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CHEMISTRY

Isotopes of hydrogen

Atoms and Molecules  Tritium has two neutrons.


 The term ‘atom’ was introduced by Ostward,  Isobars are atoms of different elements having
means indivisible. same mass number and different atomic numbers.
 The first atomic theory was postulated by John Eg: Argon - 40 and Calcium 40
Dalton in 1808, a poor English School master.  Isotones : are atoms of different elements having
 The term molecule was introduced by Avogadro. different atomic number, and mass number, but
 The nuclear model of Atom was first introduced they should have same number of neutrons
by J.J. Thomson. eg: 31H and 4 2and 42He, both Contain two
 Mass Number is the sum of number of protons neutrons.
and neutrons present in the nucleous of a of atom.  Nuclear Isomers : Thes are the different types of
 Atomic Number is derived from Nuclear charge atoms of the same element having different
of atom, hence it will be the number of protons. radioactivity constants.
 Electron is the fundamental particle of matter or  The term ‘isotope’ was introduced by body.
nature.  The element Tin (Sn) has largest variety atoms.
 Heaviest sub-atomic particle is Neutron (Isotopes)
 Electrons and positrons have same mass and
opposite charges.
 Neutrinos and Antineutrons have to charge sad Ores & Metals
no mass.
Ore Metal Chemical formula
 The dual natureof electron was proposed byde-Broglie.
 The dual nature of elections was experimentally Iron Pyrites Iron FeS
provided by I.H. Germer. Copper Pyrites Copper CuFeS2
 Nucleons are the sum of protons and Neutrons Litharge Led PbO
presnt in an atom. Pyrolusite Manganese MnO2
 The radius of nucleons of an atom varies in the Pitch blende Uranium U3O8
order 10–13 cm. Monozite Thorium ThO2
 The smallest atom known is Helium. Serusite Lead PbCO3
 The simplest atom is Hydrogen. Gypsum Calcium CaSO4.2H2O
 The most abundant element in the Universe is
Limestone Calcium CaCO3
Hydrogen (2nd Helium)
Dolomite Calcium CaCO3MgCO3
 Isotopes are the different type of atoms of the
Fluorspar Calcium CaF2
same element to having same atomic number and
different mass number. Copper glance Copper Cu2S
 Protium has no neutrons. Malachite Copper CuCO3 Cu(OH)2
 Deuterium has one neutrons. Zinc blende Zinc ZnS

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 Allotropes are the forms of the same element with  Anode rays are discovered by Goldstein.
different physical appearances.  Neutron was discovered by James Chadwick.
eg: Red Phsophorus and white phosphorus  Cathode rays are used in Television.
oxygen and ozone.  The atomic size is about 105 times larger than the
 The most complex atom available from with is nuclear size.
Ursinium - 238  Wavelength violet (VIBGYOR) is 3800 A0 - 4300 A0.
 Valency is the combining capacity of one atom to  Wavelength Red is 6500 A0 –
another. 7600 A0
 Noble element have zero valency.  The most valid atomict heory
 Hydrogen shows univalency. is ‘‘Wave mechanical modelof
 Sodium and Potassium shows Univalency. atom’’ suggested by Max
 The common valency of carbon is four. Planck.
 Hydrogen Producers largest number of  When gaseous atoms or
compounds (2nd - Carbon) moelcules are heated they emit
electromagnetic radiations. Max Planck
 Cathode rays are discovered by Julius Plucker.

Some Important Elements


Some important elements Atomic Number Discoverer Year of discovery
Barium ........................................ 56 ..................... Sir Humphry Davy........................................ 1808
Boron .......................................... 5 ..................... Humphry Davy, J.L Gay Lussac, L.J.Thenard .... 1808
Calcium ...................................... 20 ..................... Sir Humphry Davy........................................ 1808
Carbon ........................................ 6 ..................... Known to ancients
Chlorine ..................................... 17 ..................... Carl Wilhelm Scheele .................................... 1774
Copper ....................................... 29 ..................... Known to ancients
Fluorine ....................................... 9 ..................... Henry Moissan ............................................ 1886
Gold ........................................... 79 ..................... Known to ancients
Helium ......................................... 2 ..................... Sir William, Ramsay, Nils, Langlet, P.T. Clene ... 1895
Hydrogen .................................... 1 ..................... Henry Cavendish ......................................... 1766
Iodine ........................................ 53 ..................... Bernard Courtois .......................................... 1811
Iron ............................................ 26 ..................... Known to ancients
Lead ........................................... 82 ..................... Known to ancients
Magnesium ................................ 12 ..................... Sir Humphry Davy........................................ 1808
Mercury ..................................... 20 ..................... Known to ancients
Nitrogen ...................................... 7 ..................... Daniel Rutherford ......................................... 1772
Oxygen ....................................... 8 ..................... Joseph Priestly ............................................. 1774
Potassium .................................. 19 ..................... Sir Humphry Davy........................................ 1807
Silicon ........................................ 14 ..................... Jons Berzelius .............................................. 1832
Silver .......................................... 47 ..................... Known to ancients
Sodium ....................................... 11 ..................... Sir Humphry Davy........................................ 1807
Sulphur ...................................... 16 ..................... Known to ancients
Tin ............................................. 50 ..................... Known to ancients
Uranium ..................................... 92 ..................... Martin Klaproth ........................................... 1789
Zinc ........................................... 30 .................. Andreas Marggrat .......................................... 1746

