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CHAPTER 3

PAVEMENT DESIGN
Flexible Pavement Design (JKR Method)
By:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Yusri Aman

FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
INTRODUCTION
 This type of pavement design was primarily
based upon empiricism or experience, with
theory playing only a subordinate role in the
procedure.
 Consideration in any pavement design
procedure:
 The theory used to predict the failure or
distress parameter,
 The evaluation of the pertinent material
properties necessary for the theory selected,
and
 The determination of the relationship
between the magnitude of the parameter in
question to the failure of performance level
desired.
Mechanistic Design
A method that involve numerical capability to calculate the stress,
strain, or deflection in a multi-layered system, such as a pavement,
when subjected to external loads, or the effects of temperature or
moisture.
Traffic – Time of Day Patterns
 Design and construction of flexible asphalt pavements has changed rather
significantly in past several years.
 The annualized average 24-hours volume of vehicles at a given point or
section of highway is called a traffic count.
 Calculated by determining the volume of vehicles during a given period and
dividing that number by the number of days in that period.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PAVEMENT DESIGN
(1) Traffic Loading

• Magnitude of axle load


• Wheel configuration
• Volume and composition of axle
loads
• Tyre pressure and contact area

(2) Material Characteristics

(3) Climate or Environment


Pavement Design Factors
Highway agencies should pay particular attention to the following
items in designing pavements.

Traffic.
 Pavement designers should work closely with the SHA
component responsible for traffic volume, classification, and truck
weight data required for pavement design.
 Accurate cumulative load (normally expressed as 18 kip
equivalent single axle loads or ESALs) estimates are
extremely important to pavement structural design.
 Load estimates should be based on representative current
vehicle classification and truck weight data and anticipated
growth in heavy truck volumes and weights.
Single Axle Tridem Axle

Tandem Axle

Each tyre has point of load


4
 Lx 
   LS = 80kN, 8.16 tonne,
18,000 lb
 LS 

4 4
 1.5  Lorry 9 tonnes  9 
  Car 1.5 tonne  
 8.16   8.16 
 0.00114  1.48

4
4  26 
 18   
   8.16 
 8.16 
 103.07
 23.67 Bus 18 tonnes Trailer 26 tonnes
Climatic / Environmental Effect

////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////
Seepage
from ///////////////////////////
highlands Water ponding

Seepage through Seepage through pavement


shoulder
Water content rises in subgrade
Subgrade looses strength and stability
If subgrade is too weak, pavement will fail
Effect of Water on Pavement

 It is also prevents highway surface water


from flooding neighboring properties,
 and reduces the risk of water damage to
the highway.
 Excess moisture content in soil may
increase the weight of the soil and
increases stress conditions.

 These are two main reasons for the failure of


earth slope and embankment foundations.
JKR ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 5/85 DESIGN METHOD
PROCEDURE:

1. Design life is usually taken as 10 years.


2. Traffic Estimation:

Initial Annual Commercial Vehicle Traffic per direction, Vo

Pc
Vo  ADT   365  D  L
100
where ADT = average daily traffic
Pc = percentage of commercial vehicles
D = directional distribution (usually 0.50)
L = lane distribution (usually 1.00)
Total Number of Commercial Vehicles per direction, Vc

Vo [(1  r )  1]x
Vc 
r
where r = traffic growth rate
x = design life

Total Equivalent Standard Axles, ESA


ESA = Vc x e where e = equivalent factor (Table 3.5)

Daily Traffic Flow at the end of the design period, Vx


Vx = V1 (1 + r)x where V1 = ADT / 2 (per direction)
3. Capacity Estimation
Maximum Hourly Capacity, c

c=IxRxT

where I = ideal hourly capacity (Table 3.6)


R = roadway reduction factor (Table 3.7)
T = traffic reduction factor (Table 3.8)

Daily Capacity, C
C = 10 x c (assume c is 10% of C)

Check C > Vx
If C > Vx  capacity will not be exceeded at the end of the design period (OK)
If C < Vx  capacity will be exceeded by the end of the design period (not OK)
When C < Vx happens, need to reduce design period.
log C
Vx
Years required to reach capacity, n 
log 1  r 
4. Calculate thickness, TA.
TA = a1 D1 + a2 D2 + a3 D3

where a1, a2, a3 = structural coefficients (Table 3.9)


d1, d2 , d3 = layer depth (based on Tables 3.10, 3.11, 3.12)

5. Determine the equivalent thickness, TA’ using Thickness Nomograph


Based on subgrade CBR, ESA and TA values (Figure 3.5).
If CBR varies within the 1 m depth of the subgrade, the mean CBR is calculated:

 h CBR 13  h CBR 13 ...  h CBR 13 


CBR   1 1 2 2 n n 
 100 
 

Make sure TA > TA’


Table 3.5: Guide for Equivalence Factor

Percentage of 51 –
0 – 15% 16 – 50%
selected heavy 100%
goods vehicles
Type of road Local Trunk
3.0 3.7
Equivalence Factor 1.2 2.0

Table 3.6: Maximum Hourly Capacity under ideal conditions

Road Type Passenger Vehicle Unit


per hour
Multilane 2000 per lane
Two Lanes (bothways) 2000 total for bothways
Three Lanes (bothways) 4000 total for bothways
Table 3.7: Carriageway Roadway Reduction Factor
Shoulder Width
Carriageway Width 2.00 m 1.50 1.25 m 1.00
m m
7.5 m 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.90
7.0 m 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.79
6.0 m 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.73
5.0 m 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.64

Table 3.8: Traffic Reduction Factor


Type of Terrain Factor
Flat T = 100/(100+Pc)
Rolling T = 100/(100+2Pc)
Mountainous T = 100/(100+5Pc)
Table 3.9: Structural Layer Coefficient

Type of Layer Property Coefficient


Component
Wearing and Binder
Asphalt Concrete 1.00
Course
Type 1 : Stability
0.8
Dense Bituminous > 400 kg
Macadam Type 2: Stability
0.55
> 300 kg

Base Course Unconfined compressive


Cement Stabilized strength (7 days) 30 -40 0.45
kg/m2
Mechanically
Stabilized crushed 80% 0.32
aggregate
Sand, Laterite etc 20% 0.23
Subbase Crushed aggregate 30% 0.25
Cement Stabilized 60% 0.28
Table 3.10: Structural Layer Coefficient

Minimum
Type of Layer
Thickness
Wearing Course 4 cm
Binder Course 5 cm
Bituminous 5 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10 cm
Cement Treated 10 cm
Granular 10 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15 cm
Table 3-11: Standard and Construction Layer Thickness

Standard
Type of Layer One layer lift
Thickness
Wearing Course 4-5 cm 4-5 cm
Binder Course 5-10 cm 5-10 cm
Bituminous 5-20 cm 5-15 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10-20 cm 10-15 cm
Cement Treated 10-20 cm 10-20 cm
Granular 10-30 cm 10-20 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15-20 cm 15-20 cm

Table 3.12: Minimum Thickness of Bituminous Layer

TA Total thick of bituminous layer

< 17.5 cm 5.0 cm


17.5 – 22.5 cm 10.0 cm
23.0 – 29.5 cm 15.0 cm
> 30.0 cm 17.5 cm
Road used for two lane (Bothways)
Table 3.6; I
Table 3.7; R
Table 3.8; T
2,
Figure 2: Thickness Design Nomograph
From Equation:
TA = a1D1 + a2D2 + …..+ anDn
Class Question