Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 94

# Content Unit Learning Outcome

1. Physical Quantities and Units 1. State seven base physical quantities and its SI
1.1 Base physical quantities and units
SI units 2. Write the relationship between derived and
1.2 Derived quantities base quantities
1.3 Prefixes 3. Write prefixes to make units larger or smaller
Course
1.4 Name Physics
Unit conversion 4. Use proper SI unit in calculating density,
Course Code PHY 1A volume,Semester
force, weight, angular
1 speed, work 3
Credit
done, power and pressure

## 2. Triangle and Polygon of Forces 1. Distinguish between scalar and vector

quantities
2.1 Scalar and vectors 2. Define the terms coplanar and concurrent
2.2 Coplanar and concurrent 3. Determine the resultant of two coplanar forces
2.3 Resultant of two coplanar using
forces a) the triangle of forces method
2.4 Resultant of more than two b) the parallelogram of forces method
coplanar forces c) the cosine and sine rules
2.5 Equilibrium d) resolution of forces
4. Determine the resultant of more than two
coplanar forces using
a) the polygon of forces method
b) resolution of forces
5. Define equilibrium of an object
6. Determine unknown forces when three or
more coplanar forces are in equilibrium

## 3. Moment of a Force 1. Define moment of a force

3.1 Moment 2. Calculate the moment of a force from M  Fd
3.2 Conditions for Equilibrium 3. Write the conditions for equilibrium of a beam
3.3 Principle of moments 4. State the principle of moments
3.3 Angular Speed 5. Perform calculations involving the principle of
moments
6. Write typical applications of simply supported
7. Perform calculations on simply supported
beams having point loads
8. Define r.p.m.
9. Perform calculations involving angular
displacement, angular speed and angular
velocity
10.Distinguish linear and angular motion

## 4. Velocity and Acceleration 1. Determine the speed from the slope of

4.1 Distance and displacement distance and displacement.
4.2 Speed and velocity 2. Calculate displacement as a vector quantity
4.3 Graph relating Distance, 3. Define speed as rate of change in distance.
Time and Speed 4. Calculate distance by area under the graph
4.4 Acceleration from speed against time graph
4.5 Equation of motion 5. Find speed from the slope of distance against
time graph
6. Define velocity as speed with direction.
7. State velocity as a vector quantity having a
magnitude and direction.
8. Determine the resultant of two or more
velocity
9. Define acceleration as rate of change in
velocity (magnitude and direction)
10. Apply all the formula of linear equation of
motion including the free fall.

## 5. Newton’s Law of Motion and 1. Define force

Friction 2. Define inertia
5.5 Force 3. State Newton’s three laws of motion
5.6 Inertia 4. Perform calculations involving force F  ma
5.7 Newton’s laws 5. Distinguish the difference between mass and
5.8 Mass and weight weight
5.9 Friction and normal force 6. Define friction as μ N where is a coefficient of
friction and μ N is the normal force
PHYSICS

PHYSICS

## 1.0 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS

After completing the unit, students should be able to:

## 1. Understand that in sciences, physical quantities are divided into two

categories, base quantities and derived quantities.
2. State the seven basic quantities, its SI units and their symbols
3. Understand prefixes to make units larger or smaller
4. Solve simple problems involving length, area, volume and mass
5. Define density in terms of mass and volume and its SI unit.
6. Define relative density
7. Appreciate typical values of densities and relative densities for common
materials
8. Perform calculations involving density, mass, volume and relative density
9. Understand that volume; force, weight, pressure; work and power are some
of the derived quantities.
10. State the SI unit for volume, area, force, pressure work and power.
11. Understand the difference between mass and weight.

PHY 1A 2
PHYSICS
1.1 THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (S.I )

## The system of units used in engineering and science is the Systeme

Internationale d’Unites (International system of units which known as SI units),
and is based on the metric system. This was introduced in 1960 and is now
adopted by the majority of countries as the official system of measurement.

Physical quantities can be divided into two categories, base quantities and
derived quantities. A base quantity must be defined in terms of a standard
quantity with fixed reference (where we will define later) whereby any derived
quantity is derived from the base quantities. There are seven base quantities and
these seven base quantities and their SI units are summarised in the table below.

## Base Quantity Base unit Notation/symbol

length meter m
mass kilogram kg
time second s
electric current ampere A
temperature Kelvin K
amount of substance mole Mol
luminous intensity candela cd

Table 1.1

Usually the magnitude (the number or size) of the physical quantity that we use is
quite big or may be very small and in practice, it is often convenient to use
multiple or sub-multiple of the numbers with fixed names given to the multiples.

This is called prefix. Some of the prefixes that are often used are given in the
table below.

PHY 1A 3
PHYSICS

## T Tera Multiply by 1012

G Giga multiply by 109
M Mega multiply by 106
K Kilo multiply by 103
m Milli Multiply by 10-3
μ Micro Multiply by 10-6
n Nano Multiply by 10-9
p Pico Multiply by 10-12

Table 1.2

## So, to avoid saying 30,000,000 Joules* , it is much more convenient to say 30

mega joules (since 30,000,000 can be written as 30 x 106 and 106 is mega) or
0.0000021 meter as 2.1 micrometer.

## 1.2 S.I BASE UNITS OF LENGTH, MASS AND TIME

As said earlier, each unit of the base quantities has a standard reference. Listed
below are three most commonly used base quantities and its SI unit with the
most recent reference.

a) Meter (m) is the SI unit for Length and 1 meter is define as a length of path
travelled by light in vacuum for an interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. It
is originally defined as a distance between North Pole to equator divided by
10000000.
b) Kilogram (kg)** is the SI unit for mass and 1 kilogram is defined as a mass
of a cylinder made of a platinum-iridium that is kept in a vault at the BIPM in
Sèvres, France.
c) Second (s) is the SI unit for time and 1 second is defined as the intervals
occupied by 9 192 631 770 cycles of radiation corresponding to the
transition of caesium-133 atom.

**Note that only mass has prefix kilo for its SI unit.

## 1.3 DERIVED QUANTITIES AND ITS UNITS

PHY 1A 4
PHYSICS

Quantities other than the seven base quantities are called derived quantities. This
is because they are derived from the base quantities and some of them have
special name assigned to it to commemorate the person who responsible for its
developments. Below, we will look at some of the derived quantities.

1.3.1 VOLUME

## Area of a given space is measured in square meter. Usually the formula

for an area has two lengths multiplied together for example

## Area of rectangle = width x long

Area of a circle = x (radius)2
Area of a sphere = 4(radius)2

All the formulas above have length multiplied by length, thus the SI units
for area is square meter and noted as m2.

Generally volume has three length multiplied with each others and thus
the SI unit is cubic meter and noted m3. Below are some formulas of
volume for a common shape.

## Volume of cuboids = width x length x height

Volume of cylinder =  x (radius)2 x height
4
Volume of a sphere =  x (radius)3
3

Example 1.1

Calculate the area of the given shapes. Give your answer in SI unit.

## I. A sheet of metal with width of 20 cm and length of 30 cm.

Solution:

PHY 1A 5
PHYSICS
Area= width x length
= 20 x 30 = 600 cm2

## 600 cm2 = 600 (x10-2 m)2 (note that x 10-2 is centi)

= 600 x 10-4 m2
= 6.0 x 10 -2 m2 ( or 0.06 m2)

The shortest way to solve the question is to change the unit of length and
width from cm to meter before using them in the formula.
Area = 0.2m x 0.3m = 0.06 m2

Solution:

## Area of a circle = x (radius)2

=  x (3mm)2
=  mm2
= 9.42 (x10-3m)2
= 9.42 x10-6 m2
Or
Area of a circle = x (radius)2
= x (6x10-3m)2
= 9.42 x10-6 m2

Another metric unit for volume is litre and usually it is use to measure the
volume of a liquid. One litre equals to 1000 cm 3 thus 500 ml of mineral
water has a volume of 500 cm3 or 500 x10-6 m3

Example 1.2

PHY 1A 6
PHYSICS

## What is the volume in m3 for 30 litre of petrol?

Solution:
30 litre = 30 000 cm3
= 30 000 x (10-2m)3
= 30 000 x 10 -6 m3
= 3.0 x 10-2 m3
= 0.03 m3

1.3.2 DENSITY

Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. The symbol used for
density is  (Greek letter rho) and its units are kg/m3.

mass
Density = , i.e.
volume

 = m or m  V or V 
m
V 

Where m is the mass in kg, V is the volume in m3 thus the SI unit for  ,
the density in kg/m3.

## Aluminium 2700 Steel 7800

kg/m3 kg/m3
Cast iron 7000 Petrol 700
kg/m3 kg/m3
Cork 250 Lead 11
kg/m3 400
kg/m3
Copper 8900 Water 1000
kg/m3 kg/m3

Table 1.3

## The relative density of a substance is the ratio of the density of the

substance to the density of water, i.e.

PHY 1A 7
PHYSICS
Density of substance
Relative density = -----------------------------
Density of water

## Relative density has no units, since it is the ratio of two similar

quantities. Typical values of relative densities can be determined
from above relationship.

## Aluminium 2.7 Steel 7.8

Cast iron 7.0 Petrol 0.7
Cork 0.25 Lead 11.4
Copper 8.9

Table 1.4

hydrometer.

Example 1.3

cm3.