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 Spectroscope is an instrument which analyses th
wavelength of emitted radiations.
 The radioactive liquid element is Francium.
 The radioactive gaseous element is Radio.
 In stationery state, the energy associated with
an electron remains constant.
 The atomic number is first calculate by Moseley.
 The most reactive element - Floruned
 The densest element - Osmium
 The lightest element - Hydrogen
 The lightest metal - Lithium

Properties of Compounds
 The common refrigerents are Ammonia and Freon.
 Non stick Kitchenwaves are coated with Teflon. Euriched Uranium is Uranium - 235
 Teflon is chemically Tetra flouroethylene
 Photographic films are coated with Silver Bromide.  Paper is cheically cellulose.
 Seeding of Cloud is done by using Silver Iodine.  The most abundant carbohydrae (organic
 Phosphine (PH3) has the smell of rother eggs compound) present in nature is cellulose.
 Bleaching Powder is chemically calcium chloride  Cellulose is not absorbedby humanbody, due to
hypo chlorite (CaOCl3) the absence of cellulose in body.
 Bleaching Powder is a mixed salt.  Rust is chemically hydrated ferric oxide. (Fe2O3.
 Egg shell, Marble, Limestone etc contains Calcium x. H2O)
Carbonate.  Freezing mixture contains Calcium chloride and
 Green house effect is created by Carbodioxide, sodium chloride.
methene, watervapour etc.  Flourosis is due to the excess intake of Fluoride
 Dry kold is Dry ice, which is solid Carbondioxide. salts along with drinking water.
 Zinc Phosphide and Arsenic sulphide are used  Flourosis is first reported in India in 1938 on
as Rat poison (rodenticide) Nelore Distt of AP.
 Laughing gas is Nitrous Oxide.  Calcium oxychloride is used as fungicide in pepper
 Benzyl chloride era be used as tear gas.  Aluminium is used to make CDs.
 Sodium peroxide is used as airpurifier in  Aluminium and its Compounds are amphoteric.
Submarines.
 Amphoteric means shows the properties of Acid
 Tin Amalgrm (Sn + Hg) is used to coat on mirror. and Base.
 Oxides are binary compound of Oxygen and
metals or non metals.
 Acidic oxides show the properties of Acids.
eg: Carbon dioxide, sulphur dis oxide, phosphorus
Pentoxide etc.
 Basic oxides are generally metallic oxides.
eg: Calcium oxide, Sodium, peroxide, magnesium,
oxide, etc.
Bhopal Gas Tragedy was due to the leakage of
 Neutral oxides are neither acidic nor basic.
MIC (Methyl Isocyanate)

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eg: 1. Nictrous oxide (N2O)  Antipyretics are the chemicals used to bring down
2. Carbon Monoxide (Co) body temperature.
 Amphoteric oxides are showing both the eg: Paracetsmol, Aspirin
properties of acids and bases.  Disinfectnants : Chemical used to kill micro-
eg: Aluminium organisms.
oxide eg: Phenol
Zinc oxide  Antibirtics : Chemicals extracted from
Berylym oxide microorganisms (fangi, mold, bacteria) and can
 Aspirin is called be used to distroy some other micro-organisms.
Wonder Drug. eg: Streptomycin, Penicillin, Chloroamphenicol.
 Aspirin is  Antiseptics : Chemicals that can be applied to
chemically Acetyl living tissues to destroy micro-organisms.
Salicyclic Acid. Felix Hoffman eg: Dettol
 Ordinary Portland  The element which is used to coat the
cement (OPC) contains the major component photocopying drum of Xerox is selenium.
Calcium oxide.  Silicon, Germanium etc used in the manufacture
 While paints are made by using Titanium dioxide. of transistors and IC chips due to their semi
 The whitest compound ever known is Titsnium conductivity.
dioxide.
 Titanium is referred as Alloys
wondermetal.
Alloys (teml-k-¦-c-w) Components Uses
 Tranquilizers are
chemicals used as Invar Iron, Nickel To make clock pendulam
medicine for mental Nichrome Nickel, Chromium, To make heating
disorderness. Iron elements
 Barbiutric Acid and its
salts are used a Phospher Bronze Copper, Tin (Sn) To make springs and
Tranquilizers. Phosphorus (P) suspension filaments
in electrical instruments
 Sweetest sugar is
Fructose present in Type metal Copper (Cu),
Fruits. Lead (Pb), To make types
 Honey contains Tin (Sn),
glucose and Fructose Antimony (Sb)
 Rocket propellent
Sterling Silver Copper, Silver To make silver coins
contains fuel and
oxidiser. Coinage Silver Copper, Nickel To make coins
 Rocket fuel is liquid
Gun metal Copper, Zinc (Zn), To make barrels of Gun
Hydrogen.
Tin (Sn)
 Fund of the future is
liquid Hydrogen. Constantan Copper (Cu), To make electrical
 Analgesics are the Nickel (Ni) instruments
drugs used for relieving German silver Copper (Cu), To make utensils,
pain. Nickel (Ni), resistance wire etc.
eg: Aspirin Zinc (Zn)

