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optimal location and sizing of solar farm

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Algorithm

Prakornchai Phonrattanasak Masafumi Miyatake

Orie Sakamoto

Department of Electrical Engineering

Department of Electrical Engineering

North Eastern University

Sophia University

Khonkaen, Thailand

Tokyo, Japan

tumneu@live.com

miyatake@sophia.ac.jp, orie-sakamoto@sophia.ac.jp

Abstract— Nowadays some nuclear power plant in Japan is shut produce hazardous waste like coal, oil, or gas [1] and have

down due to problem of security in earthquake disaster. very low risk from earthquake such as nuclear power plant.

Consequently, Japan will encounter a lack of electrical energy in

the future if new electrical generation is not constructed. Solar Japan east power system comprise of three electric

energy is one of appropriate renewable energy for Japan. Solar companies as Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tohoku

panel produces electrical energy by using the natural solar Electric Power Company and Hokkaido Electric Power

radiation from sun. PV Solar farm consists of multiple Company. The frequency of electric current is 50 Hertz.

components, including the photovoltaic modules, mechanical

and electrical connections. PV solar farm with grid-connected

Integration of solar energy in power system is studied to

can directly connect to the existing electricity grid by using find utilization of an existing solar farm [2]. But the result of

inverter circuit toward transformer. In this paper, PV solar solar farm in economic and environment benefit with

farm is utilized as a power generation which injects active power considering solar radiation is not still developed.

into a Japan east power system. An optimal location and sizing The goal of this paper is to find best location and sizing of

of solar farm by using multiobjective Bees optimization (MBO) solar farm in power system with minimum fuel cost and

is proposed to minimize fuel and emission costs of overall system emission in Japan east power system with many real

with considering solar radiation energy in each area. The results

constraints and considering solar radiation of each area. The

show that the proposed method found the optimal position of

solar farm with minimum cost of fuel and environmental

multiobjective bees algorithm is developed to find minimum

pollution. fuel cost and emission when the solar farm varies in its

location and sizing on Japan east power sys-tem. The result

Index Terms—Power system, Optimization, Bees algorithm, PV show that the best location and sizing of solar farm with

solar and Japan power system. minimum fuel cost and emission in system.

II. PROBLE FORMULATION

I. INTRODUCTION

The objective of environmental/economic power dispatch

PV solar farm is a system which uses many solar modules

with varying location and sizing of Solar farm is to minimize

to convert sunlight into electricity. It consists of multiple

the economic and environmental cost function of Japan east

components, including the photovoltaic modules, mechanical

power system while satisfying various equality and inequality

and electrical connections. Solar power has become popular

constrains with considering solar radiation.

renewable energy due to reducing of in-vestment cost. The

advantages of solar power are very low environmental impact A. Objective

as well as very low operation and variable cost. One of the Objective1: Minimization of generator cost

main advantages of a solar power system is the lack of The total Yen/h fuel cost can be expressed as

pollution given off by solar panels when generating electricity. NS

N

¦a b P c P ¦ di PSi (1)

Another advantage of solar power in economic is very low 2

variable cost. When solar farm is built to generate electricity, f ( PGi , PSi ) i i Gi i Gi

i 1 i 1

it can produce more electricity power into power system

during daytime. Moreover; solar energy system operations do where ai , bi , ci and d i are the cost coefficients of the i th

not generate air or water emissions pollutant and do not

generator units and Solar farm, and PGi and PSi are the real QGimin d QGi d QGimax , i N (9)

th

power output of the i generator units and Solar farm at bus PSmin d PSi d PSmax , i N (10)

S . N and N S is the number of generators and solar farm

where VGi and QGi is voltage magnitude and reactive power at

respectively.

