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2015 Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Engineering Applications

Coordinated Control Strategy of Wind Power and Large-Scale Access of Battery


Energy Storage

Hu Ruwei, Chen Ran, Yao Hongchun, Hang Han, Liang Shuo


China Electric Power Research Institute, Nanjing, 210003, China
{huruwei, chenran, yaohongchun}@epri.sgcc.com.cn

Abstract—With continuous expansion of the wind power, it has system was described in section II. In section III, we
brought a negative impact on safe and stable operation of power introduced the coordinated control strategy of the battery
grid. Energy storage technology is considered as an effective energy storage system.
method to solve this problem. In large-scale access of battery
energy storage system, the control of energy storage system II. STRUCTURE OF THE WIND/STORAGE SYSTEM
itself is also an important part. This paper introduces a
coordinated control strategy for large-scale energy storage in A. Electrical topology description
wind power system. The strategy can not only make full use of In a typical wind/storage system, the wind system and
the energy storage system, but also improve the service life of storage system are connected to the same bus. Power is
the storage system. The strategy is proposed based on five delivered from lower voltage bus side to grid side through set-
control constraints: storage power compensation, storage up transformer. Because of the wide distribution of wind
capacity, power conversion system (PCS) conditions, state of turbines, they are divided into different branches to be on grid.
charge (SOC) control, grid power fluctuation. The method of As shown in figure 1, the storage system consists of four parts:
power distribution this paper proposed meet all the control PCS, BP, BS, and battery management system (BMS). PCS is
constraints in storage system.
a DC/AC bidirectional converter which acts as a key part in
Keywords-Control Strategy; Power Distribution; Energy
storage system. In order to provide large storage capacity,
Storage; Wind Power multi BSs are used to constitute one BP. The connections
among the BSs can be in parallel or in series mode, it depends
I. INTRODUCTION on the rated capacity and voltage needs to PCS. BMS contains
a data acquisition system, battery state calculation, electrical
In order to deal with the fast consumption of the traditional
management, thermal management, safety/supervisory
energy and the increasingly severe environmental problems,
management, and communication [2]. The capacity and
the development of clean energy has become the strategic
power rating of the storage system should be designed
choice in the world. Wind energy, as a renewable energy
properly to match the demand of wind generating system.
which is no pollution, high capacity, wide prospect, is
The on-grid power is determined by wind power and
developed vastly around the world. However, the wind power
battery storage power. By controlling the output of the battery
has obvious characteristics of fluctuation and randomness,
storage, we can realize the application of smooth fluctuations,
and it is difficult to predict accurately at present as well.
real-time curve tracking, etc.
Therefore, the integration of large-scale wind power will
bring a series of problems for the safe and stable operation of
grid. The combining of wind power system and energy Pg Control center
storage system is considered as an effective way to improve Substaion

the continuity, stability and reliability of power system. Wind system Storage system
In the traditional control strategy of wind/storage system, Pw(1) Pw(K) Pess(1) Pess(N)
we paid more attention to the effect of energy storage on the
wind power, but neglected the coordination control of energy Branch 1 Branch K PCS 1 PCS N

storage system itself. As a large scale access of energy storage a


system, the energy storage system may be composed of multi
...
a ...
...

...

PCSs and battery piles (BP) paralleled with multi battery BP BP


BS BS BS BS
series (BS) [1]. When the storage system is needed to
input/output power, it is necessary to consider about the ... ...
following control constraints: energy storage capacity, PCS
status, state of charge (SOC), grid power fluctuation and so
on.
In this paper, we focus on the control strategy of battery
Figure 1. Wind/storage system topology
storage system based on five control constraints. The strategy
solved the coordinated control problem for the access of large
capacity energy storage, and improved the efficiency of
energy storage utilization. The structure of the wind/storage

978-1-4673-9393-5/15 $31.00 © 2015 IEEE 247


DOI 10.1109/ISDEA.2015.70
B. Communication and control description effect. The compensated power can be calculated by the
As shown in figure 1, the wind system, storage system, following equation:
and substation system are connected with control center. The  ()  ()
control center also acts as an integrated monitoring system. △    = −    (1)