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 Noble gas are listed in group 18 of modern
periodic table.
 Enemy of copper is Sulphur.
 Non-ferrous metal is Aluminium.
 The most abundant metal in earths crust is
Aluminium
 The most abundant element present is earth’s
crust’s oxgyen.
 The metal which regulates Blood Pressure in
human beings is sodium.
 The metal related to arthertis is Potassium.
 The metal present in Insulin is zinc.
 Zinc is concentrated on the eyes of human beings.
CFCs are called miracel chemicals, which destroy
 The most abundant helide present on earth’s crust
ozone layer.
in Flouride.
 Watarges is a mixture of Carbon monoxide sad  Liquid metals at Room Temperature are
Hydrogen used as Industrial fuel. Mercury, Gallium, Caessium,
 Producer gas is a mixture of Carbon-monoxide Francium, Eka Mercury
and Nitrogen used as ‘Industrial Fuel’.  Liquid non-metal at room-
 Coke is the refined form of coal (contains the temperature is Bromine.
element carbon)  The non-metal, which shows
 Bathing salt is sodium carbonate used to reduce electric conductivity Graphite
the hardness of water. (Carbon) Mendeleev
 Baking Powder is mixture of sodiumbicarbonate
and Paratric Acid salt.
Some important compounds and
Perodic Table its discoverers
 There are 118 elements known today, out by
which 90 are naturally existing. Carbondioxide ............................ Joseph Black
 The first man-made element is Technicium (atomic Benzene ................................ Michael Faraday
no: 43) Morphine ... Friderich Sertumer (Germany, 1805)
 Promethium is also a men made element (atomic Aspirin ........................ Dreser (Germany, 1889)
no: 63) Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloro Ethane (DDT) ......
 Modern Periodic Table is based on atomic Paul Muller (Germany, 1939)
numbers of elements.
Carbon tetra chloride ............ Michael Faraday
 Menoeleev’s periodic Table is based on atomic
weights. Carbon hexa chloride ............ Michael Faraday
 The father of periodic table is mendeleev. Ozone .... Christian Friedrich Schonbein (1840)
 The most ironic compound is caessium flouride. Carbon Monoxide (first prepared) ...................
 Most electronegative element is Flourine. JMF de Lassone (France, 1778)
 Most electropositive element is Francium or Carbon monoxide (first identified the composition)
Caessium. William Cruikshank (England, 1800)
 The element which shows hights electrons- Nitrous Oxide .......................... Humphry Davy
affinity is chloride.

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 The element with highest melting point is Carbon below its melting point in prescence of air oxidise
(diamond) (4000k) the impurities.
 The metal with highest melting point is Tungston. eg: Carbon, Sulphur etc removed as their gaseous
(3868K) oxides.
 The most harmful metal to humanbeings is Lead.  Gongue is the impurity present in the ore.
 Lead has poorest electrical conductivity silver  Generally gangue is silica.
has highest electrical sad Thermal conductivity.  Flux is the substance used to neutralise and
 Metals kept under kerosene are sodium, remove gangue a slag.
Potassium, Caessium etc.  Acidic flux is silica.
 Iodine is also kept under kersone.  Basic flux is limestone.
 Lithium is kept by coverng with paraffin wave.  Thomas slag is calcium phosphate.
 Metallurgy is the verious process involved in  Metals extracted from sea-water are magnesium
the extraction of metal from its ores. adn sodium.
 Ore is the mineral from which the metal is  Metals generally accumulated in Living
conveniently and economically extracted Organisms -------- Vanedium, Potassium.
 Ore has definite composition (formula)  Most abundant metal present in developed
 Clay is the mineral of Aluminium. animals ......... Calcium.
 Bauxite and cryolite are the main ores of  Most abundant element presence in our body
Aluminium. ..................... oxygen.
 Sulphide ores are purified by Froth-floatation  Most abundant compound present in animals
process. ..................... Water.
 Tinstone, Pyrolusite etc are purified by magnetic  Magnesium is concentrated in chloroplast.
separation.  Major metals present in chloroplast are
 Calcination is the process of heating the ore magnesium, manganese, copper and Iron.
below its melting point in abscence fair to remove  Major elements present in sea-water are chlorine,
volatile impurities like , Arsenic etc. sodium, magnesium, sulphur, calcium, potassium,
 Roasting is the process in which the ore is heated carbon etc.

Branches of Chemistry
 Biochemistry is the study of the substances  Synthetic chemistry involves combining
and chemical process which occur in living or- chemical elements and compounds to dupli-
ganisms. cate naturally occuring substances or to pro-
duce compounds that do not occur naturally.
 Histochemistry is a science that provides
information about the distribution and  Radio chemistry involves the identification
activities of chemical components in tissues. and production of radioactive elements and
their use in the study of chemical processes.
 Organic chemistry is the branch of
chemistry which deals with the study of  Physical chemistry interprets chemical pro-
carbon compounds. cesses in terms of pysical properties of matter
such as mass, motion, heat, electricity and ra-
 Inorganic chemistry deals with the
diation.
study of compounds other than carbon
compounds.  Radiation chemistry concerns the chemical
effects of high energy radiation on substances.
 Polymer chemistry deals with chain like mol-
ecules formed by linking smaller molecules and  Stereo chemistry studies the arrangement of
with plastics which consist of chainlink mol- atoms in molecules and the properties that fol-
ecules often combined with other materials. low from such arrangements.

