IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004
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ChingWen Hsue, Senior Member, IEEE, LinChuan Tsai, and KuoLung Chen
Abstract—Simple and accurate formulations are employed to represent discretetime infinite impulse response processes of both first and secondorder differentiators in the domain. These formulations, in conjunction with the representations of transmissionline elements in the domain, lead to transmis sionline configurations that are eligible for wideband microwave differentiators. Both the first and secondorder differentiators in microstrip circuits are implemented to verify this method. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulation values.
Index
Terms—Equallength
transforms.
line,
microwave differentiator,
I. INTRODUCTION
T HE differentiator is a very useful tool to determine and
estimate time derivatives of a signal. It has been used ex
tensively in many areas, such as image processing, speech sys tems, and digital control. In radars, the velocity and accelera tion of objects are computed from position measurements using differentiators [1]. In biomedical engineering applications, it is often necessary to compute higher order derivatives of biomed ical data. The differentiators are mainly implemented in cir cuits for lowspeed applications. Thus, the implementation of differentiators for highfrequency applications has been largely ignored. Various methods have been developed to design both discrete finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) differentiators [2]–[7]. AlAlaoui [2] used Simpson’s rule to develop a stable secondorder recursive differentiator. Tseng [3] studied a fractionalorder FIR differentiator by solving linear equations of Vandermonde form. In order to develop a wideband differentiator, Khan and Ohba [6] employed the central difference approximations of the derivative of a function to obtain a maximally linear differentiator. An important aspect of the previous investigation is that the exploration focused on the improvement of linearity over a wide frequency band. Most of the differentiator studies thus far elaborated on discretetime signal processing (DSP) techniques for the applications in lowfrequency microchips. In particular, many
domain formats of transfer functions have been obtained to represent the characteristics of a differentiator. In this
Manuscript received September 23, 2003; revised January 6, 2004. This work was supported by the National Science Council, R.O.C., under Grant NSC92
2213EO11012.
The authors are with the Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 106, R.O.C. (email: cwh@et.ntust.edu.tw). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMTT.2004.827015
paper, we present the scattering characteristics of equal elec tricallength transmission lines in the domain [8], [9]. As
a result, the transmissionline configuration can emulate the
characteristics of the differentiator developed in a DSP study, and the operating frequency band of a differentiator is, thus, extended further into the microwave range. Both first and secondorder differentiators are implemented with microstrip lines, of which the operating frequency is determined by the physical length of each line section. It is, therefore, plausible to fabricate differentiators having operating frequencies larger than 10 GHz. The close agreement between theoretical values and experimental results further validates the proposed scheme. It is pertinent to point out that the transmission lines considered here are assumed to be both lossless and dispersionless. In particular, the dispersion effect between microstrip lines of different widths over a wide bandwidth is neglected for the current consideration.
II. DISCRETETIME _{D}_{I}_{F}_{F}_{E}_{R}_{E}_{N}_{T}_{I}_{A}_{T}_{O}_{R}_{S}
It is well known that the operation of a time derivative of a signal is represented by a complexfrequency variable in the Laplace transform representation. Neglecting the loss factor, the complexfrequency variable is equal to , i.e., , where
is the signal angular frequency. As a result, a differentiator is a highpass filter and the amplitude of its system function increases linearly as the signal frequency increases. We consider a transformation relating the complexfrequency variable and the discretetime variable in the domain as follows:
(1)
where is a normalization constant, is a real constant, and
represents a unit of time delay. Physically, is the sam pling time interval in the DSP study. If is set equal to one, the transformation in (1) is called a bilinear transformation, which is widely used in converting analog prototypes to discretetime prototypes [10]. When the frequency response of the differen tiator is concerned, the parameter in (1) is replaced with the following relation:
(2)
where is the frequency angle and
. The value
of strongly affects the linearity of the transformation in (1). On the other hand, the multiplication constant dictates the amplitude response of (1). It is required that the amplitude re sponse of (1) should be less than unity for the entire frequen cies. Fig. 1 shows the amplitude response of (1) as a function
with different values of when the multiplication constant
00189480/04$20.00 © 2004 IEEE
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004
Fig. 1.
