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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004

1443

Implementation of First-Order and Second-Order Microwave Differentiators

Ching-Wen Hsue, Senior Member, IEEE, Lin-Chuan Tsai, and Kuo-Lung Chen

Abstract—Simple and accurate formulations are employed to represent discrete-time infinite impulse response processes of both first- and second-order differentiators in the -domain. These formulations, in conjunction with the representations of transmission-line elements in the -domain, lead to transmis- sion-line configurations that are eligible for wide-band microwave differentiators. Both the first- and second-order differentiators in microstrip circuits are implemented to verify this method. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulation values.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of

Index

Terms—Equal-length

  • -transforms.

line,

microwave differentiator,

I. INTRODUCTION

T HE differentiator is a very useful tool to determine and

estimate time derivatives of a signal. It has been used ex-

tensively in many areas, such as image processing, speech sys- tems, and digital control. In radars, the velocity and accelera- tion of objects are computed from position measurements using differentiators [1]. In biomedical engineering applications, it is often necessary to compute higher order derivatives of biomed- ical data. The differentiators are mainly implemented in cir- cuits for low-speed applications. Thus, the implementation of differentiators for high-frequency applications has been largely ignored. Various methods have been developed to design both discrete finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) differentiators [2]–[7]. Al-Alaoui [2] used Simpson’s rule to develop a stable second-order recursive differentiator. Tseng [3] studied a fractional-order FIR differentiator by solving linear equations of Vandermonde form. In order to develop a wide-band differentiator, Khan and Ohba [6] employed the central difference approximations of the derivative of a function to obtain a maximally linear differentiator. An important aspect of the previous investigation is that the exploration focused on the improvement of linearity over a wide frequency band. Most of the differentiator studies thus far elaborated on discrete-time signal processing (DSP) techniques for the applications in low-frequency microchips. In particular, many

  • -domain formats of transfer functions have been obtained to represent the characteristics of a differentiator. In this

Manuscript received September 23, 2003; revised January 6, 2004. This work was supported by the National Science Council, R.O.C., under Grant NSC92-

2213-EO11-012.

The authors are with the Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 106, R.O.C. (e-mail: cwh@et.ntust.edu.tw). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMTT.2004.827015

paper, we present the scattering characteristics of equal elec- trical-length transmission lines in the -domain [8], [9]. As

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of

a result, the transmission-line configuration can emulate the

characteristics of the differentiator developed in a DSP study, and the operating frequency band of a differentiator is, thus, extended further into the microwave range. Both first- and second-order differentiators are implemented with microstrip lines, of which the operating frequency is determined by the physical length of each line section. It is, therefore, plausible to fabricate differentiators having operating frequencies larger than 10 GHz. The close agreement between theoretical values and experimental results further validates the proposed scheme. It is pertinent to point out that the transmission lines considered here are assumed to be both lossless and dispersionless. In particular, the dispersion effect between microstrip lines of different widths over a wide bandwidth is neglected for the current consideration.

II. DISCRETE-TIME DIFFERENTIATORS

It is well known that the operation of a time derivative of a signal is represented by a complex-frequency variable in the Laplace transform representation. Neglecting the loss factor, the complex-frequency variable is equal to , i.e., , where

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
  • is the signal angular frequency. As a result, a differentiator is a high-pass filter and the amplitude of its system function increases linearly as the signal frequency increases. We consider a transformation relating the complex-frequency variable and the discrete-time variable in the -domain as follows:

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
  • (1)

where is a normalization constant, is a real constant, and

represents a unit of time delay. Physically, is the sam- pling time interval in the DSP study. If is set equal to one, the transformation in (1) is called a bilinear transformation, which is widely used in converting analog prototypes to discrete-time prototypes [10]. When the frequency response of the differen- tiator is concerned, the parameter in (1) is replaced with the following relation:

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
  • (2)

where is the frequency angle and

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
  • . The value

of strongly affects the linearity of the transformation in (1). On the other hand, the multiplication constant dictates the amplitude response of (1). It is required that the amplitude re- sponse of (1) should be less than unity for the entire frequen- cies. Fig. 1 shows the amplitude response of (1) as a function

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1443 Implementation of
  • with different values of when the multiplication constant

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0018-9480/04$20.00 © 2004 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.

Amplitude responses with different values of .