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 The halogens extracted from sea-water are 4. Bauxite (Aluminium) – Orissa, Tamil Nadu, J & K
chlorine and Bromine. 5. Tinstone (Tin) – Bihar, Orissa
 Metals extracted by self-oxidation and raduction 6. Chromite (Chromium) – Bihar, Karnataka, Orissa,
method. Tamil Nadu.
1. Mercury 2. Copper 3. Lead 7. Pyrolusite (Manganese) – Bihar, Maharashtra,
 The atmosphere mainly consists of Nitrogen Karnataka.
(78.09%) and oxygen(20.95%) 8. Haematite (Iron) – Bihar, Karnataka
 Lithosphere is the solid phaseof the earth said 9. Cobaltite (Cobalt) – Rajasthan
in made of different types of rocks. 10. Copper pyrities – Bihar, M.P, Orissa
 Lithosphere is the major source of metals. 11. Native Gold (Gold) – Karnataka, A.P
 Most abundant eliments of earth’s crust are 12. Zinc Blende (Zinc) – Rajasthan
silicon and oxygen - (about 75%)
 Core is the central portion of earth. Acids
 Metallic Core valuable metals like manganese,  The acid present in vinegar is acetic acid.
Iron, Coballo, Nickel, Copper, Irdium, Platinum,  Oranges and lemons contain citric acid.
gold etc.  Curd contains lactic acid.
 Sulphide Layer contains phsophorus, sulphur,  Old name of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is Muriatic acid.
zinc, cadmium, Tin, Antimony, Bismuth, Lead,  Tamarind contains tartaric acid.
Mercury etc.  Tea contains tannic acid.
 High purity metal is prepared by  Urine contains uric acid.
1. Ven-Arked Process (Titanium)  Ants contain formic acid in their body.
2. Zone- Refining (Germanium, Silicon)  Sulphuric acid is called the 'King of Chemicals.'
 Sulphuric acid is mainly manufactured by con-
tact process.
 The chemical name of aspirin is acetylsalicylic
acid.
 Oil of Vitriol is sulphuric acid.
 The acid used in lead storage batteries is
sulphuric acid.
 Earliest known acid is acetic acid.
 Aqua fortis is Neitric Acid.
 To purify gold, it should be treated with conc
entrated Nitric acid.
 The acid that can be used as a hypnotic is :
 Vitamin C is chemically ascorbic acid
 Dilute phenol is called Carbolic Acid.
 Strongest inorganic) acid is Perchloric acid.
 Weakest (inorganic) acid is Hydrocysnic Acid.
Zone- Refining (Germanium, Silicon)  The acid functions as digesting agent in our body
is hydrochloric acid.
Some important minerals and their major places of  Apple contains ascorbic acid and malic acid.
occurence in India.  Pure milk contains no acid but sour milk con-
1. Nitre (Potassium) - Bengal & Haryana tains Lactic acid.
2. Magnesite, Dolomite (Megnesium) – Tamil Nadu  Boric Acid is a mild antiseptic, used a eye-lotion
3. Gypsum, Limestone (Calcium) – Rajasthan, Tamil  Cola contains phosphoric acid.
Nadu, J & K, M.P.  Ordinary soda water id chemically Cabonic Acid.

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pH values  The domestic cooking gas consists mostly of liq-
 The pH scale is introduced by Sorreenson uefied butane and isobutane.
 pH value generally starts from 0 and ends at 14  RDX and Nitroglycerine are explosives.
 The chemical commonly used for preserving bio-
 Project Neutral solutions are having pH exactly 7. logical specimens is formaldehyde.
 pH value greater 7 and upto 14 isbasic.  Alcoholic beverages contain
 pH value 0 to 6.9 is acidic. ethyl alcohol.
 Human Blood has pH value 7.3 or 7.4 (slight Basic)  Protein is composed of car-
 Generally other human secretions have pH 6.1 to 6.9 bon, hydrogen, nitrogen and
 Acid rain has pH 3.00 to 4.5 oxygen.
 The solution used to detect
 Sea water has pH 8.5
glucose in urine is Benedict
 pH of human stomach is about 3.5 Solution (Alkaline Solution of
Copper Sulphate and sodium
Organic Chemistry citrate). Formaldehyde
 Hydrocarbons and their
derivations are called Alloys
Organic Compounds
Alloys (teml-k-¦-c-w) Components Uses
 Compounds of Carbon
and hydrogen are called Aluminium Bronze Copper (Cu) To make coins, statues
hydrocarbons. Aluminium (Al)
eg: Fuels, Aluminium (Al)
 Compounds of carbon, Alnico Nickel (Ni) To make magnets
Hydrogen and oxygen Cobalt (Co)
(H4 O – 2:1) are called Iron (Fe)
carbohydrates.
Aluminium (Al),
eg: Sucrose, glucose, Duralumin Copper (Cu), To make aircrafts
cellulose Magnesium (Mg),
 LPG means Liquified Manganese (Mn)
petroleum gas, major
component present in its Magnelium Aluminium (Al), To make external parts
Magnesium (Mg) of troller, steamer etc.
Butane.
 Leakage of LPG can be Silumin Aluminium, To make engine parts
identified by mixing its Silicon
with Ethyl Mercaptan.
Nickel Steel Iron (Fe), To make drils, crankshaft
 CNG means Nickel (Ni) bearings
compressed natural Gas,
major component is Chrome Steel Iron (Fe), To make springs,tools etc.
methane Chromium (Cr)
 Bilt, LPG & CNG contain
Chrome vanadium steel Iron (Fe) To make axils of motor cars
traces of propane.
Chromium (Cr)
 CFCs are also known as Vanadium (V)
Ozone Depleting Sub-
stances (ODS) for it Manganese Steel Iron (Fe) To make rock driller,
causes depletion of the Manganese (Mn) plates, rails, protecting
Ozone layer. shields etc.

