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A valve is a mechanical device that regulates the flow of fluids (either gases, fluidised solids, slurries or liquids) by

opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

Valves are used in a myriad of industrial, military, commercial, and residential applications. There are many different types of
valves:

Ball valve, which is good for on/off control;

Butterfly valve, particularly in large pipes;

Gate valve, mainly for on/off control;

Globe valve, which is good for regulating flow;

check valve or Non-return valve, allows the fluid to pass in one direction only;

A pressure relief valve or safety valve operates automatically at a set differential pressure to correct a potentially dangerous
situation, typically over-pressure.

High purity valves, are flow control devices that meet the industry criteria for purity of materials and design.

Ball Valves
back to valves

A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the
valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow
will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle
position lets you "see" the valve's position.

The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to make it more durable.

There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.

A full port ball valve has an oversized ball so that the hole in the ball is the same size as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss.
Flow is unrestricted.

A standard port ball valve is usually less expensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. Flow through this
valve is one pipe size smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in slightly restricted flow.

In reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe sizes smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in restricted flow.

Manually operated ball valves can often be closed quickly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. Some ball valves are
equipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control.

A pneumatic flow control valve is also equipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valve
opening accordingly.
There are also three-way ball valves, with a T-shaped hole through the middle. With such a valve the flow can be directed to either
one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely.

Ball Valves
back to valves

A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the
valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow
will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle
position lets you "see" the valve's position.

The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to make it more durable.

There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.

A full port ball valve has an oversized ball so that the hole in the ball is the same size as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss.
Flow is unrestricted.

A standard port ball valve is usually less expensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. Flow through this
valve is one pipe size smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in slightly restricted flow.

In reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe sizes smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in restricted flow.

Manually operated ball valves can often be closed quickly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. Some ball valves are
equipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control.

A pneumatic flow control valve is also equipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valve
opening accordingly.

There are also three-way ball valves, with a T-shaped hole through the middle. With such a valve the flow can be directed to either
one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely.

Ball Valves
back to valves

A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the
valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow
will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle
position lets you "see" the valve's position.
The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to make it more durable.

There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.

A full port ball valve has an oversized ball so that the hole in the ball is the same size as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss.
Flow is unrestricted.

A standard port ball valve is usually less expensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. Flow through this
valve is one pipe size smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in slightly restricted flow.

In reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe sizes smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in restricted flow.

Manually operated ball valves can often be closed quickly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. Some ball valves are
equipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control.

A pneumatic flow control valve is also equipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valve
opening accordingly.
There are also three-way ball valves, with a T-shaped hole through the middle. With such a valve the flow can be directed to either
one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely.

Ball Valves
back to valves

A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the
valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow
will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle
position lets you "see" the valve's position.

The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to make it more durable.

There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.

A full port ball valve has an oversized ball so that the hole in the ball is the same size as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss.
Flow is unrestricted.

A standard port ball valve is usually less expensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. Flow through this
valve is one pipe size smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in slightly restricted flow.

In reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe sizes smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in restricted flow.
Manually operated ball valves can often be closed quickly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. Some ball valves are
equipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control.

A pneumatic flow control valve is also equipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valve
opening accordingly.
There are also three-way ball valves, with a T-shaped hole through the middle. With such a valve the flow can be directed to either
one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely.

Check Valves
back to valves

A check valve is a mechanical device, a valve, that normally only allows fluid to flow through it in one direction.

A double check valve is often used as a backflow prevention device to keep potentially contaminated water from siphoning back into
municipal water supply lines.

A clapper valve is a type of check valve used in or with firefighting, and has a hinged gate (often with a spring urging it shut) that
will only remain open in the out flowing direction.

Some types of irrigation sprinklers and drip irrigation emitters have small check valves built into them to keep the lines from
draining when the system is shut off.

Pressure Relief Valves


back to valves

A pressure relief valve opens to release excess pressure when the pressure is too high to protect the vessel or other equipment from
over pressurization.

A relief valve is like a safety valve in that it is for liquids only. A safety valve is for gases only.

Definition:
Pipe is a hollow "tube" used for conveying products and pressure. The products include fluids, gas, slurry, powders, pellets and
more. The pressure is hydraulic power. We usually designate the "tube" as pipe in the applicable line class but the definition includes
any similar component designed as tubing, which is used for the same application.

History:
One of the earliest methods of conveying fluids in the history of mankind was by pipe. The earliest pipe on record was the use of
bamboo for moving small quantities of water as a continues flow. As man progressed, he began using hollow logs for his piping
needs. Probably the first recorded use of metal in piping systems was the use of lead or bronze during the "Bronze" age.
During the excavation at Pompeii, complete water distribution systems fabricated from lead have been uncovered. These systems,
include probably the first use of metal plug valves, are still workable.
Without piping our modern civilization and their attendant conveniences could not exist. Today piping is used in almost every aspect
of our lives. Our drinking water is produced in plants full of piping and then comes to us through a vast network of pipes. The waste
from our homes and businesses flows away through another network of pipes and is then treated in a plant full of piping. The fuel
we use for travel or for heating was collected, processed and distributed using pipe. No mater what you think about, power, food,
paint, medicine, paper products, plastics, chemicals, and many more are all made in plants full of piping. Our safety is also
dependent on the piping in the fire water systems in our neighborhoods and buildings.

Materials of construction:
The various kinds of material from which pipe is, or can be, made is proved to be endless; among them are the more common
carbon steel, along with chromes, stainless steel, iron, brass, copper, lead, aluminum, glass, rubber and various types of plastic
material. Over the years some of these materials have been combined to form lined pipe systems. These include carbon steel pipe
lined with glass, carbon steel pipe that is lined with various plastics; carbon steel pipe lined with concrete. Each one, plain or lined
has certain advantages and disadvantages. Many things enter into making a choice of materials. Among the most important of these
are commodity, pressure, temperature, size, ease of assembly availability and economics.
Pipe sizes:
Many years ago pipe was sized by its true inside diameter. i.e., a 1" pipe was actually 1" inside diameter. However, as time went on
and the methods of manufacturing were improved and made more standard, and because it became necessary to increase wall
thickness to accommodate higher pressures and temperatures, it became necessary to size pipe by "nominal" size rather than actual
size. Because it was deemed too expensive to have a set of thread dies for each wall thickness in the smaller sizes, the outside
diameter (O.D.) was held constant. Thus wall thickness changes affect the internal diameter only and leave the O. D. constant for
standardized fitting engagements.
Nominal size refers to the name by which we call a particular size pipe. Nominal size and actual outside diameter of a pipe differs for
size 12" and under. For sizes 14" and larger the actual outside diameter and the nominal size are identical.
Pipe comes in a very wide range of sizes. It is not uncommon to see piping as small as ½" or as large as 66". Pipe mills can and will
make almost any size for a price. This does not always prove to be the economical choice because odd size fittings may not be
available. It is best to stick to the closest and most commercially available or common size to meet the need.
The smaller common sizes in pipe include ½", ¾", 1", 2", 3", 4", 6", 8" 10" and 12". The larger sizes, 14" and above increase in 2"
increments.
The Nominal size pertains to calling the pipe size by name only. The actual outside diameter or O. D. is different for the 12" and
under sizes.
Example:

Nominal Size Actual O. D.

1-
1"
5/16"
2-
2"
3/8"
3-
3"
1/2"
4-
4"
1/2"
12-
12"
3/4"
14" 14"

For all pipe sizes the inside diameter varies as the wall thickness increases thus the thicker the wall, the smaller the inside diameter.

Weight:
Many years ago the only "weights" of pipe available were classed as standard weight, extra heavy and double extra heavy. Within
the last seventy-five years or so it became increasingly evident that this system was limited in scope and did not meet the needs of
the growing state of the industry. This was the direct result of the increasingly higher pressures and temperatures of the
commodities being handled. Consequently the use of schedule numbers came into being. Today, both weight and schedule are the
way of identifying the wall thickness.

Length:
Based on common practice pipe usually can be furnished in "single random" lengths, "double random" lengths, and under certain
circumstances (pipeline work for example) in even longer lengths. A single random will run from about 16' to 22' in length. A double
random will run from about 35' to 40' in length. Pipe can be ordered to a specified fixed length but this will cost more.

Methods of manufacture:
Pipe is made two ways. It is made by taking a flat plate, called a skelp, and rolling it into a tube shape and then welding the two
edges together to form a tube. This pipe is commonly called "welded pipe" or ERW pipe. The other way is to take a solid bar or billet
and pierce a hole through the length. This pipe is commonly called seamless pipe.

Determining wall thickness:


The wall thickness for pipe is generally covered in the piping material specifications by calling out the Schedule Number for a large
majority of sizes. However, as pressure and temperature increase, and sometimes the corrosion allowance, it becomes necessary to
calculate the required wall thickness for a specific case. Please note that generally as the specifications change into higher-pressure
classes, wall thickness calculations must be made for smaller size pipe. Wall thicknesses are by strict adherence to the rules set
forth in the code for Pressure Piping. For more detailed information on specific pipe sizes and it's various wall thicknesses, schedules
and pipe weights see the "tools," "piping", "pipe chart" on this website

Grades:
In steel pipe, the word "grade" designates divisions within different types based on carbon content or mechanical properties (tensile
and yield strengths). The tensile strength is the ultimate amount of stretching the steel can bear without breaking. The yield
strength is the maximum amount of stretching steel can bear before it becomes permanently deformed or before it loses its ability
to return to its original shape.
Grade A steel pipe has lower tensile and yield strengths than Grade B steel pipe. This is because it has a lower carbon content.
Grade A in more ductile and is better for cold bending and close coiling applications.
Grade B steel pipe is better for applications where pressure, structural strength and collapse are factors. It is also easier to machine
because of its higher carbon content. It is generally accepted that Grade B welds as well as Grade A.

Ends:
Steel pipe can generally be specified with a specific end preparation at the time of purchase. Three end preps are standard. There is
plain end (PE). This would be the choice for small sizes where socket welded fittings will be used to join pipe to pipe or pipe to
fittings. This is also the default end prep if no end prep is specified. There is threaded end (TE). This would be the choice for small
sizes where the pipe to pipe or pipe to fitting assembly is to be threaded. There is also bevel end (BE). This would be the choice for
most all 3" and larger steel pipe (or other metallic pipe) where "butt welding will be used to join pipe to pipe or pipe to fittings.

Discussion:
The information given above is what you should know about pipe. There are also some things that you should understand about
pipe. There is a big difference between what you know about a subject and what you understand about that subject.
With pipe, most novice designers think that all they have to do is "draw" or "place" the pipe symbol (on that pipe support beam
symbol) in whatever CAD system they are currently using and they are done. They do not understand what that pipe symbol really
means.
That pipe is (or represents) what will be almost a living thing and as such it will have a growing problem. It will be installed at a
certain ambient temperature and then on start-up it will operate at a totally different temperature. That difference between the
installation temperature and the operating temperature will cause the pipe to expand or contract. No matter what the designed tries
to do he or she cannot stop this action. This expansion (or contraction) will cause stress, strain and force in both the piping system
and the pipe support system.
This pipe will also have a weight problem. The pipe it self has a certain weight. The pipe next to it may be the same size but it may
not weight the same. This pipe may be both high pressure and high temperature. This means that the wall schedule may be much
thicker therefore it will weigh more. Let's say we do have two lines side by side. They are both 14", one (Line A) is a low
temperature, low pressure cooling water line and the other (Line B) is a high pressure, high temperature hydrocarbon process line.
The span for both lines is 25'.

Example:

Line
Item Line B
A
Pipe
54.6 189.1
weight/foot
Water
59.7 42.6
weight/foot
Insulation
0 15
weight/foot
Total weight of 2857 6170
span lbs. lbs.
This does not include any forces that may be imposed by the total piping configuration on this specific pipe support. However, it
does indicate that there must be some close coordination with the structural department so they do not assume that all 14" lines are
equal.
As for the piping designer, does this line need extra space for movement? Do either or both of these lines need a pipe guide at this
specific pipe support? Does either of these lines need anchors at this specific pipe support? If an anchor is required will the anchor
forces on each side of the support be the same or will the anchor farces be unbalanced? Both cases must be brought to the attention
of the structural group.
With the hot line there is normally an insulation shoe required which is added material and which changes the dimensional reference
point for the centerline of this line and can cause design errors if not understood and allowed for.

For additional information about pipe see the "Standards" tab on this website.

James O. Pennock is a former Piper with more than 45 years experience covering process plant engineering, design, training, pipe
fabrication and construction. He is now retired and lives in Florida, USA.

Definition:
A fitting is a pipe item used for changing direction, branching or attaching in a piping system. There are many different types of
fittings and they are produced in all the same sizes and weights (schedules) as the pipe. Fittings are commonly segregated into
three groups; Butt-weld, Socket-weld and Screwed. Only the most common will be discussed in this article.

Materials of construction:
Like pipe, fittings are fabricated from several different types of material and usually match the material of the pipe to which they are
being attached. Some fittings are Cast Iron, some are Malleable Iron, some are Forged Steel and others are even fabricated from
rolled Steel Plate. The most used materials are again common carbon steel, along with chromes, stainless steel, iron, brass, copper,
lead, aluminum, glass, rubber and various types of plastic and plastic lined metal materials.

Fitting Types:
Normally, fittings fall into three basic types or categories. These are In-line, On-line and Closures. The In-line fittings include elbows
(Ells), Tees, Couplings and Reducers. The On-line fittings include a wide variety of "O-Let" fittings used primarily for making branch
connections. The closure fittings are various types of caps and plugs used to close the end of a pipe system. We also will discuss
some cases where there are alternates to these normal categories.

Butt-Welded Fittings
Elbows (Ells):

An Elbow is a piping fitting used for changing direction. There are five basic versions of elbows. The first and by far the most
common is the 90° long radius Ell. The second is the 45° long radius Ell. The third is the 90° short radius Ell. The fourth is the long
radius reducing Ell. The fifth version is the long radius 180° Return Bend. The basic Butt-Weld Ell is manufactured in 90° or 45°
configurations as a standard. However for special order and extra cost, the large sizes can be made in other degrees of turn.

The standard Butt-Weld elbows (90°, 45° and 180° ) can be altered to meet any special angle needs of a piping system. Elbows like
pipe can be flame cut or machine cut to the required angle. The rough end is then ground or machine beveled to the proper angle
for welding. There is normally no harm to the fitting when this is done.

The terms "Long Radius" and "Short Radius" are important to understand. "Long Radius" means that the center to end dimension is
one and a half times the nominal pipe size.

Example:

Nominal Line Size (and Center-tend of Center-to-end of long


short radius Ell) radius Ell
4" 6"
10" 15"
14" 21"
20" 30"
24" 36"

"Short Radius" means that the center to end dimension is equal to the nominal pipe size. This means that the center-to-end for a 4"
short radius Ell is 4", for a 10" Ell the center-to-end is 10" and so on.

The long radius Ell is the default standard. All elbows shown in a system are assumed to be long radius 90° Ells unless noted
otherwise. This means that the designer must call out any and all exceptions to this rule. If the Ell is a 90° long radius Ell then the
elbow symbol is all that is required. However, if the Ell is a 45° Ell then the designer must add the notation "45° Ell" next to the
elbow symbol. If the Ell is a 90° short radius Ell then the designer must place the notation S. R. next to the elbow symbol. Also if
the elbow has been trimmed to any odd angle this too must be noted next to the fitting.

As stated above the 90° long radius Ell is the default standard and is the most used. The designed should use the long radius Ell at
all times unless conditions exist that force another choice. The short radius 90° Ell should only be used when tight space does not
allow the long radius. The 45° Ell is normally used where a simple offset is required for some purpose. The 180° Ell is used mostly
by equipment manufacturers to form heating or cooling coils. Return Bends are not normally required by the piping designer unless
there is a requirement to fabricate a complex configuration.

The purpose of the 90° long radius Reducing Ell is to do the job of an elbow and a reducer. (Reducers will be covered later.) As such
this Ell is made with one end of one size and the other end one or two line sizes smaller. The using of the reducing Ell is not
cheaper; it only takes less room. The "long radius" dimension for the 90° long radius reducing Ell is based on the size of the large
end.

Because the long radius and short radius designation of the 90° Ells are based on the nominal pipe size the designer quickly learns
the center-to-end dimensions. The center-to-end dimensions for the 45° Ell are normally found only on a chart. However, there is a
short-cut way to "know" these dimensions. You see, these dimensions are also based on the nominal pipe size. This short-cut
method works for all 45° Ells from 4" to 24" line size. You can do this in your head. You simply divide the line size in half three
times. Take the answer from the first time and the third time and total them up. That will be the dimension for the 45° Ell fitting.

Example:

Column #5 -Fitting
dimension
Column #1 (Line Column #2(½ Column #3(½ Column #4(½
size) Col. #1) Col. #2) Col. #3)
(Total of Col. #2 & Col.
#4)
4" 2" 1" ½" 2 ½"
8" 4" 2" 1" 5"
10" 5" 2 ½" 1 ¼" 6 ¼"
14" 7" 3 ½" 1 ¾" 8 ¾"
20" 10" 5" 2-½" 12 ½

Tees:
The primary purpose of a Tee fitting is to make a branch from a pipe line (or run). The branch may need to be the same size as the
run or it may need to be one or more sizes smaller than the run. Because of economics (the cost of special orders) the use of Tees is
normally limited to size-to-size or Straight Tee, (all three connections are the same size) or Reducing Tees where the branch outlet
is only one size smaller than run size. Methods for making branches of other smaller sizes will be discussed later.

The dimensions of Tees are not as simple as they are for Ells. For Tees you must look them up on a fitting chart. The dimension
found there is however standardized between all manufacturers. For Straight Tees the center-to-end dimension of both ends and for
the branch outlet is the same. For Reducing Tees the center-to-end of the branch outlet is different from that of the run.

Reducers:

A Reducer is a fitting used to change the line size one or more sizes smaller (or larger). There are two versions of Reducers. There is
Concentric Reducers- where the centerline of the inlet and the outlet are the same. There is Eccentric Reducers- where the
centerline of the inlet is different than the centerline of the outlet. With the Eccentric Reducer, one side is flat. Depending on how it
is installed you may have bottom flat (BF) or top flat TF). You may also have a need to have (*) side flat (*= north, south, east or
west). It is about a toss-up as to which is used more. Concentric Reducers are used mostly in situations where the reducer is in a
vertical run of pipe. Eccentric Reducers are used in horizontal runs of pipe such as pipeways or in pump suctions.

The dimensions for reducers must be looked up but are normally standardized among the manufacturers for a given size. The length
of a reducer is the same for a range of sizes (Example: The end-to-end dimension for 10" x 4", 10" x 6" and 10" x 8" reducers is
7"). As you can see the length of a Reducer is very short in relation to the diameter.

Caps:

The weld Cap is a fitting used to close the end of a pipe. The closed end of the Cap is semi-elliptical in shape. The dimension of a
weld cap is a look-up item. Weld caps are most often found at the bottom of a piping configuration called a "Boot." A boot is a short
length of pipe with a pipe Cap that is attached to the bottom of steam line and provides for the collection of condensate.

Alternates:
Here are a few alternates to the normal methods of doing business discussed above.

Miters:

We talked about elbows as a way to change direction. You can change direction without using elbows. You might do this with a Miter
Ell (or Mitre, both spellings are correct). A Miter Ell is where no fitting is used. Miters are normally used in large size/low pressure
piping.

You fabricate the Miter or change in direction from pipe segments (or pieces) that are cut at specific angles depending on the
number of pieces and welds required. This is really effective when really odd angles are required. Two of the pieces are the incoming
pipe and the out-going pipe. There may be no middle piece or there may be one (or more) other short middle pieces depending on
the angle of the turn. A simple turn of 45° might be made with a two-piece/one weld miter. Other changes in direction might be
three piece/two weld miters, three piece/two weld miters and so on. The number of welds is always one less than the number of
pieces.

Depending on the size and schedule of the pipe a Miter might be cheaper than buying fittings. In small diameter piping the miter is
more expensive (labor costs) and there is more pressure drop through a small miter than a small fitting. Miters are also not
recommended for high temperature lines because miters are more susceptible to overstressing.