Solution:

## mass 445 x10 3 kg

Density = 
volume 50 x10 6 m 3

445
= x10 3
50

## = 8.9 x 103 kg/m3 or 8900 kg/m3

Example 1.4

PHY 1A 8
PHYSICS
Density of aluminum is 2700 kg/m3. If a block of aluminum has a volume
of 100 cm3, calculate the mass of the aluminum.

Solution:

Hence

2700 x100
= kg  0.270kg
10 6

Example 1.5

## If an unknown material has a dimension of 200 mm wide, 150 mm long,

10 mm thick and the mass is 2700 gram, determine its density and
relative density.

Solution:

## Volume of the material= 200 mm x 150 mm x 10 mm = 300 000 mm3

3 x10 5
= 3 x 105 mm3 =  3 x10  4 m
10 6 m 3

## Mass = 2700 g = 2.7 kg.

mass 2.7 kg
Density = 
volume 3 x10  4 m 3

## = 9000/ 1000 = 9.0

1.3.3 FORCE

PHY 1A 9
PHYSICS
Force is a quantity that can change the motion of an object if it is
subjected to a moving object or it can change the shape of an object. The
effect of forces will be studied later. The SI unit of force is Newton @
kgm/s2 to commemorate Sir Isaac Newton. One Newton (noted by 1 N) is
defined as the amount of force needed to accelerate 1 kg of mass for 1
meter per second for every second.

1.3.4 WEIGHT

## Weight is a force exerted on a body of mass due to gravity acceleration.

Thus the SI unit for it is Newton. We always associate the word weight
with kilogram and this get confusing sometime. When people ask us what
is our weight, we always answer the question by using kg as the unit and
it is wrong.

Weight is the force that we feel when we standing up. It is the pulling force
between our body and the earth. Where else mass is the quantity of
matter in our body and it is measured in kilogram. The same force makes
everything that we throw upward will falls back to the surface of the earth.
Every object for whatever mass it has will falls at an acceleration of 9.81
m/s2 and we call this gravity acceleration. Gravity acceleration differs from
places to places. For example gravity acceleration on the surface of the
moon is about 1/6 of the gravity acceleration on the surface of the earth.
Gravity acceleration at Kuala Lumpur also differ when compare to
London.

Weight (W) can be calculated by multiplying the mass (m) with the gravity
acceleration (g).

W = mg

## For example, on the surface of the earth, weight of 30kg object is

W= mg = 30x9.81 = 294.3 N

The same 30kg object has less weight on the surface of the moon since
the value of its gravity acceleration is less compare to earth but the mass
remains 30 kg.

PHY 1A 10
PHYSICS

1.3.5 PRESSURE

force
Pressure =
area

## Thus the SI unit is Nm-2 or Pascal (noted as Pa)

Other units for pressure that commonly used are lb square in (lbf/in2),
mmHg and barr.

Example 1.6

## Calculate the pressure felt by each leg of your desk if it is subjected to 50

N force and the cross-sectional area of each leg is 4cm2.

Solution:

force
P=
area

50 N
=
4  10  4 m 2

1.3.6 WORK

## If a force pulling an object through a certain distance, it is said that the

force is doing some work and the amount of work done is equal the
product between the force and the distance that is parallel with the force.
The product of force and distance will give the SI unit for work as N.m or
Joule (noted as J).

## Work = Force x distance parallel with the force

W=F•d

PHY 1A 11
PHYSICS
Another unit that is often used to measure work is calories and we will
explain about work in a later chapter.

Example 1.7

## A 1 kN force is pulling a concrete upward through a distance of 4 m.

Determine the amount of work done by the force.

Solution:

Work = F x d

= 1000 x 4

= 4000 J = 4 kJ

1.3.7 POWER

Power is a quantity that measure how fast the work is done. It is defined
as rate of doing work. Thus;

work
Power =
time

Since work is measured in joule and time in second, the SI unit for power
is Js-1 or a special name for it is Watt

Example 1.8

## Work done by a crane to lift 1 tonne of concrete is 98 kJ. If the work is

done in an interval of 2 minutes, calculate the power of the crane. ( 1
tonne = 1000 kg)

Solution:

work
Power =
time

98  10 3 J
=
2  60 s

PHY 1A 12
PHYSICS
= 816.67 watt

1.4 SUMMARY

## Base quantity Derived Quantity.

Area (m2)

Volume (m3)

Acceleration (m/s 2)

## Time Pressure (Pa@Nm-2)

Work (J@Nm-1)

Power (W@Js-1)

Diagram above shows how the derived quantities that are explained in this
chapter are related to the base quantities.

PHY 1A 13
PHYSICS

EXERCISE 1.0
1. Express (a) a length of 36 mm in meters, (b) 32 400 mm 2 in square meters
(c) 8 540 000 mm3 in cubic meters.
2. Determine the area of a room 15 m long by 8 m wide in (a) m 2 (b) cm2 and
(c) mm2
3. A cube has sides each of length 50 mm. Determine the volume of the cube
in cubic meters.
4. A container has a capacity of 2.5 liters. Calculate its volume in (a) m 3 (b)
mm3
5. A steel plate measures 500mm x 200mm x 10 mm. If the mass of the plate
Is 7.8 kg, calculate the density of the plate.
6. A body is suspended from spring balance. The reading on the balance is
4N. Assuming the local gravitational force to be 9.81 N/kg, calculate the
mass of the body in grams.

PHY 1A 14
PHYSICS

## 1. Understand the concept of action and reaction.

2. Distinguish between scalar and vector quantities
3. Define ‘equilibrium’ of an object
4. Understand the terms ‘coplanar’ and ‘concurrent’
5. Determine the resultant of two coplanar forces using
a) the triangle of forces method
b) the parallelogram of forces method
6. Calculate the resultant of two coplanar forces using
a) the cosine and sine rules
b) resolution of forces
7. Determine the resultant of more than two coplanar forces using
a) the polygon of forces method
b) calculation by resolution of forces
8. Determine unknown forces when three or more coplanar forces are in
equilibrium

PHY 1A 15
PHYSICS
2.1 FORCES AND REACTION
We have mentioned about force in chapter 1. Basically force is the centre of
discussion in mechanics. We mentioned that force can accelerate or decelerate
an object, it can change the direction of motion and it also can change the shape
of an object. Other property of a force is that, it never acts alone. This is stated in
Newton’s third law of motion; for every action there is an equal and opposite
reaction. The simplest way to explain this is, lean against the wall, do you feel the
reaction force pushes you back? When you are sitting down, do you feel a force
pushes upward holding your body from falling down?

## In studying mechanics we must always consider the reaction force; diagram

below will help us understand the concept much clearer.

fig a. fig b.

We explained earlier that all mass inside the gravity field will feel its weight W
pulling the object downward. In figure a. the weight of the object is downward and
the string provides opposite force T to hold the object from falling. Figure b shows
how the table provides an opposite reaction force upward R to hold the object in
place.

## When a force is subjected to an object the effect of the force is transmitted

through out the object. Consider figure below.

PHY 1A 16
PHYSICS

F F
A B

F A F
B

F
F A B F
F

If the beam above is stretched by a force F, the same force is felt by all the
section along the beam.

## 2.2 REPRESENTATION OF A FORCE BY A VECTOR

A scalar quantity is one which has magnitude but no direction, e.g mass,
time, wavelength of light, energy, density, etc.

## A vector quantity is one which has direction as well as magnitude e.g

displacement, velocity, angular velocity, force etc.

## To understand vector, follow the instruction below.

“Exert 30 N force towards your book”, can you do it? Before you do anything just
imagine what happen if the force is subjected at a different direction. It will yield
different effect. You push to the left it will moves to the left, you push downward it
will remain still on you table and you push it to the right it will moves to the right.
We must specified the direction if we intend to get the specific result.

So, force needs direction thus force is vector quantity. In another word, it needs
direction to be understood completely.

## A vector can be represented graphically by a line of an arrow drawn to scale in

the direction of the line of action of the force. Vector quantities may be shown by
using bold, lower case letters, thus ab in the figure below represents a force of 5
Newton in direction due east, F1 is in upward direction and F2 is inclined 45o from
horizon

PHY 1A 17
PHYSICS

0 1 2 3 4 5 cm
Scale 1N : 1cm

a b

## Force ab is 5N due east.

F2
Force F1 is 3 N upward.
F1
45o Force F2 is 2N 45o from
horizon

## In adding two or more vectors, we must always remember to consider their

direction. Due to its direction, 5N force when added with 2 N force doesn’t
always has 7 N as the answer.

## The resultant of two coplanar forces (force in the same plane)

a) For forces acting in the same direction and having the same line of
action, the single force having the same effect as both the forces, called
the resultant force or just the resultant, is the arithmetic sum of both the
forces. Forces of F1 and F2 as shown in the figure below (a) have exactly

## the same effect on as force F shown in (b), where F  F1  F2 and acts

in the same direction as F1 and F2. Thus F is the resultant of F1 and F2.

PHY 1A 18
PHYSICS

F1 F2

b) For forces acting in opposite directions along the same line of action,
the resultant force is the arithmetic difference between two forces. Force
F1 and F2 acting at point P, as shown in the figure below (a) have exactly

## the same effect on point P as force F shown in (b), where F  F2  F1

and acts in the direction of since F2 is greater than F1. Thus F is the
resultant of F1 and F2.