  • is set equal to 0.417. Apparently, the transformation in (1) has a good linearity in amplitude response when is set equal to 0.1658. The value of 0.417 is selected to assume that the max- imum value of in (1) is unity for the entire frequencies when

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

. When is equal to one, the amplitude response of the system function in (1) becomes infinite at . The bi- linear transformation, when is one, has a good linearity when the normalized frequency is less than . Therefore, the bi- linear transformation is improper to be adopted as the system function of a wide-band differentiator. Fig. 2. shows the rela- tive error of the amplitude response of (1) for different values of

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
  • when they are compared to an ideal differentiator. The ideal differentiator is assumed to have precisely linear amplitude re- sponse for all frequencies, as shown in Fig. 1. If , the relative error is less than 1% (or 40 dB) when . For , we, therefore, adopt (1) as the system func- tion of the differentiator in a discrete-time IIR format and the selected system function of the first-order differentiator is

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

(3)

If we implement a circuit with the system function shown in (3), the differentiator is accurate for the operating frequency up to 0.8 of the normalizing frequency. With a finite error tol- erance, such a differentiator has a wider operating frequency bandwidth than those previously reported [7]. In particular, the concise mathematical expression will lead to a simple circuit configuration of the differentiator. For a second-order differentiator, the system function is obtained by squaring (3), i.e.,

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

(4)

After defining the discrete-time system functions, the remaining task is to implement both first- and second-order differentiators with equal electric-length transmission lines. In other words, we synthesize the transmission-line circuits so

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
Fig. 2. Relative error of amplitude response for different values of . Fig. 3. Two-port device.
Fig. 2.
Relative error of amplitude response for different values of .
Fig. 3.
Two-port device.

that their transfer functions are similar to the system functions of differentiators.

III. IMPLEMENTATION OF DIFFERENTIATORS

A. First-Order Differentiator

For a two-port network shown in Fig. 3, the chain-scattering

parameters ( or -parameters) ( ) of a two-port network are defined as follows: (5) where
parameters ( or
-parameters)
(
) of a two-port
network are defined as follows:
(5)
where
and
are, respectively, the incident and reflected
waves at port 1, and and are, respectively, the incident
wave and the reflected wave at port 2. In Fig. 3, and are
dependent variables, while and are independent vari-
ables. Table I shows the
matrices for two transmission-line

configurations [8], [9], namely, the serial transmission line and

shunt-short stub in the

  • -domain, where

,
,

, and

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

are the propagation constant, physical length, and characteristic

impedance, respectively. Note that

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

is the reference character-

istic impedance, which is assumed to be 50

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

, unless otherwise

mentioned.

It is assumed that all finite lines have the same electrical length, i.e., , where is the propagation delay

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.
time of finite lines. To obtain the we set .
time of finite lines. To obtain the
we set
.
1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

matrices in the

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

-domain,

From (5), if the output port of a shunt-short stub is loaded with

a matched termination (i.e.,

1444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 1.

), the transfer function of

HSUE et al.: IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS

1445

TABLE

I

BASIC TRANSMISSION-LINE ELEMENTS CHAIN SCATTERING-PARAMETER MATRICES

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
the shunt-short stub we obtain is given by . From Table I, (6) where and is
the shunt-short stub
we obtain
is given by
. From Table I,
(6)
where
and
is the characteristic impedance
of the shunt stub. If we set
and
equal to
. Notice that
in (3), we get
is 17.86
if
is 50
. This reveals that a transmission line shunted with a

short-circuited stub can be employed to implement a first-order microwave differentiator dictated by (3).

B. Second-Order Differentiator

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

If a transmission-line configuration consists of serial sec- tions and shunt-short stubs ( and are positive integers),

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

the overall chain-scattering parameter

of such a

circuit is obtained by the sequential multiplication of chain-scat- tering parameter matrices of all transmission-line elements [9]. The chain-scattering parameter matrix element is given as

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

(7)

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

where all are real and are determined by the characteristic impedances of all transmission-line elements. is the reflec- tion coefficient defined in Table I. If the output of the trans- mission-line circuit is loaded with a matched termination, the transfer function of the overall circuit, denoted as , is as follows:

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

(8)

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

Fig. 4.

Physical layout of microstrips for a first-order differentiator.

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

shunt-short stubs, and the term

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

represents the delay

factor of If we set

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

serial transmission-line sections.

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

to approximate the system function in

(4) and neglect the propagation delay factor, we obtain

(9) If we divide (9) with , we get
(9)
If we divide (9) with
, we get

(10)

The next step is to compare the coefficients of denominators on both sides of (10) so that is as close to as pos- sible. Notice that in (10) is determined by the characteristic impedances of all transmission lines. Upon using the optimiza-

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

tion method [9] in the sense of minimum square error for the

coefficients of the denominators in (10), we obtain the charac-

teristic impedances of transmission lines.

To implement a differentiator with transmission lines, the electrical length of each transmission-line section is set equal

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

to 90 at the normalizing frequency. We have , where

represents the physical length of each transmission-line section and is the wavelength at the normalizing frequency.