Stub-in (Stub-on):

We talked about using Straight Tees and Reducing Tees as a way to make branches from a line. For low pressure (or reasonably low
pressure) there is another way to make branches from a line. This method uses only pipe. It is normally used only for low
pressure/low temperature applications where the branch is reducing. The ASME B31.3 (and other piping B31 Code sections)
recognize two basic versions of the pipe to pipe branch.

One method is where the run pipe has a hole cut the outside diameter of the branch pipe. This opening is then beveled for a "full
penetration weld" The branch pipe is saddle cut (with no bevel) to match the I. D. of the run pipe. They are then fitted together and
welded.

The second method is where the diameter of the hole in the run pipe is the same I. D. as the I. D. of the branch pipe. This hole does
not get a bevel. The end of the branch pipe is saddle cut to fit the run pipe and is then beveled for a full penetration weld.
With the first method, the branch pipe is inserted in the run pipe. With the second method, the branch pipe is set on the run pipe.
Both are still commonly referred to as "Stub-ins"
Both of these can come non-reinforced (as described above) or reinforced. The reinforced version is normally only required for
higher stress situations. The reinforcement is a "ring" plate cut from some scrape run pipe or the same material as the run pipe. At
the center is a hole the same size as the branch pipe. If cut from flat plate it is then shaped to fit around the run pipe. The width of
the ring is normally one half the diameter of the branch pipe. The ring is intended to replace the material that was removed when
the hole was cut in the run pipe. A small diameter hole (1/4" NPT) is normally drilled (and tapped) in the ring to act as a vent during
the welding process and to allow for Hydrotesting of the welds. The ring is then welded to the branch pipe and the run pipe with full
penetration welds. The small hole is fitted with a plug after work is completed.

O-let fittings:
Another way to make branch connections on pipe and vessels is by using an "O-Let" fitting. An "O-Let fitting is designed for use on
3" and larger welded pipe. The main feature of the typical O-Let fitting is the built-up base design which eliminates the need of any
other form of branch reinforcement. The O-let fitting is manufactured in a number of styles.

These are:

Weld-O-Let - (common) - This fitting is best described as an odd shaped "donut." It's purpose is to make self-reinforced branch
outlets on a larger (one size or more) run of pipe. The base of the common weld-o-let has a saddle shape to fit the run pipe. The
outlet end of the weld-o-let has a beveled-end allowing for butt welding a pipe or fitting. Weld-O-Lets come in a wide range of sizes
and materials. The size call-out is normally the run (header) size by the branch size (Example: 24" x 4" WOL). It may be of some
interest to know that most O-Let fittings are made with the base that covers a range of header sizes. This means that the 24" x 4"
WOL will also fit on all pipe sizes from 24" pipe to 36" pipe.

Thread-O-Let - The Thread-O-Let is made much the same as the Weld-O-Let except that the outlet is threaded to match the
normal tapered pipe threads. The threaded outlet sizes are normally limited to the smaller (2" and under) pipe sizes.

Sock-O-Let - The Sock-O-Let is also made much the same as the Weld-O-Let except that the outlet has a socket to match the
socket welded piping fittings and pipe. The socket outlet sizes are normally limited to the smaller (2" and under) pipe sizes.

Latrolet - A Latrolet is a weld on branch fitting that is attached to the run pipe at a 45° angle. The angle attachment is sometimes
required on high pressure relief systems. A Latrolet may be ordered with; a Butt-weld outlet end, a threaded outlet end or a socket
weld end.

Elbowlet - The Elbowlet is made to be fitted on the back side of a long radius 90° elbow. An Elbowlet may also be ordered with; a
Butt-weld outlet end, a threaded outlet end or a socket weld outlet end.

Nip-O-Let - A Nip-O-Let is a fitting that has the reinforced base for attaching to the run pipe and then has a short pipe extension
with a threaded or plain outlet end. The Nip-O-Let does come in a range of sizes, however they are limited to the smaller sizes. This
fitting is normally used for vent, drain and pressure gage connections.

Flange-O-Let - This fitting is much like the Nip-O-Let but has a flanged outlet end. The purpose is the same as for the Nip-O-Let.

Couplings: (as a branch outlet fitting)


The common pipe Coupling (to be discussed later) can also be used in the making of small size branches from a larger header or run
pipe. One end of the (Threaded or Socket Weld) Coupling is shaped to match the O. D. of the larger pipe. This shaped end is then
ground to form a beveled end which allows for a full penetration weld.

Screwed and Socket-Welded Fittings

These fittings perform the same function as the Butt-Weld fittings. There function is the same but the method of joining and the
dimensioning is different. Normally these fittings are used in sizes 1-1/2" (or 2") and smaller. Welded fittings are specified the same
as the pipe, by weight, schedule or wall thickness. Screwed and Socket-Weld fittings are specified per the pressure class.
Thread engagements as well as the depths of the sockets for different pipe sizes are different and must be looked-up on an
approved dimension table.

Threaded fitting pressure classes:

· 125# Cast Iron


· 250# Cast Iron
· 150# Malleable Iron
· 300# Malleable Iron
· 2000# Forged Steel *
· 3000# Forged Steel *
· 6000# Forged Steel
* Most common

The Cast Iron and Malleable Iron fittings are basically used for air and water services at a low temperature and pressure. Forged
fittings are normally used for higher pressures and temperatures as well as for the more complex commodities.
The majority of the screwed fittings will have female (internal) threads per NPT (National Pipe Thread). The exception will be the
swages and the plugs - they will have male (external) threads.
Socket-Weld fittings are manufactured in two classes.

· 3000# Forged Steel


· 6000# Forged Steel

Socket-Weld fittings have a deep socket into which the pipe slips and aligns itself. The weld is then made on the outer surface of the
pipe and fitting. This eliminate the need for or use of special clamps or tack welding for alignment prior to the final fit-up welding. At
the bottom of the socket a 1/16" gap is left to compensate for expansion when the weld is made. This gap is called a root-gap. The
swage does not have an internal socket; it will fit into the socket of a fitting or be butt-welded to a pipe.

The dimensions for screwed and socket-weld fittings must be looked up on a standard fitting dimension chart. There are no
dimension short-cuts for these fittings.

Common Screwed an Socket-Weld fittings:


Elbows (Ells): Here again we have a fitting whose purpose is to change direction. There are only two versions. There is the 90° Ell
and the 45° Ell. With the Screwed and Socket-Weld Ells there is no long radius or short radius. They are just as they are and they
cannot be "trimmed" to allow for odd angles..

Tees: The Screwed and Socket-Weld Tee fittings are used for making branches. They do come in straight and some reducing sizes.

Swages: The Screwed and Socket-Weld Swage comes in both the concentric and the eccentric shapes. Swages do have an
important feature that every designer needs to know and accept. Where a Butt-Weld reducer is short relative to the diameter, the
swage is very long relative the diameter. Screwed and Socket-Weld swages are made by the same people and in some cases by the
same machine. Some are then threaded and some are left with a plain end or beveled for welding. The extra length on the Screwed
Swage allows space for the pipe wrench.

Caps and Plugs: Caps and Plugs are intended to provide for the closer of the end of a pipe or fitting.

Nipples: A Nipple is a name given to a short length of pipe. It is not really a fitting in the same context as an elbow or a Tee.
Nipples are cut from pipe and can be purchased in 4", 6" and 12" standard lengths. Pipe Nipples can also be made by the piping
crew in the field.

Unions: The Union is basically used as a dismantling fitting, and in many cases it is necessary for assembly. The field crew may
install extra Unions at their own discretion to expedite and facilitate the construction of socket-weld and screwed piping.

For additional information about fittings see the "Standards" tab on this website.

Section - 1
D: Flanges, Gaskets & Bolts (Just the basics)
By: James O. Pennock
Note: This article covers ASME B 16.5 Standard Piping Flanges up to 24" NPS. Flanges larger than 24" fall under ASME B16.47 and
while they have the same attributes they will be covered at a later time.

Definition:
A flange is defined as a plate type device, normally round, that is attached to the end of a pipe, fitting, valve or other object to
facilitate the assembly and disassembly of a piping system. For many years the only practical method of joining steel pipe had been
by connecting threaded pipe ends with couplings. Improvements in the welding of carbon steel reduced labor costs and provided a
completely sealed and much stronger joint. In most present day piping systems, threaded joints are usually limited to pipe sizes 2"
and smaller. Larger pipe (3" and larger) is normally joined by butt-welding of continuous pipe and fittings or by flanges at joints that
may require dismantling. Flanges (3" and larger) are also the default standard for connecting to most equipment connections and
valves.

Materials of construction:
Flanges are manufactured in all the different materials to match the material of the pipe and fittings to which they are being
attached. While some flanges are made of Cast Iron. The vast majority of flanges are forged carbon steel.

Forged Flange Ratings:


Forged steel flanges are made in seven primary ratings. These primary ratings are as follows:
• 150#
• 300#
• 400#
• 600#
• 900#
• 1500#
• 2500#
The Primary Rating is a pressure rating based on a pressure/temperature relationship.

Example:

A 150# Forged Flange is used for 150# PSIG at 500º F. This same flange may also be used for 275# PSIG at 100º F. This same
flange could also be used at 100# PSIG at 750º F. Note the inverse relationship. When the pressure goes up, the temperature goes
down and vice versa. Pressure ratings are used as a guide to safely design piping systems and also to standardize manufactured
piping components. The same ratings hold true for screwed and socket-weld flanges.

Cast Iron Flange Ratings:


The two most common ratings for Cast Iron flanges are 125# and 250#. Other flange ratings are available but are not common.
Cast Iron flanges are generally found associated with low pressure cast iron valves and nozzles on cast iron equipment such as some
pumps and turbines. Mating forged steel flanges to cast iron flange can pose a potential for damage to the "weaker" cast iron. The
main point to remember now is that a 125# Cast Iron flange will mate to a 150# forged steel flange, and a 250# Cast Iron flange
will mate to a 300# forged steel flange. The solution to the potential damage problem will be discussed later in flange facings.

Flange Dimensions:
A flange has many dimensions. The most critical is the "length" of the flange. This dimension will vary with each type of flange and
will be covered in the section below covering Flange Types.

All other dimensions for a flange will normally be the same across all flange types but will vary with each flange rating. These
common dimensions include:
• Flange Outside Diameter
• Flange Thickness
• Bolt Circle
• Number of Bolts
• Bolt Hole Size
• Bolt Size

Bolt Hole Location:


The ASME B16.5 has a standard for boltholes that in used by all (US) manufacturers for flange sizes up through 24" For instance;
the number of boltholes required varies with the size and rating of the flange. But the number and size is the same no mater the
type of flange. The boltholes are evenly spaced around the flange on a concentric bolt circle. There will always be an even number of
boltholes, in graduations of 4 (i.e., 4, 8, 12, 16, etc.).

Unless specifically noted otherwise by the piping designer (and then only if for good reason) all flange boltholes shall straddle the
"natural" centerlines. This is the flange bolthole orientation rule. This "natural" centerline rule for flange is known, understood and
followed by all responsible equipment manufacturers and pipe fabricators. The rule is:
• For a vertical flange face (the flange face in vertical and the line is horizontal) the boltholes shall be oriented to straddle the
vertical and horizontal centerlines.
• For a horizontal flange face (the flange face is horizontal and the line is vertical up or vertical down) the boltholes shall be oriented
to straddle the (plant) north/south centerlines.

Care must be taken to check all equipment vendor outlines to identify any flange orientations that do not match this rule. When an
exception is found the vendor can be requested to change his bolt hole orientation. This is not always successful and if not then the
piping designer must insure that the piping fabrication documents call for the correct orientation.

This rule of boltholes straddling the natural centerlines is sometimes referred to as "Two-Hole" the flange. This means that the two
of the holes straddle the centerline. To "One-Hole" a flange means that the flange has been rotated so that one hole is right on the
natural centerline. I assure you that 99.999% of the time that to "One Hole" a flange is a mistake and will add cost to the field. It
also makes the piping foreman very unhappy.

Flange Types:
Weld Neck Flanges:
Weld Face Flanges are distinguished from other flange types by their long tapered hub and gentle transition of thickness in the
region of the butt weld that joins them to pipe or a fitting. A weld-neck flange is attached to a pipe or a fitting with a single full
penetration, "V" bevel weld. The long tapered hub provides an important reinforcement of the flange proper from the standpoint of
strength and resistance to dishing. The smooth transition from the flange thickness to the pipe wall thickness by the taper is
extremely beneficial under conditions of repeated bending caused by line expansion or other variable forces, and produces an
endurance strength of welding neck flanged assemblies equivalent to that of a butt-welded joint. This type of flange is preferred for
severe service conditions, whether loading conditions are substantially constant or fluctuate between wide limits.

The weld neck flange is used in each of the seven flange ratings and has the advantage of requiring only one weld to attach it to the
adjacent pipe or fitting.

The key dimension for a weld neck flange in the length through the hub from the beveled end to the contact face of the flange. This
"length" includes the bevel, the tapered hub, and the thickness of the plate part of the flange and the raised face. To obtain the
correct dimension you must look at a correctly constructed flange dimension chart (see the "Tools" button on this website) or a
flange manufacturers catalog. Electronic piping design software will normally already have the correct dimension built-in.

It is important to understand and remember that the (1/16") raised face on the 150# raised face and on the 300# raised face
flanges is normally included in the length dimension. However, the ¼" raised face is not included in the chart or catalog length
dimension for the 400# and higher pressure rated flanges. The raised face dimension for 400# flanges (and up) normally must be
added to the chart or catalog length to arrive at the true total length of these higher-pressure flanges.
Slip-on Flanges:
Slip-On (SO) Flanges are preferred by some contractors, over the Weld-neck, because of the lower initial cost. However, this may be
offset by the added cost of the two fillet welds required for proper installation. The strength of the slip-on flange is ample for it's
rating, but its life under fatigue conditions is considered to be only one-third that of the weld-neck flange.

The slip-on flange may be attached to the end of a piece of pipe or to one or more ends of a pipefitting. The slip-on flange is
positioned so the inserted end of the pipe or fitting is set back or short of the flange face by the thickness of the pipe wall plus 1/8
of an inch. This allows for a fillet weld inside the SO flange equal to the thickness of the pipe without doing any damage to the
flange face. The back or outside of the flange is also welded with a fillet weld.

A variation of the Slip-On flange also exists. This is the Slip-On Reducing Flange. This is simply a larger (say a 14") Slip-On flange
blank that, instead of the Center (pipe) hole being cut out (or drilled out) for 14" pipe it is cut out for a 6" pipe. The SO Reducing
flange is basically used for reducing the line size where space limitations will not allow the length of a weld neck flange and reducer
combination. The use of the Slip-On Reducing Flange should only be used where the flow direction is from the smaller size into the
larger size.

Lap Joint Flanges:


A Lap Joint Flange is a two piece device that is much like a weld-neck flange but also like a loose slip-on flange. One piece is a
sleeve called a 'Stub-end" and is shaped like a short piece of pipe with a weld bevel on one end and a narrow shoulder on the other
end called the hub. The hub is the same outside diameter as the raised face (gasket contact surface) of a weld neck flange. The
thickness of the hub is normally about ¼" to 3/8". The back face of the hub has a rounded transition (or inside fillet) that joins the
hub to the sleeve.

The other piece of a Lap Joint Flange is the backing flange. This flange has all the same common dimensions (O.D., bolt circle, bolt
hole size, etc.) as any other flange however it does not have a raised face. One side, the backside, has a slight shoulder that is
square cut at the center or pipe hole. The front side has flat face and at the center hole an outside fillet to match the fillet of the
"Stub-end" piece. The flange part of the Lap-joint flange assembly is slipped on to the stub-end prior to the sleeve being welded to
the adjoining pipe or fitting. The flange itself is not welded or fixed in any way. It is free to spin for proper alignment with what ever
it is joining to.

The "Stub-end" can normally be purchased in two lengths. There is a short version, about 3" long and a long version of about 6"
long. It is prudent for the piping designer to know which version is in the piping specification.

Because of it's two piece configuration, the Lap Joint Flange offers a way to cut cost or simplify work. The cost saving comes when
the piping system requires a high cost alloy for all "wetted" parts to reduce corrosion. The sleeve or Stub-end can be the required
higher cost alloy but the flange can be the lower cost forged carbon steel.

The work simplification comes into the picture where there are cases that require frequent and rapid disassembly and assembly
during the operation of a plant. The ability to spin that backing flange compensates for misalignment of the boltholes during
reassembly.

Screwed (or Threaded) Flanges:


Screwed flanges look very much like a Slip-On flange in some ways. The main difference is the Screwed flange was bored out
initially to match a specific pipe inside diameter. The backside of this center opening is then threaded with the proper sized tapered
pipe thread. This flange is primarily used to make flanged joints where required in small sizes in threaded pipe specs

Socket Weld Flanges:


Socket Weld flanges also look very much like a Slip-On flange. Here the main difference is the Socket Weld flange was also bored
out initially to match a specific pipe inside diameter. Here however, the backside of this center opening is then counter bored to
form the proper size socket to take the pipe O.D. This flange is primarily used to make flanged joints where required in small sizes
in socket welded pipe specs

Blind Flanges:
Blind flanges are a round plate with all the proper boltholes but no center hold. This flange is used to provide positive closer on the
ends of pipes, valves or equipment nozzles.

Flange Faces:
Face Types:
Flanges faces come in different forms. Some forms are more common and others are old and out of date forms. These old forms
may be ordered but possibly only to match an existing piece of old equipment.

Flange face forms are:


• Flat Face (FF) - The Flat Face is primarily used on Cast Iron flanges. With this face the whole contact face of the flange is
machined flat.
• Raised Face (RF) - The Raised Face is most common of all flange faces. The flange has a raised area machined on the flange face
equal to the contact area of a gasket.
• Ring-type Joint (RTJ) - This is a form of flange face that is becoming obsolete. This type has a higher raised portion on the face
into which a ring groove is then machined.
• Tongue and Groove (T&G) - This is also a form of flange face that in becoming obsolete. With this type the flanges must be
matched. One flange face has a raised ring (Tongue) machined onto the flange face while the mating flange has a matching
depression (Groove) machined into it's face.
• Male-and -Female (M&F) - This is another form of flange face that is obsolete. With this type the flanges must also be matched.
One flange face has an area that extends beyond the normal flange face (Male). The companion flange or mating flange has a
matching depression (Female) machined into it's face.
Dissimilar flange faces such as the RTJ, T&G and the F&M shall never be bolted together. The primary reason for this is that the
contact surfaces do not match and there is no gasket that has one type on one side and another type on the other side. Don't even
think about it!

Flat face flanges are never to be bolted to a raised face flange. If you need to bolt a Forged steel flange to cast iron then you must
call for the forged steel flange to be machined off to a flat face. For more information on this see this link to Goulds pumps

Flange Face Finish:


The part of a flange where the gasket touches is called the contact surface. This area is the most critical area to the prevention of
leaks. This area of a flange must be protected from the time it is machined clear through all the various shipping, storage,
fabrication and installation periods. Flange faces are machined with the following standard finishes. No doubt your piping material
engineer could request another special finish but that would only add extra cost. The most common finish for the contact face of a
flange is a concentric (or phonographic) groove. This pattern is machined into the flange face and provides the grip for the gasket.

Gaskets:
You can have 600# stainless steel flanges and have the bolts fully tight and if you do not have a gasket (or the proper gasket) you
will have a lot of leaks. Having the gasket and the right gasket is very important. Gaskets provide the tight seal that retains the
pressure and keeps the gas or liquid in the pipe. In a vacuum system it keeps the outside air from getting in. Gaskets are designed
and later chosen considering all the same issues as were used to select the pipe. These include pressure, temperature, and
corrosiveness of the commodity, among others. Gaskets are made of a wide range of materials. These include rubber, elastomers
and graphite. The Spiral Wound gasket has a graphite or teflon material wound with a metal strip which is then held in shape by a
flat metal ring. This metal retainer ring also acts as a centering tool to insure that the casket is not misaligned or blocks the product
flow.

Gaskets for Ring Type Joint flanges are simply a solid metal ring. There are two basic cross-sectional shapes for the RTJ gasket.
These are "Oval" and "Hexagonal."