Objective2: Minimization of environmental emission bus i of generator

The total ton/h emission of atmospheric pollutants such as (2) Security constraints:

sulfur oxides SOX and nitrogen oxides NOX caused by fossil- Theses incorporate the constraints of voltage magnitudes of

fueled units can be expressed as load buses as well as transmission line loadings as follows:

N NS VLimin d VLi d VLimax , i NB (11)

e( PGi , PS ) ¦D i PGi E ¦ PSi

i 1 i 1

(2)

Si d Simax , i NL (12)

where D i and E are coefficients of the i th emission where Sl and N L are transmission line loading and the

characteristics of generation units and Solar farm. number of transmission lines.

The system equality constraints g ( x, u ) include: Power B. Multiobjective optimization principle

flow equations are: Multiobjective optimization is the process of

simultaneously optimizing two or more conflicting objectives

¦ > @

NB

PGi P i PSi PDi Vi V j Gij cos(G i G j ) Bij sin(G i G j ) subject to certain constraints. For a multiobjective, any two

j 1 solutions x1 and x2 can have one of two possibilities: One

(3) dominates the other or none dominates the other. In a

NB

minimization problem, without loss of generality, a solution

j 1

¦

QGi QDi QSi Vi V j ª¬Gij sin(G i G j ) Bij cos(G i G j ) º¼ x dominates x if the following two conditions are satisfied

1 2

(4) [6]:

where NB is the number of buses. PGi , QGi are real and

^ `

1. i 1,2,.....,Nobj : fi ( x1) d fi ( x2 ) (16)

reactive power generated at the i th bus. Vi and V j are

^ `

2. i 1,2,.....,Nobj : f j ( x1) d f j ( x2 ) (17)

the voltage magnitudes at bus i and j . G i and G j are the

voltage angles at bus i and j . P i is Solar radiation If any of the above condition is violated, the solution

utilization factor of solar farm at bus i . x1 does not dominate the solution x2 . If x1 dominates the

solution x2 , x1 is called the nondominated solution. The

Power balance constraints: Power balance is an equality solutions that are nondominated within the entire search

constraint. The total power generation must cover the total space are denoted as Pareto-optimal and constitute Pareto-

demand PD. Hence, optimal set. This set is also known as Pareto-optimal front.

N NS

¦ PGi ¦ Pi PSi PD PL

i 1 i 1

0 (5) C. Formulation of Multiobjective optimization

Aggregating the objectives and constraints, the problem can

be mathematically formulated as a nonlinear constraint

Then, power loss in transmission lines can be calculated as multiobjective optimization problem as follows [5].

NL

Minimize > @

f ( x, u), e( x, u) (13)

PL ¦g

k 1

k

ª¬Vi 2 V j2 2VV º

i j cos(G i G j ) ¼ (6)

Subject to:

g ( x, u) 0 (14)

where Vi and V j are the voltage magnitudes at bus i and j h( x, u) d 0 (15)

where g ( x, u ) is the equality constraints , h( x, u ) is the

. G i and G j are the voltage angles at bus i and j .

system inequality constraints.

The system operating constraints h( x, u ) include:

III. MULTIOBJECTIVE BEES ALGORITHM

(1) Generation constraints:

For stable operation, generator voltages, real power outputs A. Bees algorithm

and reactive power outputs and reactive power outputs are Bees algorithm (BA) was developed by Pham D.T [3]

restricted by the lower and upper limits as follows: which was used for optimizing numerical problems in 2005.

VGimin d VGi d VGimax , i N (7) The algorithm mimics the food foraging behavior of swarms

of honey bees. Honey bees use several mechanisms such as

PGimin d PGi d PGimax , i N (8) waggle dance to optimally locate food sources and to search

new one. This makes them one of candidate for developing

Meta heuristic search algorithms. It is a simple, robust and Pareto set. If nondominated solution is over the

population based stochastic optimization algorithm. limit, then uses FCM.