F1 F2

c) When two forces do not have the same line of action, the magnitude and
direction of the resultant force may be found by a procedure called vector
addition of forces. There are two graphical methods of performing vector
addition, known as the triangle of forces method and the parallelogram of
forces method.

## a) Draw a vector representing one of the forces, using an appropriate scale

and in the direction of its line of action.
b) From the nose of this vector and using the same scale, draw a vector
representing the second force in the direction of its line of action.

PHY 1A 19
PHYSICS
c) The resultant vector is represented in both magnitude and direction by the
vector drawn from the tail of the first vector to the nose of the second
vector.

Thus for example , to determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of a
force F1 of 15 N acting horizontally to the right and the force F2 of 20 N, inclined
at an angle of 60o to the 15 N force , using the triangle of force method : With
reference to the figure below and using the above procedure.

## 2. from nose of F1, F2 is drawn 20 units long, inclined at an angle of 60 o to

ab. (Note in angular measurement, an angle of 60 o from F1 means 60o in
an anticlockwise direction)

## 3. by measurement , the resultant R is 3.1 cm long inclined at an angle of

35o to F1. Hence, the resultant force is 31 N inclined at an angle of 35 o
to the 15 N force. Note that the resultant is drawn from starting point of F 1
to the tip of F2

0 1 2 3 4 5 cm

Scale 1cm : 10 N

R
F2

35o 60o

F1

PHY 1A 20
PHYSICS

## a) Draw a vector representing one of the forces, using an appropriate scale

and in the direction of its line of action.
b) From the tail of this vector and using the same scale draw a vector
representing the second force in the direction of its line of action.

c) Complete the parallelogram using the two vectors drawn in 1 and 2 as two
sides of the parallelogram.

## d) The resultant force is represented in both magnitude and direction by the

vector corresponding to the diagonal of the parallelogram drawn from the
tail of the vectors in 1 and 2.

Thus for example, to determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of a
250 N force acting at an angle of 135 o and a force of 400 N acting at an angle of
-120o using the of parallelogram of force method: Using reference below and the
above procedure.

## i. F1 is drawn at angle of 135o and 5 cm in length

ii. F2 is drawn at angle of -120o and 8 cm in length

## iv. R is drawn from the origin. By measurement R is

8.2 cm long at an angle of -156o.

## Hence, the resultant force R is 8.2cm x 50N = 410 N at an angle of -156o.

PHY 1A 21
PHYSICS

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 cm

Scale 1cm : 50 N

F1

135o

120o
R

156o

F2

## The resultant of more than two coplanar forces (Polygon of force)

For the three or more coplanar forces F1, F2, and F3 acting at a point as shown in
figure below, the vector diagram is drawn using the nose to tail method. The
procedure is:

PHY 1A 22
PHYSICS

## The direction of resultant oc is from where we started, i.e. point o, to where we

finished. i.e. point c. When acting by itself, the resultant force, given by oc, has
the same effect on the point as forces F1, F2 and F 3 have when acting together.
The resulting vector diagram of the figure above is called the polygon of forces.

PHY 1A 23
PHYSICS

Example 2.1

Four forces, in one plane, act at a point O. The magnitudes and directions of the
forces are shown in the figure below. Determine by the polygon of forces the
value and the resultant of force.

F4=30N

F1=50N
60o

30o
F3=20N
F2=10N

Solution:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 cm

Scale 1cm : 10 N

R
20o F1=50N

F2=10N
F4=30N

F3=20N

Measuring the length of R, it is about 1.9 cm thus the value for R is 19 N and an
angle about 20o from 50 N force.

When three or more coplanar forces are acting at a point and the polygon closes,
there is no resultant. The forces acting are said to be in equilibrium.

PHY 1A 24
PHYSICS
2.3 EQUILIBRIUM FORCE

The first Newton’s law of motion stated that a body will remain at rest or moves
with constant speed if the forces acting on it are in equilibrium. The word
equilibrium means that the resultant force is zero (the sum of all forces is equal to
zero).

## Imagine a picture hanging on the wall as shown in the figure below

Since the picture frame is not falling down, so it must be in the state of
equilibrium. The forces involves are

## Tension of the Tension of the

string T2 string T1

T2 T1

o o

Forces drawn at a
point

W

## **Note that tension must be drawn away from the object

Since all the forces are in equilibrium, when we add the forces using polygon of
forces method, we should get a close triangle.

PHY 1A 25
PHYSICS

T2

W o

T1

## If three forces, acting at a point, can be represented in magnitude and direction

by the sides of the triangle taken in cyclic order around the triangle, the forces
are in equilibrium.

Conversely

## If three forces, acting at a point, are in equilibrium, they can be represented in

magnitude and direction by the sides of a triangle taken in cyclic order.

## This theorem is useful in solving problems of three non-parallel forces that in

equilibrium.

Bow’s notation

When several members are pinned together and the joint is in total equilibrium
(not moving), the resultant force must be zero. This means that if we add up all
the forces as vectors, they must form a closed polygon. If one or even two of
these forces is unknown, then it must be the vector, which closes the polygon.
Consider three forces joined by a pin as shown in figure below.

PHY 1A 26
PHYSICS

P Q
B

A O C

Only one of these forces is known. Bow's notation helps us to identify and label
each member and draw the Polygon or (in this case) the triangle of forces. The
process is as follows:

1. Label the spaces between each member. This is why the diagram is
called a SPACE DIAGRAM.

P Q
B

A O C

## 2. Starting at any space, say A, identify each member by moving clockwise

around the joint so the first becomes a-b (force P), the next b-c (force Q)
and the last c-a (force R) (in this case only).
3. Draw the known vector a-b. We know that the next vector b-c starts at b
but we do not know its length. Draw a 'c' line from 'b' in the direction of
member b-c. We know that when all the vectors are added, they must
form a closed triangle so c-a must end at 'a'. Draw a 'c' line through 'a' in

PHY 1A 27
PHYSICS
the direction of member c-a. Where the two 'c' lines cross must be point
'c'.

c c
‘C’ LINES
bc (Q)

ca (R)
b b

ab (P)
KNOWN
VECTOR
a a

## 4. Finally, the value for vector bc and ca can be determine using an

appropriate scale.

Example 2.2

## A mass of 10 kg is suspended by two cords from points D and E as shown in

figure below. Calculate the tension in each cord.

T1 T2
70o 40o
B
70o
70o 40o

A O C

10 kg W=mg
= 10x9.8
=98 N

PHY 1A 28
PHYSICS
Solution:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 cm
Scale 1cm : 10 N

## Draw line from c to a at an

angle 40o as shown to close the
a
triangle
3

40o
Starts from Weight of the mass W = mg =
c
1 10x 9.8 = 98 N (according to scale the line
should be 9.8 cm downward

W=98 N
2
Draw line from c to b at an
angle 70o as shown.

70o

b
a

40o
c

bc =T1 = 8 cm = 80 N
W=98 N ca = T2 =3.6 cm = 36 N

70o

PHY 1A 29
PHYSICS

## A vector quantity may be expressed in terms of its horizontal and vertical

components. For example, a vector representing a force of 10 N at an angle of
60o to the horizontal is shown in the diagram below. If the horizontal line oa and
the vertical line ab are constructed as shown, the oa is called the horizontal
component of the 10 N force and ab the vertical component of the 10 N force.

From trigonometry,

oa
cos 60  , hence the horizontal component, oa  10 cos 60
ob

ab
sin 60  , hence the vertical component, ab  10 sin 60
ob

This process is called ‘finding the vertical (or sometime we call it y-component)
and horizontal component (or x-component) of a vector’ or ‘the resolution of a
vector’ and can be used as an alternative to graphical methods for calculating the
resultant of two or more coplanar forces acting a point.

Let us consider 4 coplanar forces acting at a point shown below instead using the
polygon of forces to determine the resultant force, we going to use method of
resolution of force

F4=30N

F1=50N
60o

30o
F3=20N
F2=10N

PHY 1A 30
PHYSICS
Look at F1, the magnitude of the force is 50 N to the right or in positive x-
direction. This means that it has horizontal component of positive 50 N and no
vertical component.

x - comp. y - comp.
F1=50N
50 N 0N

F2 has only vertical component but in downward direction, thus it has vertical
component of negetive10N and 0N of horizontal component.

x - comp. y - comp.

0N -10 N
F2=10N
F3 making 30o from the negative x-axis. The horizontal and vertical component
can be determined by trigonometry.

x - comp.
30o x - comp. y - comp.
y - comp.
20 cos 30o= -17.32 N 20 sin30o= -10 N
F3=20N

## F4 making 60o from the negative x-axis

x - comp. y - comp.

F4=30N
-30 cos 60o= -15 N 30 sin 60o= 25.98 N
y - comp.

60o

x - comp.

PHY 1A 31
PHYSICS
The next step will be finding the resultant of all x-components and y-components

x  comp. y  comp.

F1 50 N 0N
F2 0N  10 N
F3  17.32 N  10 N
F4  15 N 25.98 N

## Resultant 17.68 N 5.98 N

The resultant force has horizontal component of 17.68 N and vertical component
of 25.98 N.

force= 25.98 N
Resultant

## x – comp. of the resultant

force= 17.68 N

Since the vertical and horizontal components are always perpendicular with each
other, the triangle will always be a right angle triangle.