Amplitude responses with different values of .
is set equal to 0.417. Apparently, the transformation in (1) has a good linearity in amplitude response when is set equal to 0.1658. The value of 0.417 is selected to assume that the max imum value of in (1) is unity for the entire frequencies when
. When is equal to one, the amplitude response of the system function in (1) becomes infinite at . The bi linear transformation, when is one, has a good linearity when the normalized frequency is less than . Therefore, the bi linear transformation is improper to be adopted as the system function of a wideband differentiator. Fig. 2. shows the rela tive error of the amplitude response of (1) for different values of
when they are compared to an ideal differentiator. The ideal differentiator is assumed to have precisely linear amplitude re sponse for all frequencies, as shown in Fig. 1. If , the relative error is less than 1% (or 40 dB) when . For , we, therefore, adopt (1) as the system func tion of the differentiator in a discretetime IIR format and the selected system function of the firstorder differentiator is
(3)
If we implement a circuit with the system function shown in (3), the differentiator is accurate for the operating frequency up to 0.8 of the normalizing frequency. With a finite error tol erance, such a differentiator has a wider operating frequency bandwidth than those previously reported [7]. In particular, the concise mathematical expression will lead to a simple circuit configuration of the differentiator. For a secondorder differentiator, the system function is obtained by squaring (3), i.e.,
(4)
After defining the discretetime system functions, the remaining task is to implement both first and secondorder differentiators with equal electriclength transmission lines. In other words, we synthesize the transmissionline circuits so
that their transfer functions are similar to the system functions of differentiators.
III. IMPLEMENTATION OF _{D}_{I}_{F}_{F}_{E}_{R}_{E}_{N}_{T}_{I}_{A}_{T}_{O}_{R}_{S}
A. FirstOrder Differentiator
For a twoport network shown in Fig. 3, the chainscattering
configurations [8], [9], namely, the serial transmission line and
shuntshort stub in the
domain, where
, and
are the propagation constant, physical length, and characteristic
impedance, respectively. Note that
is the reference character
istic impedance, which is assumed to be 50
, unless otherwise
mentioned.
It is assumed that all finite lines have the same electrical length, i.e., , where is the propagation delay
matrices in the
domain,
From (5), if the output port of a shuntshort stub is loaded with
a matched termination (i.e.,
), the transfer function of
HSUE et al.: IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST AND SECONDORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS
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TABLE
I
BASIC TRANSMISSIONLINE ELEMENT’S _{C}_{H}_{A}_{I}_{N} SCATTERINGPARAMETER MATRICES
shortcircuited stub can be employed to implement a firstorder microwave differentiator dictated by (3).
B. SecondOrder Differentiator
If a transmissionline configuration consists of serial sec tions and shuntshort stubs ( and are positive integers),
the overall chainscattering parameter
of such a
circuit is obtained by the sequential multiplication of chainscat tering parameter matrices of all transmissionline elements [9]. The chainscattering parameter matrix element is given as
(7)
where all are real and are determined by the characteristic impedances of all transmissionline elements. is the reflec tion coefficient defined in Table I. If the output of the trans missionline circuit is loaded with a matched termination, the transfer function of the overall circuit, denoted as , is as follows:
(8)
Fig. 4.
Physical layout of microstrips for a firstorder differentiator.
shuntshort stubs, and the term
represents the delay
factor of If we set
serial transmissionline sections.
to approximate the system function in
(4) and neglect the propagation delay factor, we obtain
(10)
The next step is to compare the coefficients of denominators on both sides of (10) so that is as close to as pos sible. Notice that in (10) is determined by the characteristic impedances of all transmission lines. Upon using the optimiza
tion method [9] in the sense of minimum square error for the
coefficients of the denominators in (10), we obtain the charac
teristic impedances of transmission lines.
To implement a differentiator with transmission lines, the electrical length of each transmissionline section is set equal
to 90 at the normalizing frequency. We have , where
represents the physical length of each transmissionline section and is the wavelength at the normalizing frequency.