The colony of artificial bees is divided to two groups Step 9: Check the stopping criterion. If satisfied, terminate

of bees namely scout and employed bees. The responsibility the search, else NC NC 1 .

of scout bees is to find a new food source. The responsibility Step10: Assign the n m population to generate new

of employed bees is to determine a food source within the solutions and add it with last best solution. Go to

neighborhood of the food source in their memory and share Step 2.

their information with other bees within the hive. Upon the Pareto-optimal set of nondominated solution,

In recent years, BA has been presented as an efficient fuzzy-based mechanism is imposed to extract the best

population-based heuristic technique which is flexible and compromised outcome.

robust. However, changing conventional single objective BA

to a multiobjective BA requires some technique mathematic. C. Reducing Pareto set by FCM clustering

In MBA, there is no absolute one global best, but rather a set Fuzzy c-means (FCM) is a data clustering technique which

of nondominated solutions. Hence there is a need to a data set is grouped into n clusters with every data point in

compromise the quality of the outcome by a fuzzy technique the dataset belonging to every cluster to a certain degree [4].

as it is proposed in this paper. It is based on minimization of the following objective

B. MBO and Computation Flow function:

The population has ns scout bees and each bee is an m- N C

¦¦ u

2

dimensional vector, where m is the number of optimized Jm m

ij xi c j , 1 d m f (21)

parameters. The computation flow of the proposed MBO i 1 j 1

technique is briefly stated and defined as follows:

Step 1: Generate randomly the initial populations of scout

bees as following equation. where m is any real number greater than 1, uij is the degree

Ps ji Pi low rand (0,1) u ( Pi up Pi low ),( j 1,.., ns) (18) of membership of xi in the cluster j , xi is the i th of d-

where Pi up and Pi low are upper and lower bound dimensional measured data, c j is the d-dimension center of

of the power unit i and solar farm. These initial the cluster, and is any norm expressing the similarity

populations must be feasible candidate solutions

that satisfy the constraints. Set NC 0 . between any measured data and the center. Fuzzy partitioning

Step 2: Evaluate the fuel cost and emission fitness value is carried out through an iterative optimization of the

of the initial populations. objective function shown above, with the update of

Step 3: Search for nondominated solutions from initial membership uij and the cluster centers c j by:

solution by using nondominated function in order

to get the Pareto set and find m best solutions for

neighborhood search by using fuzzy c-mean 1

uij 2

(22)

clustering (FCM).

Step 4: Separate the m best solutions to two groups, the C § xi c j · m1

¨ ¸

first group have e best solutions Pei by using ¦ ¨ xi ck ¸

k 1

© ¹

random selection and another group is other

selected m e solutions Pmei . N

Step 5: Determine the size of neighborhood search of each ¦u m

ij .xi

best solutions ( ngh ). cj i 1

(23)

N

Step 6: Generate neighborhood solution around the

selected solutions within neighborhood size as ¦u

i 1

m

ij

following equations.

Pne ji Pei rand (0,1) u ngh u ( Pi up Pi low )

For best solutions and

(19)

This iteration will stop when max ij ^u

( k 1)

ij `

uij( k ) H , H is

Pnme ji Pmei rand (0,1) u ngh u ( Pi up Pi low ) (20) a termination criterion between 0 and 1, whereas k is the

For other selected solutions. iteration step. This procedure converges to a local minimum

Step 7: Evaluate the fuel cost and emission fitness value of or a saddle point of J m . By iteratively updating the cluster

the generated solution. centers and the membership grades for each data point, FCM

Step 8: Search for nondominated solutions from all solution LWHUDWLYHO\ PRYHV WKH FOXVWHU FHQWHUV WR WKH ³ULJKW´ ORFDWLRQ

by using nondominated function in order to get the within a data set. Once the cluster centers have been obtained,

the nearest solution to each center is selected, and the other

solutions are eliminated. Reducing Pareto set by the FCM Table I

method is shown as Fig 1. Generating unit fuel cost and emission coefficients.

coefficient

PGmin PGmax QGmin QGmax

Unit

(MW) (MW) (MVar) (MVar) a b c ࢻ

clustering centers yen/ yen/ 㻌 ton/

㻌 yen

MWh㻌 MWh2㻌 MWh

solutions of pareto front

1 2600 3750 0 1,020 0 7210 0.01 0.3

Selected solution from using 2 2080 3000 0 1,234 0 7210 0.01 0.3

FCM.