## According to Pythagoras theorem, the resultant can be determined by a formula

R = x comp 2  y comp 2

So;

R= 17.68 2  5.98 2

= 18.67 N

PHY 1A 32
PHYSICS
The direction of the resultant force can be determined by using the concept of
tangent.

opposite
tan  
hypotenuse

5.98

17.68

 0.338

Thus

##   tan 1 (0.338)  18.7

*Thisquestion has been done before in the section of polygon of force using drawing
method. Compare the answer. Discuss which one is the best answer.

PHY 1A 33
PHYSICS

EXERCISE 2.0

## 1. Determine the resultant force of two forces of 5 kN and 8 kN,

(a) Acting in the same direction and having the same line of action,

(b) Acting in opposite directions but having the same line of action.

## 2. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of a force of 15 N

acting horizontally to the right and a force of 20 N, inclined at an angle of
600 to the 15 N forces. Use the triangle of forces method.

3. Find the magnitude and direction of the two forces given, using the
triangle of forces method.

## 4. Use the parallelogram of forces method to find the magnitude and

direction of the resultant of a force of 250 N acting at an angle of 135 and
a force of 400 N acting at an angle of -1200.

5. Use the cosine and sine rules to determine the magnitude and direction of
the resultant of a force of 8 kN acting at an angle of 50 o to the horizontal
and a force of 5 kN acting at an angle of -300 to the horizontal.

## 6. Determine graphically the magnitude and direction of the resultant of

these three coplanar forces, which may be considered as acting at a
point. Force A, 12 N acting horizontally to the right; force B, 7 N inclined
at 600 to force A; force C, 15 N inclined at 1500 to force A.

7. The following coplanar forces are acting at a point, the given angles being
measured from the horizontal: 100 N at 300, 200 N at 800, 40 N at -1500,
120N at -1000 and 70 N at -600. Determine graphically the magnitude and
direction of the resultant of the five forces.

PHY 1A 34
PHYSICS

8. A load of 200 N is lifted by two ropes connected to the same point on the
load, making angles of 400 and 350 with the vertical. Determine
graphically the tensions in each rope when the system is in equilibrium.

9. Five coplanar forces are acting on a body and the body is in equilibrium.
The forces are: 12 kN acting horizontally to the right, 18 kN acting at an
angle of 750, 7 kN acting an angle of 1650, 16 kN acting from the nose of
the 7 kN force, and 15 kN acting from the nose of the kN force.
Determine the directions of the 16 kN and 15 kN forces relative to the 12
kN force.

10. Forces of 5.0 N at 250 and 8.0 N at 1120 act at a point. By resolving these
forces into horizontal and vertical components, determine their resultant.

PHY 1A 35
PHYSICS

## 1. Define a ‘moment’ of a force and state its unit

2. Calculate the moment of a force from M = F X d
3. Understand the conditions for equilibrium of a beam
4. State the principle of moments
5. Perform calculations involving the principle of moments
6. Recognize typical applications of supported beams with point loadings
7. Perform calculations on supported beams having point loads

PHY 1A 36
PHYSICS
3.1 MOMENT OF A FORCE ABOUT AN AXIS

When using a spanner to tighten a nut, a force tends to turn the nut in a
clockwise direction. This turning effect of a force is called the moment of a force
or more briefly, just a moment. The size of the moment acting on the nut depends
on two factors:

(a) The size of the force acting at right angles to the shank of the spanner, and

(b) The perpendicular distance between the line of action and the centre of the
nut (turning axis). The distance d is called moment arm

d
Line of
action

In general, with reference to the figure above, the moment M of a force acting
about a point P is force x perpendicular distance between the line of action of the
force and P i.e.

M=Fxd

The unit of a moment is the Newton meter (Nm). Thus, if force F in the above
figure is 7 N and distance d is 30 cm, then the moment M is 7 N x 0.3 m, i.e. 2.1
Nm.

PHY 1A 37
PHYSICS
3.2 EQUILIBRIUM AND THE PRINCIPLE OF MOMENT

If more than one force is acting on an object and the forces do not act at a single
point, then the turning effect of the forces, that is, the moment of the forces, must
be considered.

The figure below shows a beam with its support (known as its pivot or fulcrum) at
P. thus acting vertically upward is the supporting reaction R p, and forces F1 and F2
acting vertically downwards at distances a and b, respectively, from the pivot.

F1 F2

a b

Rp

## A beam is said to be in equilibrium when there is no tendency for it to move.

There are two conditions for equilibrium:

(i) The sum of the force acting vertically downwards must be equal to the sum
of the forces acting vertically upwards, i.e. for the above figure, R P = F1 +
F2.

(ii) The total moment of the forces acting on a beam must be zero; for the total
moment to be zero:

## Moment of force F 2 about P must equal moment of force F 1 about P.This

statement is known as the principle of moments.

## F1 x a = the anticlockwise moment

PHY 1A 38
PHYSICS
Thus for equilibrium:

F1a = F2b

Example 3.1

## A uniform lever is pivoted at its mid-point C. A body having mass of 5 kg is

suspended at a point E, 180 mm to the right of C. Calculate the mass to be
suspended at a point D, 400 mm to the left of C to maintain the lever in balance.

Sol

D E
.C

400 mm 180 mm

Rc W1
W2

ution:

## Taking moment about point C we have

M = M

W1 (0.18) = W2 (0.4)

## 5(9.81) (0.18) = m (9.81) (0.4)

Thus; m = 2.25 kg

Note that we have taken moments about the axis through the supporting force R
acts on the lever. This force R has no moment about axis C Therefore does not
affect the balance of the lever. Had moments been taken about any other axis, R
would haven to be taken into consideration.

PHY 1A 39
PHYSICS
3.3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MOMENTS AND REACTION OF
SUPPORTED BEAM AT TWO POINTS.
In the preceding sections we have taken moments about an axis on the line of
action of one of the forces for example about a pivot C. We shall now show that
the principal of moment applies at any axis.

A simple supported beam is one which rests on two supports and is free to move
horizontally.

Two typical simply supported beams having loads acting at given points on the
beam (called point loading) are shown in the figure below.

F F1 F2
a b a b c
C B
A B A C

RA RB RA RB
(a) (b)

## A man whose mass exerts a force F vertically downwards, standing on a wooden

plank which is simply supported at its ends, may, for example, be represented by
the beam diagram of the above figure (a) if the mass of the plank is neglected
The forces exerted by the supports on the plank, R A and RB, act vertically
upwards, and are called reactions.

When the forces acting are all in one plane, the algebraic sum of the moments
can be taken about any point. Hence we can express the general principle of
moments as

If a body is at rest under the action of several forces, the total clockwise moment
of the forces about any axis is equal to the total anticlockwise moment of the
moment of the forces about the same axis.

## For the beam in the figure (a) at equilibrium:

(i) RA + RB = F, and

## (Alternatively, taking moments about C, RA x a = Rb x b.)

PHY 1A 40
PHYSICS
For the beam in Fig (b), at equilibrium

## Typical practical applications of simply supported beams with point loadings

include bridges, beams in building and beds of machine tools.

Example 3.2

## A uniform horizontal beam, 6 m long, rest on two supports A and B, 4 m apart, A

being at one end of the beam. The mass of the beam is 20 kg (196.2 N).
Calculate the reactions of the support on the beam.

3m 1m 2m

A C B D

RA 196.2 N
RB

Solution

RA and RB are the reaction force at A and B and the weight of the beam is 196.2 N
acting in the middle of the beam (considering the beam is uniform).

## Since the beam is in equilibrium and taking the moment at A we have

196.2 x 3 = RB x (3 +1)

196.2  3
RB = = 147.15 N
4

## Upward forces = downward forces

RA + RB = 196.2 N

## RA = 196.2 – 147.15 = 49.05 N

PHY 1A 41
PHYSICS
Alternatively taking the moments about B

RA x 4 = 196.2 x 1

196.2
RA =  49.05 N
4

Example 3.3

## If a mass of 6 kg be suspended at the end of the projecting beam of example 2,

calculate the reaction of the support.

3m 1m 2m

A C B D

6 kg
RA 196.2 N
RB

Solution

## Taking the total moment about A we have

196.2 x 3 + 58.9 x 6 = RB x 4

942
RB = = 235.5 N
4

## Upward forces = downward forces

RA + RB = 196.2 + 58.9

PHY 1A 42
PHYSICS
RA = 196.2 + 58.9 – 235.5 = 19.6 N

Example 3.4

## A wall crane is represented diagrammatically by the centre lines of its members in

figure below and has a load of 3 kN at O. Determine the tension in tie-rod QR.
This tie-rod is freely jointed at Q and R.

R
S

2.0 m
T
P O
Q

3 kN

2.4 m

4.0 m

Solution

The unknown tension T exert a pull at the end of R and Q where else PQ is at
rest. The forces acting along PQ are

## i. the load of 3kN

ii. Tension T which acts along RQ

PHY 1A 43
PHYSICS
iii. And what ever reaction force at hinge P which we do not know its magnitude
and direction.

In order to find T and to make sure that the force acting at point P does not have
an effect on our equation of moment, we will calculate the total moment about
point P.

The load has a tendency to turn PQ in clockwise direction thus the clockwise
direction is

## M = 3 kN x 2.4 m = 7200 N.m

The distance that is perpendicular with the line of action of T from P can be
calculated using simple trigonometry.