Bolts:
Bolting is the final element of a complete flange joint assembly. Here again we have some variations. The most common is the Stud
Bolt. Next is normally the Cap Screw. And finally we have the Machine Bolt.

Stud Bolts:
The Stud Bolt is a long threaded rod (with no head on either end) and two nuts. The Stud Bolt is used in all locations where you
have two normal flanges with access to the backside of both flanges and both ends of the stud.

Cap Screws:
The Cap Screw is a fully threaded rod with a head on one end. No nut is used with the Cap Screw. The Cap Screw is normally used
in all locations where a flange is being attached to a piece of equipment where there are only tapped holes (i.e.: no access to the
backside). Cap Screws are also used to attach threaded-lug type wafer valves (Butterfly Valves) between a pair of flanges. For this
application the length of the Cap Screw selected is critical. Two Cap Screws are used at each lug position, one from one side and one
from the other side. The Cap Screw must be long enough to go through the flange, the raised face and half of the threaded lug
minus 1/16 of an inch. This leaves a 1/8 inch total gap between the ends of the two cap screws when the screws are tight.

Machine Bolts:
A Machine Bolt is a rod with a hexagon head on one end and threads on some of the length. Machine Bolts are normally made of a
lower strength material than Stud Bolts and are therefore considered only where low strength bolting is required. These applications
most often include Cast Iron flanges.

For additional information about flanges, gaskets and bolts see the "Standards" tab on the pipingdesigners.com website.

Section - II
C: Introduction to Vessels and Vessel Orientation
By: James O. Pennock
The question on many minds may be "Why does Piping do Vessel Orientation?" We can answer that question two
ways. The first answer would be, because of the traditional role of Piper and the content of the vessel orientation
activity itself. The traditional role of the Piper has always been the bringing together of multi-discipline information to
create the plant layout and piping plans. The activity of vessel orientation has the same multi-discipline focus.

The second way to answer the question is to ask "If not the Piper, then who?" Civil? Structural? Electrical? Instrumentation? No,
they are not logical candidates. Structural? The structural engineer does engineer the support for some vessels but they do not truly
design the support. Process? While the process engineer does have a great deal of interest and input in the workings of a vessel,
their interest is more from a function and performance focus. Vessels? Why doesn't the vessel engineer do the vessel orientation? Or
better yet, why doesn't the Vendor do the vessel orientation? The response to that is in all of the non-vessel factors that influence
the vessel orientation activity. What are non-vessel factors?
Non-vessel factors include:
A. Site -- Vessel orientation is influenced by where the vessel is located on the site
B. Relationship to related equipment -- Proper vessel orientation must consider the location and method of connection to related
equipment
C. Support -- Vessel orientation of many vessels includes the method of support
D. P&ID interpretation -- The person responsible for vessel orientation must be very proficient in reading and understanding a P&ID
E. Internals to external object relationships -- Internals effect the nozzle locations that in turn connect to the piping. The piping is
subject to thermal expansion, and must be supported. The piping must meet all the process requirements from the P&ID, and must
be in compliance with the Plant Layout Design Specification. The piping must also be supported, and must meet the all the
applicable Code criteria, etc.
F. Operations and Maintenance -- Vessel orientation must be compatible with the requirements of the operators and the people who
must maintain the vessels.

This brings us back to answer number one. Vessel orientation requires the bringing together of and the coordination of data and
requirements from many disciplines. Piping in their Plant Layout role is already functioning in this mode. Most major engineering and
design firms (in our Industry) have found that Piping Design is the most logical and most efficient group for developing complex
vessel orientations.

The ideal scenario for the development of a vessel orientation is like a chain. The links of the chain are like the steps required
completing the finished design. With the ideal scenario you would not start step two until step one is completed and so on. The ideal
circumstances means that the Plot Plan has been firmed up and approved, the P&IDs have been developed, reviewed, and issued
approved for design (AFD). It means that the unit piping transposition has been developed. It means that Process has completed
their input to the vessel datasheet and Vessels has completed their preliminary work.

Occasionally, the piping designer has been required to initiate a vessel orientation under other than the most ideal of circumstances.
In some cases the vessel orientation has been started before the P&IDs were ready for the first Client P&ID review. Starting Vessel
orientation before the source documents are ready will expose the job to risks, errors, recycle and increased costs.

As much as we try to avoid this situation, it can still happen. Premature starts in vessel orientation are due to the requirement for
early purchase of vessels identified as long delivery. The Construction schedule of any project is based on the delivery of key
equipment and materials. The construction schedule in turn will impact the start-up schedule. Once the Client has awarded the
project, they are anxious to get their plant "on-stream" as soon as possible. The sooner they get on-stream, the sooner they can
recover the capitol investment and see the expected profits.

The delivery time for vessels such as: alloy reactors, heavy wall high pressure vessels, or crude vacuum columns often take more
than a year from PO (purchase order) release to shipment. In the past, one way to expedite the overall schedule, the Client has pre-
purchased the vessels prior to the award of the project. There is a potential risk for increased cost in this scenario also.

Under normal circumstances a Vessel fabricator will not normally do any rolling and cutting of plate until the order has reached a
certain milestone. They will need the final checked, corrected and approved vessel drawings. This includes all the nozzles, pipe
supports, pipe guides, ladders, platforms, etc. The Vendor's fabrication and delivery performance clock does not start ticking until
they get the drawings back approved.

A project with a fast track schedule or pre-purchased vessels will put a lot of pressure on the piping design group. Piping should
normally have time to properly develop the Plot Plan, the P&ID transposition, the other related piping layouts, in order to come up
with the best vessel orientations for economics, operability, and maintenance.

As piping designers you owe it to the Client, your company, as well as to yourself to do the best job you know how. This philosophy
is true when doing vessel orientations as with any other piping design activity. You should check into all aspects of the vessel piping
and the orientation. You need to start by collecting, verifying, and using the proper information.

During Plot Plan development, the piping designer must take into consideration many items that can also have a bearing on the
vessel other than the orientation itself.

Such items include:


Lay-down space -- Prior to erection, tall columns require space for final assembly
Erection equipment -- The cranes (or other lifting devices) planned to lift and set the vessels require vast amounts of space
Plant road limitations; Rack heights, shoulder clearances, logistics

Special vessels such as Reactors have several factors, which should be kept in mind. The most important one, of course, is to keep
the alloy piping as short as possible by locating the Reactors near the Heaters. Catalyst handling facilities is another important
consideration. This is true whether the catalyst is to be loaded by crane or by vessel mounted monorail. The removal of spent
catalyst, usually by tote bin, truck, or conveyor, is another space consideration.
We all need to remember space is money to the Client. Wise use of plot space can save the Client money by reducing installation
costs and operating costs.

Vessel Configurations

Vessels come in a wide variety of configurations. The variety is expressed in their sizes, shape, and function. They also will have a
wide range of pressure, temperature and metallurgy. This list is only intended to highlight the main examples.

Vertical Vessels with no internals


(A.k.a.: Tanks, Drums, and Pots)
Example: Mix Tank, Air Receiver, Volume Bottle, Flash Drums, Fuel Gas K. O. Pot, Feed Surge Drum, and Dump Tank
Discussion: This type of vessel will normally be small (< 24" diameter x 3' - 0" T-T) to medium sized (24"dia to 48" diameter x <
10" - 0" T-T). They may be mounted to the support surface (grade, floor, or platform) via a traditional vessel skirt, attached legs, or
lugs. When located at grade this vessel may be mounted directly on the concrete paving or floor depending on vessel weight and soil
conditions.

Vertical Vessels with simple Internals


Simple internals such as Demister Pads
Example: Feed Knockout Drum, Separator Drum, Filter, and Coalescer Drum
Discussion: This type of vessel will normally be medium (24"dia to 48" diameter x < 10" - 0" T-T) to large sized (Over 48"
diameter and over 10' - 0" T-T). They may be mounted to the support surface (grade or platforms) via a traditional straight vessel
skirt, a flared skirt, attached legs, or lugs. When located at grade this vessel will normally be mounted on an octagon foundation.

Vertical Trayed Vessels with straight sides


Example: Fractionator, Contactor, and Stripper
Discussion: This type of vessel can be as small as two or three feet in diameter or may be very large at 20' - 0" or more in
diameter. The diameter, height, number of trays, type of trays along with the other related items depends on the function. These
vessels will normally be supported at grade via a traditional vessel skirt. This vessel will normally be supported on the traditional 9"
to 1' - 0" high octagon concrete foundation.

Vertical Trayed Vessels - Coke Bottle (two diameters w/ transition)


Example: Splitter, Stabilizer, Lean Oil Still, and Absorber Column
Discussion: This type of vessel will have two diameters. The Coke Bottle Vessel is a multi purpose vessel. The larger section will
have different internals and function differently than the smaller section. The bottom of the Column will normally be the larger
diameter with a conical transition piece to join the two. This type vessel will normally be mounted at grade via a traditional vessel
skirt and be supported on an octagon foundation.
Variation: A variation of this type vessel is the Inverted Coke Bottle. The Inverted Coke Bottle Vessel will normally have a short
skirt at the transition point and be mounted on an elevated platform in a structure. The smaller (lower) section will hang down
inside the structure.

Vertical Packed Tower Vessels


Example: Dryers, Feed Purifiers,
Discussion: these types of vessel will normally be medium sized. Packing may be a manufactured mesh or a granulated natural
material. The location and orientation of this type of vessel must consider the loading and removal of the packing. These vessels
may operate at ambient, temperatures, the lower normal process temperatures, or at high temperatures. These vessels may be
mounted to the support surface (grade or platforms) via a traditional vessel skirt, attached legs, or lugs. When located at grade this
vessel will normally be mounted on an octagon foundation.

Vertical (Refinery Type) Reactor Vessels


Example: Reactor, Converters
Discussion: This type of vessel will normally be medium to large sized, high pressure (> 500 psig) and high temperature (> 600o
F). These vessels will be filled with one or more layers or beds of various materials that will act as a catalyst. The sidewalls and
heads on this type of Reactor may be five to seven inches thick. Refinery Reactors may be mounted to the support surface on a
short vessel skirt, on lugs, or on legs. The bottom head and nozzle must be elevated to allow for removal of the catalyst. The
location and orientation of this type of vessel must consider the loading and removal of the catalyst. These vessels will normally
operate at very high process temperatures and will be located in close proximity to fired heaters.

Vertical (PharmBio & Fine Chemical Type) Reactor Vessels


Example: Reactor, Mix Tank, and Cook Tank
Discussion: This type of vessel will normally have a diameter and height of similar dimensions. The ratio of nozzles to vessel size
will be very high. These vessels will have added complexities with the requirements for mixers and jacketing. These vessels will
normally be mounted to the support surface on lugs, a collar, or on legs. These vessels are normally located on an upper level of an
enclosed structure or building. The bottom head and nozzle must be elevated to allow for operator access, gravity flow to other
equipment, or critical pump NPSH requirements.

Vertical Vessels - Bins and Silos


Example: Agricultural Product Storage, Dry Chemical Storage
Discussion: Bins and Silos are used for dry material storage. These vessels are normally thin walled, operate at atmospheric
pressure, and made of materials other than carbon steel. These vessels will normally have a cone bottom. The configuration of the
cone is based on the angle of repose of the commodity to be stored. These vessels may be supported via skirt, legs, or lug mounted
in an elevated structure. These vessels may have flat, cone, or dome roofs.

Horizontal Vessels at grade


Example: Condensate Collection Drum, Separator, and Settler Drum
Discussion: This type of vessel will normally be small to medium sized. They may be mounted to the support surface (grade or
platforms) on extended vessel saddles. The extended saddle allows for clearance for bottom connections at a lower cost. When
located at grade this vessel may be mounted on a foundation or the paving (depending on vessel weight and soil conditions).

Horizontal Vessels - Elevated without Boots


Example: Steam Drum, and Feed Surge Drum
Discussion: these types of vessel will normally be medium to large sized. They will be mounted to the support surface (foundation
or platforms) on traditional vessel saddles. When located near grade this vessel will normally be mounted on an elevated foundation.
The NPSH requirements of the related pumps are critical to setting of the support elevation.

Horizontal Vessels - Elevated with Boots


Example: Stripper Receiver, Accumulator, Interstage K. O. Drum, and Flare K. O. Drum
Discussion: these types of vessel will normally be medium to large sized. They will be mounted to the support surface (foundation
or platforms) on traditional vessel saddles. When located near grade this vessel will normally be mounted on an elevated foundation.
Access is normally required for the Boot operating valves and instruments. The NPSH requirements of the related pumps are critical
to setting of the support elevation.

Horizontal - Underground or Pit Vessels


Example: Dump Tank, Kill Tank, and Hazardous Material Storage Tank
Discussion: This type of vessel may be small, medium, or large in size. They will be mounted to the support surface on traditional
vessel saddles. When located at grade this vessel will normally be mounted on a low foundation. When located in a pit, the pit size
must allow for safety, operation, and maintenance. Pit mounted installations may also require sumps and drainage pumps.
Underground (buried) installations may require double wall tanks with leak detection provisions.

API Storage Tanks


Example: Feed Storage, Intermediate Product Storage, Off-Spec Product Storage, Finished Product Storage, Batch Storage, Fire (or
other) Water Storage
Discussion: These are the traditional Tank Farm tanks. There are a number of sub-types, which include Cone Roof Atmospheric;
Cone Roof with captured venting, Open Floating Roof, Enclosed Floating Roof, and Double Wall LNG Storage Tanks. These tanks
have specific location, support, piping connection, safety, and access criteria based on the commodity to be stored.

Special
Example: Spheres, Spheroids, and Bullets
Discussion: These vessel types have special location and orientation criteria and should be handled on an Ad Hoc basis.

Vessel Supports
There is a wide variety in the methods used to support vessels.
There include:
a. Skirts
b. Saddles
c. Ring Girders
d. Lugs
e. Legs
f. Portables on Casters
g. Pads
h. Direct Bury
Each of these support types may also have variations

Vertical Vessel Components


The pressure containment elements of the vessel are based of the process requirements for pressure, temperature, commodity,
corrosion rate, plant life criteria, and the applicable Codes.
The Pressure containment components include the following:
a) Shell
b) Heads
c) Boot
d) Transitions (Coke Bottle Vessels)
e) Nozzles

The other components include the following:


a) Trays
b) Internal piping
c) Support
d) Load Handling Devices
e) Pipe supports and Guides
f) Platforms, Ladders, and Cages
g) Code Name Plate

Vertical Vessel Terminology


Normally vessel components are described using common terms such as shell, head, nozzle, and support. Some vessels will also
have special terms based on function.
Typical special terms include the following:
a) Flash Section -- The area or zone of the fractionation vessel where the primary feed enters the vessel.
b) Fractionation Section -- The portion of the vessel that includes the trays.
c) Stripping Section -- A place in the vessel that includes the introduction of supplementary heat such as high temperature steam
d) Surge Section -- The bottom portion of the vessel that normally includes the main outlet nozzle which is connected to the
bottoms pumps.
Shell
The shell of the vertical trayed vessel will have many variables including the following:
a) Wall thickness
b) Metallurgy (May have different material at top vs. bottom)
c) Layers (single layer vs. multiple layer or cladding)
d) PWHT (Post weld heat treat) requirements for all or part
e) Vacuum reinforcement rings
f) Insulation support rings

Heads -- Top and Bottom


Heads for vessels will include the following shapes:
a) Dished -- The Dished head is a flatter version of the Semi-Elliptical
b) Semi-Elliptical -- The traditional type used on process plant pressure vessels (2:1 SE Head)
c) Spherical -- This head is sometimes referred to as a round head or Hemispherical-head
The top head and the bottom head may be the same shape but they will have some differences.
The differences for the top head include:
a) Same material as top of Shell
b) May be thicker material for reinforcing
c) May be thinner material

The differences for the bottom head include:


a) Same material as bottom of Shell
b) May be thicker material for reinforcing
c) May be thinner material

Transitions
The cone or transition piece for regular and inverted Coke Bottle vessels may come in the following shapes:
Flat side -- The cone is cut from flat plate and formed to a simple cone. There is no knuckle radius at the top or bottom of the cone.
The connection to the straight shell of the vessel is an angled weld. Usually there is a reinforcing ring on the shell very close to the
shell/cone junction.
Shaped side -- The cone is cut from flat plate and rolled to a shaped cone. There is a knuckle radius at the top and bottom of the
cone. The cone has a straight tangent at the top and bottom to match the shells. The connection to the straight shell of the vessel is
a common butt weld.

Nozzles
Overhead Vapor Outlet Nozzles

The overhead vapor outlet nozzles on a vertical vessel can have some latitude when it comes to attachment location. The
attachment connection can be direct to the top head of the vessel or may be from the side. When the connection is from the side
there will normally be a pipe inside the vessel angled up to the top head area. Small vapor outlet nozzles from small diameter
vessels can be located out the side of the vessel and still be cost effective. Large diameter vapor outlet nozzles on large diameter
vessels will be more cost effective if attached to the top head. The line is then looped over to the selected pipe drop position to go
down the vessel.

Heater/Vessel Feed Transfer (Feed Inlet) Nozzles

All vertical fractionation vessels will have a feed inlet nozzle. This feed nozzle is special and critical on some vessels. Refinery Crude
columns and Vacuum columns are examples that have this type of nozzle. This nozzle installation is characterized by the following:

a) Attached line originated at a fired heater


b) High temperature
c) High velocity
d) Mixed phase flow
e) May require internals such as a distributor pipe or impingement plate

A Feed Transfer nozzle will normally be the "Key" (Genesis) nozzle for any large fractionation vessel. Normally any side inlet
orientation is possible but in most cases this will then dictate the tray orientation.

Liquid (secondary) Inlet Nozzles

A normal liquid feed nozzle will not have the same complexities as the Feed Transfer type. This nozzle installation is characterized by
the following:
a) Attached line originated at an exchanger
b) Hot but not overly high on the temperature scale
c) Some may have potential for mixed phase flow
d) Normal line velocity
e) May require vessel internals such as a distributor or inlet pipe
f) Watch Instrument connections in relationship to Inlets and reboiler returns.

Reflux Nozzles

A normal reflux nozzle will not have the same complexities as other nozzles.
This nozzle installation is characterized by the following:

a) Attached line originated at a pump


b) Low on the temperature scale
c) All liquid flow
d) Normal line velocity
e) May require internals such as a distributor or inlet pipe. Multiple pass trays will require a more complex distributor or inlet pipe
than a single pass.

Draw-Off Nozzles

The purpose of this nozzle is to draw-off or remove the primary product. They are also used to Draw-off a secondary product to side
stream stripper. May be installed with a sump to remove unwanted water in the process stream.
This nozzle installation is characterized by the following:
a) Located in the downcomer area of the column
b) May be in a sump
c) May be a larger size than the normal attached line size (Some of the initial vertical drop will be the larger size)
d) All liquid flow
e) Normal line velocity May require internals if multiple pass trays

Bottom Reboiler Feed Nozzles

The liquid outlet nozzle will normally be in the center of the bottom vessel head.
This nozzle installation is characterized by the following:

a) Located in the bottom of the surge section of the column


b) May be a very large size and all liquid flow
c) Normally very low line velocity

Side Reboiler Feed Nozzles

This is also a potential Key Nozzle. The liquid outlet nozzle must be oriented in the same quadrant as the bottom downcomer.
This nozzle installation is characterized by the following:

d) Located in the downcomer area of the column


e) Will be in a sump
f) May be a larger size than the normal attached line size (Some of the initial vertical drop will be the larger size)
g) All liquid flow
h) Normal line velocity
i) Relationship to elevation of associated Reboiler is critical to nozzle elevation and internals

Side Reboiler Vapor Return Nozzles

One of the primary issues with this nozzle is the orientation relative to the other internal items and nozzles. If not placed in the right
place the velocity of the return can blow liquid out of a seal pan or can affect the readings of any instruments attached to the far
wall.
This nozzle installation is characterized by the following:

a) Attached line originated at a thermo-siphon or kettle type reboiler


b) High temperature
c) Moderately high velocity
d) All vapor flow
e) May require internals such as a pipe or impingement plate
f) Relationship to elevation of associated Reboiler is critical to nozzle elevation and internals

Bottoms Out and Drain Nozzles

The bottoms-out nozzle is normally a pump suction source. The standard type is located in the bottom head then piped through the
skirt with a drain nozzle off the bottom out line nozzle. This would be a combination nozzle. A variation of the bottoms nozzle is the
siphon or winter type. This type may be used (with process approval) when bottom clearance is a problem.