3 3120 4500 0 1,803 0 7210 0.01 0.3

Fig. 1: the FCM method for reducing Pareto set 8 3848 5550 0 1,766 0 7210 0.01 0.3

After obtaining the Pareto-optimal solution, the decision

10 3848 5550 0 1,930 0 7210 0.01 0.3

maker may need to choose one best compromised solution

according to the specific preference for different applications. 11 5200 7500 0 2,450 0 7210 0.01 0.3

However, due to the inaccurate nature of human judgment, it 12 3536 5100 0 2,020 0 7210 0.01 0.3

is not possible to explicitly define what is really needed.

13 2496 3600 0 1,442 0 7210 0.01 0.3

Thus, fuzzy set is introduced here to handle this problem.

D. Implementation 14 2527.2 3645 0 1,715 0 7210 0.01 0.3

The MBO technique has been developed in order to apply 15 2995.2 4320 0 1,603 0 7210 0.01 0.3

for solving nonlinear constraints optimization problem. A

16 1092 1575 0 516 0 0 0 0

computation process will check the feasibility of the

candidate solution in all stage of the search process. This 17 1040 1500 0 504 0 0 0 0

The MBO technique was implemented on Japan east

19 702 1012.5 0 327 0 0 0 0

power system without existing of nuclear power plant. The

detailed data are given in http://www2.iee.or.jp/~pes/ 20 1248 1800 0 596 0 0 0 0

The values of fuel cost and emission coefficients are

22 2233.9 3222 0 1,039 0 0 0 0

given in Table I. The MBO is computed by The Dell

3UHFLVLRQ7,QWHO-bit multicore Xeon processors with 23 2600 3750 0 1,261 0 0 0 0

up to 1600MHz, 12.8 GB ram under Matlab program. IEEJ 24 5200 7500 0 2,291 0 7210 0.01 0.3

east 30 machine system model [5] is found as follows.

25 2080 3000 0 1,176 0 7210 0.01 0.3

(1) This large scale system model has the 500 kV loops

Table II

and the 275 kV loops. (30 machines, 107 nodes, 191

Solar radiation utilization factor at bus.

branches) Solar Bus Number Utilization

(2) Daytime: all the generators are operated at rated Radiation

output power load = 72,600 MW Factor

The parameter of MBO can be set as follow. The (MJ/m2/day)

population of bees is set to be 40. The number of selected 11 2,14,15,16,25,39,40,41,44,45,47,72,74,76,80,95, 0.7333

105

sites and elite site is 20 and 1 respectively. Patch size is 0.05. 12 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,17,18,19,20,21,22,2 0.8

Number of bees around elite site and Number of bees around 4,26,27,31,36,37,38,42,43,46,48,49,55,61,63,64,

other selected sites is 20 and 15respectively. Maximum 65,66,67,68,69,70,71,73,75,77,78,79,82,83,84,8

8,89,90,91,96,97,98,100,101,102,103,104,107

iteration = 200. The maximum size of the Pareto-optimal set

was selected as 50 solutions. The MBO is tested to 30 runs to 13 23,28,29,30,32,50,51,52,53,54,60,62,81,85,86,8 0.8667

obtain best solution. 7,93,94,99,106

14 35,59 0.9333

15 33,34,56,57,58,92 1.0

E. SOLAR FARM

Solar farm consists of a large number of solar panel

connected to bus of power system through power transformer

[6]. Solar farm uses inverter for converting dc power to 3 PG8(Thermal) 4,563.9㻌

phase ac power into power system. PG9(Thermal) 2,981.8㻌

PG10(Thermal) 4,638.5㻌

Solar panel is modeled as a voltage sourced which is PG11(Thermal) 5,405.1㻌

fed to the DC bus in order to inject only real power to the PG12(Thermal) 3,790.7㻌