Angle PQR is

2
Angle PQR =`tan -1 ( ) = 26.56o , so the distance SP is
4

SP
Sin (26.56o) = , Thus yield
4

SP = 4 x 0.447 = 1.79 m

M = T x 1.79 N.m

## Equating the clockwise and anti clockwise moment we have

T x 1.79 = 7200

T = 4020 N = 4.02 kN

PHY 1A 44
PHYSICS

Example 3.5

The simple triangular roof frame or truss shown in figure below carries a load of
12 kN at its top joint. Determine the forces acting along AB, BC and AC.

12 kN

2m
A 26.56o C

8m

Solution

## Since the frame is symmetry, reaction force at A, R A and at C, RC must be equal.

Thus give us 6 kN each.

To find the force acting along AB ( FAB)we will find the total moments about the
point C

B
d

26.56o
A C
8m

PHY 1A 45
PHYSICS

M = FAB x d

d
Sin 26.56o =
8

d = 8 Sin 26.56o

M = FAB x 3.58

## FAB x 3.58 = 48000

48000
FAB =
3.58

= 13407 N = 13.4 kN

The symmetry shape of the roof allows us to deduce that force acting along BC
has the same magnitude of 13.4 kN.

PHY 1A 46
PHYSICS

2m

A C
4m

RA= 6kN

PHY 1A 47
PHYSICS

EXERCISES

## 1. A force of 15 N is applied to a spanner at an effective length of 140 mm from

the centre of a nut. Calculate (a) the moment of the force applied to the nut,
(b) the magnitude of the force required to produce the same moment if the
effective length is reduced to 100 mm.

## 2. A moment of 25 Nm is required to operate a lifting jack. Determine the

effective length of the handle of the jack if the force applied to it is (a) 125N,
(b) 0.4kN.

F 5N 7N

P
140 mm
200 mm d

## (a) If the system is in equilibrium find the distance d.

(b) the point of application of the 5 N force is moved to point P, distance 200
mm from the support, find the new value of F to replace the 5 N force for
the system to be in equilibrium.

4. A beam is supported at its centre on a fulcrum and forces act as shown in the
figure below. Calculate

12 N F 23 N

20 mm d

80 mm 100 mm

## (a) force F for the beam to be in equilibrium,

PHY 1A 48
PHYSICS
(b) the new position of the 23 N force when F is decreased to 21 N, if
equilibrium is to be maintained.

PHY 1A 49
PHYSICS

5. For the centrally supported uniform beam shown in the figure below,
determine the values of forces F1 and F2 when the beam is in equilibrium.

F1 F2
3m 7m

R = 5 kN

## 6. A beam is loaded as shown in the figure below

2 kN 7 kN 3 kN 2 kN 7 kN 3 kN

A B A
0.2 m (b)
0.5 m RB
0.8 m
1.0 m
(a)

## (b) The force acting on the beam support at A, neglecting

the mass of the beam.

7. For the beam shown in the figure below, calculate (a) the force acting on
support A (b) distance d, neglecting any forces arising from the mass of the
beam.

10 N 15 N 30 N

0.5 m RA B
A 40 N
1.0 m
2.0 m
2.5 m
d

PHY 1A 50
PHYSICS

## 8. A metal bar AB is 4.0 m long and is supported at each end in a horizontal

position. It carries loads of 2.5 kN and 5.5 kN at distances of 2.0 m and 3.0 m,
respectively, from A.. Neglecting the mass of the beam, determine the
reactions of the supports when the beam is in equilibrium.

2.5 kN 5.5 kN
2.0 m 1.0 m

A B

RA RB

## 9. A beam PQ is 5.0 m long and is supported at its ends in a horizontal position

as shown in the figure below. Its mass is equivalent to a force of 400 N acting
at its centre as shown. Point loads of 12 kN and 20 kN act on the beam in the
positions shown. When the beam is in equilibrium, determine (a) the reactions
of the supports, RP and RQ, and (b) the position to which the 12 kN load must
be moved for the force on the supports to be equal.

12 kN 400 N 20 kN

## 1.2 m 1.3 m 1.5 m

P Q

RP RQ

10. A uniform steel girder AB which is 6.0 m long has a mass equivalent to 4.0 kN
acting at its centre. The girder rests on two supports at C and B as shown in
the figure below. A point load of 20.0 kN is attached to the beam as shown.
Determine the value of force F which causes the beam to just lift off the
support B.

F 4 kN 20 kN
3.0 m 1.0 m

A B
C
2.5 m
RC RB

PHY 1A 51
PHYSICS

Objectives:

## 1. Define distance and displacement.

2. Calculate displacement as a vector quantity
3. Define speed as rate of change in distance.
4. Calculate distance by area under the graph from speed against time graph
5. Find speed from the slope of distance against time graph
6. Define velocity as speed with direction.
7. Appreciate velocity as a vector quantity.
8. Determine the resultant of two or more velocity
9. Understand the basic concept of relative velocity
10. Define acceleration as rate of change in velocity (magnitude and direction)
11. Use all the linear equation of motion including the free fall motion.

PHY 1A 52
PHYSICS

## 4.1 DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT

Distance refers to the total length covered by a moving object irrespective of the
direction of motion, i.e. only the magnitude is of importance. Hence, it is a scalar
quantity.

Displacement refers to the linear distance of the position of the moving object
from a given reference point. The direction of the position of the object
concerned is to be specified. Hence it is a vector quantity.

4km

53.13o

O 3km

## Displacement of an object moving 3 km eastward and 4 km northward to point A

is 5 km and 53.13 degree from horizon and in term of distance, the distance
travelled by the object is 7 km. Displacement of the object is independent from
the distance travelled. The object may travel from O to A following the dotted path
yet still the displacement is 5km 53.12 degree from horizon.

PHY 1A 53
PHYSICS
4.2 SPEED

Average speed refers to the total distance travelled over the total time taken, i.e.

## total distance travelled

Average speed =
total distance travelled

s
= (unit : m/s)
t

Imagine that you are taking a trip to Kuala Perlis from Kuala Lumpur. During the
trip the speed of your car varies with time. You will stop at traffic light and speed
up your vehicle up to 110 km/h at the highway. In other words your
instantaneous speed varies with time. If the whole trip takes you four hour to
complete and the total distance from Kuala Lumpur to Kuala Perlis is 300 km so
it can be said that your average speed is

v = 300 km / 4 h = 75 km/h

The value of 75 km/h is not in the SI unit. To change it to m/s we just simply
times it with 1000m and divide it with 3600 s as shown below.

km 1000m 1h
75   = 20.83 m/s
h 1km 3600 s

PHY 1A 54
PHYSICS

Example 6.1 :

calculate

## a. its average speed in m/s

b. the distance travelled in 30 min

Solution:

3500km km
a. v=  583.3
6h h

km 1000m 1h
= 583.3  
h 1km 3600s

= 162 m/s

## b. s = v x t = 162 m/s x (30x60) s = 291600 m = 291.6 km

300km
c. t = s/ v = = 0.51 hour = 30.6 min.
583.3km / h

## 4.3 GRAPHS RELATING DISTANCE, TIME AND SPEED

Consider a motion with constant speed of 20 m/s. For every second the value of
the speed remains at 20 m/s and for every second the object covered the same
amount of distance of 20 m. If the value of the speed and distance are plotted
against time it will look like the graph shown below.

PHY 1A 55
PHYSICS

Speed/(m/s) Distance/m

400

300
20
200

100

5 10 15 20 Time/s 5 10 15 20 Time/s

Fig a. Fig b.

In fig. b we can see that the distance travelled after 20 second is 400 m. If we
calculate the total area of the shaded region from the graph of speed against time
we have 20 m/s x 20 s we also get 400 m and it is equal to a distance travelled. It
can be said that for a graph of speed against time, area under the graph
represents distance travelled.

If we look at fig b., distance against time graph, the slope of the graph is

(400  0) m
Slope = = 20 m/s thus equal to the speed of the object.
( 20  0) s

From distance against time graph, the slope represents the speed of the object.

Example 6.2s

An object moved from rest and the speed of the object is plotted against time. By
referring to the graph below, answer the following questions.

Speed/(m/s)

20

5 10 15 20 Time/(s)

PHY 1A 56
PHYSICS
a. Determine the total distance travelled by the object for the first 5 seconds.
b. For the last 5 seconds, did the speed of the object is increasing or
decreasing and calculate the distance travelled by the object..

c. How far is the total distance travelled for the whole motion?

## d. Draw a graph of distance against time.

Solution:

1
a. Distance = area under the graph (area of a triangle)= (20  5)  50m
2
b. Decreasing and distance is also 50 m.

c. Total distance = total area under the graph = 50+ 200+50 = 300m.

Distance/m

300

250

200

150

100

50

5 10 15 20 Time/s

PHY 1A 57
PHYSICS
4.4 LINEAR VELOCITY, RESULTANT OF 2 VELOCITY AND RELATIVE
VELOCITY

Velocity is speed with direction. A car moves with a speed of 40 km/h and if we
consider the direction of the car, we can simply state that the car moves 40km/h
due north or in other word its velocity.

## Velocity can be defined as displacement per unit time, v= s/t where s is

displacement or it can be distance if the object moves with constant direction.

Example 6.3

An airplane fly 300 km/h northward while a jet stream blowing 120 km/h to the
east., Find the actual velocity (the resultant velocity) of the aeroplane.

