dynamic chapter 13.1

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dynamic chapter 13.1

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MOTION, & EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR A

SYSTEM OF PARTICLES

Today’s Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Write the equation of

motion for an accelerating In-Class Activities:

body. • Check Homework

2. Draw the free-body and • Reading Quiz

kinetic diagrams for an • Applications

accelerating body. • Newton’s Laws of Motion

• Newton’s Law of

Gravitational Attraction

• Equation of Motion for a

Particle or System of

Particles

• Concept Quiz

• Group Problem Solving

• Attention Quiz

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

1

3/13/2018

READING QUIZ

1. Newton’s second law can be written in mathematical

form as ΣF = ma. Within the summation of forces, ΣF,

________ are(is) not included.

A) external forces B) weight

C) internal forces D) All of the above.

written as ΣFi = Σ miai = maG, where aG indicates _______.

A) summation of each particle’s acceleration

B) acceleration of the center of mass of the system

C) acceleration of the largest particle

D) None of the above.

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS

forces acting on it.

drag resistance force of her parachute

to limit her velocity.

determine the acceleration or velocity

of the parachutist at any point in time?

This has some importance when

landing!

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

2

3/13/2018

APPLICATIONS (continued)

B, and a cart C.

developed at the driving wheels

of the truck, could we determine

the acceleration of the truck?

How?

coupling between the truck and cart B? This is needed

when designing the coupling (or understanding why it

failed).

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS (continued)

A freight elevator is lifted using a

motor attached to a cable and pulley

system as shown.

force in the cable required to lift the

elevator and load at a given

acceleration? This is needed to

decide what size cable should be

used.

weight of the elevator and its load?

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

3

3/13/2018

The motion of a particle is governed by Newton’s three laws

of motion.

line at constant velocity, will remain in this state if the

resultant force acting on the particle is zero.

the particle experiences an acceleration in the same direction

as the resultant force. This acceleration has a magnitude

proportional to the resultant force.

particles are equal, opposite, and collinear.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

(continued)

The first and third laws were used in developing the

concepts of statics. Newton’s second law forms the

basis of the study of dynamics.

written

F = ma

where F is the resultant unbalanced force acting on the

particle, and a is the acceleration of the particle. The

positive scalar m is called the mass of the particle.

speed approaches the speed of light, or if the size of the

particle is extremely small (~ size of an atom).

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

4

3/13/2018

gravitational force acting between them. Newton postulated

the law governing this gravitational force as

F = G(m1m2/r2)

G = universal constant of gravitation ,

m1, m2 = mass of each body, and

r = distance between centers of the two bodies.

force having any sizable magnitude is that between the earth

and the body. This force is called the weight of the body.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

the mass and weight of a body!

of the gravitational field in which it is measured. The

mass provides a measure of the resistance of a body to a

change in velocity, as defined by Newton’s second law of

motion (m = F/a).

the gravitational field in which it is measured. Weight is

defined as

W = mg

where g is the acceleration due to gravity.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

5

3/13/2018

SI system: In the SI system of

units, mass is a base unit and weight

is a derived unit.

Typically, mass is specified in

kilograms (kg), and weight is

calculated from W = mg.

specified in units of m/s2, then the

weight is expressed in newtons (N).

W (N) = m (kg) g (m/s2) => N = kg·m/s2

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

The motion of a particle is governed by Newton’s second law,

relating the unbalanced forces on a particle to its acceleration.

If more than one force acts on the particle, the equation of

motion can be written

∑F = FR = ma

where FR is the resultant force, which is a vector summation

of all the forces.

To illustrate the equation, consider a

particle acted on by two forces.

body diagram, showing all

forces acting on the particle.

Next, draw the kinetic diagram,

showing the inertial force ma

acting in the same direction as

the resultant force FR.