Note: It is common industry practice to avoid locating any flanged connections inside the vessel support skirt. All flanges are subject
to leaks, and vessel skirts are classified as a confined space.

Level Instrument Nozzles

Extreme care must be used when locating level instrument nozzles. There are access and clearances problems that must be
considered on the outside of the vessel. There are sensing location and turbulence problems associated with the inside of the vessel.

These nozzle installations are characterized by the following:

a) Must be attached in the same pressure volume of the vessel


b) Lower nozzle in liquid of the surge section, upper nozzle in vapor space
c) Located in static area (or with stilling well)
d) Requires external access for operation and maintenance

Pressure Instrument Nozzles

Pressure readings are normally taken in the vapor area of a vessel. Pressure connections shall be located in the top head area, 3" to
6" under a tray, or well above any liquid level in bottom section.
These nozzle installations are characterized by the following:

a) Located in a vapor space of the vessel


b) Requires external access for operation and maintenance

Temperature Instrument Nozzles


Temperature readings are normally taken in the liquid area of a vessel. Temperature connections shall be located 2" to 3" above the
top surface of a tray, in the downcomer, or well below any liquid level in bottom section.
These nozzle installations are characterized by the following:

a) Located in liquid in the downcomer area


b) Requires external access for operation and maintenance
c) Interference with internals

Vapor temperature readings may be required for some situations. When required the preferred location is in the downcomer area
half way between the two trays.

Tangential or Hillside connections may be required due to the thermowell length or to accommodate access from the ladder and
platform arrangement. With the Process Engineer's approval investigate the possibility of raising or lowering the temperature point
one tray for better ladder and platform arrangement.

Steam-Out Nozzles

Process plant vessels that contain hydrocarbon or other volatile fluids or vapors will normally have a Steam-Out Nozzle. This nozzle
has a number of options such as:

a) A simple blind flanged valve on the nozzle -- After the plant is shut down by Operations, the maintenance group would remove
the blind flange from the valve. They then attach a temporary flange fitted with a hose coupling and proceed to steam out the vessel
by connecting a hose from a utility station.
b) A blind flanged valve and hard piped steam line configured with a steam block valve and a swing ell.
c) A fully hard piped connection from a steam source. This method would have double block valves, a bleed, and a spec blind for
positive shutoff.

The vessel steam-out nozzle should be located near the surge section (bottom) Manhole on vertical vessels.

Manholes

Manholes are also considered a nozzle. They just do not have any pipe attached to them. They are however, a very complex piece of
the vessel orientation puzzle. The types of manholes normally relate to the method of cover handling provided.
Manholes come in the following types:

a) With Hinge -- A Manhole may be hinged for side mount, for top mount, or for bottom mount
b) With Davit -- A Manhole may have davits for side mount or top mount only
c) Plain -- A Plain Manhole may be for side mount, for top mount, or for bottom mount

The manhole orientation in top or non-trayed section of a vertical vessel is somewhat flexible. Normally any orientation is possible;
however, the orientation of the manhole should be checked to insure that the entry path is not blocked by any internals.
The Manhole may be located in the top head on large diameter vessels if there is a platform that is required for other items. Top
Manholes on large diameter vessels have their built in good points and bad points. The good point is that during shutdown the open
manhole provides for better venting. It also allows for a straight method for removal and reinstallation of the trays. The bad point is
that ladder access must be provided down to the top tray, and the manhole is competing with the other nozzles for the space on the
vessel head.

Orientation for manholes that are located in the trayed section of the vessel is more complicated. The location of between the tray
manholes has a number of restrictions. These restrictions include the type of trays and the tray spacing. The first choice for the
location of a manhole is between the down comers. The last choice is in the downcomer space, but behind the downcomer. The
downcomer would be fitted with a removable panel to allow further access into the vessel. The location to be avoided is above a
downcomer where there is the potential for falling down in the downcomer space and injury. It would be better to seek approval to
move the manhole up or down one tray than placement over a downcomer.

Manhole orientation in the surge section of a vessel is not as restrictive. The surge section of a vessel is the bottom portion that,
during operation will contain a large volume of liquid. Any orientation is possible for a manhole in this section. However, the location
of all manholes should be in the back half of the vessel away from the pipeway. The surge section may have a large baffle plate
bisecting the diameter of the vessel and extending vertically many feet. A removable plate or hatch may be installed in this baffle
(by vessels) to allow access to the far side. The vessel orientation of the manhole should not hit the baffle or be located so close to
the baffle that entrance is obstructed.

Trays

The type of trays, the number of trays, and the number of passes are not the specific responsibility of the piping layout designer.
However, there is the need to know factor. A common understanding of terminology will improve communications and prevent
errors. The common tray parts are:

a) Tray (support) Ring -- The tray support ring (or Tray ledge) is technically not a part of the tray itself. The tray support ring is only
there to support the tray. If there are no trays, then there is no need for tray support rings, therefore tray rings are linked to the
trays. Tray support rings are normally a simple donut shaped strip welded to the inside of the vessel. They could also be in the
shape of an inverted "L" welded to the vessel wall. Problems arise when the Designer does not allow for the tray support device.
b) Trays (or Tray Deck) -- One or more sections, consisting of plates, forming a horizontal obstruction throughout all or part of the
vessel cross section. The trays will normally be constructed to form flow patterns (one or more) called passes. The purpose of tray
deck is to provide a flow path for the process commodity and contain the fractionation or separation device.
c) Weir -- A low dam (on a tray) to maintain a liquid level on the tray
d) Downcomer -- The primary liquid passage area from one (higher) tray to another (lower) tray
e) Valves -- Tray hardware device
f) Bubble Caps -- Tray hardware device
g) Draw off - A way to remove liquid from the vessel
h) Trough - A way to collect and move liquid from one point to another
i) Riser - A device to channel vapor from one lower point to a higher point
j) Seal Pans - A device (with a liquid seal) that prevents vapors from passing
k) Beams & Trestles - Devices that support trays (or other types of internals) in very large diameter vessels
l) Baffles - A separation device inside a vessel
m) Chimneys - (See Riser)

Tray Pass Patterns

The trays and the related down comers can be arranged in a wide verity of patterns.
Typical Tray arrangements are:

a) Cross Flow, Single Pass -- (Common) this tray pass arrangement has one feed point, one flow direction, and one downcomer. The
single pass tray will normally be used on small diameter vessels and the smaller diameter of a Coke Bottle vessel.
b) Cross-Flow, Multiple Pass -- (Common) the multiple pass trays will come in two pass, three pass, four pass, and on and on. These
will normally be found in the larger diameter vessels. Multiple pass trays require multiple feed and draw off arrangements. The more
passes, the more complex the orientation problems.
c) Reverse Flow, Single Pass -- (Rare)
d) Radial Flow -- (Rare)
e) Circumferential Flow -- (Rare)
f) Cascade Flow -- (Rare)

The single pass tray will have a single downcomer. The 2, 3, or 4-pass tray will have the same number of down comers as passes.
The number of passes (number of down comers) will have a big effect on the orientation. Some towers may have more than one
Tray pass configuration. They may have single pass in the top Trays and two-pass Trays in the bottom. The change from one pass
configuration to another is chance for error. The alignment of the single pass tray will normally be perpendicular to the two pass
trays.

Tray Types

There is what would be considered "Standard" Trays, and there are also "High efficiency Trays".

a) "Standard" Trays -- This tray will have an open downcomer with no separation occurring in the downcomer area. This tray is the
old stand-by and has been used for many, many years.
b) "High efficiency Trays" -- This tray will have a sealed downcomer with separation occurring in the downcomer. This tray type is
fairly new. It will most likely be used on most new vessels in the future. It is also the type of tray that is favored on revamp projects
to get more out of an existing tower.

Tray hardware devices

The normal trays inside the typical vertical vessel will contain openings (or holes) and may be fitted with a fractionation or
separation device. This device is what will accomplish the purpose of the vessel. If these devices are not present or do not function
properly then the product is not made.
The common tray devices are:

a) Bubble Cap (Used mostly on revamps) -- Simple, and common method to facilitate the separation process. The Bubble Cap will
normally be a round (cup shaped) cap inverted over a short and smaller diameter chimney. The skirt area of the inverted cap may
be plain or have (open or closed) slots.
b) Box Cap -- This cap is very much like the common Bubble Cap except it is square.
c) Tunnel Cap -- This will be a long narrow rectangular shape
d) Uniflux Tray -- This is a series of overlapping and interlocking plates. In cross section the Uniflux tray will have the shape of a
reclining squared off "S".
e) Valve (Most common) -- The valve tray will have small flat metal plates fitted over the holes in the trays. The plate is loose to
move up and down, but is retained in position by a clip type device. Vapor pressure under the "Valve" plate causes it to rise and
gravity brings it back down.
f) Sieve (2nd most common) -- The Sieve tray will have holes and nothing else. The hole size is calculated to provide a fragile
balance between the liquid head above the tray and the vapor pressure under the tray.

Weirs

There may be a number of places where weirs are used. The simple weir to provide proper tray flooding will normally not cause any
design problems. There are also some special purpose weirs that may effect the location of nozzles. In most cases the existence of
special purpose weirs will not be known at the start of the Vessel orientation activity. It is however, a good idea to ask the question
anyway.

Down comers

Down comers can come in a verity of shapes also. They straight across in the horizontal direction, or they can be bent. They can be
straight up and down in the vertical direction, they can be sloped or slanted (tapered), or they can be a combination. These
variations will all impact the orientation to some extent. The major impact, by the downcomer on the orientation is the geometry or
location of the vertical plane itself. The orientation of the down comers will have a direct relationship to the orientation of certain
nozzles and manholes.

Other Tray Terms

Some other terms that will be found relating to trays.

a) Sump -- This is a sealed downcomer type area that is designed to provide a retention volume for some purpose.
b) Seal Pans -- This is a portion of a tray that is set deeper than the rest of the tray to form a seal for the downcomer from the tray
above.
c) Side Draw Tray -- A tray arrangement that allows the removal of a specific liquid product
d) Chimney Tray -- A full circumference tray fitted with long open pipes to allow vapor to pass from below the tray to the space
above.
e) Baffles -- Plates installed in the vessel for a specific purpose
f) Impingement Plates -- Somewhat like a baffle but normally a plate installed in the vessel at the inlet to prevent blowout to
devices located on the opposite side of the vessel.
g) Tray manholes -- Most, if not all, trays will have a removable panel (somewhere in the tray) to allow inspection passage without
dismantling the total tray

Vessel Support

The method of vessel support depends on various factors. These factors include process function, operation access, maintenance
clearances, ease of constructability, and cost. Meeting the positive criteria for all or the majority of these factors will drive the
support method.
The primary methods of support are:

a) Tall Skirt on foundation at grade (Most common)


b) Short Skirt on elevated pier foundation, table support, or structure
c) Legs on foundation at grade
d) Lugs on elevated pier foundation, table support, or structure
Each of these vessel support methods has their own good points and bad points. The Tall Skirt is the most common because it
meets more of the "preferred criteria" than the others do.

Skirt Vessel Support

The minimum height of the skirt is normally set by process based on the NPSH requirements of the pumps or for the reboiler
hydraulic requirements. The designer may need to increase the skirt height due to:

a) Vertical distance required by pump suction line geometry


b) Vertical distance required by reboiler line geometry
c) Operator aisle headroom clearance
d) Suction line entering the pipe rack without pockets

The approval of the Process engineer, Project Manager, and the Client will be required for any increase to the skirt height.

The skirt will have one or more access openings and will have skirt vents.
Skirts of vessels in refineries or other plants processing flammable commodities will normally be fireproofed. The fireproofing is
normally a two-inch (2") thick layer of a concrete type material applied to the outside of the skirt. Check for the specific type. Some
materials may require up to 6" to obtain the required fire rating.

Load Handling Devices

Load handling devices are required for Vertical Vessels if:

a) The vessel is over thirty feet (30') tall


b) The vessel has removable trays and internals
c) The vessel has components that require frequent removal for routine maintenance (PSV, control valves)
d) The components weigh 100 pounds or more

Methods of load handling include:

a) Davit -- A small somewhat inexpensive device used for lifting and supporting heavy objects up and down from elevated
platforms. Limited to a fixed reach.
b) Monorail -- A more expensive method
c) Crane -- A far more expensive method and is dependent on availability

If a davit or monorail is not installed then a crane with the required reach and load rating must be rented or an alternate method
must be jury-rigged. Any jury-rig method will have a high potential for accident and injury.
When a Davit is to be included the following must be determined and furnished to Vessels:

a) The location
b) The swing
c) The clearance height (including lifting device)
d) The reach - the removal items (e.g... PSV, Control Valve, Block Valve, Blinds, etc.) and the drop zone
e) The maximum load of external items (Vessels will determine weight of internals)

When a Monorail is to be included the following must be determined and furnished to the Vessels engineer:

a) The platform, and monorail support configuration


b) The clearance height (including lifting device)
c) The reach to the drop zone
d) The maximum load of external items (Vessels will determine weight of internals)

Pipe Supports and Pipe Guides


The Pipe Supports and Pipe Guides (PS & PG) for the piping that is attached to the vessel is the responsibility of the Piping Group.
You're the Piper, that's pipe, and you need to make sure it is properly supported and guided. The rule is (or should be) that all lines
shall be properly supported and guided. One key element of the PS & PG is the "L" dimension. The "L" dimension is the distance
from the O. D. of the back side of the pipe to the O. D. of the vessel. This dimension should be as small as possible but not less than
required for maintenance. The rule of thumb for the "L" dimension is 12" minimum and 20" maximum. Dimensions of under the 12"
and over the 20" are sometimes allowed. For example, if fitting make up results in an "L" dimension of 11 13/16" do not add a spool
piece and extra weld.
Lines should be supported as close to the nozzle as possible. The type of support is based on the weight of what is being supported.
It may be just a straight pipe dropping down the side of the vessel. Or, it may be much more.

The requirements for pipe supports attached to a vessel must be evaluated for the following:
a) The shell thickness
b) Orientation
c) Elevation
d) The "L" dimension
e) The weight of the basic pipe and fittings (based on size and wall schedule)
f) The weight of the water during hydro test
g) The weight of the insulation (if any)
h) The weight of any added components (block valves, control valve stations, relief valves, etc.)
i) The clearance to other objects (Seams, Stiffener rings, Nozzles, Clips, Pipe Lines, Platforms)

The requirements for pipe guides attached to a vessel must be evaluated for the following:
a) The shell thickness
b) Orientation
c) Elevation
d) The "L" dimension
e) The size of the line at the point of guiding
f) The distance above the horizontal turn out (allow 25 pipe diameters +/-)
g) The maximum allowable span between guides
h) The clearance to other objects (Seams, Stiffener rings, Nozzles, Clips, Pipe Lines, Platforms)

Pipe supports and guides should be staggered vertically for clearance from supports or guides on other lines running parallel.

Platforms, Ladders, and Cages


Platforms with access ladders must be provided as required for access to manholes, operating valves, and instruments as defined in
the project criteria. Normally objects below 15' - 0" from grade will not require permanent platforms and ladders. These objects are
judged assessable by portable means (Check the Project design requirements).

Platform spacing shall be even foot increments when multiple platforms are serviced from a single ladder. The platforms shall be
arranged to allow the following:
a) Minimum 7' - 0" headroom to underside of any obstruction
b) Minimum 2' - 6" radial width for primary egress path (I. D. of platform to O. D. of platform)
c) Minimum 2' - 6" clear distance between ladders
d) No obstructions in path between primary egress ladders
e) Maximum 30' - 0" vertical travel length of ladder between platforms
f) Side step off at all platforms (Step through ladders are considered dangerous and therefore should be avoided). This requirement
should have been reviewed with the Client and defined in the Design Criteria.
g) Combining with platforms on other vessels when potential for improved operations or maintenance exists
h) Flanges of top head nozzles shall be extended to provide access to bolts
i) Minimum 1' - 6" clearance around objects if for maintenance access only

Code Name Plate


Every vessel will have a Code Name Plate. On a vertical vessel the code name plate must be on the (pressure containment) part of
the shell. It cannot be attached to the skirt. The best place for the code name plate on a vertical vessel is 2' - 6" above the
horizontal centerline of the surge section manhole. Make sure the location selected is accessible on grade or on a platform.

Common problems with vertical vessels

a. Schedule crunch - Vessels scheduled for purchase too early requiring firm orientations with very little backup information.
- Approved and Issued for Design P&IDs
- Exchanger type and location
- Flare header and PSV location
b. Thin wall vessels not able to support load on pipe supports
c. High wind presence requiring extra guides
d. Late changes to PSV sizing prompting changes to pipe support and guides on line to flare
e. Late change to control valve location criteria (Flashing service now required to be located to elevated platform on vessel with line
downstream of valve self drain to vessel)
f. Reboilers requiring spring mounted supports due to tight piping and differential growth
g. High steam-out temperature requiring extra flexibility in the piping
h. Extra heavy object removal in excess of Davit load capabilities

Vertical Vessel Orientation


Recommendations
Uniformity
a. The ladder approach at grade should be free of obstructions and easily accessible (Verify preferred location with Project
requirements).
b. The Manhole orientation should be oriented in the back half of the vessel toward the access way. The manholes should be
arranged with consideration to the type of load handling device (One centerline if monorail, one or two centerlines if davit, no
specific restriction if crane).
c. Load drop area should be located on the main access side
d. Level instruments should be located on or near the front half of the vessel and visible from the main operating aisle
e. The piping risers to and from the vessel should be located to the front half of the vessel for easy routing to the pipeway and
equipment

Manholes
a. Manholes will influence the entire vessel orientation to a certain degree. The location of the manholes must be compatible with
the location of the tray down comers. The down comers in turn influence the location of the process and instrument nozzles.
b. The preferred elevation of manholes above the platform is 2' - 6" from the centerline. The limits are; 6" minimum from the top of
the platform to the bottom of the flange, or 4' - 0" maximum from the top of the platform to the bottom of the flange (Verify
preferred location with Project requirements).
c. Platforms may not be required for manholes that are 15' - 0" or less above grade, unless a platform is required for another reason
such as an instrument (Verify preferred location with Project requirements).
d. Space and clearances are important around manholes. Check flange swing and tray lay down space.

Ladders and Platforms


a. Check to see that the approach to the ladder at grade is clear of all obstructions and hazards.
b. Check to see that the entry onto each platform is clear and not blocked by level or other instruments.
c. Check to see that the entry onto each platform is clear and not blocked by an open manhole flange.
d. Check to see that there is a clear path from one (down) ladder to the next (down) ladder for unobstructed travel during
emergencies.
e. Platforms may need to be added or extended for access to operating valves, spec blinds, or instruments.
f. Special platforms are often required at the channel end of a thermo-siphon reboiler or other equipment that is mounted directly
into (or onto) the vessel.
g. Investigate lining up and connecting platforms servicing equipment (Reboilers or Accumulators) located in adjacent structures but
related to the vessel.
h. Maintenance criteria at Reactors often require platforms large enough and strong enough for large flange or head lay down in
addition to catalyst storage and handling.
i. Check the location and size of the pipe penetration holes through platforms. The opening is to be one inch larger (in diameter)
than the flange or pipe plus insulation, which ever is greater (Verify preferred location with Project requirements).
j. Provide proper routing and support for all lines regardless of size. Do not route small lines vertically behind the ladders. Do not
route small lines vertically between the vessel shell and the inside radius of the platforms. Do not route small lines vertically up the
outside of the platforms in line with or close to the manholes.
k. Ladder access openings must be fitted with a safety gate. Check for proper clearance for gate swing.
l. Some processes are subject to periods of hazardous operations. Ladders and ladder cages may need to be designed for operators
with self-contained suits and air packs (SCBA).

