microstructure throughout the highway engineering tools is often compound material - Sandvik Cast-
whole body . severe and requires high tool hard- in Carbide . This material is a combi-
Compound steel is one example ness, but a high tool toughness is nation of two different materials, a
of a material which has been used also needed to withstand shock stiff and wear-resistant cemented
for a long time to combine cheap loads . carbide, supported by tough cast
and strong bulk materials with highly As a result of an extensive re- iron which is less expensive and
alloyed and expensive corrosion- search and development programme, easier to machine .
resistant surface materials . Similar Sandvik Hard Materials has intro-

Surface zone with a Intermediate zone


high volume of hard enriched with Co Core with a Co binder
phase (WC) and a low binder phase for phase content between that
volume of binder phase high toughness . of the two other zones .
(Co) for increased
wear resistance .
Compressive stresses
guarantee increased
strength .

Drawing mandrel of DP carbide .

16

S A N D V 1 K H A R D M A T E R 1 A L S

Sandulk DP Carbide
For conventional cemented carbides, with a tough core . These materials exposed to high impact . Tiles are
wear resistance and toughness are have therefore been given the desig- used in high erosion fields or to
related in such a manner that an nation DP - Dual Property . Their gain sharp edges and corners . Gra-
improvement in one property results initial application area was in rock nules and tiles can, of course, be
in a deterioration in the other . drilling . Other applications, such as mixed in the same product .
Sandvik has developed an en- tools for tube and wire drawing The granules account for about
tirely new type of WC-Co cemented and cold heading dies, have also 50% of the volume in the composite
carbide in which wear resistance confirmed improved performance . zone and have an average size of 1-6
and toughness can be improved in- The DP concept is covered by MM .

dependently of each other . By means Sandvik patents . A typical SANCIC product has
of a controlled redistribution of the a wear resistance close to that of
cobalt binder phase, cemented car- SANCIC - solid cemented carbide and 80-90 %
bide components can now be made of the strength of pure nodular cast
Sandvik Cast-in
which contain three distinct micro- iron . Toughness is maintained within
structural zones, each of which has Carbide the range expected from conventional
different properties . These gradients, By utilising granules or tiles of engineering steels and as such con-
together with the differences in ther- cemented carbide as reinforcement siderably outperforms the high
mal expansion, redistribute the of a cast iron surface, a new gene- chromium and high nickel cast iron
internal stresses . For example, it is ration of composite materials has alloys .
possible to create a very hard and been developed . The high wear SANCIC products have a wear
wear-resistant surface layer which resistance of cemented carbide is resistance which is typically 3-15
is simultaneously pre-loaded with combined with the strength and times that of conventional solutions
compressive stresses to prevent the toughness of cast iron . in steel, cast iron and designs with
initiation and propagation of cracks . In the casting process a strong hardfacing or ceramics . SANCIC
A carbide having such a distri- metallurgical bond is established can be utilised in most component
bution of properties has high wear between the carbide and the iron . shapes and sizes .
resistance at the surface combined Granules are mainly used in products

Cemented carbide granules Cemented carbide tiles


\ 1-6 mm
i
2-5 mm
5-20 mm
i T

Nodular cast iron

SANCIC is produced in the form of composite or clad material . In the


first case, cemented carbide granules are cast together with nodular iron .
Alternatively, cemented carbide tiles are embedded in the exposed surface
zone of the base material . The casting method used in both cases provides
a metallurgical bond between the cemented carbide and the base
material .

17


S A N D V I K H A R D M A T E R I A L S

Cemented carbide in comparison


with other materials
The design and construction of com- materials . Cemented carbides have a some other materials. Note, for
ponents for demanding technical unique combination of properties instance, the interesting combination
applications, frequently requires and can be the optimum solution in of high compressive strength, rigid-
materials with unique combinations many cases . To make your choice ity, hardness and low thermal ex-
of properties . Finding the optimum easier, the following tables are pansion as well as the high electrical
solution is not an easy task and the offered as a guideline, with the and thermal conductivity offered
engineer has to have a broad know- properties of WC-Co cemented by WC-Co cemented carbides .
ledge of many different groups of carbides compared with those of