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 Bio-energy is a renewable source of energy.
 Crude petroleum is converted into petrol through
a process called fractional distillation.
 Lead is added to petrol as an octane booster to
prevent knocking.
 Mercury is generally used as a thermometric fluid
rather than water because it has greater visibility
than water.
 Cooking oil can be converted into vegetable ghee
by the process of hydrogenation.
 To make rubber strong and bounceable, sulphur
is added. This process is called ‘Vulcanisation.’
 Ethanol is also called ‘grain alcohol’.
 The commonly used refrigerant in fridges is Freon
(dichloro difluoro methane).
 Freshly passed urine has no smell, but when it is
allowed to stand, it develops a strong ammonia
 Chemically interferon is a glycoprotein.
odour owing to conversion of urea to ammonia by
 The sweetest among the sugars is fructose
bacteria.
(C6H12O6).
 Cheese and vinegar are made by fermentation.
 Artificial silk is also called rayon.
 Non-stick kitchenware are coated with teflon and
pottassium hydrogen tartarate.  Gober gas is a natural gas obtained from cow
 Teflon is a polymer named ‘poly tetrafluoro- dung and it has higher fuel value and commercial
ethylene (PTFE). value. It is used as an alternative fuel to LPG.
 Chiefly biogas contains methane while LPG (Liq-
 The main constituent of dynamite is T.N.T.
uefied petroleum gas) contains butane.
 Anthracite is the purest form of mineral coal.
 Marsh gas is Methane.
 The chemical name of aspirin is acetyl salicylic
 Coal gas is a mixture of hydrogen (48%), meth-
acid.
ane (35%), carbon monoxide (6%), nitrogen (6%),
 Gelatine is used in the manufacture of icecream carbon dioxide (1%)
to prevent crystal growth.
 Methane causes about 38% of the warming of
 Soaps are produced by the saponification of fats the globe through the green house effect.
with alkali solution.
 Alcoholic beverages contain ethyl alcohol. Radioactivity
 Natural gas predominantly is methane.
 Neutral radioactivity was discovered by Henry
 The chief chemical constituent of petroleum is
Bacqurrel.
hydrocarbons.
 Among the fertilizers, urea has the maximum ni-  Artificial Radioactivty was discovered Irene curie
trogen content. & F. Juliot.
 Wood heated in an enclosed container will pro-  Simplest Radioactive atom is 13H (Tritium)
duce charcol.  Tritium is a beeta emitter.
 Petrol is otherwise known as gasoline.  The daughter element of Tritium is Helium - 3
 Enzymes are substances that convert organic (23He)
substances into simpler substances.  Age of fossil can be calculated by Radio - Carbon
 Chemically enzyme is protein. - Dating, using carbon - 14.
 Gas oil is same as the diesel oil.  Wine Dating can be done by using Tritium.
 Interferone is a substance produced by cells in
 Rock-Dating (Age of planet) can be calculated
response to virus infections. It usually prevents
by Uranium datingby using U-238 and Pb - 206.
other viruses from infecting simultaneously.