Solution:

## Since velocity is vector we should add it as a vector.

120 km/h
Resultant v = = 323.1 km/h

## 300 km/h Tan = = 2.5

V Thus,  = tan-1 2.5 = 68.2o

68.2o

The example above shows that in adding two or more velocity, we must consider
the magnitude as well as its direction. (see chapter 2)

Example 6.4:

PHY 1A 58
PHYSICS
A river is flowing at 1 m/s and is 100 m wide. If a man rows a boat at 2 m/s in still
water, determine the direction in which he must row at the same pace in order to
reach a point D on the other side of the bank exactly the opposite the starting
point C. Also, calculate the time taken to reach the other side.

Solution:

## Refer the diagram below.

2 m/s
V m/s 100m

1 m/s

Since the river current has a velocity of 1 m/s to the right and the swimmer can
swim 2 m/s, to reach point D from C, the swimmer must swim at an angle and
the actual velocity of the swimmer is v m/s

## To calculate first we find  by using trigonometry

v m/s
Tan= 1 m / s where v = 2 2  12  1.73 m/s

1.73
Tan  = = 1.73
1

## And the time taken

dispalcement 100
t= = = 57.7 sec.
velocity 1.73

PHY 1A 59
PHYSICS
When we speak of the velocity of an object, we generally mean its velocity
relative to (or with reference to) the stationary earth. If you are standing still on
the earth at a side of a road, and a car moving at 50 km/h towards you, you will
see and feel the 50 km/h relative to where you are standing. If you are moving
towards the car with velocity of 20 km/h then it will appear that the incoming car
become much faster than 50 km/h because you are chasing the car that is
coming towards you. The velocity of the car relative to you now is 50+20 = 70
km/h. If you as an observer and you are moving away from the incoming car with
the speed of 20 km/h, you it will appear that the car is coming towards you at

Observer 50 km/h
Vrelative = 0 + 50 = 50 km/h

IN
CL
UD
EP
Observer
IC 20 km/h 50 km/h
TU Vrelative = 2 0 + 50 = 70 km/h
RE
"
ht
tp
:/
Observer
/t 50 km/h
hm 20 km/h Vrelative = 50- 20 = 30 km/h
-a
04
.y
im
g.
co
m/
im
ag
4.5 ACCELERATION e/ AND SPEED AGAINST TIME GRAPH
94
63
An object whose
2f
velocity is changing is said to be accelerating. Average
acceleration 21
refers to the change in velocity over the time taken.
d6
75
d9 vu
42 a=
t
"
\*
M Where a = acceleration.
ER
GE
FO v = final velocity
RM
AT
PHY 1A IN 60
ET
PHYSICS
u = initial velocity

t = time taken

## A change in velocity can be effected in several ways:

 By a change in magnitude only, i.e. the speed changes while the direction
remains the same;
 By a change in magnitude and direction simultaneously; or

##  By a change in direction only, e.g., an object moving with constant speed

in a circle.

Acceleration has the dimensions of speed over time. Hence its S.I. units
will be (ms-1)/s. or ms-2.

## It can be said that acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.

Let us consider a motion where the velocity is plotted against time as shown
below

velocity/(m/s)

20

5 10 15 20 25
Time/(s)

During the first 5 seconds, the velocity is increasing at a constant rate (this is
shown by the straight line graph) until it reaches 20 m/s. We can say that the
acceleration is uniform and the value of the acceleration is

v  u 20  0
a = =4 m/s2.
t 5
Where,
v = velocity after 5 sec = 20m/s
u = initial velocity (when t= 0 sec) = 0 m/s
and t = 5 sec

PHY 1A 61
PHYSICS
During the interval of 5 sec and 10 sec, the object keeps moving at a constant
velocity. This can be seen by the horizontal line thus the acceleration is equal to
zero.

Between 15 and 20 sec, the velocity is decreasing at a constant rate, thus the
object is decelerate at a constant value of
v  u 0  20
a = = -2 m/s2.
t 10
Where,
v = velocity at 25 sec mark = 0 m/s
u = initial velocity (when t= 15 sec) = 20m/s
and t =25 -15 = 10 sec.

## It easy to see that, the value of the acceleration is represented by the

gradient/slope of the graph. Where the first 5 sec, the gradient of the graph is 4
m/s2, from 5 to 15 seconds the gradient is zero and during the last 10 seconds
the gradient is -2m/s2. . So, for a velocity against time graph, the gradient
represents acceleration and the area under the graph represent displacement.

If the motion has uniform acceleration, the graph must be a straight line graph.
Consider a motion of uniform acceleration represented by the graph below.

velocity

t time

## From the graph, acceleration is the gradient of the slope

vu
a
t
at  v  u
thus
v  u  at    (1)

PHY 1A 62
PHYSICS
Displacement, s, is represented by area under the graph,

## s = area of the trapezium

1
s= (v  u )t      (2)
2
and,
1
s (u  at  u )t
2
1
 ( 2ut  at 2 )
2
so
1 2
s  ut  at      (3)
2
vu
And when t in (2) is replace with we get
a

1 (v  u )
s (v  u )
2 a
2as  v  u
2 2

thus
v 2  u 2  2as      (4)

These four equations are called equation of linear motion with uniform
acceleration.

Example 6.5:
A lift accelerates from rest uniformly at 0.9 ms-2 for 1.5 s, travels at
constant velocity far 7s and then comes to rest in 3 s. Determine its
velocity when travelling at constant speed and its acceleration during the
final 3 s of its travel.

Solution:
Velocity after 1.5 s,
u=0m/s
a = 0.9 m/s2
t = 1.5 s
and v = u +at
= 0 + 0.9(1.5) = 1.35 m/s

## Acceleration during the final 3 s

u = 1.35 m/s

PHY 1A 63
PHYSICS
v= 0 m/s
t=3s
v u
and a =
t
0  1.35
= m / s 2  0.45m / s 2
3

Example 6.6:
During a free fall an object is subjected to a gravity acceleration of 9.8
m/s2. An object is released from rest from a roof top of a tall building. If
the height of the building is 30 m determine
a. Final velocity before it hits the ground.
b. Time it takes to reach the ground.

Solution:
a)
u= 0 m/s
a= g = 9.8 m/s2
s= h = 30 m
so
v2 = u2 + 2as = u2 + 2gh
= 02 + 2(9.8)(30) = 588
So
v= 588  24.24m / s

b) v= u + at

v  u 24.24  0
t=   2.47 sec .
a 9.8

PHY 1A 64
PHYSICS

EXERCISES 4.0

## 1. A car travels 20 km southwards and then travels another 30 km westwards.

What is the displacement of the car from its initial position? ( 36.1 km ,
337.7o)

## 2. A person walks a distance of 8 km in a direction 200 east of north, and then

walks another 6 km in a direction 500 south of east. Determine graphically
the value and direction of the final displacement relative to the starting
point. (7.21 km 23.9o)

## 3. An airplane flies 160 km in a southerly direction. Its direction is then changed

to SE. With the aid of a vector diagram drawn to scale, determine the
distance travelled in the new direction when its resultant displacement is 260
km. (121 km)

(12.96 km)

## 6. If a car is travelling at 25 m/s, calculate (a) the speed in kilometers/hour and

(b) the distance, in kilometers, covered in 12 mim.

PHY 1A 65
PHYSICS

## At the end of this chapter you should be able to:

1. Define force

2. Define inertia

force

## 9. State some advantages and disadvantages of friction

PHY 1A 66
PHYSICS

5.1 Force

A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with
another object. Force is a quantity that is measured in Newton. Force is a vector quantity
since it has both magnitude and direction.

## Physical Quantity Symbol Unit SI Unit

Force F Newton, N kgms 2

All forces (interactions) between objects can be placed into two broad categories;
contact forces, and forces resulting from action-at-a-distance.

Contact forces are those types of forces that result when the two interacting objects are
perceived to be physically contacting each other. Examples of contact forces include
frictional forces, tensional forces, normal forces, air resistance forces, and applied
forces.

Action-at-a-distance forces are those types of forces that result even when the two
interacting objects are not in physical contact with each other, yet are able to exert a
push or pull despite their physical separation. Examples of action-at-a-distance forces
include gravitational forces. For example, the sun and planets exert a gravitational pull
on each other despite their large spatial separation. Even when your feet leave the earth
and you are no longer in physical contact with the earth, there is a gravitational pull
between you and the Earth. Electric forces are action-at-a-distance forces. For example,
the protons in the nucleus of an atom and the electrons outside the nucleus experience
an electrical pull towards each other despite their small spatial separation. And magnetic
forces are action-at-a-distance forces. For example, two magnets can exert a magnetic
pull on each other even when separated by a distance of a few centimetres. These
specific forces will be discussed in more detail later in Lesson 2 as well as in other
lessons.1

1
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/newtlaws/Lesson-2/The-Meaning-of-Force

PHY 1A 67
PHYSICS
5.2 Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

## Newton’s First Law of Motion:

“Every object continues in its state of rest or uniform speed in a straight line
unless acted upon by an external force.”

Newton’s First Law of Motion also known as the Law of Inertia. The tendency of an
object to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line is called inertia.

## The example of inertia:

When a moving bus stops suddenly, the passengers lurch forwards. The passengers are
in a state of motion when the bus is moving. When the bus stops suddenly, the inertia of
the passengers keeps them in motion. Thus, the passengers lurch forwards.