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

To construct a first-order microwave differentiator, we em-

ploy microstrips to emulate transmission lines. The microstrips

are assumed to be both lossless and dispersionless for the cur-

rent consideration. Fig. 4 shows the physical layout of the mi-

crostrips, which is built on a Duroid substrate with a thickness of 30 mil (0.762 mm) and relative dielectric constant .

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

To implement the shunted transmission-line stub having a char-

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

acteristic impedance of 17.86 , we use a parallel configura-

tion, i.e., the equivalent microstrips are placed symmetrically

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1445 TABLE I B ASIC

on both sides of the 50- line. The propagation delay time of

each shunted finite line is 20 ps, which corresponds to the nor-

malizing (or maximum operating) frequency of 12.5 GHz. The

ground termination of shunted finite lines is implemented by

where

where

is a function of the charac-

using multiple via-holes along the edges. Fig. 5 shows the mag-

teristic impedances of all shunted and serial transmission-line

nitude responses of both simulated values and experimental re-

elements. The term

in the numerator of (8) is due to

in the numerator of (8) is due to

sults of the transmission coefficient and reflection co-

sults of the transmission coefficient and reflection co-

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004

Fig. 5. Magnitude responses of both experimental results and theoretical values of and of the first-order
Fig. 5. Magnitude responses of both experimental results and theoretical
values of and of the first-order differentiator.
Fig. 7. Magnitude responses of both experimental results and theoretical values of and of the second-order
Fig.
7.
Magnitude responses of both experimental results and theoretical
values of
and
of the second-order differentiator.
1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.

Fig. 6.

Physical layout of microstrips for a second-order differentiator.

1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.

efficient of the first-order differentiator for frequencies

1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.

extending from dc to 10 GHz. Notice that 10 GHz represents 0.8 of the full-band normalizing frequency. Measured and are in good agreement with the respective theoret- ical values. Measured increases linearly as the frequency increases. We also use microstrips to construct a second-order mi- crowave differentiator. Fig. 6 shows the physical layout of the microstrip circuit, which is built on the same substrate as that used for the first-order differentiator. The circuit consists of seven-section serial lines ( ) and three shunted stubs ( ). Of course, other configurations can be selected to implement the differentiator provided that the condition is met. The characteristic impedances of transmission lines are obtained by using the optimization process [9] that involves the comparison between the coefficients of the denominators on both sides of (10). To assure the feasibility of microstrips, the lower and upper bounds of the characteristic impedances for the optimization process are set as . The characteristic impedances of serial lines from the left- to right-hand side are 54.19, 92.0, 75.54, 40, 40, 54.82, and

1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.
1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.
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1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.
  • 61.34 . We also use a parallel configuration to implement

the shunted stubs. The characteristic impedances of equivalent shunted stubs from the left- to right-hand side are 49.91, 50.0,

1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.

and 40.0 .

1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.

Fig. 8.

Response of the first-order differentiator for ramp signal input.

Of course, the characteristic impedances of shunt stubs on one side of the serial line in Fig. 6 are twice these values. The propagation delay time of each finite line is 20 ps, which pro-

duces the normalizing frequency of 12.5 GHz. Once again, the

ground termination of shunted finite lines is implemented by

using multiple via-holes along the edges. The total length of the differentiator excluding the reference 50- lines on both sides is 29.43 mm. Fig. 7 shows the experimental results, as well as the simulated values of the transmission coefficient and re- flection coefficient of the second-order differentiator for frequencies ranging from dc to 10 GHz. As shown in this figure,

1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.
1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.
1446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Fig. 5.

the measured frequency-domain results agree very well with the theoretical values for frequencies up to 0.8 of the full-band nor- malizing frequency. To examine the characteristics of the differentiators in the time domain, we employ ramp signals as input signals to the de- vices. Fig. 8 shows the experimental results of the first-order dif-

ferentiator when ramp signals with rise times of 100 and 150 ps

HSUE et al.: IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS

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HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1447 Fig. 9. Response of

Fig. 9.

Response of the second-order differentiator for ramp signal input.

are incident upon the device shown in Fig. 4. The 150-ps ramp signal is turned into a square wave, while the 100-ps ramp signal is transformed into a distorted pulse signal. The amplitudes of output signals decrease in both cases. Little ripples appear on both the rising and falling edges of output signals. Notice that the rise time of output signals becomes 50 ps for two different input signals. On the other hand, the output signals have a dif- ferent fall time. The output signal associated with the 100-ps rise-time input signal has a larger fall time. In Fig. 8, the theoret- ical results of output signals are shown to compare with the mea- sured results, wherein the propagation delay time of transmis- sion lines is taken into account. Fig. 9 shows the output signals of the second-order differentiator when the same ramp signals are incident upon the device shown in Fig. 6. Both output sig- nals appear as distorted triangular waveforms. The output signal associated with the input signal of 100-ps rise time has a larger peak-to-peak value. In particular, two outputs decrease signif- icantly, and the time duration of two outputs lasts longer than that of output signals in the first-order differentiator. For conve- nience, the theoretical results of output signals are also shown for comparison with the measured results.