Skirts
a. The minimum skirt height is set by Process and indicated on the P&ID.
b. The skirt height is normally based on the minimum NPSH of the bottom pumps.
c. The skirt height may be influenced by the physical requirement of a thermo-siphon reboiler.
d. The final skirt height needs to consider and be adjusted for; physical configuration of the bottoms nozzle, any headroom
clearance required over operating aisles, vertical fitting geometry of the piping configuration, and the pump suction nozzle location.
e. As a general rule no flanged connections are allowed inside the skirt of a vessel. This area is considered a confined space in most
plants and flanges will tend to leak over time.
f. Increasing the Skirt height may be considered when adjacent vessels warrant lining up and connecting platforms.

Reboilers
a. Reboilers will be one of the following; Fired (Heater Type), Thermosiphon (vertical or horizontal shell & tube), or Kettle type
(horizontal shell & tube).
b. Fired Reboilers shall be located a minimum of fifty feet from the vessel.
c. Piping to and from any type of reboiler will be hot, and have sensitive flow conditions.
d. The Kettle or Thermosiphon Reboiler elevation is set by Process and indicated on the P&ID.

Pipe Supports and Guides


a. Piping is responsible for locating the pipe supports and guides on vessels
b. Piping is responsible for defining the size and loads on the pipe supports on vessels

Piping Flexibility
a. Piping must determine the operating thermal growth of the vessel. The vessel will have a series of temperature zones from the
bottom to the top.
b. The differential expansion between the piping risers and the vessel must be checked to prevent over stressing the piping or the
vessel shell.
c. The routing of cooler reflux lines must consider the total growth of the hotter vessel.
d. Potential for differential settlement needs to be investigated
e. Each piping system or line needs to be considered individually

Instrumentation
a. The HLL, NLL, and LLL need to be carefully considered because they will set the elevations of the level instruments
b. Orientation of level instrument connections needs to consider the internals
c. All instruments shall be accessible
d. Watch out for space requirements for gage glass illuminators.
e. TI and TW connections will require removal space

Electrical
a. Space shall be allocated for conduit runs up the vessel. These conduits will carry power to platform lights, gage glass illuminators,
and in some cases electrical tracing.
b. Conduits are also required for controls (instrumentation)

Piping Valves
a. Valves are meant to be operated and to be operated they must be accessible.
b. Small valves (2" & smaller) may be considered accessible from a platform or ladder. Large valves (3" & larger) shall be accessible
on a platform.

Misc. Piping issues


a. Lines to and from vessels may be subject to conditions such as 2-phase flow or vacuum.
b. Some PSV relieving to atmosphere will require snuffing steam. The steam pressure (in the line) must be adequate to reach the
top of the vessel.
c. Large overhead lines vs. PSV location require special attention for function and support.
d. Vertical vessel piping needs to be checked for heat tracing requirements. A tracer supply manifold may need to be added at the
top of the vessel.

Constructability
All vertical vessels shall be reviewed for constructability. This review needs to consider receiving logistics lay down orientation, lifting
plan, pre-lift assembly items (piping, platforms, ladders, internals, etc.)
- Pre-lift assembly items may include the following:
a. Piping
b. Platforms
c. Ladders
d. Internals
e. Paint
f. Insulation

Fire Protection
a. Some vessels may require special insulation for fire protection.
b. Some vessels may require fire monitor coverage
c. Some vessels may require sprinkler systems

Misc.
Some vessels will be lined. Linings may be metallic, plastic, or glass. Welding to the vessel shell after initial fabrication is not
allowed.
Some vessels will have flanged connections that are larger than 24". These connections will occur at connections for piping,
reboilers, or other equipment. Flanged connections over 24" do not have a single standard and need to be defined for specific type
(API or MSS).

James O. Pennock is a former Piper with more than 45 years experience covering process plant engineering, design, training, pipe
fabrication and construction. He is now retired and lives in Florida, USA.

Section - II
C-II: Vertical Vessel Orientation
By: James O. Pennock
The following article was prompted by questions from a young piping designer. He wrote:
-------------------------------------------
Hi
I am getting ready to do my first vessel nozzle orientation. The vessel is a Stripper Tower (a). Can you help me? First, what are the
things I have to take into consideration? Second, what are the key steps in the process for doing a vessel nozzle orientation?
Regards
XXXXXXXXXXXX
---------------------------------------------
(a)The name/function of the vessel has been changed.

For your first question: "What are the things I have to take into consideration?"
The answer to this question is very simple; you must take everything in to consideration. Everything is important! Someone may tell
you that some things do not matter but this is not true, everything matters.

You need to consider the following:

a) Timing: Vessel orientation is normally the only equipment related layout activity that can be done without specific input from a
vendor. All of the information required for vessel orientation is generated on the project in the form of P&ID data and project
standards. It is also one of the few activities that will feed one or more other downstream groups whose work is critical to the
project schedule. With this in mind this activity can and should be started as soon as the P&ID reaches "Approved-For-Design" (AFD)
status. Te vessel orientation activity can be started manually or on basic 2D CAD before the 3D PDS data base is fully loaded and
checked. There is some logic to doing this activity manually or in 2D CAD because of the amount of trial and error required to finally
achieve an acceptable and approved orientation. Once the orientation is approved and the PDS data base is ready the 3D model can
be built with no recycle.

b) The Plot Plan (Note 1): The plot plan is required to identify the location of the vessel and its related equipment. The related
equipment includes the equipment that feeds the vessel (is up-stream) and also the equipment that the vessel feeds (is down-
stream). It shows and locates adjacent, non-related equipment. It also shows adjacent structures that may support the related up-
stream or down-stream equipment. It also indicates the plant features such as pipe racks, operating aisles, maintenance access
areas and the direction of Plant North.

c) The project foundation criteria: Vertical vessels normally sit on an octagon pad foundation with the top of grout at EL101' - 0"
(high point of finished paving = EL 100' - 0"). You need to have and understand the type and elevation of the foundation for this
vessel.

d) The P&ID's (Note 1): The P&ID's are required to show the process streams that connect to the Stripper Tower and its related
equipment. In my experience P&ID's are much like the pages in a book. Some equipment (the heater) starts or shows on sheet one
P&ID the story continues with the key item (the Stripper Tower, Thermosyphon Reboiler and Bottoms Pumps) showing on sheet two
and then continues to some conclusion (the overhead condensers) on sheet three. You will need all three process system P&ID's.
The Stripper Tower P&ID will show a graphic of the column along with all the piping connecting to the vessel. There will also be a
data block at the top of the page. This data block should include the vessel number, the vessel name and the basic size. It will also
indicate the design temperature and the insulation requirements (if any). The graphic of the vessel should also indicate the basic
type of internals (Trays or Packing). If the internals are Trays then the number of trays should be indicated. The trays just above or
just below where a line is connected should be numbered. If the internals are some form of packing then the extent of the packing
beds should be indicated.

e) The project Line List (Note 1): The line List is required to give you specific and critical key data about the lines such as the Line
Number, line class, maximum operating temperature and insulation requirements,

f) The project Piping Material Specifications (Note 1): The Piping Material Specifications are required to give you the data about
metallurgy and any specifics about fittings, flanges, valves or requirements for PWHT (post weld heat treatment).

g) The Vessel Drawing (Note 2): The vessel drawing at this time will most likely be marked "Preliminary." It will give you; the
inside diameter (I.D.), the tangent-to-tangent shell length, the shape of the top and bottom heads and the skirt height. This
drawing should also have a table showing all the nozzles with the basic information such as: identification, quantity, and size, flange
rating, the elevation above (or below) the bottom tangent line for each nozzle, the purpose for the nozzle and any special
instructions. The vessel drawing needs to also indicate where the internals start and end inside the vessel.

h) The Internals (Note 2) (Trays or Packing) A tower can have a number of different types and configurations of internals. It may
be Trays or it may be some form of Packing.
- Trays: If you have Trays then you need to know: the number of trays, the spacing of the trays, the number of passes for the trays
(1-pass, 2-pass, 3-pass etc.). You also need to know if there are any "draw sumps," baffles or other special features.
- Packing: You need to know the number of "Beds," the depth of the beds and the method of installing and removing the packing
material. You also need to know and understand about the type of feed distributor(s) to be used. You need to know about the
packing discharge nozzles.
For the purpose of this article we will assume we have 35 single pass trays.

i) The Thermosiphon Reboiler data sheet (Note 1): This will give you the preliminary size and type information. The P&ID
indicates that this vessel has a vertical Thermosiphon reboiler fitted to it. Some discussion should normally take place to determine
the optimum tube length and the proper support elevation and support method.

j) The project Vessel Platform Standards (Note 1): This will give you the required information about the minimum vertical
spacing between platforms. It will also give you specific details about platform supports and how to make the openings where pipes
must pass through a platform. This drawing will (or should) also give you specifics about handrails.

k) The project Vessel Ladder Standards (Note 1): This drawing will give you all the required information about ladder
construction and more important the limits for the maximum vertical run for a single ladder.

l) The project Vessel Nozzle Standards (Note 1): This will give you all the normal options for un-reinforced and reinforced
nozzles. It may also show you some options for internal nozzle piping.

m) The project Vessel Davit Standards (Note 1): A davit is a small device permanently mounted on the vessel that acts as a
crane for lifting heavy objects such as tray sections.

n) The project Vessel Pipe Support and Guide Standards (Note 1): These are devices attached to a vessel that support and/or
guide the vertical runs of pipe. This drawing also defines the minimum distance from the outside of a vessel shell to the back of an
adjacent pipe. Where I came from this was called the "L" dimension. The "L" dimension was normally 12" (adjusted as required for
insulation) The maximum was 20" without a special design. The key was to have a minimum of 7" clear between two co-existing
insulations. These supports and guides also require a wider than normal line spacing in the vertical plane as the lines go up or down
a vessel. This is mainly due to the configuration of the Trunnion (Note 3) support attached to the pipe and the pipe clamp used for
the guide.

o) The project Piping and Vessel Insulation Specification (Note 1): From this document you will get the thickness of the
insulation needed for the pipes and vessel at the operating temperature.

(Note 1): These items are normally created by your company for the project and should be "Approved for Design" (AFD) quality
documents. This means that they have been through all of the proper in-house reviews and checks and have then been approved by
the Company and the Client for use in the design of the work.

(Note 2): These documents will initially come from the project Vessel Engineer. They will normally be marked "Preliminary" until
they receive and process your orientation drawings. Later you may receive the vessel fabricator's detail drawings for "Squad Check"
(review and approval).

(Note 3) For more information about a Trunnion support see www.pipingdesigners.com look under Training and Secondary Pipe
Supports

There may be other documents that are required due to a specific company's method of operation.

The next things you need to consider is; functionality, safety, operation, maintenance and constructability.

Functionality: No matter what, this vessel must do its job. You must know and understand what that intended job is. You do not
need to be a process engineer but you should be involved in the review of the P&ID for this specific vessel. You need to hear what
the critical issues are relating to this vessel and the connected piping. If your company does not include piping in the formal review
of the P&ID's then you need to seek out the process engineer and ask him or her to explain the function, key points and any critical
issues relating to this vessel.

Safety: This is the other important issue relating to vessel orientation. The operation must be able to be done in a safe manner. The
same must be said for both maintenance and constructability. To achieve this goal the locations of nozzles relative to the placement
and arrangement of the ladders and platforms must be carefully considered. The travel path (access and egress) must be arranged
so the main travel path cannot be blocked by open manholes, scaffolding, tools, tray parts, valves or piping. The basic rule here; a:
ladder #1 comes up with a side step-off (right or left) on to platform #1. Then b: there is a minimum rest space equal to one ladder
width. Then c: the next ladder (#2) continues up to the next platform. Platform #1 can continue beyond ladder #2 around the
vessel to provide access to nozzles and manholes. This arrangement does not impede or obstruct the clear path for rapid escape
from the vessel for anyone from a higher elevation. Other safety issues include one or more skirt access openings located near
grade which should be located with clear access. There will also be four or more skirt vents located high near the skirt-to-vessel
attachment which also should not be blocked.

Operation: Process plants need to be operated. Most operation is concentrated around valves and instruments. These items must
be accessible. Accessible means reachable. This reachable is conditional. Nozzles with a nominal size of 2' (NPS) and smaller can be
reachable from a ladder or from a platform. Nozzles 3" (NPS) and larger shall be reachable on a platform. In this context the from
means that the object is not more than 18" (one arms length) from the ladder or platform and the on means the object must be
fully inside the platform. There is normally only one exception to this rule. That is for valves or nozzles that are located less than 20
feet from grade and can be accessed with scaffolding or a "Man-Lift".

Maintenance: All the accessibility issues that apply for operations also apply for maintenance. In addition don't block access to
manholes with control valve assemblies or other piping. Make sure the Electrical and Instrument people don't locate a panel or a
transmitter assembly in the operations or maintenance access ways.

Constructability: This vessel needs to be erected and therefore it will need Lifting Lugs. These are normally very large steel shapes
with "eyes" welded to the top head. They will normally not interfere with your orientation, however you should check to make sure.

Your second question: "What are the key steps in the process for doing a column nozzle orientation?"

The key steps in the process are:


(You may choose for some reason to do something in a different order, but this is how I think I would do it. It should be noted that I
like to be able to have all things numbered from the bottom up. This includes trays, nozzles, ladders, platforms, etc. However,
sometimes due to company preference or the tray manufacturer standards the trays are numbered from the top down.)

1. Data collection - Collect a copy of all the drawings listed above. Make a folder file (or a stick file) to keep them in. Mark all the
drawings "Stripper Tower Orientation Master" (STOM). This STOM file is your justification for everything you do or did. If anyone has
reason to question why you did what you did then you have a file of the source material you based the work on. It is your
responsibility to use the proper information and to properly file and incorporate changes from all new revisions when received.

2. P&ID conditioning - Take your STOM P&ID and pick-up any marks from the Project Master copy. From time to time as you
work, go back and recheck the Project Master P&ID for any new marks (i.e.: line size changes, additions, deletions, etc.). Study the
Stripper Tower and identify all the related equipment and all connecting lines. Study the lines for valves and instrumentation.

3. Plot Plan conditioning - Take the STOM Plot Plan and with a yellow high-lighter identify the Stripper Tower and all the related
equipment. Related equipment means that which is directly connected by pipe to the Stripper Tower. I prefer to work with Plant
North up or towards the top of the paper (CAD screen). When I do a vessel orientation I consider the pipeway to be in "front" of the
vessel. I call the maintenance area the "back" of the vessel or equipment row. For the purpose of my instruction here I am going to
assume that 0º is "up" and "up" is north. Maintenance is on the north (back) side and the pipe way is on the south (front) side.

4. Prepare preliminary elevation - Manually or by CAD, create a scale drawing of the vessel elevation (side view) Locate the
bottom tangent line and in phantom (dotted line) the bottom head. Accurately locate the top tangent line from the bottom tangent
line and draw in the top head. We will assume that this vessel is a skirt supported vessel and that the skirt is 20 ft high. (If not skirt
supported then Leg or Lug supported will require optional considerations that we can discuss if applicable.) At the bottom accurately
create the skirt (vessel support). Check with the Structural department and find out how high the foundation is for this vessel. Make
sure they give you the top of grout (TOG) not just top of concrete. They are not the same. I will assume that the TOG is EL. 101' -
0." Now indicate the high point of finished paving (HPFP). I will assume that the HPFG is EL. 100' - 0." Now from this HPFP line,
draw a light line to indicate the projects minimum head clearance.

5. Prepare preliminary plans - Manually or by CAD, create a scale drawing of a number of plan views. The plan views will be
where you will do most of your work so make one for each ten feet +/- (3 to 4 meters) of vertical elevation ending with one above
and showing the very top platform. These starter plans should have crossed center lines and the actual I.D. of the vessel. (We are
using 8' - 0" for this article). Mark the location of Plant North on each mini-plan. Normally plant north is the same as 0 degrees on
the vessel shell. East is 90 degrees, South is 180 degrees and all additional orientation is clockwise from north and 0 degrees. Don't
worry about the O.D. or the wall thickness. Now, look at the platform drawing and get the clearance from the vessel shell and the
inside edge of a platform. Draw a very light circle (different color and/or layer) on each mini-plan to indicate where the inside edge
of a platform might be. Now draw another very light circle 3'-0" (1meter +/_) more in diameter to indicate where the outside of a
platform might be. These are not real platforms yet they are just guide lines to remind you of platforms as you do other work. Now
mark the "Front" (pipeway side) of the vessel and the "Back" (maintenance side) of the vessel.

6. Thermosiphon Reboiler: The Reboiler for our sample vessel has a 42" shell, 24 ft fixed tube (vertical mount) shell and tube
exchanger. The shell side is high temperature steam. The tube side is the process fluid from the bottom of the tower which enters at
the bottom end of the reboiler. The process vapor exits the top end of the reboiler and returns to the tower below tray #1. The
placement and support of the Thermosiphon Reboiler is the next thing we should cover. Because of the plot plan placement of our
Stripper Tower the Thermosiphon Reboiler will be mounted directly to the tower at the 270 degree point. It will have a knee braced
cantilevered support that is attached to the vessel. The exchanger needs to be supported so the top tube sheet is at the same level
as the high liquid level inside the vessel.

7. Bottoms section baffle - Because of the way this vessel works there is a baffle dividing the bottom section of the tower. The
baffle can not be on the centerline of the vessel because the reboiler feed nozzle is centered on the bottom head. Therefore the
baffle must be offset to miss that nozzle connection. The height of the baffle is the same as the "High Liquid Level." All of the liquid
that comes off the downcomer from tray #1 goes into the "large" side of the bottom section. It then goes through the reboiler and
returns to the vessel as vapor. Excess liquid from the "large" side overflows the baffle and becomes the "Bottoms" and is drawn off
by the bottoms pumps. The connection for the bottoms nozzle "B" is on the "small" side of the baffle.

8. Check for nozzle continuity - Look at the STOM P&ID and the table of nozzles on the vessel drawing. They should match in
number and size. In pencil mark each line connecting to the P&ID vessel with the nozzle number from the vessel nozzle table. Do
they match in number? Do they match is size? If not, go see the Process Engineer and ask for clarification.

(Sample) Stripper Tower Nozzle Table

pipingdesigners.com Training Seminar

Section - III
A: Pipe Supports, Part - 1
By: James O. Pennock
The subject, "Pipe Supports" is a much more complex subject than the term suggests. There are so many situations
that a pipe can find itself in and in every case it will need to be supported. Pipe supports is a general term that actually
is split into two families. There is what I call the primary pipe support systems, and then there are the secondary pipe
support systems.
The primary pipe supports systems are those supports that are a part of the infrastructure and fall under the prime
responsibility of the structural department. The secondary pipe support systems are more a part of the piping systems
and as such fall under the prime responsibility of the piping department. You notice I used the words 'prime
responsibility' with each of these there is still a cross over responsibility to provide proper, accurate and timely
information and then action.

Primary Pipe Support Systems


As noted above the primary pipe supports are a part of the infrastructure. This is true of most all projects. For
simplicity the emphasis here will focus on "Grass Root" or new construction plants. These primary pipe supports
systems may also be referred to as piperacks, pipeways, pipe alleys. These support systems may be major or minor
and they may be overhead or sleeper pipe racks. It is important to understand that even though they are called pipe
racks they support and carry more than just piping. These other items may include the cables for electrical and
instrumentation services.

For clarification, overhead pipe racks are elevated to the point where you can walk and/or drive under the supported
piping. Sleepers or sleeper ways are low to the ground so there is no passage under the supported piping.

Pipe racks (overhead or sleeper) are normally established and sized early in the preliminary engineering phase of a
project. This time of the project is normally called the plant development phase or the plot plan development phase.
Once they are established and sized they are one of the first things the structural department can work on. The terms
'establish' and 'size' requires a lot of wisdom and work.

The wisdom and work means thinking one, two or three years into the future and deciding where (location) the primary
pipe support systems will run. Other critical elements include the configuration, height, width, spacing and the
materials of construction/fabrication method. Let's take these elements one at a time.

» Location - In order to set the location of the primary pipe support systems the total plant layout must be
established. This means that all the various disciplines must have a very good idea what equipment is required and it's
size. The "Plot Plan" must be reviewed by all the key people on the project and then approved by the client.