The monitoring system contains a data transmission service
In the calculation of equation (1),  is control period,
that can deal with different protocols. Frequently-used
 () is wind power this period,  ( − 1) is wind power
protocols include MODBUS protocols, IEC60870 protocols,
IEC61850 protocols, etc. Data and commands can be last period,    is the actual time delay of the control
transmitted between the integrated system and sub systems. It system, the result △    is the control delay compensation
can process real-time data received from all devices. The real- we need.
time raw data from sub systems can be adjusted, calculated, 2) Battery control deviation
analyzed and displayed on demand. In some degree, there is power input/output deviation
The coordinated control strategy for battery energy when charging and discharging in the battery system. In
storage is deployed on the integrated monitoring system. general, the deviation is always steady and fixed, described as
Monitoring system provides all the needed remote △  .
measurements for control strategy in real-time. BMS works in As a result, the storage power through compensation can
each BP among all the BSs, makes sure the balance of SOC be calculated as below: ( is the expect power the storage
among all the BSs in a BP, and communicates with PCS and system needs to provide.)
control center.
 = _ +△    +△  (2)
In this project, we need to complete the wind/storage
applications of fluctuation stabilization and real-time curve B. Constraint of storage capacity
tracking. As a large-scale access of battery energy storage, the
As mentioned in section III.A,  is the whole output of
control strategy introduced in this paper is mainly focused on
the storage system, the power should be distributed among all
the control of all the PCS and BPs, providing an effective
the available PCSs. In order to ensure the energy balance
method to distribute power in storage system among all the
among all the PCSs, the charge/discharge power is distributed
PCSs.
according to the current battery capacity.
III. COORDINATED CONTROL STRATEGY In BMS remote measurements, we can only get the SOC
and rated capacity for each BS. We need to convert these
As described in the section II, the coordinated control quantities to BP mode. The calculation equations are defined
strategy provides an effective method to distribute power in as follow:
storage system. The distributing is based on five control
constraints: storage power compensation, storage capacity,  = ∑
  () (3)
PCS conditions, SOC control, grid power fluctuation. The
∑$
%&'  !"# ()*"# ()
output/input power of storage system is used for the  = (4)
*",
application of fluctuation stabilizing.
-. = (1 −  ) ×  (5)
A. Storage power compensation
Considered wind power has obvious characteristics of  /-. =  ×  (6)
fluctuation and randomness, the effective way to reduce the
impact on grid is to use low pass filter (LPF) function In equations (3) – (6),  is rated capacity of each BS,
combined with storage system. A typical one stage LPF  is capacity of BP,  is SOC of BS,  is SOC of
control is shown in Fig. 2 below. ( : wind power,  : grid BP, -. is available charging capacity,  /-. is available
power, _ : storage power) discharging capacity.
If  > 0 , we defined as discharging state;  < 0 ,
defined as charging state. The storage power is distributed as
follow:
*45#678(/)
′ (i) = _.3 ∑$ ,  > 0 (7)
%&' *45#678 ()
Figure 2. one stage LPF control
*678(/)
′ (i) = _.3 ∑$ ,  < 0 (8)
We can see that the output of storage system _ is %&' *678 ()

calculated under the ideal condition. In actual use, we should ;  (i) →
consider the control delay and battery control deviation in
storage system. {@ABCDEFC AG  @AHFCFA} →
1) Control delay compensation {@ABCDEFC AG  @ACDAI} →
As is known, there always exists a certain degree of delay
in real control. We can consider increasing the amount of {@ABCDEFC AG JDFH KALMD GIN@CNECFA} →
delay compensation to reduce the influence on the filtering  (i) (9)