IV. EXPERIMENTAL _{R}_{E}_{S}_{U}_{L}_{T}_{S}
To construct a firstorder microwave differentiator, we em
ploy microstrips to emulate transmission lines. The microstrips
are assumed to be both lossless and dispersionless for the cur
rent consideration. Fig. 4 shows the physical layout of the mi
crostrips, which is built on a Duroid substrate with a thickness of 30 mil (0.762 mm) and relative dielectric constant .
To implement the shunted transmissionline stub having a char
acteristic impedance of 17.86 , we use a parallel configura
tion, i.e., the equivalent microstrips are placed symmetrically
on both sides of the 50 line. The propagation delay time of
each shunted finite line is 20 ps, which corresponds to the nor
malizing (or maximum operating) frequency of 12.5 GHz. The
ground termination of shunted finite lines is implemented by
where 
is a function of the charac 
using multiple viaholes along the edges. Fig. 5 shows the mag 

teristic impedances of all shunted and serial transmissionline 
nitude responses of both simulated values and experimental re 

elements. The term 
in the numerator of (8) is due to 
sults of the transmission coefficient and reflection co 
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004
Fig. 6.
Physical layout of microstrips for a secondorder differentiator.
efficient of the firstorder differentiator for frequencies
extending from dc to 10 GHz. Notice that 10 GHz represents 0.8 of the fullband normalizing frequency. Measured and are in good agreement with the respective theoret ical values. Measured increases linearly as the frequency increases. We also use microstrips to construct a secondorder mi crowave differentiator. Fig. 6 shows the physical layout of the microstrip circuit, which is built on the same substrate as that used for the firstorder differentiator. The circuit consists of sevensection serial lines ( ) and three shunted stubs ( ). Of course, other configurations can be selected to implement the differentiator provided that the condition is met. The characteristic impedances of transmission lines are obtained by using the optimization process [9] that involves the comparison between the coefficients of the denominators on both sides of (10). To assure the feasibility of microstrips, the lower and upper bounds of the characteristic impedances for the optimization process are set as . The characteristic impedances of serial lines from the left to righthand side are 54.19, 92.0, 75.54, 40, 40, 54.82, and
61.34 . We also use a parallel configuration to implement
the shunted stubs. The characteristic impedances of equivalent shunted stubs from the left to righthand side are 49.91, 50.0,
and 40.0 .
Fig. 8.
Response of the firstorder differentiator for ramp signal input.
Of course, the characteristic impedances of shunt stubs on one side of the serial line in Fig. 6 are twice these values. The propagation delay time of each finite line is 20 ps, which pro
duces the normalizing frequency of 12.5 GHz. Once again, the
ground termination of shunted finite lines is implemented by
using multiple viaholes along the edges. The total length of the differentiator excluding the reference 50 lines on both sides is 29.43 mm. Fig. 7 shows the experimental results, as well as the simulated values of the transmission coefficient and re flection coefficient of the secondorder differentiator for frequencies ranging from dc to 10 GHz. As shown in this figure,
the measured frequencydomain results agree very well with the theoretical values for frequencies up to 0.8 of the fullband nor malizing frequency. To examine the characteristics of the differentiators in the time domain, we employ ramp signals as input signals to the de vices. Fig. 8 shows the experimental results of the firstorder dif
ferentiator when ramp signals with rise times of 100 and 150 ps
HSUE et al.: IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST AND SECONDORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS
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Fig. 9.
Response of the secondorder differentiator for ramp signal input.
are incident upon the device shown in Fig. 4. The 150ps ramp signal is turned into a square wave, while the 100ps ramp signal is transformed into a distorted pulse signal. The amplitudes of output signals decrease in both cases. Little ripples appear on both the rising and falling edges of output signals. Notice that the rise time of output signals becomes 50 ps for two different input signals. On the other hand, the output signals have a dif ferent fall time. The output signal associated with the 100ps risetime input signal has a larger fall time. In Fig. 8, the theoret ical results of output signals are shown to compare with the mea sured results, wherein the propagation delay time of transmis sion lines is taken into account. Fig. 9 shows the output signals of the secondorder differentiator when the same ramp signals are incident upon the device shown in Fig. 6. Both output sig nals appear as distorted triangular waveforms. The output signal associated with the input signal of 100ps rise time has a larger peaktopeak value. In particular, two outputs decrease signif icantly, and the time duration of two outputs lasts longer than that of output signals in the firstorder differentiator. For conve nience, the theoretical results of output signals are also shown for comparison with the measured results.