» Configuration - This is the selection of "fit-for-purpose." Each main run, minor run and branch run must be looked at
to determine its configuration. Will it be an overhead rack or a sleeper way? Will each be single deck (layer) or multiple
deck? Will the support be a single column ("T") support or multi-column support? How many columns? A second part of
the configuration issue effects pipe racks in the process units themselves. This is the question of whether or not the
pipe rack will support equipment such as Air Coolers (Fin Fans). Another part of configuration is the issue of
intersections. Poor planning on this issue can cause problems later with the piping.

» Height - How high should each run of rack be? Should they be elevated or low sleepers. The sleepers are concrete
with an imbedded steel plate on the top. For sleepers, they need to be off the ground to allow for maintenance and
drainage also to prevent corrosion. For elevated multi-level racks what should the separation be? For elevated racks
you must plan the height and the separation of the whole system together. A key element in the determination of
separation is the line sizes to be carried on the racks.

» Width - This requires a detailed study of the total piping systems for the whole plant based on pipe rack routing. In
the past, a study (called a "Transposition") was done to, as best you could, account for each line on each pipe rack.
From this study, a berth sequence was established and the line spacing set. A percentage was added as an error factor
and then the clients "future" reserve was added. This then constituted the minimum rack width. The final width would
be set after all racks were "sized" and then some might be rounded up in width for consistence based on the materials
of construction/fabrication method.

» Spacing - This issue can be addressed after the transposition has been completed. The transposition identifies all the
rack piping from the largest to the smallest From this the average line size for each leg of the rack system can be
established. With the pipe size information (largest, smallest and average pipe size) the number and spacing of the
pipe support bents can be set. A cost tradeoff is evaluated and made between more pipe supports spaced closer
together or fewer pipe supports and some sort of intermediate support system.

» Materials of construction/fabrication method - What materials are the pipe racks to be made of and what will be the
fabrication method? Pipe racks can be bare steel, steel w/a concrete encasement (fireproofing), reinforced concrete or
a combination. The steel can be steel structural shapes or pipe shape. The concrete fireproofing can be cast in place
onto (or around) the steel columns and beams or it can be pre-cast onto the columns and beams prior to installation.
The reinforced concrete pipe supports can also be cast in place or pre-cast then field erected. The space requirement
dimensions for a reinforced concrete column or beam is about twice that of bare steel.

The piping design group on the project (at the company where I came from) was the lead group in all of the above
issues except the last one, materials of construction/fabrication method. This issue was properly the responsibility of
the structural department, construction and the client. There is no doubt that economics, the jobsite location, labor and
material availability played a part. Piping, however must know what the materials of construction/fabrication method
will be because it can affect one or more of the other issues.

Secondary Pipe Support Systems


The secondary pipe support systems are a broad family of devices with two branches and actually include more than
just supports. The two branches are defined as (a) "engineered" devices and (b) "miscellaneous" pipe support devices.

The term "engineered" pipe supports relates to devices that are non-static, one-of-a-kind, location and condition
specific. They are identified at the time the need is recognized and then designed and engineered for that specific
need. Constant support spring hangers and snubbers are just two of the devices in this category. The piping stress
engineer is the party/person who is responsible for the engineering of these. However, the piping designer working in
the specific area has a shared responsibility.

The term "miscellaneous" pipe support refers to a broad array of devices that includes items such as Anchors, Base
Supports, Cradles, Dummy Support Legs, Guides, Hanger Rods, Pick-ups, Shoes, Trunnions, etc. All companies have
their own operating methods and may not use a different approach to miscellaneous pipe support devices. Some may
allow each piping designer to pick and choose pieces and parts from various catalogs to design their own pipe
supports. Others may use a more organizational approach and "pre-engineer" these supports.

The term "pre-engineer" means that the various devices are an existing company standard that may be used on the
project. Secondary support devices typically have multiple or repetitive point of use subject to similar conditions.
Having these devices "pre-engineered" and available to the piping designer on the project saves money, provides
consistency of design, and results in a safer design. The configurations, hardware and materials have already been
established, the load calculations have been performed (and are on file). There is also an "If-then" selection key and
criteria established (If you have "X" support problem, then you can/must use "Y" support device). The extensive use of
computers and plant design software makes this approach more viable. Having these support devices "pre-engineered"
and documented allows for the inserting of the item's specific electronic symbol required for model generation and
document (plans, elevations and isometrics) extraction.

Secondary pipe support devices


(Item name, purpose and frequency of use)

Name Purpose Frequency


Prevent the movement of the pipe line normally in a
Anchors High
pipe rack
Prevent any movement of a piping assembly
Base Anchors Low
normally at grade
Allows only vertical movement (up or down) of
Base Guides Low
piping assemblies at grade
Provides support under piping assemblies normally
Base Supports High
at grade
Provides protection for cold insulation when High for cold
Cradles
crossings a pipe support in pipe racks service
Directional Restricts the movement of a pipe line to a specific
High
Anchor direction pipe racks
Dummy Provides added length to a pipeline for the purpose
High
Support Legs of support. Not restricted to only pipe rack usage
A catchall term sometimes used by a piping designer
Field Supports that includes any type of non-infrastructure support. High
These items are not location specific.
Provides restraint to keep a pipe line in place in
Guides horizontal pipe racks or vertical pipe racks in High
buildings or up tall equipment

Gussets Provides added reinforcement for small (fragile) See note #1


branch connections on a larger header or pipe
A wide verity of top-down pipe supports situations,
Hanger Rods
not location specific. High
Prevents or controls mechanical vibration in piping
Hold Downs
systems. See note #2
Load Provides additional mass for thin wall pipe at a
Distribution point of concentrated stress loading.
Low
Pads This item is not location specific.
Provides support of pipes from other pipes or
Pick-ups Moderate
overhead beams and is not location specific.
Provides "mini-supports for lines with hot insulation
Shoes High
normally only used only at pipe support points
Provides load-carrying points for vertical pipelines
Trunnions most often used to support pipes attached to tall Low
vertical vessels or hung from tall structures.
Note #1 - This item is normally used only for (a) services subject to heavy vibration such as at reciprocating
compressors or (b) services that contain highly hazardous or toxic material.
Note #2 - This item is normally only used for the suction and discharge piping at reciprocating compressors.

Now, lets look at and discuss each of these "miscellaneous" or "pre-engineered" devices. The description for these
items is based on my own experience. Others will no doubt have other and even better ways. Everyone is encouraged
to create "a better mouse trap."

Anchors
The anchoring of a pipe in place can be achieved in a number of ways. An anchor will normally require some additional
material regardless of the line size. You cannot just weld a pipe to a pipe support. For some small lines in the right
situations you can use "U" bolts over the pipe (tack-welded to the pipe) and through-bolted to a bare steel pipe
support. Another way for small line sizes (2" and 3") uses 1-1/2" angle iron 6" long. Weld one leg of the angle iron
(horizontal) flat to the top of the pipe support with the other (vertical) leg against the pipe. Stitch weld (1" fillet weld
on 5" centers) to the vertical leg to the pipe. For larger lines use a pipe guide to restrain the side-to-side movement
and add a piece of steel ("T" or channel) to the bottom of the pipe (or shoe) at the pipe support to restrict longitudinal.
Anchors will be required for both bare (uninsulated) pipe and insulated pipe. The requirements for anchors for cold
insulated and hot insulated pipe is different.

Base Anchors
This will occur most often at control valve manifolds (or stations) situated close to grade or a platform. Base anchors
are simply a stub of pipe (dummy leg) attached to the lower portion of an elbow and extended to grade (or platform).
A square steel plate is welded flat to the pipe. The plate may have holes in it and be cinch-anchored to the paving or
welded to platform steel. The sizing of the "pipe leg" can be the same as for Dummy Legs.

Base Guides
This item is constructed of the material and methods as the base anchor except that the bottom plate is not bolted or
welded down. For this item angle iron strips are installed on two opposite sides (depending on desired movement) to
control the direction.

Base Supports
This is another name for one of the items that sometimes falls under the name Field Support. This item also has a
dummy leg type pipe extension (or stub) welded down from an elbow. However, the bottom end if the stub is threaded
using a straight (conduit) thread machine. A straight thread, conduit coupling in then used to make height adjustments
to the support. When this is required for high cost piping materials that require post weld heat treating the stub is
shortened and added in the shop. The balance of the stub is added in the field from carbon steel. Another variation of
this is restricted to small diameter piping. For this a 3'-0" (1 meter) length of 3"x3" steel angle is welded to a 6"x6"
plate. Holes are drilled in the angle at the proper elevation and a "U" bolt secures the pipe to the angle.

Cradles
This device is normally fabricated from carbon steel that is shaped to fit the outside diameter of cold insulation. The
potential number of sizes for this item can be vast. The sizing requirements are based on (a) the pipe size, (b) the
insulation thickness, (c) the load bearing capability of the insulation, (d) the length of the required cradle and (e) the
thickness of the cradle material. The pipe size, the insulation thickness and the load bearing capability should be easy
to understand. The length if the cradle is influenced by questions such as: Does this line require an anchor at this
cradle? What kind of pipe supports do we have at the point of this cradle? How much thermal movement will this line
"see" at the point of this cradle? All of these items effect the cradle length. If there is to be an anchor at this cradle and
the forces are substantial then the cradle thickness may need to be increased.

Directional Anchor
This item could also be called a Directional Guide and is most often associated with hot piping. This item is designed to
allow for thermal movement in a specific axis. The design may require longitudinal movement or it may require side-
to-side movement of a line. This item has two versions, one for longitudinal movement and a second for the side-to-
side movement. Remember this most often occurs in hot piping. Hot piping also requires shoes to elevate the line and
the insulation above the pipe support. So we have a pipe, a hot pipe, already on a shoe. Now, to allow for longitudinal
movement we simply add (weld) Guides to the top (steel) surface of the pipe support. To allow for side-to-side
movement in the pipe we DO NOT ADD GUIDES. We add two pieces piece of steel ("T" or channel) to the bottom of the
pipe shoe, one on each side of the pipe support with a small (1/4") gap to avoid binding.

Dummy Support Legs - (or Dummy Legs)


This is simply a piece of pipe extended from an elbow to provide support when a pipe line enters or leaves a pipe rack
short of a support and is left improperly support. A stub or length of pipe sized to carry the load is welded to the elbow
and extended beyond the support. The length and the wall schedule of the pipe extension are a rather complex formula
based on the parent line size and the total load. The total load is based on the distance (indirection of flow) from the
last support to the drop, the distance of the drop, the distance from the drop to the next support, the weight of any
insulation plus the weight of the hydrotest water or commodity which ever is greater.

Field Supports
This "catch-all" term is used to describe a simple piece of steel angle or channel welded to a column or beam intended
to provide a support point for a pipe. As mentioned above (Base Support), this term is also used for the support under
control valve stations and pump suction or discharge piping.
(The term "Field Support" (or F.S.) is seen on old drawings from existing plants of years ago. It was used on drawings
with only a simple symbol indicating a location. This may have occurred when the piper got lazy or did not know
enough about pipe supports. The intention was for the installation contractor "Field" to do what ever they chose to do
with whatever material that was available.)

Guides
Guides are predominantly in elevated pipe racks or sleepers to keep the pipes in their assigned berth. Guides are most
often short lengths of properly sized steel angle welded to the pipe support on each side of each pipe. For small lines
using small angle the angle is installed with the point up, like a pyramid. For larger uninsulated lines with larger angle
one leg of the angle is flat on the support and the other is vertical. For the installations of guides care must be taken
by thew installers to leave a small gap between the pipe and the angle to avoid binding. Because of the close spacing
of the pipes in a rack guides are attached to alternate pipe bents in staggered fashion.

Gussets
This is a simple piece of angle steel welded or clamped to a header pipe and to a (small) branch to prevent breakage
due to vibration or other action. There are some locations and services where the use of gussets is highly
recommended.
These are:
1. Suction and discharge piping of reciprocating compressors and pumps
2. Lines in mixed phase flow subject to slug flow or surge
3. Lines in hydrogen service
4. Lines in toxic service (category "X" or "M")
5. Branches in piping low to grade (or platforms) that may be used as a step by operators

Hanger Rods
These devices are one of the most dangerous items used in the piping field. In many if not most cases they are not
properly "designed". Hanger Rods, Rod Hangers and Pipe Hangers all terms for the same device. There are three basic
types of Hanger support devices: (type 1) beam-to-pipe, (type 2) pipe-to-pipe and (type 3) beam-to-beam (or
trapeze). In general they all have three components, a top connection component, a connector component and a
bottom component. For the type 1 Hanger the top component normally connects to a structural beam. The connector
component is normally steel rod. The bottom component is normally a pipe clamp. For the type 2 Hanger the top
component is also a pipe clamp. Other components are the same as type 1. For the type 3 Hanger there are two top
connector components and two connector rods. The bottom component is a piece of steel angle or channel sized to
span the distance and carry the intended load.
The danger with the design of these items is in the lack of knowledge of the people doing the design. They do not know
how to calculate all the actual dead and live loading that the Hanger will support. Then they choose the wrong type or
strength of component for the intended load.

Hold-Downs
These items are a combination of clevises, steel shapes, bolts and compression washers. The are used to hold down
the piping on the suction and discharge of reciprocating compressors and pumps. Normally this type of piping is low to
the ground and supported on sleepers. The hold-down is a bridge assembly over the pipe and welded to the sleeper
steel plate. The combination of clevises, steel shapes bolts and compression washers exert tension on the pipe to
suppress vibration.

Load Distribution Pads


This is simply a 120 degree section of pipe about 18" long. The Pad is cut from the same material as the subject line.
The Pad is opened up a little to fit the pipe O. D. and then welded to the pipe at the required location.

Pick-ups
This is a set of devices used to provide intermediate support for small diameter piping that will not span the existing
distance. Its use is normally restricted to locations where the small size pipelines run parallel to one or more large
diameter pipelines. This is also used to save the cost in time and material from adding a formal (primary) structural
pipe support. This is simply a length of properly sized, steel angle and one or more "U" bolts. The angle is cut long
enough to span under both the supported and the supporting lines. The "U" bolts are sized based on the large pipes
that will be doing the supporting.

Shoes
This device is required to raise a hot insulated off the structural support surface. The reason for this is to prevent
damage to the insulation as the pipe expands as it heats up and shrinks as it cools down. For pipe sizes 3" thru 10" a
simple inverted "T" shoe with a flat bottom plate and one (single) vertical plate should be used. For pipe sizes 12" thru
18" a shoe with a flat bottom plate and two (double) vertical plates should be used. For pipe sizes 20" and larger
consideration should be given to the addition of a Load Distribution Plate (see above) where thin wall pipe may exist.
The material for pipe shoes will normally be carbon steel. However, where the pipeline is an exotic material this would
cause a weld of dissimilar metals to exist where the shoe is attached to the pipe. For shoes used on exotic materials
only the bottom plate is carbon steel. The (single or double) vertical plates are made of the same material as the pipe.
For piping that requires post weld heat treating (PWHT) after fabrication the shoes must be added by the shop. Some
company's (engineering and client) will also require the use of shoes (with the Load Distribution Pad) for all
uninsulated 24" and larger piping where the pipe wall is below a certain limit.

Trunnions
For this device a vertical pipeline will have two (2) stub pipes attached horizontally to opposite sides of the pipe. One
end of these stub pipes is shaped to fit the O.D. of the vertical pipe the other end is normally square cut. The shaped
end of the stubs are welded to the vertical pipe with a full penetration (*) fillet weld. When used on a pipe attached to
and supported from a vertical vessel the vessel department supplies the primary support. Coordination of size, type,
elevation, orientation, etc. between the piping designer and the vessel group is required. When used on a pipe
attached to and supported from a vertical structure the structural department supplies the primary support.
Coordination of size, type, elevation, location, etc. between the piping designer and the structural group is required.
(*) This full penetration refers to the wall thickness of only the stub pipes not the vertical pipe.

The recommended practice for all of these secondary pipe support devices is to determine what is needed. Start out
with items that are found to have consistent and repetitive use within the company's past projects. Document each
device complete with parts list and installation instructions. (Documenting also includes the updates required for any
electronic design system database, AutoCAD, PDS, PDMS or other) Qualify each device by the specific use criteria
based on pipe size, load limitations and application. Define the selection criteria for each based on the qualification
criteria. Then train all the piping designers, stress engineers, material group and construction contractors on the
responsibility, purpose, use, application and limitations.
What about responsibility? Who is responsible for pipe supports or the supporting of the piping? Some may say, "That
it is the structural groups responsibility." That is only partly true. They are only responsible for providing a support of
the size; shape and strength based on information given to them. If nobody tells them to put a pipe support (of a
specific size, shape and loading) in a specific location they are not going to do it. So, who is responsible for doing the
telling? The piping designer is responsible for the piping, which means all the piping and all aspects of all the piping.
The piping designer is responsible for telling the structural group what is required for all primary pipe support systems.
And, the piping designer is also responsible for telling the structural group when a secondary pipe support device will
be attached to and impose a load on a structural member.

There are of course other opinions on this subject and there are no doubt questions and more that can be discussed.
The other opinions I will warmly accept. And, as for the questions, please ask. If you don't ask you will never give
others a chance to offer answers.

Pipe Supports, Part - B, Will discuss data requirements and the process for the selection and qualification of typical
pipe supports.

James O. Pennock is a former Piper with more than 45 years experience covering process plant
engineering, design, training, pipe fabrication and construction. He is now retired and lives in Florida, USA.
pipingdesigners.com Training Seminar

Section - III
A: Pipe Supports, Part - 2
By: James O. Pennock
Pipe supports as we stated in Part 1 (of Pipe Supports) is a much more complex subject than the term would first
suggest. We also want to make it clear that there are many ways that errors can be made when designing or selecting
pipe supports this includes the various secondary pipe supports.

In Part - 1, we saw a chart that described some of the many different types of secondary pipe support devices. In this,
Part - 2 of Pipe Supports we are going to focus on specific data required to properly size, qualify and select a
support.To do this we will look at one specific device. The specific device we will focus on is the Hanger Rod.

You will remember that in Part - 1 we said there are three basic types of Hanger Rod support devices: (type 1) beam-
to-pipe, (type 2) pipe-to-pipe and (type 3) beam-to-beam (or trapeze). They all have three major components, a top
connection component, middle or connector component and a bottom component. For the type 1 Hanger the top
component normally connects to a structural beam. The connector component is normally steel rod. The bottom
component is normally a pipe clamp. We also said that the danger with the design of these items is in the lack of
knowledge of some of the people doing the design. They do not know how to calculate all the actual dead and live
loading that the Hanger will support. Then they choose the wrong type or strength of component for the intended load.

In order to bring attention to some of the potential problems lets take a hypothetical piping configuration and plant
situation for study. We will look at two cases. We will use the same configuration with different conditions for each
case.

Case #1
Let's take the following as an example scenario for the basis for our discussion.

>> The project is a process plant in a multi-story structure

>> The line is 12", standard weight carbon steel pipe located in a lower level of the structure

>> The line will carry a process liquid with a specific gravity of .85

>> The line is subject to hydrotest

>> The line is not insulated

>> The piping travels horizontal north in a well supported manner, then after crossing the last normal pipe support
(support 'a') it travels 40 feet, then drops down (3'-0") and turns east (right) with two elbows (fitting-to-fitting) and
travels another 40 feet to the next normal support (support 'b').

>> There are no additional horizontal support beams available at or near the turn point and at the exact piping
elevation.

>> The closest steel available as a possible support point is 24" deep major equipment support beam located 6'-0"
(top-of-pipe to bottom-of-beam) above the pipe and 4'-0" from the pipe drop.

It is logical and factual that structural support 'a' will carry one half of the pipe load of the north-south run. And the
structural support 'b' will carry half pipe load of the east-west run. However, the L-shaped "dog-leg" in this scenario is
obviously excessively overspanned and the pipe will be over stressed. The piping designer must provide some type of
additional support at or near the corner. Because of the availability of the overhead beam a hanger rod is chosen as
the best possible and most economical method of support for the pipe.