HV30 Hardness MN/m3/2 Toughness


3000 160
Steels
2750 150
140
2500 130
WC-Co
2250 120
2000 110
Sic
100
1750
A12 03 90
1500 80
70
1250
60
1000 Stellites
50
Cast iron
750 40

e
Stellites Cast iron
WC-Co
500 30
Steels
20
250 A1203 -
10 - sic
0 0

N/mmz Compressive strength kN/mm2 Young's modulus


10000 - 700
WC-Co
WC-Co 650
9000
600
8000
550
7000 500
450 sic
6000
400 A12 03
5000 Si 350
Cast iron 300
4000
Si3 N q Stellites 250 -Stellites Steels
Ah03
3000- Cast iron-W
200
2000 150
100-
1000-
50
0

18


SAN D V I K HARD MATERIALS

v Poisson's ratio g/Cm3 Density


0,35 16 WC-Co
15
A12 03 Stellites Cast iron Steels
0,30 14
13
WC-Co sic 12
0,25
11
10 Stellites Steels
0,20 9 Cast iron -
8
0,15 7
6
5 A1 203
0,10
4
Sic
3
0,05 2
1
0 0

10-6
/°c Linear expansion coefficient W/(m•°C) Thermal conductivity
19 170
18 160
17 150
16 140
15 130
14 120
13 110
12 100
11 90
80
10
70
9
60
8
50
7
40
6
30
5
20
4
10
3 0

P nem Electrical resisitivity


140
130
Steels
120 Stellites
110 Data on properties and
Cast iron
100 Recommendations Statement

90 The properties and data listed in this brochure represent average


values based on laboratory tests conducted by the manufacturer . They
80
are indicative only of the results obtained in such tests and should not
70 be considered as guaranteed values . Any statements in this brochure
60 referring to a specific alloy for a particular application, or to the use
50 of one of our products, are merely recommendations based on
40 manufacturer tests or experience . Therefore, such statements cannot be
considered as warranties. Our products, and any recommended
30
WC-Co practices, should be tested by the user under actual service conditions
20 to determine their suitability for any particular purpose .
10 AI
Cu
0
19



Sandvik Hard Materials in brief


The Sandvik Group, established in 1862 and headquartered in Sandviken, is one of Sweden's largest
export companies with more than 300 wholly owned subsidiaries and representation in 130 countries .
The Group has annual sales of SEK 40 billion, with 38,000 employees . More than 90% of sales are to
customers outside Sweden . Sandvik is highly research-oriented . Investments in R&D related to new
products and processes are in the range of more than SEK 1 billion annually .

INTERNATIONAL LEADER IN CEMENTED CARBIDE


The Sandvik Group's operations are based on six separate business areas, of which three develop and
manufacture cemented carbide products . Besides Sandvik Hard Materials, there is Sandvik Tooling
(Sandvik Coromant and CTT Tools) and Sandvik Mining and Construction (Tamrock and Sandvik Rock
Tools) . Together, these three business areas account for more than half of the Group's turnover .
Sandvik Hard Materials supplies a wide range of cemented carbide products from more than ten
manufacturing plants around the world .

BLANKS FOR TOOLMAKERS


One important area is the toolmaking industry, which is supplied with blanks or semifinished products
for cutting and forming metals, composite materials, wood, bricks, concrete and rock . Tool blanks are
available in the form of rods, saw tips, drill tips, discs and inserts in designs and dimensions based on
industry standards .

ENGINEERING COMPONENTS
Cemented carbide is often the only material which can satisfactorily withstand wear in addition to
deformation, impact, heavy load, high pressure, corrosion and high temperature . In this area, we
provide the industry with carbide components such as seal rings, bearings, pistons, valves and nozzles .

ROLLS FOR THE STEEL INDUSTRY


Sandvik Hard Materials has long held a leading position as a supplier of solid cemented carbide rolls for
the steel industry . Composite rolls based on cemented carbide and nodular cast-iron represent a new
speciality in this field .

NOT JUST CEMENTED CARBIDE


The operations of Sandvik Hard Materials also encompass the manufacture of products in new hard
materials, for example PCD (polycrystalline diamond) and PCBN (polycrystalline cubic boron nitride) .

SANDVI K
Hard Materials
• Argentina: Buenos Aires 01-484 32 41 • Australia : Newcastle 049-24 21 00 • Austria : Vienna 1-277 37 • Belgium/Luxembourg : Brussels 02-702 98 00
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H-9100b-ENG