REFERENCES

[1] M. I. Skolink, Introduction to Radar Systems. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1980, pp. 399408. [2] M. A. Al-Alaoui, Novel IIR differentiator from the Simpson rule,IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 41, pp. 186187, Feb. 1994. [3] C.-C. Tseng, Design of fractional order digital FIR differentiators,IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 8, pp. 7779, Mar. 2001. [4] B. Kumar and S. C. Dutta-Roy, Design of digital differentiators for

low-frequencies,Proc. IEEE, vol. 76, pp. 287289, Mar. 1988. [5] S. C. Pei and J. J. Shyu, Analytic closed-form matrix for designing higher order digital differentiators using eigen-approach,IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 44, pp. 698701, Mar. 1996.

[6]

I. R. Khan and R. Ohba, New design of full-band differentiators based

on Taylor series,Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.–Vis. Image Signal Processing, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 185189, Aug. 1999. [7] C.-W. Hsue, T.-R. Cheng, H.-M. Cheng, and H.-M. Chen, A second- order microwave differentiator,IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 137139, Mar. 2003. [8] T.-R. Cheng and C.-W. Hsue, High-speed waveshaping using nonuni-

form lines and transform technique,Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 150, pp. 7783, Apr. 2003. [9] D.-C. Chang and C.-W. Hsue, Design and implementation of filters using transfer functions in the domain,IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 49, pp. 979985, May 2001. [10] A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Shafer, Discrete-Time Signal Pro- cessing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989. [11] T. Edward, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design. New York:

Wiley, 1991.

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1447 Fig. 9. Response of

Ching-Wen Hsue (S85M85SM91) was born in Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrophysics and electronics from the National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1973 and 1975, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from the Polytechnic University (formerly the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), Brooklyn, NY, in 1985. From 1975 to 1980, he was a Research Engineer with the Telecommunication Laboratories, Ministry of Communication, Taiwan, R.O.C. From 1985 to 1993, he was with Bell Laboratories, Princeton, NJ, as a Member of Technical Staff. In 1993, he joined the Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., as a Professor, and from August 1997 to July 1999, he was the Department Chairman. His current interests are in pulse-signal propagation in lossless and lossy transmission media, wave interactions between nonlinear elements and transmission lines, photonics, high-power amplifiers, and electromagnetic inverse scattering.

V. CONCLUSION

Simple and accurate formulations have been employed to rep- resent both first- and second-order differentiators in the -do- main. In particular, the -domain representations of scattering characteristics of equal-length nonuniform transmission lines facilitate the implementation of discrete-domain differentiators in the microwave frequency range. These differentiators have been implemented by using microstrip transmission lines. The experimental results agreed very well with the simulated values. It is possible that many other circuits developed in DSP studies can also be implemented by using transmission lines for mi- crowave applications.

HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1447 Fig. 9. Response of
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1447 Fig. 9. Response of
HSUE et al. : IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER MICROWAVE DIFFERENTIATORS 1447 Fig. 9. Response of

Lin-Chuan Tsai was born in Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1968. He received the M.S. degree in electronic engineering from the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1998, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. de- gree in electronic engineering at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. He is currently a Project Engineer with the Mobile Business Group, Chunghwa Telecom, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., where he is involved with the wide-band code division multiple access (WCDMA) network planning. His current interests are discrete time signal processing, wireless communications, and microwave planar filter design and passive circuit design.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004

1448 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 Kuo-Lung Chen

Kuo-Lung Chen was born in Keelung, Taiwan R.O.C., in 1954. He received the B.S. degree in tex- tile engineering from the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1980, the M.S. degree in computer science and information engineering from the National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1995, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in electronic engineering at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. From 1981 to 1996, he was an Engineer with the Data Communications Institute, Ministry of Transportation and Com- munications (MOTC), Taiwan, R.O.C. From July 1996 to 1998, he was a Section Chief with the Public Telecommunications Department, Directorate General of Telecommunications (DGT). From October 1998 to July 2003, he was a Station Director of the Northern Taiwan Regulatory Station, DGT, MOTC. He is currently a Deputy Director of Public Telecommunications Department, Directorate General of Telecommunications. His current interests are discrete-time signal processing, wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), microwave planar filter design, and passive circuit design.