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ES 330 Electronics II Homework # 7 Solutions

(Fall 2016 – Due Wednesday, November 2, 2016)

Problem 1 (10 points)

In a MOSFET cascode amplifier we want the transistor performing the cascoding
function to increase the output resistance by a factor of 50.
(a) If the cascoding transistor is operated at VOV = 0.2 volt, what must the value of the
Early voltageVA be to accomplish this?

2I D VA
For a MOSFET: gm  ; r0  ;
VOV ID
For a cascode MOSFET the multiplying factor K for the resistance step up we have
2I DV A
Equation (8.72) gives K   g m r0  
VOV I D
2V A
V A  50   5 volts
VOV

(b) If the process technology specifies V’A as 5 V/m, what channel length L must the
transistor have?

V A  5 volts =V A' L V
and for V A'  5 μm implies L  1 μm

Problem 2 (20 points)

Given the cascoded current source as shown in the figure:
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(a) Show that if the two transistors are identical, the current I supplied by the current
source, and the output resistance R0 are related bythe expression, IR0 = 2|VA|2/|VOV|.
2I D VA
For a MOSFET cascoded current source: gm  ; r0 
VOV ID
The output resistance RO (Fig. 8.33 on page 550) is
RO   g m 3r03  r04 Assuming identical FET devices,
2 2
2I V A  2V A2 2VA
RO    for both NMOS and PMOS.
VOV  I  VOV I VOV I
2
2VA
I  RO  as was to be shown.
VOV

(b) Next, consider the case of transistors having |VA| = 4 volts and operated at |VOV | =
0.2 volt. Also, let nCOX = 100 A/V2. Find the W/L ratios required and the output
resistance realized for different two currents: (1) I = 0.1 mA and (2) I = 0.5 mA. Assume
that VSD for both devices is the minimum voltage required, that is, VSD = |VOV |.

Given |V A| = 4 V, VOV = 0.2 V and n COX = 0.1 μA/V 2

2I D 2  0.1
For case (1), I = 0.1 mA; g m    1 mA/V
VOV 0.2
VA 4
r0    40 k; RO  g m (r0 )2  0.001(40000)2  1.6 M
I D 0.1
W W
 g m   2n COX  L  I D  1 mA
  
2
 2  0.1 
2
2

Using V  0.1
L
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  
W 
    50
L 
2I D 2  0.5 
For case (2), I = 0.5 mA, so g m    5 mA/V
VOV 0.2
VA 4
r0    8 k; RO  g m (r0 )2  0.005  (8000)2  320 k
I D 0.5
 W   W 
5 mAV 
2
Using  25   2  0.1   0.5    L   250
 L    

Problem 3 (20 points)

Consider the cascoded amplifier shown schematically below. It is operated at a current
I = 0.2 mA with all devices operating at |VOV | = 0.20 volt. All four devices have |VA | = 4
volts. Find gm1, the output resistance of the amplifier Ro,n, the output resistance of the
current source Ro,p and the voltage gain AV.

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Given: I  0.2 mA; VOV  0.2 volt; V A  4 volts
We want to find g m 1 , Ro ,p , Ro ,n and AV .
All four devices are identical (same g m and r0 for each).
2I D 2(0.2)
gm    2 mA
VOV 0.2 V

VA 4
r0    20 k and Ro ,n  Ro ,p  (g m r0 )r0
I D 0.2
Ro ,n  Ro ,p  (0.002  20000  )  800 k;
2
RO  (Ro ,n Ro ,p )  400 k
AV  g m RO  0.002(400000)  800 V V

Problem 4 (20 points)

The cacode transistor can be thought of as providing a “shield” for the input (amplifying)
transistor from voltage variations at the amplifier’s output node. To quantify this
“shielding” property, consider the situation shown in the figure below:

Here we ground the input terminal (i.e., reduced vi to zero via a ground connection), and
apply a small change voltage vx to the output node. We call the voltage change that
results at the drain node of Q1 by vy. Find by what factor is voltage vy smaller than
voltage vx? This ratio can be thought of as the “shielding factor.”

For the solution we use the following small-signal equivalent circuit:

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Writing the equations:
v  vY
i X  g m 2v Y  X and v Y  i X r01
r02
 r01  v X
i X 1  g m 2r01   thus
 r02  r02
vX
 ROUT   g m 2r01r02  r01  r02 
iX
 1 1  vX
vY   gm 2  
 r01 r02  r02
vY r01 1
   1, generally
v X r01  r02  g m 2r01r02 g m 2r02

Problem 5 (30 points)

In this problem you explore the difference between using a BJT as a cascode device
versus a MOSFET as a cascode device. To do this consider the two schematic circuits
[denoted as (a) and (b) in the figure] below. You are given the following information
about the device parameters:
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I = 0.1 mA;  = 125; nCOX = 400 A/V2 ; W/L =25; VA = 1.8 volts
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(a) For circuits (a) and( b), determine the parameters Rin, RO and AVO.

g m 1  2 nC OX W  L I D  2  0.4  25  0.1  1.41 mA/V

V A 1.8
r01    18 k
I D 0.1
IC 0.1 V A 1.8
gm 2    4 mA/V and r02    18 k
VTH 0.025 I C 0.1
 125
r 2    31.25 k
gm 2 4
R in   ; RO  g m 2r02  r01 r 2   4  18 11.42   822.3 k
and AV 0  g m 1  RO  1.41  822.3  1159 V V
Circuit (b) -- FET Q1 with cascode FET transistor Q 2 :

g m 1  2 nC OX W  L I D  2  0.4  25  0.1  1.41 mA/V

V A 1.8
r01    18 k. Both FETs are identical, so g m 2  g m 1
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I D 0.1
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and r01  r02  18 k
Rin   ; RO  g m 2r02r01  1.41  18  18  456.9 k
and AV 0  g m 1  RO  1.41  456.9  644 V
V

Summary of parameters:

Parameter Circuit (a) Circuit (b)

Rin  
RO 822.3 k 456.9 k
AVO -1159 V/V -644 V/V

(b) Comment on your results – what do you conclude about circuits (a) and (b)? For
example, which has the higher gain AVO? What are the tradeoffs to obtain this?

The circuit with the cascode bipolar transistor has the higher voltage gain.

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