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_.3 =  −  (i) (10) 2000

1500
1600

1400
Storage power curve

1200

In equations (7) – (10), _.3 is rest power needs to be 1000 800 1000 1200 1400

Storage power/kW
500
distributed, ′ is power calculated according to storage 0

capacity,  is power suited all the constraint and eventually -500

send to PCS. -1000 -1540


-1560
-1580
-1500 -1600
-1620
840 860 880 900

C. Constraint of PCS conditions -2000


0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
running time/1 min

For the protection of battery storage and PCS, Figure 5. Storage power in 50 hours running time
charge/discharge power should be controlled in the range of
rated limit. In order to make better use of batteries in stabilization
The equation below calculated  in different fluctuation, also to have a better effect on grid power, we
conditions. O/ /OP is minimum/maximum rated power of designed a process that can be used for automatically
PCS. recovering SOC to a normal state with high power rate in short
terms. Although we lose some effect control in short time, but
′ (i)ˈO/ (i) ≤ ′ (i) ≤ OP (i) for a longer period of time to stabilize fluctuations.
 (i) = Q O/ (i)ˈ′ (i) < O/ (i) (11) Drawing a conclusion of the SOC control, we can listed
the SOC regions and its corresponding control actions in table
OP (i)ˈ′ (i) > OP (i)
1 below:
D. Constraint of SOC control Table 1, the SOC regions and corresponding control actions
In the wind/storage application of stabilization fluctuation, SOC region Control action
considering the current SOC of each BP is the most important {0, O/ } Only allowed for charging
factor. SOC too high or too low will not only have a negative Determine on the fluctuation of on-
{O/ ,  3 }
effect on the result of control strategy, but also have a bad grid power  , introduce in section
{-3 , OP }
effect on the battery life. III.E.
In order to make full use of battery storage and protect the {  3 , -3 } Normal control
battery at the same time, we proposed dividing the SOC value {OP , 100} Only allowed for discharging
into five control regions. Through this method, we avoided High discharge power, quickly
the over charge/discharge of batteries, at the same time, the {0, -. }
recover SOC
stabilizing curve is more smooth. The regions we divided is
shown in figure 3 below. E. Constraint of SOC control
As described in section III.D, we proposed a selective
control region. In this buffered region, we make the power
control according to the fluctuation of gird power. The storage
power is calculated by
│ ] (^) ] ( )│ `
Figure 3. SOC control regions 0ˈ ≤
a
 (i) = [ (12)
│ ] (^) ] ( )│ `
However, when the storage system is running after a long  ˈ >
a
time, 2 days for example, the whole SOC in storage system
almost at the low bound near O/ value (in this project, In the calculations, Z is the amount of fluctuation we set,
O/ : 30 ,  3 : 35 , -3 : 75 , OP : 80 , b is the number of the sample periods contained within the
`
O/ : −400(YZ) , OP : 400(YZ) , 4 PCSs). During the time scale of per control period,
a
would be average
running time, the SOC had a decreasing trend. Figure 4 shows fluctuation of each sample period, I is a certain scale within
the SOC curve of battery strings in 50 hours running time. │ ] (^) ]( )│
This problem makes it impossible for storage system to fully the range of 0 to L, is the average fluctuation

stabilize fluctuation of wind power in long term. As shown in of the step lengh I , the maximum value of I is L,  is a
figure 5, the storage power has a weak effect on stabilization smaller storage power.
fluctuation because of a low SOC. We can see that the smaller I is, the stricter constraint on
75
SOC of battery string
grid power fluctuation we got.
70
65
60
IV. CONCLUSION
SOC of BS/%

55
50 With the development of wind/storage system, the access
45
of storage energy is in more and more large scale. During the
40
35 control of storage system, more and more conditions need to
30 be considered. In this article, we introduced the control
25
0 100 200 300
running time(50 hours)/5 min
400 500 600
strategy based on five constraint conditions. Each condition is
Figure 4. SOC curve of battery strings in 50 hours running time an important link for the application of wind/storage system.

249
By the constraints of storage power compensation, storage
capacity, PCS conditions, SOC control, grid power
fluctuation, we can improve the control accuracy of storage
power, make the most effective use of energy storage. At the
same time, the service life of the battery is better improved.
V. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported by Scientific Research Project
1323120400 of Science and Technology Commission of
Shanghai Municipality.
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