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Particulate Nature of Matter

 Matter- anything that has mass and occupies space


 Particle + particle = matter

Iron (Fe) from iron atom

NaCl from sodium ions


and chloride ion

H2O from water


molecules
 Atoms
an atom is the smallest particle of an element
example : “O” for oxygen atom
 Molecules
contains two or more atoms which are bonded
together ( maybe same element or not )
example : H2 and CCl4
 Ions
-ions are charged either positive or negative
-are form in liquid or molten state
-lose electron (+ ion),gain electron (- ion)
example : Na+ , Mg2+ , Br-
Kinetic Theory of Matter
 Solids
- strong forces of attraction
- particle only vibrate (fixed shape and volume)
 Liquids
- force of attraction weak than solid
- particle can move around (follow container shape)
 Gases
- no attraction between particles
- particle move faster and freely (zigzag)
 Diffusion
- example : perfume
- light and small particle diffuse faster
- heavy and large particle diffuse slow
The Atomic Structure
 Democritus
Democritus proposed that if a piece of gold cut into
smaller until cannot cut anymore, called atom.
 John Dalton (1766-1844)

J.J.Thomson (1856-1940)

Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)

Neils Bohr (1885-1962)

James Chadwick (1891-1974)


John Dalton(1766-1844)
In 1808, he proposed :
2. All matter is composed of atoms.
3. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.
4. All the atoms of an element are identical.
5. The atoms of different elements are different.
6. When chemical reactions take place, atoms of
different elements join together to form compounds.
J.J.Thomson (1856-1940)
1. It was the first model of the atom.
2. 1897- Thomson discovered the electron (negatively-
charged).
3. Thomson suggested that an atom is a positively-
charged sphere with electrons embedded in it like a
raisin pudding.
Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
1. 1914- Rutherford discovered the proton
2. Rutherford model was based on the alpha particle
scattering experiment
3. He proposed
1) all the positive charge of an atom is concentrated
in the nucleus
2) an atom consists of a positively-charged nucleus
with a cloud of electrons surrounding the nucleus
Neils Bohr (1885-1962)
 He was a student of Rutherford
 He proposed
1) electrons are arranged in orbits (electron shells)
around the nucleus of the atom
2) electrons in a particular path have a fixed energy.
 To move from one orbit to another, an electron
must gain or lose the right amount
of energy
James Chadwick (1891-1974)
 He proposed that the nucleus of the atom contains
proton and neutron and the nucleus is surrounded by
a cloud of electrons
Proton number and nucleon
number
 Proton number = the number of protons in an atom
 Also known atomic number
 No two different element have same proton number
 Atom are neutral. Proton number also tells us number
of electron.
 Nucleon number also known mass number
 Nucleon no. = proton no. + neutron number
 How nucleon no. and proton no. of an element is
written ?
Symbol of elements
 Most symbols are taken from the English name

Element Symbol
Hydrogen H
Carbon C
Nitrogen N
Boron B
 Some symbol are made up of two letters
Zinc Zn
Aluminium Al
Calcium Ca
silicon Si

 Some symbols are based on the Latin or Greek name

Silver Ag
Copper Cu
Iron Fe
Gold Au
Isotopes and their importance
 Are atoms of the same element with the same proton
no. but different nucleon no. or neutron no.
 Isotopes of an element have same chemical properties
but different physical properties
 Example of isotopes
 Some isotopes are stable while the rest unstable
( radioactive isotopes)
Uses of isotopes
 Medicine
Cobalt-60 is a radioactive isotope of cobalt. It decays
by giving out gamma radiation. In radiotherapy,
maglinant cancer cells are killed by directing a beam
of gamma rays towards cancer cells
 Agriculture
radiation from radioisotopes is used to sterilise pests
such as insects that destroy crops.
 Industry
Gamma radiation is used to detect whether canned
food or bottled drink is completely or partially filled
Electronic structure of an Atom
 The electron in atom are arranged in shell around its
nucleus
 Electron start to fill up the shells from the inner shells
 The first shell is the shell that nearest to nucleus and
can hold just 2 electrons
 Second shell can hold 8 electrons
 Third shell can hold 8 electrons
 All of this is called the electron arrangement or
electronic configuration of the atom
 Draw electronic arrangement if proton number is 4,5
and 6
Valence electrons
 Outermost shell of an atom is called the valence shell
 This shell should have electrons before it can be
called a valence shell
 The electrons in the valence shell are called the
valence electrons
 Elements with the same number of valence electrons
have the same chemical properties
 Lets see the example
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