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 Radioactive Iodine (Iodine -131) is used for the  Strongest Radioactive element is RADIUM.
treatment of Hyper Thyroidism.  Liquid Radioactive metal is FRANCIUM
 Cobalt - 60 isotope is used for cancer treatment.  Gaseous Radioactive element is RADON
 Deficit in blood-circulation is identified by using  Unit of Radioactivity is Bacqurrel (Bq) (1Bq = 1
phosphorus - 32 disintegrestion per second)
 Gold - 198 is used for the treatment of Leukaemia. 1 curie = 3.7 × 1010 Bq
 Angrogram Test is done by using sodium - 24  Photographic film is very strongly affected by
 Bone Cancer can be diagonised by using beeta rays.
phosphorus - 32.  Fats and Oils are esters of glycerol and organic acid.
 Highest velocity is shown by grama rays (same  Neoprene is synthetic rubber used for insulation
as light) of electric cables.
 Hightest pentrating power also shown by gamma  SBR is styrene butadiene which is an artificial
rays due to very high energy (very short rubber used for making tyre, chappals etc.
wavelength)  Rayon Silks are synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibres
 During beeta emission isobars are produced. are polymers.
 Controlled fission reaction is done in Nuclear  Sodium/Potassium salt of stearic acid, palmitic
acid, and oleic acid is called soap.
Reactor.
 Synthetic Rubber used for making hoses is
 The collen used in Nuclear Reactor is Liquid Thiokol.
Sodium.
 Tyres filled with air are called pneumatic.
 Graphite Rods and Cadmium Rods are used as
 Vinyl plastics are used as adhesive.
moderator in Nuclear Reactor.
 Aqua regia is a mixture of concentrated nitric acid
 Five research reactor of India at BAARC are and hydrochloric acid. It can dissolve gold and
Purnima, Zerlina, Dhruva, Circus and Apsara. platinum.
 Important Power stations in India are  The standard Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) con-
1. Tarapur Atomic Power Station - Maharashtra tains sodium chloride, potassium chloride and
2. Rajasthan Atomic Powerstation - Kota anhydrous glucose.
3. Narora Atomic power station - U.P  D.D.T. and Gammexine are insecticides.
 Synthetic detergents are a mixture of sodium salts
4. Indira Gandhi Centre of Research - Kalpakkam
of aromatic and aliphatic sulphonic acids.
(Chennai)
 Hypo, used in photography, is chemically sodium
 Nuclear Fusion reaction takesplace in Hydrogen thiosulphate.
Bomb.  Mordants are substances that fix colours of
fabrics.
 Gypsm is also used in the production of cement
for controlling the setting time of cement.
 Biogas is the appropriate technology to be
adopted for rural electrification and cooking.
 The tapes in the tape recorder are made of plastic
coated with iron oxide.
 The combination of PETN (Penta Erythritol Tetra
Nitrate) and TNT (trinitrotoluene) is called
pentolite. Doctors also use PETN in treating cer-
tain heart disorders.

54 9
 Halon is a gas for extinguishing fire.  Aluminium was first isolated by Hans Oested.
 Electron was discovered by J.J. Thomson.
Glasses  Neutron was discovered by James Chadwick.
 Glass is a super cooled liquid.  Nucleus and Proton was discovered by Ernest
1. Ferric salts yellow Rutherford.
2. Ferrous salts – Green  W. George discovered titanium in 1791.
3. Cobalt salts – Blue  Pierre & Marie Curie discovered Radium in
4. Manganese dioxide – Purple 1898.
5. Nickel salt – Red  Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen in 1766.
6. Cupric oxide – Red
7. Cadmium sulphide – Lemon Yellow Chemical Processes
8. Uraniumoxide - Greenish Yellow  CHROMATOGRAPHY: The modern and most
9. Cryolite - Milkay effecive method to seperate different components
10. Calcium phosphate - Milkey (opaque) of a mixture.
 SUBLIMATION:The conversion of substance
Explosives directly from solid to vapour state.
 TNT is trinitrotoluene. It is highly explosive sub-
Camphor, Iodine etc. undergoes sublimaton.
stance. It is manufactured by the action of con-
centrated nitric acid on toluene.  OXIDATION:The process of loss of electrons in
 Explosive power is measured in terms of TNT. a chemical reaction.
 RDX - Research and Development Explosive is  ELECTROPLATING:The deposition of the metal
a highly explosive substance. on another by electric current .
 PETN-Penta Erythritol Tetra Nitrate is more le-  PASTEURIZATION of milk is the process by
thal and deadly explosive than RDX; which milk is exposed to a high temperature from
 Gun cotton (nitro cellulose) is a powerful explo- 62.80C - 65.50C for 30 minutes to destroy certain
sive formed by the action of nitric acid on cellu- micro - organisms and to prevent or arrest fer-
lose, used in the manufacture of gunpowder. mentation.
Instruments  The method used to obtain alcohol from molas-
ses is called fermentation.
 Eudiometer is to measure volume changes in
chemical reactions between gases.  Bessemer Process : Removal of impurities from
 Manometer is an instrument to determine the molten metal by blowing air through the molten
pressure of the gas. charge in a Bessemer converter. Used to remove
 Saccharimeter is an instrument for determining carbon and phosphorous from steel; sulphur and
the amount of sugar in a solution. iron from copper.
Chemists  Bosch Process : Production of hydrogen by the
catalytic reduction of steam with carbon monox-
 The name 'Hydrogen' and 'Oxygen' was given by 0
ide at 500 C
Antoine Lavoisier.
 Joseph Black (1728-1799) a scottish chemist, dis-  Haber Process : The process in which Ammo-
c o v e r e d nia is prepared by combining nitrogen and hy-
carbondioxide as drogen.
distinct gas,  Contact process:Preparation of sulphuric acid.
showed that gases  Alumino thermic process : Preparation of chro-
could appear in mium and manganese.
solid, developed
 Cyanide process : used for the extraction of
the theory of latent
heat. James Chadwick J.J. Thomson silver and gold.