inverter during daytime operation while reactive power is not PG13(Thermal) 3,517.7㻌

produced by solar farm. The amount of real power from solar PG14(Thermal) 2,785.1㻌

farm to the grid depends upon the number of power module PG15(Thermal) 3,757.7㻌

PG16(Hydro) 1,570.5㻌

and solar radiation. Inverter is composed of six IGBTs with

PG17(Hydro) 1,485.0㻌

its snubber circuits. For instance, solar farm is shown in Fig.2 PG18(Hydro) 1,321.1㻌

PG19(Hydro) 980.3㻌

PG20(Hydro) 1,754.5㻌

PG21(Hydro) 2,392.9㻌

PG22(Hydro) 3,216.6㻌

PG23(Hydro) 3,742.4㻌

PG24(Thermal) 7,331.6㻌

PG25(Thermal) 2,899.0㻌

Total of units (MW) 3,073.6㻌

Fuel Cost(Yen/hr) 417,701,702

Emission(ton/hr) 17,112

Solar farm penetration

Best solution of cost and emission with solar farm

penetration can be shown in Table 4.and Fig 3.

Table IV

Results of best solution of the proposed approach with solar

farm penetration Japan east power system

Unit (MW) Best solution

PG1(Thermal) 3,509 㻌 2,935 㻌 3,473 㻌 3,315.1㻌

PG2(Thermal) 2,649 㻌 2,388 㻌 2,782 㻌 2,405.1㻌

PG3(Thermal) 3,671 㻌 3,816 㻌 3,797 㻌 3,996.2㻌

PG4(Thermal) 667 㻌 677 㻌 622 㻌 617.9㻌

PG5(Thermal) 727 㻌 525 㻌 620 㻌 736.2㻌

PG6(Thermal) 1,390 㻌 1,323 㻌 1,083 㻌 1,426.7㻌

Fig.2 solar farm with inverter connect to bus of power system through power PG7(Thermal) 6,026 㻌 6,239 㻌 5,141 㻌 4,723.3㻌

transformer PG8(Thermal) 4,550 㻌 4,329 㻌 4,446 㻌 5,172.7㻌

In this paper, operation cost and emission PG9(Thermal) 2,668 㻌 3,472 㻌 3,001 㻌 3,415.6㻌

coefficients of solar farm are zero. One solar farm can PG10(Thermal) 3,855 㻌 3,872 㻌 4,761 㻌 4,021.7㻌

PG11(Thermal) 5,298 㻌 5,387 㻌 6,267 㻌 5,228.7㻌

produce electric power up to 200 MW. The solar farm is PG12(Thermal) 3,923 㻌 4,095 㻌 3,806 㻌 4,217.2㻌

operated during daytime of Japan east power system and it is PG13(Thermal) 2,572 㻌 2,626 㻌 3,468 㻌 2,619.4㻌

PG14(Thermal) 3,539 㻌 3,564 㻌 2,812 㻌 3,171.9㻌

installed at nearest area of bus which loss in low voltage line PG15(Thermal) 3,693 㻌 3,962 㻌 4,281 㻌 3,909.8㻌

close to zero. PG16(Hydro) 1,574 㻌 1,574 㻌 1,561 㻌 1,550.8㻌

PG17(Hydro) 1,492 㻌 1,499 㻌 1,492 㻌 1,498.5㻌

IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION PG18(Hydro) 1,350 㻌 1,350 㻌 981 㻌 1,338.5㻌

PG19(Hydro) 963 㻌 1,002 㻌 999 㻌 907.4㻌

Case 1: best fuel cost and emission of power system without PG20(Hydro) 1,796 㻌 1,795 㻌 1,686 㻌 1,763.5㻌

solar farm PG21(Hydro) 2,400 㻌 2,393 㻌 1,888 㻌 2,380.6㻌

Fuel cost and emission objective are optimized to find the PG22(Hydro) 3,217 㻌 3,215 㻌 2,692 㻌 3,221.0㻌

