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# CHAPTER 3

PAVEMENT DESIGN
Flexible Pavement Design (JKR Method)
By:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Yusri Aman

## FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
INTRODUCTION
 This type of pavement design was primarily
based upon empiricism or experience, with
theory playing only a subordinate role in the
procedure.
 Consideration in any pavement design
procedure:
 The theory used to predict the failure or
distress parameter,
 The evaluation of the pertinent material
properties necessary for the theory selected,
and
 The determination of the relationship
between the magnitude of the parameter in
question to the failure of performance level
desired.
Mechanistic Design
A method that involve numerical capability to calculate the stress,
strain, or deflection in a multi-layered system, such as a pavement,
when subjected to external loads, or the effects of temperature or
moisture.
Traffic – Time of Day Patterns
 Design and construction of flexible asphalt pavements has changed rather
significantly in past several years.
 The annualized average 24-hours volume of vehicles at a given point or
section of highway is called a traffic count.
 Calculated by determining the volume of vehicles during a given period and
dividing that number by the number of days in that period.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PAVEMENT DESIGN

## • Magnitude of axle load

• Wheel configuration
• Volume and composition of axle
• Tyre pressure and contact area

## (3) Climate or Environment

Pavement Design Factors
Highway agencies should pay particular attention to the following
items in designing pavements.

Traffic.
 Pavement designers should work closely with the SHA
component responsible for traffic volume, classification, and truck
weight data required for pavement design.
 Accurate cumulative load (normally expressed as 18 kip
equivalent single axle loads or ESALs) estimates are
extremely important to pavement structural design.
 Load estimates should be based on representative current
vehicle classification and truck weight data and anticipated
growth in heavy truck volumes and weights.
Single Axle Tridem Axle

Tandem Axle

## Each tyre has point of load

4
 Lx 
   LS = 80kN, 8.16 tonne,
18,000 lb
 LS 

4 4
 1.5  Lorry 9 tonnes  9 
  Car 1.5 tonne  
 8.16   8.16 
 0.00114  1.48

4
4  26 
 18   
   8.16 
 8.16 
 103.07
 23.67 Bus 18 tonnes Trailer 26 tonnes
Climatic / Environmental Effect

////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////
Seepage
from ///////////////////////////
highlands Water ponding

## Seepage through Seepage through pavement

shoulder
If subgrade is too weak, pavement will fail
Effect of Water on Pavement

##  It is also prevents highway surface water

from flooding neighboring properties,
 and reduces the risk of water damage to
the highway.
 Excess moisture content in soil may
increase the weight of the soil and
increases stress conditions.

##  These are two main reasons for the failure of

earth slope and embankment foundations.
JKR ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 5/85 DESIGN METHOD
PROCEDURE:

## 1. Design life is usually taken as 10 years.

2. Traffic Estimation:

## Initial Annual Commercial Vehicle Traffic per direction, Vo

Pc
Vo  ADT   365  D  L
100
where ADT = average daily traffic
Pc = percentage of commercial vehicles
D = directional distribution (usually 0.50)
L = lane distribution (usually 1.00)
Total Number of Commercial Vehicles per direction, Vc

Vo [(1  r )  1]x
Vc 
r
where r = traffic growth rate
x = design life

## Total Equivalent Standard Axles, ESA

ESA = Vc x e where e = equivalent factor (Table 3.5)

## Daily Traffic Flow at the end of the design period, Vx

Vx = V1 (1 + r)x where V1 = ADT / 2 (per direction)
3. Capacity Estimation
Maximum Hourly Capacity, c

c=IxRxT

## where I = ideal hourly capacity (Table 3.6)

R = roadway reduction factor (Table 3.7)
T = traffic reduction factor (Table 3.8)

Daily Capacity, C
C = 10 x c (assume c is 10% of C)

Check C > Vx
If C > Vx  capacity will not be exceeded at the end of the design period (OK)
If C < Vx  capacity will be exceeded by the end of the design period (not OK)
When C < Vx happens, need to reduce design period.
log C
Vx
Years required to reach capacity, n 
log 1  r 
4. Calculate thickness, TA.
TA = a1 D1 + a2 D2 + a3 D3

## where a1, a2, a3 = structural coefficients (Table 3.9)

d1, d2 , d3 = layer depth (based on Tables 3.10, 3.11, 3.12)

## 5. Determine the equivalent thickness, TA’ using Thickness Nomograph

Based on subgrade CBR, ESA and TA values (Figure 3.5).
If CBR varies within the 1 m depth of the subgrade, the mean CBR is calculated:

##  h CBR 13  h CBR 13 ...  h CBR 13 

CBR   1 1 2 2 n n 
 100 
 

## Make sure TA > TA’

Table 3.5: Guide for Equivalence Factor

Percentage of 51 –
0 – 15% 16 – 50%
selected heavy 100%
goods vehicles
3.0 3.7
Equivalence Factor 1.2 2.0

## Road Type Passenger Vehicle Unit

per hour
Multilane 2000 per lane
Two Lanes (bothways) 2000 total for bothways
Three Lanes (bothways) 4000 total for bothways
Table 3.7: Carriageway Roadway Reduction Factor
Shoulder Width
Carriageway Width 2.00 m 1.50 1.25 m 1.00
m m
7.5 m 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.90
7.0 m 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.79
6.0 m 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.73
5.0 m 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.64

## Table 3.8: Traffic Reduction Factor

Type of Terrain Factor
Flat T = 100/(100+Pc)
Rolling T = 100/(100+2Pc)
Mountainous T = 100/(100+5Pc)
Table 3.9: Structural Layer Coefficient

## Type of Layer Property Coefficient

Component
Wearing and Binder
Asphalt Concrete 1.00
Course
Type 1 : Stability
0.8
Dense Bituminous > 400 kg
0.55
> 300 kg

## Base Course Unconfined compressive

Cement Stabilized strength (7 days) 30 -40 0.45
kg/m2
Mechanically
Stabilized crushed 80% 0.32
aggregate
Sand, Laterite etc 20% 0.23
Subbase Crushed aggregate 30% 0.25
Cement Stabilized 60% 0.28
Table 3.10: Structural Layer Coefficient

Minimum
Type of Layer
Thickness
Wearing Course 4 cm
Binder Course 5 cm
Bituminous 5 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10 cm
Cement Treated 10 cm
Granular 10 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15 cm
Table 3-11: Standard and Construction Layer Thickness

Standard
Type of Layer One layer lift
Thickness
Wearing Course 4-5 cm 4-5 cm
Binder Course 5-10 cm 5-10 cm
Bituminous 5-20 cm 5-15 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10-20 cm 10-15 cm
Cement Treated 10-20 cm 10-20 cm
Granular 10-30 cm 10-20 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15-20 cm 15-20 cm

## < 17.5 cm 5.0 cm

17.5 – 22.5 cm 10.0 cm
23.0 – 29.5 cm 15.0 cm
> 30.0 cm 17.5 cm
Road used for two lane (Bothways)
Table 3.6; I
Table 3.7; R
Table 3.8; T
2,
Figure 2: Thickness Design Nomograph
From Equation:
TA = a1D1 + a2D2 + …..+ anDn
Class Question