## “The acceleration of an object acted upon by an external force is proportional to

the force and is in the same direction as the force.”

## Thus, force  acceleration or force  a constant  acceleration. This constant of

proportionality is the mass of the object, i.e.

F  ma

## Physical Symbol Unit

Quantity
Force F Newton, N
Mass m kilogram, kg
Acceleration a metres per second squared, ms 2

PHY 1A 68
PHYSICS

What is mass?

## Mass is an amount of substance. It is measured in kilograms. The mass contains how

many particles in an object. The particles can be atoms, ions or molecules.

Mass m kg

What is weight?

## Weight  mass  gravitational acceleration

W  mg

where g  9.81 ms 2 .

Weight W N

## What is the Difference between Weight and Mass?

Weight Mass
Depends on the gravitational field strength2 Independent from the gravitational field
strength
Vector quantity Scalar quantity
Unit measured in Newton, N Unit measured in kilogram, kg

## 5.4 Frictional Force

The frictional force, f is an interaction between two surfaces that are in contact with
each other. Friction is a force that resists the motion of objects. Friction opposes the
motion, or attempted motion, of an object. When an object is stationary, the friction
opposing motion is called static friction. Once the object begins to move, the friction
opposing motion is called kinetic friction.

The force between a surface and an object on the surface is called the normal force, N .
The normal force is perpendicular to the surface. For an object on a surface:

2
A gravitational field as a region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational
attraction. The gravitational field strength at a point in the gravitational field is the gravitational
force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at that point.

PHY 1A 69
PHYSICS

N  mg cos 

where  is the angle of the surface upward with respect to a plane perpendicular to the
gravitational field.

The relationship between normal force and the frictional force is defined as follows:

f  N

## where  is coefficient of friction between two surfaces.

Normal
force,

Frictional Applied
force, force,

Weight,

Normal
force,
Applied
force,

Frictional
force, 

Weight,

##  prevent us from slipping during  slows down or stops the movement

walking or running of an object
 stops a moving vehicle  causes the surface of an object to
 keep the position of an object on a wear out
surface  produce unnecessary heat

PHY 1A 70
PHYSICS
 produce fire
 holds or grips thing
 sharpens a knife

PHY 1A 71
PHYSICS

EXERCISE 5.0

## 1. If the coefficient of friction between a car’s wheels and a roadway is 0.7,

what is the least distance in which the car can accelerate from rest to a speed of
15 m/s?
[16.4 m]

2. A 5 kg mass hangs at the end of a cord. Find the tension in the cord if the
acceleration of the mass is 1.5 ms 2 up. [56.5 N]

## 3. A 70 kg box is pulled by a 400 N force at an angle of 30 0 to the

horizontal. The coefficient of sliding friction is 0.5. Find the acceleration of the
box.
[1.47 ms 2 ]
400 N

30
f
4. A 12 kg box is released from the top of an incline that is 5 m long and
makes an angle of 40 0 to the horizontal. A 60 N friction force impedes the
motion of the box.
N
N

40
W
a) What will be the acceleration of the box? [1.31 ms 2 ]
b) How long it will take to reach the bottom of the incline? [2.76 s]
c) What is the coefficient of friction between box and incline? [0.67]

## 5. An incline plane making an angle of 25 0 with the horizontal has a pulley

at its top. A 30 kg block, P on the plane is connected to a freely hanging 20 kg
block, Q by means of cord passing over the pulley.

P
Q
25

Calculate the distance the block Q will fall in 2 s starting from rest. (Neglect
friction) [1.44 ms 2 , 2.88 m]

PHY 1A 72
PHYSICS

## 6. A boy having a mass of 75 kg holds in his hands a bag of flour weighing

40 N. with what force does the floor push up his feet? [775 N]

PHY 1A 73
PHYSICS

## 1. Define work and state its unit

2. Perform simple calculations on work done by force that is in the same
direction of distance and by oblique force.
3. Appreciate that the area under a force/distance graph gives work done
4. Perform calculations on a force/distance graph to determine work done
5. Calculate the work done in rotation
6. Define power and its unit
7. Calculate power required for rotation.
8. Explain how an output power can be calculate from means of a brake.
9. Define efficiency
10. Calculate efficiency of a machine
11. Explain that energy comes in different form
12. State some examples of energy conversions
13. Use the formula mgh and 1/2 mv2 calculating potential and kinetic energy
14. Use the concept of conservation of energy to calculate the velocity of falling
object.
15. Explain the working of impact test and its purposes.

PHY 1A 74
PHYSICS
6.1 WORK AND WORK DIAGRAM

If a body moves as a result of a force being applied to it, the force is said to do
work on the body. The amount of work done is the product of the applied force
and the distance, i.e.

## Work done = force x distance moved in the direction of the force

W=F•d

The unit of work is the joule, J, which is defined as the amount of work done
when a force of 1 Newton acts for a distance of 1 m in the direction of the force.
Thus

1 J = 1 N.m

## Let assume a constant force of 20 N in action pulling an object across a

frictionless floor for a distance of 8m as shown below.

F= 20 N F= 20 N

d = 8m

## It is said that the work done by 20N force is

W = Fx d = 20 N x 8 m

= 160 J

PHY 1A 75
PHYSICS
If a graph is plotted where values of force (on the vertical axis) against distance
moved (on the horizontal axis) we have a force/distance graph or work diagram.
The area under the graph represents the work done.

Force/N

20

10

Distance/ m
2 4 6 8

Fig (a).

## For example, a constant force of 20 N that is used to move an object across a

distance of 8 m may be represented on a force/distance graph as shown in Fig
(a). The area under the graph shown by the shaded area represents the work
done. Hence

## Similarly, a spring extended by 20 mm by a force of 1000 N force may be

represented by the work diagram shown in Fig (b).

Force/N

1000

500

Extension/ mm
5 10 15 20

Fig (b).

PHY 1A 76
PHYSICS

## work done = shaded area (where it is in the shape of triangle)

= ½ base x height

= 10 Joule.

## 6.2 WORK DONE BY AN OBLIQUE FORCE

It has being said that work is equal to force times distance moved in the direction
of the force. Let us consider the same example as shown in section1 but this time
the force is inclined by 30o from the floor.

F= 20 N F= 20 N

30o 30o

d = 8m

In chapter one, we learned that the force can be resolve into two components.
The components of the force is x and y components. For the force show above,
the x-component is Fcos and it is in the same direction of the distance moved.
Thus the work done to move the object across the floor is

W = Fcos x d

= 20 cos 30o x 8

= 17.32 J

y-component of the force doesn’t do any work since there is no distance moved
in that direction.

PHY 1A 77
PHYSICS
We can simplify this by saying, in general, work done is given as

W = F x d cos

## where F = magnitude of force

d = distance travelled

## 6.3 WORK DONE IN ROTATION

Let us consider the case of crank handle or a pulley attached to a shaft, as figure
below. Suppose a force 70 N to be exerted at the right angle to the crank arm,
200 mm long or at a circumference of the pulley of 200 mm radius in order to turn
the shaft against some resistance. Also suppose the force to be always in the
direction of the motion of the point to which it is applied.

200 mm
200 mm

70 N 70 N

## Crank handle Pulley wheel

The distance through which the point of application of the force travels in 1
revolution is 2 r = 2  (0.2m) = 1.257 m. Then work done in 1 rev is

W = F x d = 70 (1.25) = 88 J

## In general, work done by force F acts at a radius r meter is given by

W = F x 2r Joules

PHY 1A 78
PHYSICS
It has been stated in the last chapter where Fr is the turning moment T about the
axis of rotation. If n is the number of revolution then

## Work done in n revolution = T x 2n

= T x angle in radians

= T

Example 5.1

A pulley is 800 mm in diameter and the difference in tension on the two sides of
the driving belt is 2000 N. If the speed of the pulley is 300 rev/min, what is the
work done in 5 min?

Solution:

## Number of revolution n = 300 rev/min x 5 min = 1500 rev

So; Work = T x 2 n

## = 800 x 2x 1500 = 7 540 000 J = 7.54 x 106 J = 7.54 MJ

6.4 POWER

Power is a measure of the rate at which work is done or how fast the machine
doing work. The greater the power the faster the work is being done.

work done
Power = time taken

The unit of power is the watt, W, where 1 watt is equal to 1 joule per second. The
watt is a small unit for many purposes and a larger unit called the kilowatt, kW, is
used, where 1 kW = 1000 W. The power output of a motor which does 120 kJ of
work in 30 s is thus given by

PHY 1A 79
PHYSICS
120kJ
P
30s
= 4 kW

## For a much larger amount of power we use Mega Watt or MW.

Sometime people use kilowatt hour to measure amount of work done or used for
example in case of our using electricity.

1 kW h = 1000 W hour

## = 1000 x 3600 s = 3.6 MJ

Example 5.2

A motor vehicle hauls a trailer at 75 km/h when exerting a steady pull of 800 N.
Calculate

## b. the power required.

Solution:

a. Distance travelled = v x t

= 75 km/h x 20/60 h

= 25 km = 2500 m

## Work done = F x d = 800 x 2500 = 20 000 000 J = 20 MJ

= 20/3.6 = 5.56 kW h.