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

6

3/13/2018

This equation of motion is only valid if the

acceleration is measured in a Newtonian or inertial

frame of reference. What does this mean?

the earth’s surface, we typically assume our

“inertial frame” to be fixed to the earth. We

neglect any acceleration effects from the earth’s

rotation.

inertial frame of reference is often fixed to the

stars.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

(Section 13.3)

The equation of motion can be extended to include systems of

particles. This includes the motion of solids, liquids, or gas

systems.

As in statics, there are internal

forces and external forces acting on

the system. What is the difference

between them?

Using the definitions of m = ∑mi

as the total mass of all particles

and aG as the acceleration of the

center of mass G of the particles,

then m aG = ∑mi ai .

The text shows the details, but for a system of particles:

∑F = m aG where ∑F is the sum of the external forces

acting on the entire system.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

7

3/13/2018

KEY POINTS

1) Newton’s second law is a “law of nature”--

experimentally proven, not the result of an analytical

proof.

resistance to a change in velocity of the object.

Calculating the weight of an object is an application of

F = m a, i.e., W = m g.

This condition is fundamental to all dynamics problems!

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

EQUATION OF MOTION

1) Select a convenient inertial coordinate system. Rectangular,

normal/tangential, or cylindrical coordinates may be used.

applied to the particle. Resolve forces into their

appropriate components.

force, ma. Resolve this vector into its appropriate

components.

form and solve these equations for the unknowns.

relations to generate additional equations.

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

8

3/13/2018

EXAMPLE

Given:A 25-kg block is subjected to

the force F=100 N. The spring has

a stiffness of k = 200 N/m and is

un-stretched when the block is at A.

The contact surface is smooth.

when s=0.4 m.

Plan: 1) Define an inertial coordinate system.

2) Draw the block’s free-body diagram, showing all

external forces.

3) Draw the block’s kinetic diagram, showing the inertial

force vector in the proper direction.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

block’s center of mass. F is the applied

W = 25g load and Fs = 200∆ (N) is the spring

y force, where ∆ is the spring

deformation. When s = 0.4,

F=100 (N)

x ∆ = 0.5 − 0.3 = 0.2 m.

3 The normal force (N) is perpendicular

4

to the surface. There is no friction

Fs=200∆ (N) force since the contact surface is

= 40 (N) N

smooth.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

9

3/13/2018

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution continued:

The acceleration can be directed to the

25 a right if the block is speeding up or to

the left if it is slowing down.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

CONCEPT QUIZ

v. Draw the FBD if the kinetic friction coefficient is µk.

mg mg

v

A) µkN

B) µkN

N

N

mg

C) µkmg D) None of the above.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

10

3/13/2018

CONCEPT QUIZ

(continued)

2. Packaging for oranges is tested using a machine that

exerts ay = 20 m/s2 and ax = 3 m/s2, simultaneously.

Select the correct FBD and kinetic diagram for this

y

condition.

W may

W x

A) B)

= • max

= • max

Rx

Rx

Ry

Ry

C) may D) W may

= • = • max

Ry Ry

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

a mass of m. The coefficient

of kinetic friction at all

surfaces of contact is µ.

Block A is moving to the

right.

block.

Plan: 1) Define an inertial coordinate system.

2) Draw the free-body diagrams for each block,

showing all external forces.

3) Draw the kinetic diagrams for each block, showing

the inertial forces.

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

11

3/13/2018

Solution: (continued)

1) An inertial x-y frame can be defined as fixed to the ground.

2) Draw the free-body diagram of each block:

Block B:

y Block A: y 2T

WA = mg

x x

T

FfA = µNA NA WB = mg

The friction force opposes the motion of block A relative to the

surfaces on which it slides.

3) Draw the kinetic diagram of each block: Block B:

Block A:

maA maB

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. Internal forces are not included in an equation of motion

analysis because the internal forces are_____

A) equal to zero.

B) equal and opposite and do not affect the calculations.

C) negligibly small.

D) not important.

with a velocity of v. The force F is applied to

F

bring the block to rest. Select the correct

FBD.

10 F 10 F 10 F v

A) µk10 B) µk10 C) µkN

N N N

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

12

3/13/2018

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

13

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