55 0
Phenomena and Reasons  Pure water is obtained from sea water by the pro-
 In cold countries, alcohol is preferred to mer- cess of distillation
cury as a thermometer liquid because alcohol has
a very low freezing point than that of mercury.
Terminology
 Absolute temperature Temperature reckoned on
 When we dip in sea water and come out , we feel
a scale beginning with absolute zero (---273.160C).
chilled due to evaporation of water on the body.
 Acetone A colourless inflammable liquid used as
 Mercury is used generally in thermometers be- a solvent.
cause mercury expands and contracts evenly when  Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) A nucleotide
heated or cooled. It also remains liquid over a wide co-enzyme that takes part in several chemical
range of temperatures and does not stick to glass. reactions in living organisms. It is an intermediate
produced in photosynthesis.
Miscellaneous  Alkali metal Any metal, such as sodium,
 Kevlar is a material for making bullet proof dresses. potassium, or lithium, whose hydroxide is an alkali.
 The oil in water is an example of suspension.  Alkaline Having the properties of an alkali.
 Catalyst in a chemical reaction generally helps to  Alkaline earth metals The group of chemical
accelerate a reaction. elements comprising calcium, strontium, barium
and magnesium.
 The main use of salt in the diet is to produce
 Allotrophy The property by which certain
hydrochloric acid to digest the food.
chemical elements exist in two or more different
 Chlorination means the addition of a small quan- forms (as carbon in graphite, charcoal, diamond,
tity of chlorine in water as a germicide. lamp black, etc.).
 Hydrogen has the same atomic number and mass  Alum A double sulphate of ammonium, or a univalent
number. metal (sodium or potassium), or of a trivalent metal
 The ultimate source of nitrogen is the atmosphere (aluminium, iron or chromium). It is used as an
but, plants and animals cannot assimilate atmo- astringent, an emetic and in the manufacture of
baking powder, dyes and paper. The commonest
spheric nitrogen directly.
form is potash alum.
 The animals get their nitrogen supply in the form  Amber A yellow or brownish-yellow translucent
of proteins from plants which in turn get their fossil resin. Found on some sea shores and used
nitrogen supply from the soil in the form of ni- in jewellery, pipe stems etc. It is hard, easily
trates. polished and quickly electrified by friction.
 Ammonia (NH3) is a compound of nitrogen. It can  Amino acids A group of nitrogenous organic
be manufactured by combining nitrogen and hy- compounds that serve as units of structure of
drogen at low temperature under high pressure. proteins and enzymes and are essential to human
metabolism.
 Air pollution caused by automobiles can be re-
 Ammonia A colourless, pungent gas, compound
duced by using lead free petrol and design alter-
of nitrogen and hydrogen. Its compounds are
nations in automobiles. used as fertilisers, in medicines etc.
 Carbon monoxide (CO) is most carcinogenic in na-  Amphoteric Substances having both acidic and
ture. basic properties, e.g. alumina.
 Normal Oxygen (O2) and Ozone (O3) are allot-  Antidote Medicine used against a poison, or to
ropes of oxygen. prevent a disease from having effect.
 Diamond, corrundum and topaz are all very hard.  Antipyretic A substance used to lower body
A scale called Moh’s scale is used to indicate the temperature.
degree of hardness of minerals.  Antiseptic Prevents infections, decay etc. It
inhibits the action of micro organisms.

55 1
 Asbestos (Rock Cotton) A variety of fibrous  Catalysis The process by which the rate of a
silicate minerals, used as heat insulating material chemical reaction may be altered.
and fireproof fabrics as they are nonconductors  Catalyst Any substance that changes the rate of a
of electricity.
reaction without undergoing any chemical change.
 Aspirin Acetyl salicylic acid, a white solid used
 Catenation Property of atoms binding themselves
in medicine as an antipyretic and analgesic.
to atoms of the same element. This property is
 Avogadro’s hypothesis At constant temperature
and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain exhibited by carbon.
equal number of molecules.  Celluloid A thin, inflammable substance made
 Avogadro’s number Number of molecules present from pyroxylin and camphor. It is used for making
in one mole of a substance is constant and is photographic films.
equal to 6.023 x 1023..  Chemical warfare Warfare by means of chemical
 Base metal Non-precious metal, the main metal devices, e.g. gases, including bombs, smoke-
constituent of an alloy. screens etc.
 Bath salts Salts used to soften hard water.  Chemiluminescence Light produced during
 Beet sugar Sucrose (sugar) obtained from sugar certain chemical reactions e.g. light emitted by
beet. fire flies.
 Bell metal An alloy of copper and tin (30%).  Chemotherapy The treatment of diseases by the
 Benzaldehyde A clear, pleasant smelling liquid administration of chemicals, e.g. sulphonamides
found in the oil of bitter almonds. It is used in (sulpha drugs).
making dyes, perfumes and flavourings.  Chrome green Chromic oxide, used as a green
 Benzene A clear, inflammable liquid obtained by pigment.
the fractional distillation of coaltar. It is used as a  Coal gas Gas used as a fuel, manufactured by the
solvent and has carcinogenic properties. destructive distillation of coal in the absence of
 Benzine A mixture of hydrocarbons, obtained air.
by the fractional distillation of petroleum and used  Coal tar Thick, black, sticky substance which is
as a motor fuel and in dry cleaning. produced when coal gas is made by the
 Bleaching Decolourisation by means of chemicals destructive distillation of coal.
or by exposure to the sun’s rays.  Cracking Decomposition of a chemical
 Bleaching powder Calcium oxychloride, used as substance into smaller molecules by heating. This
a bleaching agent. process is used in the petroleum industry.
 Blue vitriol Crystalline copper sulphate.  Cyanamide A colourless, crystalline and unstable
 Boiling point The temperature at which a substance used in the manufacture of fertilizers.
particular liquid boils.  Cytochemistry The chemistry of living cells.
 Borax A white crystalline salt with an alkaline  Decantation The process of separating a solid
nature used in the manufacture of glass soldering from a liquid by pouring off the liquid into another
of metals, enamels, gems, soaps etc. container.
 Carbohydrates Energy-producing organic  Dehydration Elimination of water.
compounds, e.g. cane sugar, glucose, starch etc.  Deliquescent Substances which have the
 Carcinogenic Compounds capable of causing property of absorbing water molecules from the
tumours and cancer (e.g. benzene). atmosphere, e.g. calcium chloride.
 Carvacrol A thick oil, extracted from the oil of  Denatured A substance that has been converted
mint and used as an antiseptic and anaesthetic. into a form that is not its natural form, for purposes