PHY 1A 80
PHYSICS

## 6.5 POWER REQUIRED FOR ROTATION

If T be the torque or turning moment and n be the speed in revolution per second,
then

Example 5.3

## a. work done in 45 min

b. The torque in N.m

Solution

## a. work done = Power x time

= 8 kW x (45/60) h = 6 kW h

= 6 x 3.6 MJ = 21.6 MJ

PHY 1A 81
PHYSICS

## 6.6 DETERMINATION OF THE OUTPUT POWER OF A MACHINE BY

MEANS OF A BRAKE.

In case of a small machine, the output power can be measure by some form of
mechanical brake such as shown below.

W W

Q P
0 S2 0
S1

Where a belt or a rope has its ends attached to a spring balance S 1 and S2
calibrated in newtons. The balances are supported by a rigid horizontal beam and
the tension on the belt can be controlled by wing nuts W.

Suppose the brake pulley to be rotating clockwise and the tension on the belt
adjusted to give reading of P and Q newtons on S1 and S2 respectively. The pull P
exerted by S1 has to balance the pull Q exerted in S2 and the friction force F
between the belt and the pulley.
Thus ;
P=Q+F

PHY 1A 82
PHYSICS
F = (P – Q) Newton

If r be the effective radius of the brake and N be the speed of the pulley in rev/min
than

## 6.7 EFFICIENCY OF A MACHINE

Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the useful output energy to the input energy.
The symbol for efficiency is  (Greek letter eta). Hence

## useful output energy

efficiency,  = input energy
or

output power
= input power

## Efficiency has no units and is often stated a percentage. A perfect machine

would have an efficiency of 100%. However, all machines have efficiency lower
than this due to friction and other losses. Thus, if the input energy to a motor is
100 J and the output energy is 800 J then the efficiency is

800
x 100% = 80% or
1000

It can be expressed as per unit value for example the efficiency for the machine is
just 0.8 per unit.

PHY 1A 83
PHYSICS
Example 5.4
In a brake test on an electric motor, the reading of balance S1 and S2 were 440
N and 87 N respectively. The effective diameter of the pulley was 500 mm and
the speed was 800 rev/min. The power supply to the motor was 8.5 kW. Calculate
the
a. Output power of the motor
b. The efficiency

Solution
a). Radius = 500/2 = 250mm =0.25 m
Net pull due friction F = 440-87 = 353 N
Torque = F r = 353 x 0.25 = 88.25 N.m
Output power = Tx2x N = 88.25 N.m x 2 x (800/60) rev/sec
=7390 W = 7.39 kW

b). efficiency = output power/input power = 7.39/8.5 = 0.87 per unit or 87%

6.8 ENERGY

## Energy is the capacity, or ability, to do work. In order for us to do work we need

energy. The unit of energy is the joule, the same as for work. Energy is
expended when work is done. There are several forms of energy and these
include:

## (g) Sound energy

PHY 1A 84
PHYSICS
Energy may be converted from one form to another. The principle of conservation
of energy states that the total amount of energy remains the same in such
conversions, i.e. energy cannot be created or destroyed. Some examples of
energy conversions include:

## (m) Electrical energy is converted to chemical energy by electrolysis.

PHY 1A 85
PHYSICS
6.9 POTENTIAL ENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY

## Mechanical engineering is concerned principally with two kinds of energy,

potential energy and kinetic energy.

Potential energy is energy due to the position of the body. The force exerted on a
mass of m kg is mg N (where g = 9.81 m/s2), the acceleration due to gravity).
When the mass is lifted vertically through a height h m above some datum level,
the work done is given by:

Hence,

## (the potential energy at the datum level being taken as zero).

Kinetic energy is the energy due to the motion of a body. Suppose a force F acts
on an object of mass m originally at rest (i.e. u = 0) and accelerates it to a velocity
v in a distance s:

## Since v2 = u2 + 2as and u = 0, v2 = 2as, from which a = v2/2s, hence

v2 1
work done = m s  mv 2
2s 2

## Kinetic energy = ½ mv2 joules

PHY 1A 86
PHYSICS
6.10 PRINCIPAL OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

The principle of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy
remains the same in such conversions, i.e. energy cannot be created or
destroyed.

## In mechanics, the potential energy possessed by a body is frequently converted

into kinetic energy, and vice versa. When a mass is falling freely, its potential
energy decreases as it loses height, and its kinetic energy increases as its
velocity increases. Ignoring air frictional losses, at all times:

## Potential energy + kinetic energy = a constant

If friction is present, then work is done overcoming the resistance due to friction
ans this is dissipated as heat. Then,

resistance

## Kinetic energy is not always conserved in collisions. Collisions in which kinetic

energy is conserved (i.e. stay the same) are called elastic collisions, and those in
which it is not conserved are termed inelastic collisions.

PHY 1A 87
PHYSICS

Example 5.5

A rollercoaster fall freely from rest from the highest point of the track as shown in
the picture below

B
C
20 m
15 m 12 m

If the mass of the coaster is 500 kg and assuming that the track is frictionless,
calculate the

## a. Initial Energy of the coaster at A.

b. Kinetic energy at B

c. Speed at D

d. Linear speed at C

Solution:

## so, the initial energy = mgh + 0 = 500x9.81x20 = 98 100 J=98.1 kJ

PHY 1A 88
PHYSICS
b. at B the coaster has dropped for 5 m thus reducing the initial potential energy
which has converted to kinetic energy.

Initial energy = PE + KE

98.1 kJ = mgh + KE

98.1kJ = 500x9.81x15 + KE

## c. at D, all the initial energy has changed to kinetic energy, thus

KE = 98.1 kJ

½ mv2 = 98.1 kJ

v2 = (98100x2)/500

v= 392.4

=19.8 m/s

## d. at C the coaster is slowing down since some of the kinetic energy at D is

changed to PE.

Initial energy = PE + KE

98.1 kJ = mgh + KE

98.1 kJ = 500x9.81x12 + KE

KE = 98.1-58.86 =39.24 kJ

½ mv2=39240 J

v= 12.52 m/s.

PHY 1A 89
PHYSICS

EXERCISES 6.0

## 1. Calculate the work done when a force of 40 N pushes an object a distance of

500 m in the same direction as the force.

## 2. Calculate the work done when a mass is lifted vertically by a crane to a

height of 5 m, the force required to lift the mass being 98 N.

## 3. A motor supplies a constant force of 1 kN which is used to move a load a

distance of 5 m. The force is then changed to a constant 500 N and the load
is moved a further 15 m. Draw the force/distance graph for the operation and
from the graph determine the work done by the motor.

## 4. A spring, initially in a relaxed state, is extended by 100 mm. Determine the

work done by using a work diagram if the spring requires a force of 0.6 N per
mm of stretch.

## 5. A spring requires a force of 10 N to cause an extension of 50 mm. Determine

the work done in extending the spring (a) from zero to 30 mm and (b) from 30
mm to 50 mm.

## 6. Calculate the work done when a mass of 20 kg is lifted vertically though a

distance of 5.0 m.

## 7. Water is pumped vertically upwards though a distance of 50.0 m and the

work done is 294.3 kJ. Determine the number of litres of water pumped (1
litre of water has a mass of 1 kg.)

## 8. A machine exerts a force of 200 N in lifting a mass through a height of 6 m.

ff2 kJ of energy are supplied to it, what is the efficiency of the machine?

9. Calculate the useful output energy of an electric motor which is 70% efficient
if it uses 600 J of electrical energy.

10. 4 kJ of energy are supplied to a machine used for lifting a mass. The force
required is 800 N. If the machine has an efficiency of 50%, to what height will
it lift the mass?

PHY 1A 90
PHYSICS

PHY 1A 91
PHYSICS

7. A car travels at 50 km/h for the first half hour and at 80 km/h for the following
hour. Calculate (a) the total distance travelled and (b) the average speed.

## 8. A train travels the first 80 km of its journey at an average speed of 60 km/h.

What must be its average speed over the remaining 50 km in order that the
average speed over the whole journey may be 70 km/h?

(95.5 km/h)

9. A train, starting from rest, covers the following distances x metres in times t
seconds:

t (sec)
0 5 11 18 22 27 31 38 46 50
x (meters)
0 3 16 52 79 115 137 158 168 170

## Plot the distance/time graph and determine the approximate speeds in

metres/second, after 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 seconds from the start. Using this
data, plot the speed/time graph for the whole period. What is the average
speed, in metres/second, over the 50 s?

10. A train, starting from rest, reaches a speed of 18 m/s in 2 mim. Assuming the
acceleration to be uniform, calculate (a) the value of the acceleration in metres
per second squared and (b) the distance travelled, in kilometers.

## (0.15 m/s2 , 1.08 km)

PHY 1A 92
PHYSICS

11. The velocity of a body increases uniformly from 15 km/h to 40 km/h while it
travels 100 m. Calculate (a) the acceleration, in metres per second squared
and (b) the time taken, in seconds. (0.53
2
m/s , 13.1 s)

12. A stone is dropped clown a shaft, 160 m deep. Calculate (a) the time taken for
the stone to reach the bottom and (b) the velocity of the stone as it reaches
the bottom. Assume g = 9.8 1 rn/s2.

## 13. A cricket ball, thrown vertically upwards, returns to the ground in 4 s.

Calculate (a) the height, in metres, reached by the ball and (b) the velocity, in
metres per second, with which it is thrown.

PHY 1A 93
PHYSICS

Appendix I

PHY 1A 94