We must now look at the factors so we can choose the correct Hanger Rod assembly. The factors include all the weight
to be supported.

The component weights are as follows:

>> 20'-0" of pipe in the north-south run (1/2 the 40' run)

>> 20'-0" of pipe in the east-west run (1/2 the 40' run)
>> Two 90 degree elbows

>> 43 lineal feet of hydrotest water in the 12" Standard Weight pipe

With this information the next step is a simple look-up of the correct data.

Case #1-12" Standard Weight, Carbon Steel Pipe

Pipe Weight Fitting Weight Insulation Weight Water Weight Total Weight
1984 lbs. 246 lbs. 0 2107 lbs. 4337 lbs.
We now have what we need to select a hanger rod assembly to support our pipe. There are two ways that this can be
done. First, the designer can use the "pick-and-choose" or "do-it-your-self ' method. This is the process of picking up a
hanger parts catalog and then selects each individual piece and part. The hope is that the designer knows what they
are actually doing.

The second method is that we select from a pre-packaged Hanger Rod assembly that fits our need. One that comes
complete with all the proper and matched pieces and parts. The term "pre-packaged hanger assembly" also means that
the assembly has been "tag named," has been pre-designed, pre-engineered, pre-qualified and fully documented
including the related needs for the applicable computer aided design system, material procurement and installation.

The assembly we need for our "Case #1 includes the following:


(All components and load data are taken from "PTP" Piping Technology and Products online catalog, see
pipingtech.com)

Load Capacity*

>> Figure 110, Eye Rod (Welded), Size 1" 4960 lbs.
>> Figure 20, Welded Beam Attachment, Size #8 (for 1" Rod) 4900 lbs.
>> Figure 40, Weldless Eye Nut, Size #2 for 1" threaded Rod 4960 lbs.
>> Figure 80, Heavy Three-Bolt Pipe Clamp, for 12" pipe 7000 lbs.
>> Beam attachment welds ¼" fillet, 2 sides 12000lbs.

* It is normal practice for components of this type to be designed with a plus 50% safety factor. The safety factor is
not to be considered as available when making a selection.
**The Beam Attachment is 3" on each side, ¼" attachment fillet weld 1" long is rated @ 2000 lbs. Per inch.

We now compare our pipe weights against the Hanger Rod load capacity data and see that (not using any of the safety
factor) the Hanger' weakest link is the Welded Beam Attachment (4900 lbs.) but it is more than enough for our piping
needs (4337 lbs.).

If we were using the "pick-and-choose" method then the designer must indicate the hanger in the design then identify
each and every piece and part. The detailed part identification is required for proper procurement and installation.

If we use the "pre-package" method the designer is only required to indicate the hanger and the item name or tag
number (example: HR-1-12".) All the procurement and installation details are included in the hanger documentation.

Now Case #2
Later someone else has a similar problem. They had seen what was done by another designer with the Case #1
problem and decided they would just copy it and callout for the same Hanger Rod Assembly. Why not? They too had a
12" line. They had the same configuration. And, they also had the same span distances. No problem, right? However,
all things were in fact not the same.
So what was different?

Case #2
>> The project is also a process plant in a multi-story structure

>> The line is 12", Schedule 160 carbon steel pipe located in a lower level of the structure

>> The line will carry a process liquid with a specific gravity of .85

>> The line is subject to hydrotest

>> The line is insulated with 3" of Calcium Silicate

>> The piping travels horizontal north in a well supported manner, then after crossing the last normal pipe support
(support 'a') it travels 40 feet, then drops down (3'-0") and turns east (right) with two elbows (fitting-to-fitting) and
travels another 40 feet to the next normal support (support 'b').

>> There are no additional horizontal support beams available at or near the turn point and at the exact piping
elevation.

>> The closest steel available as a possible support point is 24" deep major equipment support beam located 6'-0"
(top-of-pipe to bottom-of-beam) above the pipe and 4'-0" from the pipe drop.

With this information we look-up of the correct data.

Case #2, 12" Schedule 160, Carbon Steel Pipe

Pipe Weight Fitting Weight Insulation Weight Water Weight Total Weight
6412 lbs. 794 lbs. 528 lbs 1462 lbs. 9196 lbs.
We see here that the total load to be actually carried by the Case #2 hanger is more than twice the safe capacity any
of the components included in the original Hanger Rod. This will not work! This is an example of the type of errors that
result when there is a lack of thinking or laziness on the part of the piping designer.

All of the items identified, as Secondary Pipe Support Systems are subject to this same kind of miss-design and miss-
use. It is incumbent on the piping designer to become trained and knowledgeable about these issues.

Having identified the need for the hanger in the case study above and selected the correct hanger is not the end of the
piping designers responsibility. That hanger is carrying a load and the top of that hanger is attached to a steel beam.
The load is being transferred to that beam. That hanger and the pipe it is carrying is an abnormal load added to that
beam. It is a load that the structural engineer would not normally be aware of. It is the piping designer's responsibility
to document that loading and advise the proper member of the structural engineering group. That beam may be a very
large beam and is at or very near it's safe design limit. You might think "Oh it is okay, it can carry my pipe" However,
you are not a structural engineer and this is not your decision to make. Whenever an abnormal piping load is added to
a structural beam (steel or concrete) the structural group must be advised.

James O. Pennock is a former Piper with more than 45 years experience

pipingdesigners.com Training Seminar

Section - IV
A: The Designer, Stress Problems and Stress Training
By: James O. Pennock

Stress related technical and execution problems in the design of process plant
piping are complex and must be addressed properly. There will be some Piping
Designers, Stress Engineers and others who read this and say that they agree.
Others may say that they do not agree. Others will just not know one way or
the other. This discussion, while not covering solutions to every potential
problem, is intended only to highlight some of the most common stress related
factors and designer training needs

There are five basic factors that influence piping and therefore piping stress in
the process plant. There is temperature, pressure, weight, force and vibration.
These factors will come in many forms and at different times. Stress problems
become all the more complex because two or more of these will exist at the
same time in the same piping system. The main objective of the focus when
dealing with problems related to piping systems is not normally the pipe itself.
In a very high percentage of the time it is not the pipe that is the weakest link.
Note this: the pipe is normally stronger and/or less vulnerable to damage than
what the pipe is connected to. Pumps are just one examples of equipment to
which pipes are routinely connected. Misalignment problems caused by
expansion (or contraction) in a poorly designed system can result in major
equipment failure. Equipment failures can lead to the potential for fire, plant
shutdown and loss of revenue. At this point it should be emphasized that the
success (or failure) of the plant’s operation, years down the road can and will
depend on what is done up front by all the members of the design team during
the design stage. An important point to remember, “While analysis cannot
create a good design, it can confirm a good design” (Improved Pump Load
Evaluation,” Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1998, By: David W. Diehl, COADE
Engineering Software, Inc Houston, TX). On the other hand, proper analysis
will identify bad design and potential problems in a piping system design.
Stress Related Design Factors
Temperatures in piping systems may range from well over 1000o F (537.8 C) on
the high side to below -200 o F (-128.8 C) on the low side. Each extreme on the
temperature scale and everything in between brings its own problems. There
will also be times when both high and low temperatures can occur in the same
piping system. An example of this would be in piping that is installed in an
arctic environment. The piping is installed outdoors where it is subjected to
-100 o F (-73.3 C) over the arctic winter. Six to nine months later it is finally
commissioned started up and may operate at five or six hundred degrees.

The problems that temperature causes is expansion (or contraction) in the


piping system. Expansion or contraction in a piping system is an absolute. No
matter what the designer or the stress engineer does they cannot prevent the
action caused by heat or cold. Expansion or contraction in a piping system it
self is not so much a problem. As we all know if a bare pipe was just lying on
the ground in the middle of a dry barren desert it will absorb a lot of heat from
just solar radiation. In the hot sun piece of pipe can reached 150 o F (65.5 C).
The pipe will expand and with both ends loose it would not be a problem.
However, when you connect the pipe to something, even if only one end is
connected you may begin to have expansion related problems. When the pipe is
anchored or connected to something at both ends you absolutely will have
expansion induced problems. Expansion induced problems in a piping system is
stress. There are a number of ways to handle expansion in piping systems.
Flexible routing is the first and by far the cheapest and safest method for
handling expansion in piping systems. The other way is the use of higher cost
and less reliable flexible elements such as expansion joints.

Stress will exist in every piping system. If not identified and the proper action
taken, stress will cause failure to equipment or elements in the piping system
itself. Stress results in forces at equipment nozzles and at anchor pipe
supports. Two piping configurations with the same pipe size, shape,
dimensions, temperature and material but with different wall schedules (sch. 40
vs. sch. 160) will not generate the same stress.

Force in piping systems is not independent of the other factors. Primarily, force
(as related to piping systems) is the result of expansion (temperature) and/or
pressure acting on a piping configuration that is too stiff. This may cause the
failure of a pipe support system or it may cause the damage or failure of a piece
of equipment. Force, and the expansion that causes it, is best handled by a
more flexible routing of the piping. Some people suggest that force can be
reduced by the use of expansion joints. However we must remember that for
an expansion joint to work there must be an opposite and equal force at both
ends to make the element work. This tends to compound the problem rather
than lessen it.

Pressure in piping systems also range from the very high to the very low.
Piping systems with pressure as high as 35,000 psi in some plants are not
unusual. On the other hand piping systems with pressures approaching full
vacuum are also not unusual. The pressure (or lack of) in a piping system
effects the wall thickness of the pipe. When you increase the wall thickness of
the pipe you do two things. First, you increase the weight of the pipe. Second,
you increase the stiffness of the pipe thus the stress intensification affecting
forces. Increasing the wall thickness of the pipe is the primary method of
compensating for increases in pressure. Other ways, depending on many
factors include changing to a different material. With low or vacuum systems
there are also other ways to prevent the collapse of the pipe wall. Among these
the primary method is the addition of stiffening rings. Stiffing rings may be
added internally or externally depending on the commodity type and the
conditions.

Weight in a piping system is expressed normally as dead load. The weight of a


piping system at any given point is made up of many elements. These include
the weight of the pipe, the fittings, the valves, any attachments, and the
insulation. There is also the test media (e. g. hydrotest water) or the process
commodity whichever has the greater specific gravity. Piping systems are
heavy, period. Everybody involved in the project needs to understand this and
be aware that this weight exists and it needs to be supported. Ninety-nine
times out of a hundred this weight will be supported from a structural pipe
support (primary pipe support system) of some kind. However there are times
when the piping (weight) is supported from a vessel or other type of
equipment.

Vibrations will also occur in piping systems and come in two types. There is the
basic mechanical vibration caused by the machines that the piping is connected
to. Then, there is acoustic (or harmonic) vibration caused by the characteristics
of the system itself. Typically the only place severe vibrations will be found is
in piping connected to equipment such as positive displacement reciprocating
pumps or high pressure multi-stage reciprocating compressors and where there
is very high velocity gas flows.

All of the issues listed above that a piping system is exposed to need to be
covered in a company specific or company sponsored piping designer, stress-
related training program. This piping designer, stress-related training should be
done at the department level, early in the designer’s career and prior to the
start of the project. Unfortunately however this is not always the case.

By definition, the role of the piping designer is to design the plant piping
systems. This means design all of the system. Design all of the system means
that the piping designer shall define the proper routing of each and every
pipeline required for the project. This includes each and every inline component
(pipe, valves, fittings, flanges, instruments, etc.), every online component
(anchors, guides, hangers, etc.). It includes the definition of any attached piece
of equipment and the definition of every support point. To do this and do it
properly the designer must know about piping stress issues and know what to
do about them. The designer is responsible for a lot and so they need to know a
lot.

Is there any risk involved to the company or the project in not doing this stress
related designer training? Yes! First, a designer who is naïve about the cause
and effect of stress related problems would not be able to recognize the
symptoms and will burn a lot of budget hours and create bad designs. Second,
bad designs are subject to the ‘domino effect’ when the need for corrective
action is finally identified and taken then other lines get “pushed” and then
modifications to them are required. Third, when the bad design does get to the
stress engineer for analysis there is the potential for repeated recycle and a
serious delay in the design issue schedule.
Designer Stress Training
What does the piping designer need to know? Piping design is more than just
knowing how to turn on the computer, how to find the piping menus and the
difference between paper space and model space. So, appropriately, what else
does the designer need to know about piping design besides how to connect a
piece of pipe to a fitting?

Here is a list of some of the most basic of things that a good piping designer
should know. Thinking about every one of these items should be as natural as
breathing for a good piping designer.

· Allowable pipe spans – All designer need to know and understand the
span capabilities of pipe in the different schedules for a wide variety of common
piping materials. When a new project introduces a new material with severely
reduced span capabilities; supplemental training may be required.

· Expansion of pipe – All designers must understand that they need to treat
a piping system as though it is alive. It has a temperature and that
temperature causes it to grow and move. That growth and movement must be
allowed for and incorporated in the overall design. Not just of that specific line
but for all other lines close by. The process of expansion in a pipe or group of
pipes will also exert frictional forces or anchor forces on the pipe supports they
come in contact with.

· Routing for flexibility – The piping designer must understand how to route
pipe for flexibility. Routing for flexibility can normally be achieved in the most
natural routing of the pipeline from its origin to its terminus. Routing for
flexibility means (a) do not run a pipe in a straight line from origin to terminus
and (b) building flexibility into the pipe routing is far cheaper and more reliable
than expansion joints.

· Weight and loads (live loads and dead loads) – The piping designer needs
to understand the effects of weight and loading. They need to know and
understand that everything has a weight. They need to be able recognize when
there is going to be a concentrated load. They need to have access to basic
weight tables for all the standard pipe schedules, pipe fittings, flanges, valves
for steel pipe. They also need to have the weight tables for other materials or a
table of correction factors for these other materials vs. carbon steel. They need
to be able to recognize when downward expansion in a piping system is present
and is adding live loads to a support or equipment nozzle.

· Equipment piping – The piping designer needs to know the right and the
wrong way to pipe up (connect pipe to) different kinds of equipment. This
includes pumps, compressors, exchangers, filters or any special equipment to
be used on a specific project.

· Vessel piping – The piping designer also needs to understand about the
connecting, supporting and guiding of piping attached to vessels (horizontal or
vertical) and tanks. They need to know that nozzle loading is important and
does have limitations.

· Rack piping – The designer needs to understand that there is a logical


approach to the placement of piping in (or on) a pipe rack. It does not matter
how wide or how high the rack or what kind of plant, the logic still applies.
Starting from one or both outside edges the largest and hottest lines are
sequenced in such a manner that allows for the nesting of any required
expansion loops. The spacing of the lines must also allow for the bowing effect
at the loops caused by the expansion.

· Expansion loops – The designer needs to understand and be able to use


simple rules and methods for sizing loops in rack piping. This should include
the most common sizes, schedules and materials.

· Cold spring/Pre-spring – Designers should understand the basics rules of


cold spring and pre-spring. They need to understand what each one is along
with when to and when not to use each.
Piping Designer or Piping Drafter
Any piping designer that has this type of training, this type of knowledge and
then consistently applies is indeed a piping designer. He or she will also be a
more valuable asset to their company and to themselves in the market place. On
the other hand anyone who does not know or does not apply the knowledge
about these issues while doing piping work is nothing more than a piping
drafter or a CAD operator.

Section - IV
B: The Problem with Piping "Lift-off"
By: CAEPIPE (visit http://sstusa.com)
Contemporary commercial piping analysis programs deal differently with the problem of apparent lift-off of an
operating pipe at a rod hanger or a one-way vertical support, such as a pipe on a support rack. A few programs provide
error messages; others show a vertical movement with a possible increase in sustained (weight) stress (see NOTE
below for CAEPIPE). A proper understanding of the standard piping design practice is the key to correct interpretation
of these results from different programs. Such standard piping design practice was generally understood when the
sustained and flexibility analysis rules were introduced in the 1955 Edition of the ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping.

The problem with lift-off is compounded by the intention of the piping analysis being performed - whether the intent is
to design new or revamp existing piping or the intent is to analyze as-built. The intention of the various sections of
ASME B31 Code (B31.1, B31.3, etc.) is to provide guidance for new construction. Note, since the publication of the
1935 Edition of ASME B31.1 (which included the predecessor of B31.3 as a chapter, Paras. 101.6 and 121.4 and their
predecessor paras.) state:
Piping shall be carried on adjustable hangers or properly leveled rigid hangers or supports, and suitable springs...

Hangers used for the support of piping, NPS 2½ (NPS 2 in 1935 edn.) and larger, shall be designed to permit adjustment after
erection while supporting the load.

While not quite as explicit, the current ASME B31.3 Para. 321.1.1 states:

The layout and design of piping and its supporting elements shall be directed toward preventing... piping stresses in excess of those
permitted by in this Code;... unintentional disengagement of piping from its supports;... excessive piping sag in piping requiring
drainage slope;...

These paragraph excerpts define standard practice in piping design. That is, during operation, it is neither the intention of the code
nor standard practice to allow piping to lift-off. Piping is normally designed to be supported in the operating condition. The means to
achieve this is through proper adjustment of the supports during operation. This is important in piping because unadjusted supports
will permit the pipe to sag and create locations in steam or condensable gas piping where condensates can collect or concentrate.
And it is especially important for piping operating above 800 degF, where unadjusted supports will allow the pipe to permanently
deform (creep) over time.

Small gaps are inevitable in actual construction because of fabrication and installation tolerances and would normally be closed by
support adjustments. But, so long as the pipe is prevented from significant lateral movement, small gaps below pipe during
operation (¼ inch and less in moderate size piping) may be tolerable because the weight analysis is a very simplified and
conservative method that the ASME B31 codes use to guard against collapse. Stresses caused by takeup of a small gap below the
pipe could even be considered expansion or building settlement type stresses and thus would not need to be considered in the
weight analysis. Weight analysis with the intent of designing pipe normally considers all the weight supports perform their intended
function. Any significant gaps determined by analysis could either indicate that a support is not required, or that adjacent supports
need to be modified, or that an alternate means of support is needed, e.g., a variable or constant spring should be used.

However, if the purpose of an analysis is not to design a new or revamp an old piping system, but to evaluate an as-built and
maintained piping system, small gaps may have more significance in as much as they would indicate that the pipe support system
may not be acting as designed and maintained. A lack of or improper adjustment of the supports in the operating condition may
cause lift-off at rigid supports. Improperly designed or adjusted or maintained or degraded variable or constant spring supports may
cause lift-off, too.

The interpretation of the results of the analysis of as-built piping systems need not necessarily conform to the rules of the ASME B31
codes. Remember, the rules in the B31 codes are required for new construction, not the evaluation of existing piping. It is
understood that a greater factor of safety is required for the design process because the pipe and its components are not yet
available to be measured and materials confirmed, as well as the knowledge of how the piping is to be actually used. The
interpretation of the analysis results of as-built piping may be able to take advantage of what the actual piping dimensions and
materials are and how the piping has been operated. Competent engineering judgement based on knowledge of the intent of the
respective ASME B31 codes must then become part of the evaluation process.

For the reasons noted, it is important to distinguish between the design and analysis of piping. If designing, certain assumptions are
normally made with regard to whether the piping is supported in the operating condition. Such assumptions might include tolerating
a small gap at a given support but realizing that the installation of the given support will require adjustment. Alternately, a larger
gap at the given support may require support relocation to be effective or the selection of a different type of support, most typically
a constant or variable spring. If merely analyzing existing piping, no assumptions need be made regarding supports acting and
analysis gaps may become important considerations. That said, however, the analyst must realize that the piping analysis model is a
very idealized estimation of the as-built piping and for the analysis results to be meaningful, the analyst needs to consider how well
the results correlate with the actual performance of the in-situ piping.

NOTE: In case of lift-off, CAEPIPE will show a gap and possibly increased sustained stresses. The user must interpret the gaps
according to whether the user is designing new or revamping existing piping or is analyzing an existing condition.

Author: Mr. Ron Haupt, P. E., of Pressure Piping Engineering (www.ppea.net) is a member of several piping code committees (B31,
B31.1, B31.3, BPTCS, and others). He consults with us in the capacity of Nuclear QA Manager.