55 2
of making them unfit for eating or drinking, e.g. ethanol (CH3CH2CH) have the same molecular
making ethyl alcohol denatured by adding formula (C2H6O). This phenomenon is called
methanol or naphtha. isomerism.
 Detergent A cleaning agent made of the sodium  Lechatelier’s principle If some force is applied
slat of aliphatic or aromatic sulphonic acids. to a system in equilibrium, the system adjusts
 Dewar flask A thermos flask used for keeping itself to annual the effect of the applied force.
liquids at temperatures different from that of air.  Lithophone A white pigment made from zinc
 Distillation A process involving both evaporation sulphide and barium sulphate. It is used in paints.
and condensation simultaneously, used for  Litmus A purple-coloured substance used in
purifying liquids. testing whether a particular substance is acidic
 Endothermic reaction Reactions in which heat is or basic.
absorbed.  Mordants Substances used for fixing colours and
 Exothermic reaction Reactions in which heat is dyes on textiles during the process of dyeing.
liberated.  Pasteurisation The partial sterilization of food
 Fermentation The chemical changes brought about stuff by heating to a temperature below boiling
by living organisms (yeasts, bacteria etc.) in which (1000C normally). This process kills micro-
bigger organic molecules are converted into smaller
organisms, but retains the taste, flavour and
molecules, e.g. conversion of glucose and cane
nutritive value of food. It is named after its
sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
pioneer, Louis Pasteur. For example, milk is
 Flash point The lowest temperature at which a
pasteurised by heating to 600C.
substance catches fire on being lighted with a
flame.  Proof spirit Solution of ethyl alcohol containing
 Formaldehyde Also called formalin (40% aqueous 49.28 percent alcohol by weight in water.
solution of the gas formal-dehyde). It is used as a  Pyrolysis Chemical decomposition by the action
preservative and disinfectant. of heat.
 Freezing mixture Salts of metals (NaCl, MgSO4,  Quicksilver Another name given to mercury
etc.) when mixed with crushed ice, lower its (because it is a liquid and looks like molten silver).
temperature below 00C.  Saccharin A white crystalline solid which is 550
 Galvanization The process in which iron or steel times sweeter than sugar, but does not have any
articles are coated with zinc by dipping them in a food value. It is given to diabetic patients.
bath of molten zinc, to protect them from  Steroids Class of organic compounds present in
corrosion. animals and plants. These are present as bile
 Gasoline The same as petrol obtained by the acids.
distillation of petroleum.  Turpentine Resinous oil from terebinth and other
 Glass wool A collection of very fine glass threads. trees. It is used in varnishes, paints and in
 Glycerine A colourless, thick, syrupy liquid medicinal preparations.
prepared by the hydrolysis of fats and oils. It is  Urea Crystalline solid which is the chief
also called glycerol. constituent of human and other urine. It is formed
 Hydrolysis A chemical reaction in which a in the body by the decomposition of proteins.
substance reacts with water to form a weakly  Vulcanization This is a process of improving the
acidic, weakly basic or neutral solution. quality and hardness of rubber by heating it with
 Hypertrophy Enlargement of organs due to sulphur at about 1500C.
excessive nutrition or eating.  White bronze Bronze containing a high
 Ignition The heating of a compound or mixture proportion of tin.
to the point of complete combustion.  White heat Temperature at which bodies become
 Iodoform A yellow, crystalline compound. It is incandescent.
used as a bactericidal in dressings.
 White lead Lead carbonate which is used as a
 Isomer Different chemical compounds with same
pigment.
molecular formula but having different structural
 White spirit A mixture of petroleum
formula e.g. dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) and
hydrocarbons.

55 3