PG23(Hydro) 3,750 㻌 3,748 㻌 3,717 㻌 3,723.9㻌

best solution by using MBO Algorithm when solar farm is PG24(Thermal) 7,435 㻌 7,458 㻌 6,667 㻌 6,616.8㻌

not penetrated into Japan east power system. Its result is PG25(Thermal) 2,518 㻌 2,316 㻌 2,159 㻌 2,791.9㻌

shown in Table III. Total of units

75,230 㻌 75,559 74,202 㻌 74,774.4㻌

(MW)

Fuel

415,090,000 413,530,000 413,450,000 414,469,171

Table III Cost(Yen/hr)

Results of best solution of MBO without solar farm Emission

17,034 17,010 17,003 17,023

(ton/hr)

Number of

Unit (MW) Best solution 1 2 3 4

Solar farm

PG1(Thermal) 3,073.6㻌 Location (Bus) 17 [5,23] [14,22,23] [11,13,26,29]

PG2(Thermal) 2,316.4㻌 [198,127, [68,109,1193

Size (MW) 200 [136,97]

PG3(Thermal) 3,921.8㻌 176] ,102]

PG4(Thermal) 646.3㻌

PG5(Thermal) 575.3㻌 Table IV shows the power generation and solar farm position

PG6(Thermal) 1,458.4㻌 optimized by the MBO technique. The result in this case has

PG7(Thermal) 5,371.8㻌

cost and emission lower than previous case. One Solar farm

which is penetrated into Japan east power system can reduce The best solution in tradeoff surface is selected by

fuel cost and emission of pollution as 1,130,000Yen/h and 80 fuzzy compromise method in Fig 3.

ton/hr respectively. Moreover, four solar farms can reduce

V. CONCLUSION

fuel cost and emission of pollution as 3,440,000Yen/hr and

140 ton/hr respectively. In this paper, MBO algorithm has been developed to find

8

best location and sizing of solar farm on power system with

x 10 minimum economic and emission of generations with

4.158

considering solar light radiation. Solar farm is formulated in

form of real power source to inject electric power into power

4.156 system. The simulation result demonstrates that solar farm in

optimum sizing and location can reduce fuel cost and

emission pollutant of all unit generation. In addition, the

4.154 result indicated that MBO have effectiveness to search

Best Compromise optimum point of Solar farm on Japan east power system.

Fuel cost(Yen/hr)

REFERENCES

4.152

[1] http://www.seriouslysolar.com/advantages.php

[2] Williams J.R. 1984, Advances in Solar Energy: K. W. Boer and J. Duffie

(Editors), American Solar Energy Society, Inc., Solar Energy, Volume

4.15 33, Issue 2, Page

[3] Pham D.T., Eldukhri E.E., Soroka A.J. 2005 The bees algorithm -- A

novel tool for complex optimization problems, Intelligent Production

Machines and Systems Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd. 454-459.

4.148 [4] Mendoza F., Bernal J.L., Agustin, J.A. Dominguez N. 2006, NSGA and

SPEA applied to multiobjective design of power distribution systems,

IEEE Trans. on Power Systems 21 ,1938-1945.

4.146 [5] http://www2.iee.or.jp/~pes/model/english/kikan/East30/east30.html

[6] 7KRPDV.-HII6´(QDEOLQJ,QWUHJDWLRQRI'LVWULEWHG5HQHZDEOHV´

presented at Taiwan Power Company, Taipei, Taiwan, July 21-22.

4.144

1.7034 1.7035 1.7036 1.7037 1.7038 1.7039 1.7

Environment cost(ton/hr) 4

x 10

Fig.3 Best solution on tradeoff surface with one solar farm in power system

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