REFERENCES
[1] M. I. Skolink, Introduction to Radar Systems. New York: McGraw Hill, 1980, pp. 399–408. [2] M. A. AlAlaoui, “Novel IIR differentiator from the Simpson rule,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 41, pp. 186–187, Feb. 1994. [3] C.C. Tseng, “Design of fractional order digital FIR differentiators,” IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 8, pp. 77–79, Mar. 2001. [4] B. Kumar and S. C. DuttaRoy, “Design of digital differentiators for
lowfrequencies,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 76, pp. 287–289, Mar. 1988. [5] S. C. Pei and J. J. Shyu, “Analytic closedform matrix for designing higher order digital differentiators using eigenapproach,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 44, pp. 698–701, Mar. 1996.
[6]
I. R. Khan and R. Ohba, “New design of fullband differentiators based
on Taylor series,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.–Vis. Image Signal Processing, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 185–189, Aug. 1999. [7] C.W. Hsue, T.R. Cheng, H.M. Cheng, and H.M. Chen, “A second order microwave differentiator,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 137–139, Mar. 2003. [8] T.R. Cheng and C.W. Hsue, “Highspeed waveshaping using nonuni
form lines and transform technique,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 150, pp. 77–83, Apr. 2003. [9] D.C. Chang and C.W. Hsue, “Design and implementation of filters using transfer functions in the domain,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 49, pp. 979–985, May 2001. [10] A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Shafer, DiscreteTime Signal Pro cessing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1989. [11] T. Edward, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design. New York:
Wiley, 1991.
ChingWen Hsue (S’85–M’85–SM’91) was born in Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrophysics and electronics from the National ChiaoTung University, HsinChu, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1973 and 1975, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from the Polytechnic University (formerly the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), Brooklyn, NY, in 1985. From 1975 to 1980, he was a Research Engineer with the Telecommunication Laboratories, Ministry of Communication, Taiwan, R.O.C. From 1985 to 1993, he was with Bell Laboratories, Princeton, NJ, as a Member of Technical Staff. In 1993, he joined the Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., as a Professor, and from August 1997 to July 1999, he was the Department Chairman. His current interests are in pulsesignal propagation in lossless and lossy transmission media, wave interactions between nonlinear elements and transmission lines, photonics, highpower amplifiers, and electromagnetic inverse scattering.
V. CONCLUSION
Simple and accurate formulations have been employed to rep resent both first and secondorder differentiators in the do main. In particular, the domain representations of scattering characteristics of equallength nonuniform transmission lines facilitate the implementation of discretedomain differentiators in the microwave frequency range. These differentiators have been implemented by using microstrip transmission lines. The experimental results agreed very well with the simulated values. It is possible that many other circuits developed in DSP studies can also be implemented by using transmission lines for mi crowave applications.
LinChuan Tsai was born in Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1968. He received the M.S. degree in electronic engineering from the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1998, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. de gree in electronic engineering at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. He is currently a Project Engineer with the Mobile Business Group, Chunghwa Telecom, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., where he is involved with the wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) network planning. His current interests are discrete time signal processing, wireless communications, and microwave planar filter design and passive circuit design.
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KuoLung Chen was born in Keelung, Taiwan R.O.C., in 1954. He received the B.S. degree in tex tile engineering from the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1980, the M.S. degree in computer science and information engineering from the National ChiaoTung University, HsinChu, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1995, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in electronic engineering at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. From 1981 to 1996, he was an Engineer with the Data Communications Institute, Ministry of Transportation and Com munications (MOTC), Taiwan, R.O.C. From July 1996 to 1998, he was a Section Chief with the Public Telecommunications Department, Directorate General of Telecommunications (DGT). From October 1998 to July 2003, he was a Station Director of the Northern Taiwan Regulatory Station, DGT, MOTC. He is currently a Deputy Director of Public Telecommunications Department, Directorate General of Telecommunications. His current interests are discretetime signal processing, wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), microwave planar filter design, and passive circuit design.