Section - VI, Pipe Fabrication Issues


A: Checking of Pipe Fabrication Shop Drawings

By: James O. Pennock

There will come a time the life of almost every project when the question of checking of pipe fabrication shop spool drawings will
come up. Projects that are totally field fabricated do not have shop spools and therefore the need does not exist. However for the
vast amount of the projects there will be a pipe fabrication shop, shop spool drawings. Any time drawings are created there will be
the potential for errors. The shop is responsible for checking their own work, but it is prudent for the engineering company to do
their own check to verify that the shop is doing a proper job.

The prime objective for checking shop drawings is to eliminate (or reduce) field changes to shop fabricated spools. One person
cannot be expected to check ALL of the shop drawings and still meet the construction schedule. So you must use your time wisely.
You must have a plan. You should also talk to the piping foreman in the field and ask him/her, what are some of the typical errors
that cause them the most problems during installation?

A) First, sort the shop drawings by line number and “cost groups” i.e.: separate by material, wall schedule and line size. The reason
you need to do this is that it will allow you to focus your effort on the high cost piping. The most costly piping is the large diameter,
heavy wall carbon steel, any alloy materials and any material that requires post-weld-heat-treatment (PWHT). Start with the most
costly lines and their shop drawings.

B) Next, review the spool drawings for each line first for continuity. By this, I mean, do you have all the shop drawings to complete
“that” specific line? If the answer is “yes” then proceed. If the answer is “no” then have someone contact the shop to find out when
the missing drawings will be available. It is always possible that they forgot to draw one or to send one.

C) Next, check the drawings against the engineering drawings for configuration. By this I mean does the line turn when, where and
in the right direction to match the design? If not then this will require a change in the shop (If the spool piece is not yet shipped) or
a change in the field (if the spool piece has already been shipped). Shop errors can, in most cases be back-charged to the shop.
However, any error can cause a delay to the schedule which adds cost to the project.

D) Next, review the material used against the piping line specification for the material that is required. If the shop used the wrong
material, STOP. This line or spool will need to be refabricated.

E) Next, review the shop drawings against the design looking for places where a wrong dimension in a welded-out configuration
would do the most harm. Don’t worry about fitting make-up such as flange-reducer-flange. These have a low possibility for error.
Don’t worry about spools that terminate with a field weld. These have a built in opportunity to make a field correction.

F) Next, look for any place where there is a requirement for or the possibility for odd flange bolt-hole rotations. Did the shop do it
correctly? On the other hand, did the shop call for and fabricate an odd bolt-hole rotation that was not called for?

G) Next, spot check 10% of the dimensions within each “cost group.” If you do not find any error trends then you may want to
consider backing off additional checking. However, if you do find an error trend within a specific cost group (material, wall schedule,
size, etc.) then note the name of the person who did these high-error shop drawings. The next step is to notify the shop of your
concerns and request that they launch their own investigation. In the meantime notify the construction manager and based on the
“cost groups” look at all of this persons work.

This should give you some ideas to consider. Please feel free to E-mail me if you have any questions.
Section - VI, Pipe Fabrication Issues
B: Pipe Fabrication Shop Assignment Questions and Problems
By: James O. Pennock

On any process plant project the pipe fabrication shop should be recognized as a key player and a partner in the success of that
project. The performance of that shop can make or break a project. When an engineering company is about to issue a pipe
fabrication purchase order they should know everything there is to know about the proposed shop. The engineering company should
also consider all the risk factors relating to the shop’s performance and make every effort to eliminate or reduce those risks. One of
the ways to reduce the risk is to send a piping person into the shop to act as a focal point for questions and to solve problems.

The information below includes information the company should know about a pipe fabrication shop before an order is placed. It is
also what the person needs to know about the shop and the pipe fabrication purchase order before he or she starts an assignment in
the pipe fabrication shop.

Shop Identification

What is the name and location (address) of the proposed pipe fabrication shop?

What is the ownership of this shop?

What is the organization chart (names and positions) for this shop?

What is the name and title of the primary shop contact for this order?

Shop history

What is the history of this shop?

What is the performance history for this shop?

Has the company contacted other companies (customers) who have had work in this shop?

Shop capabilities

How many production lines does this shop have and what is the break-down? Normally the different production lines are arranged
by size and material. The size breakdown is based on the respective jigs, fixtures, cranes (or handling equipment), the welding
procedures, the welding machines, the fitter and welder training and experience. The material separation is to insure that Stainless
Steel and other alloys are not contaminated by carbon steel. Typically Stainless Steel lines will use nylon slings instead of chain to
lift the pipe spools.

The lines might be as follows:

- Small bore (3” and smaller) Carbon Steel


- Small bore (3” and smaller) Alloy & Stainless Steel
- Intermediate bore (4” through 12”) Carbon Steel
- Intermediate bore (4” through 12”) Alloy & Stainless Steel
- Large bore (14” and larger) Carbon Steel
- Large bore (14” and larger) Alloy & Stainless Steel
- Small bore Bends
- Large bore Bends

What other pipe fabrication related capabilities does this shop have (i.e.: expansion joint fabrication)?

The shop order

When will the shop order be placed?

What kind of other services (internal cleaning, priming, finished painting, etc.) does the shop fabrication order include?

What kinds of piping (material, sizes and schedules) will this order cover?

Material

What is the shops standard stock categories (2” to 24” sch. 40 and 80 Carbon Steel only, etc.)?

Will the shop buy all material or will the company purchase and supply some piping and non-piping material (i.e.: Thermowells)?
What is the material market’s projected actual lead time for delivery of alloy and other non-standard stock materials?

When will the “Buy” quality Bill-of-material summary be ready for issue?

What is the intended quality of this B-O-M summary?

Will there be a secondary MTO for shop material and an effective on-going program to identify new shop material requirements?

Will there be limits applied to where the material comes from?

Schedule

When is the planned start of isometric issue?

What is the planned isometric issue duration?

When will the actual isometric issue start?

When will the company supplied material be delivered 100%?

When is the first pipe spool required at jobsite?

When is the last pipe spool required at jobsite?

Logistics

Where is the jobsite?

What is the planned method of shipping?

Concerns

What are my company’s specific concerns relating to this shop’s performance?

Problems that impact to pipe fabrication performance:

Below are some issues relating to execution, coordination, cost and delivery that the company should address to reduce costs and
improve delivery.

Unrealistic priority categories:

In the past some engineering companies have insisted on having multiple priority categories, twenty or more, in some cases. This is
just plain ludicrous. A shop, any shop has limited options for the handling of normal work and “Priority” spool pieces. They in fact
have only three options. The engineering company needs to know and understand this and then keep things very simple.

Option 1: “FIFO” This means that all phases (engineering, material allocation, production, NDE, PWHT, painting and shipping) are
processed on a “first-in-first-out” (FIFO) basis. Engineering receives the customer isometric and prepares the required shop spool
drawings. They then do a material take-off to check for material availability. If material is available then the spool drawing is
released to the production floor. From there it is scheduled into the normal flow of work on the basis of FIFO for that specific
(size/material) production line. This also means that the all work is done at the shop’s normal shift and work day hours. If the
engineering company planned and scheduled their work properly and they gave the shop the right information about the
requirements for pipe fabrication then this option should meet the needs of the order.

Option 2: “Fast track” (or “Head-of-the-line”) This means that at all the normal work phases (listed above) an isometric and
the resultant pipe spools are moved to the head of the line at any effected work station. This, however, still means that all work is
done at the shop’s normal shift and work day hours. This option may or may not have a cost adder depending on how often it is
imposed. It should not be used for more than 5% to 8% of the total order.

Option 3: “Premium” This means that all of the normal phases are still done but at the “head-of-the-line” basis AND the shop
agrees to work 24 hours (three shifts at 8 hrs or two shifts of 12 hrs) to finish the “premium” work. All extra costs (labor and
utilities) incurred for “Premium” work is paid for by the client. This option will indeed have a cost adder, and it will be significant.
This option should not be used for more than 2% to 3% of the total order.

Material surprises:

The late notice of new material requirements has a serious effect on the real engineering, fabrication and delivery duration. How do
late notices of new material happen? The most common reason this happens is because material specs changed late in the project,
long after the shop “Buy” MTO (Material Take-off) was completed. Another reason it happens is because there is always more than
one way to do most things. The senior piper who planned on something being done one way (using specific material) has a junior or
a novice piper who does that thing another way (using different material). This does not have a big impact on “shop stock” carbon
steel material. However it does have a huge Impact on very high cost, long delivery alloy materials. Keep in mind for some sizes
and schedules of carbon steel it may be possible to acquire and have delivery from over night to three weeks depending on where
the shop is located and where the source is located. On the other hand for materials like P22 and P91 the delivery might be as much
as 50 weeks or more.

An important thing to remember is that a shop will not and does not start fabrication on a piping “spool’ unless and until they have
all the required material for that “spool.” Here are two tables that shows the impact that missing material may have on the overall
delivery duration schedule (DDS). The numbers shown here were taken from a real job.

Table A: All material pre-purchased and already available in the shop. (Numbers are in weeks)

Shop Matl DDS


Material Fab PWHT
Eng. delivery Total
Carbon Steel (Std
3 0 6 0 9
& XH)
Carbon Steel (>
3 0 8 0 11
XH)
Stainless Steel 3 0 8 0 11
Chrome Alloy (Std
3 0 8 1 12
& XH)
P91 3 0 12 1 16

Table B: Some (or all) material missing and needs to be obtained. (Numbers are in weeks)

Shop Matl DDS


Material Fab PWHT
Eng. delivery Total
Carbon Steel (Std
3 3 6 0 12
& XH)
Carbon Steel (>
3 20 8 0 31
XH)
Stainless Steel 3 20 8 0 31
Chrome Alloy (Std
3 34 8 1 46
& XH)
P91 3 50 12 1 66

As you can see there is a very big difference between the two delivery duration schedules. Having the right material or not having
the right material is the “Achilles’ heel” of any shop fabrication effort. The bottom line on this subject is that the piping lead engineer
and the lead piping design supervisor in the engineering office need to be on top of the projects piping material issues at all times. It
is their job and they need to understand what happens when they don’t control or prevent this problem.

Large Pipe Bends:

(Here we are talking about large diameter/heavy wall pipe bends in pipe where the bend radius is more than the standard 1-1/2 D
90 degree fitting ell.)

The effect of pipe bends on the production schedule can also have a major impact. To the shop a pipe bend is just another piece of
material, much like a fitting. The shop might have its own bending line but it may be in another state, province or country. They
need to have advance notice of all bend requirements. The pipe to be used for the bend needs to be purchased, received, inspected,
logged in to the shops warehouse system then it needs to be scheduled into the bend shop. The pipe is then sent to the bend shop
(or line) where it is bent, checked for accuracy then “Stress relieved” (PWHT) and returned to the fabrication shop for the balance of
the operations required to finish the pipe spool.

The ideal approach where large bends are required is for the original “buy” MTO to include a summary of these bends so the
material can be purchased and bent ahead of time.

Engineering “Holds”:

The effect on the shop schedule by company “HOLDS” on isometrics is a major problem. Consistently the engineering company will
issue piping isometrics to the shop then weeks later they call the shop and place a “Hold” on the isometric and all the resulting
spools. Keep in mind a typical isometric may contain anywhere from three to five shop spools. When the isometric/shop spools is
placed on a customer “Hold” the shop releases all the material contained on those spools for other spools. These shop spools also
lose their slot in the normal first-in-first-out flow of work.

Typically what happens is one of the following:


A) This isometric is mid-size standard weight carbon steel material. As a result the company forgets and this isometric is on “Hold”
for a few weeks. Then they remember the “Hold.” After some time they take a new look at it and determine that there was no
reason for the “Hold” and releases it. The company then complains that these spools are behind schedule.

B) This isometric is also mid-size standard weight carbon steel material. The company keeps this isometric on “Hold” for period of
time while they do a redesign. The isometric is then revised and released with the “Hold” removed. The shop now finds out that
there is a minor dimensional change to only one of the spools on this isometric. Again the company complains that all these shop
spools are behind schedule.

C) The company revises the isometric and proceeds to issue it in the normal manner. This isometric falls in the realm of the 34 to
50 week material delivery. The revision contains material that is “new” or not previously included in the “Buy” MTO. The shop can do
nothing but order the “new” material and place the effected spool at the back of the line. The engineering company now starts to
complain that the spools should only take 16 weeks to fabricate.

D) In this case all (6+/-) isometrics (and the resulting shop spools) for a complete system were placed on “Hold” with no reason
given. The material this time was small bore stainless steel. The SS material was included in the original “Buy” MTO and was
purchased and delivered to the shop. The “Hold” put a stop to all work on these isometrics for many months. The “Hold’ was
initiated by a controversy about the material “life” in the alleged strong corrosive atmosphere. When the isometrics were finally
revised and reissued the new material was a special Alloy 20 with a 50 week delivery. The service for this piping was the same as
what is found around the average swimming pool for the chlorine system which uses plastic piping. They could have installed plastic
pipe and replaced it every year for the next fifty years for far less than what this new material and the delay cost the project.

What is the answer to the problem created by late “Holds” by the engineering company? The easy answer is to disallow all “Holds”
on shop spools. To do this the engineering company must do a number of things. They must do a better job of controlling the work
on the design floor, Do It Once and Do It Right. They can also look at making any required changes in the field wherever possible.
After all there are a lot of field welds all ready and a few more will not make as much of an impact on the field as it would on the
shop. Some may cry Oh! You can’t do that! Well I suggest that you can and should. They can also do a better job of communicating
with the shop when there is no choice but to place a “Hold.” They need to fully define the reason for the ”Hold” and what if any
effect the potential change will have on material.

Specialty Fitting Dimensions:

Dimensional differences in high-cost, long delivery fittings (WOL) at fitting make-up situations can cause major problems. The
example I site has 8, 24” X 10” P91 Weld-O-Lets required for installations that were designed for fitting-to fitting. There was no
flexibility for adjustment of dimensions. Six of the O-Lets came in from the manufacturer with the height dimension as stated in the
catalog. Two of them were different from the catalog. The catalog dimension and the dimension used by the design team was 9.”
One of the O-Lets had an 8” height and the other had a 10” height. This 1” short and 1” too long caused a major problem. The
manufacturer claimed that there was no requirement for them to make all the O-Lets (of this size) at 9” and they would not
warrantee the O-Lets if the shop modified them to fit. The suggested solution to this is to find out what fittings/dimensions are used
in the design (and the electronic data base

Customer Furnished Items:

Many shop fabrication orders include “customer” furnished items of material. Sometimes it is special alloy material and sometimes it
is specific material items such as valves or weld-in Thermowells. Normally it is not a big problem for the shop to receive, warehouse
and dispense this material. However there are methods used in the identification and purchase of this material that can and does
cause major delays for the shop.

The example that I have seen is where the “customer” furnished material was purchased with a specific “Tag” number identification.
This “Tag” number item could only go in one specific place. Conversely only the correctly “Tag” number item could be installed in a
specific pipe spool. This means that the shop must find that specific “Tag” number item before they can release that specific pipe
spool to the production floor.

Here is the story. The “customer” company purchased over 500 weld-in Thermowells for a pipe fabrication order. They had the
thermowell manufacturer mark each well with a specific instrument “Tag” number. They were then shipped to the shop in small
groups of 100+/- to 150+/- as they were completed. These groupings were received at different times, by different people and
stored in different places in the warehouse. When a shop material person was sent to find a specific “Tag” number thermowell and
did not look in all the right places thus not finding it, he or she stopped looking. A material shortage report was then turned in and a
delay was created.

This did not have to happen. These 500+ thermowells, although they had over 500 individual “Tag” number identifications came in
only 5 sizes. Thermowells come in three basic types. These types have to do with how they are installed in the piping system. There
are:

A) Threaded wells for the normal low temperature and low pressure, non-toxic commodities. These are installed in the field.

B) There are flanged thermowells (in various ratings) that are used for higher temperature, higher pressure and more hazardous
commodities. These flanged wells are also normally installed in the field.

C) Then there are the weld-in thermowells. These are used on very high temperature, very high pressure and or very toxic
commodities. These wells are the only ones that would normally be installed in the pipe fabrication shop.
Now all these thermowell types no matter whether they are threaded or flanged or welded-in they have one thing in common. That
is they come in only a limited number of sizes. The sizing of all thermowells is based on the “U” dimension and the "stem length.
The “U” dimension is the distance the well protrudes into the pipe past the base of the threads (threaded well), flange face (flanged
well) or the inside diameter of the pipe (welded-in well). The 500+ thermowells in the example we are talking about here broke
down to only one type (weld-in) and only five (5) sizes. They could have and should have been bought as a bulk item by the five
sizes and identified on the isometric as just a “type/U-dimension/stem length” code. This would have had a great impact on the
ability of the shop to find material and release spools faster.

The bottom line here is to keep it simple, buy everything as bulk material when ever possible.

Missing Engineering Data:

All information required to fabricate a pipe spool should be included on the isometric. That is a great statement and should be valid
with only one exception. That exception would be the piping material specification that defines the specifics about the material on an
isometric. That is fine; the pipe specs are sometimes the size of a small automobile. It is accepted practice for the shop people to
have a full copy of the pipe specs and use them.

However there is other information required by the shop that should be included on the isometric rather than having to find it
among documents they are not familiar with. This information includes which lines need post weld heat treatment and the maximum
operating temperature which impacts the type of post weld heat treatment.

What is happening here is that the engineering company sends a line list (or line designation table) or other document to the shop
and expects the shop to find the required information. The problem was that the shop was not familiar with these other documents
and did not always have the current revision. Isometrics had been issued for lines that were not on the line list.

Partial Painting:

Some engineering companies ask the shop to do partial painting of pipe spools. This is sometimes done when a line will have safety
insulation (therefore no paint) where it could be touched and painted where it cannot be touched. It also includes the carbon steel
shoes on alloy or carbon steel lines that will be insulated. Trust me the shop will be more than happy to do this partial painting. And,
trust this, they will charge you a hefty price for it.

Painting of pipe spools is based on the weight of the total spool, not the square foot or meter of area painted. For total painting they
normally have a flat rate price per ton. For partial painting they will discount the rate to (not by) 65% to 80% of the total rate. This
means that you pay 65% to 80% of the full spool painting cost to paint only one 24” long shoe.

This is not cost effective. There is always going to be painting touch-up in the field and shoes can be painted there at a far cheaper
cost.

Paint Touch-up:

Another costly item is requiring paint touch-up of “dings” by shop prior to shipping. Pipe that is (fully) painted by the shop can and
will get dings before the truck leaves the yard. Some engineering companies require the shop to touch-up these dings before the
load leaves the yard. This is also not cost effective. The load is held in the shop until it can be inspected for dings and then they are
touched up and re-inspected. This only delays the shipment and the load is going to get more dings in route. It will also get more
while being unloaded, during storage in the field prior (to installation) and during handling at installation.

The most cost effective way to handle dings in shop painted piping is as follows. First, at every step along the line do everything
possible to prevent dings. Second, don’t reach for the paint brush every time you spot a ding. Third, after installation, when all the
field welds are being painted, go ahead and touch up those dings.

Pipe spool mark-numbers:

Every fabricated pipe spool that leaves the shop must be identified for proper and timely installation. Who is responsible for the
spool piece identification numbers? Every company has its own methods of operation and therefore some will add the MK number as
a part of the isometric extraction process and others may produce plans and elevations then have the shop do the identification
numbers. This identification is sometimes called the “Mark-number” and is normally shown as MK – * (numbered in sequence). The
MK number is normally preceded by the purchase order (PO) number for the shop fabrication work, the line number (or the
isometric number) and the sheet number. Therefore, for example the first pipe spool for line number 10-122A1A on PO # 9876543-
2 would be P.O. 9876543-2 – 10-122A1A-Sht 1 - MK -1. This is a very simple identification method and if it is on every spool the
field has no problems. However, what if you are on a job that has over 10,000 individual pipe spools and many (maybe all) arrived
in the field not marked with the proper identification. This has happened! It is a very costly process in the field to sort out what the
spool piece number is supposed to be. The delay is costly in both money and schedule. A clear understanding needs to be
established between the design office and the shop, before the order is placed, as to what MK number method is to be used and who
is responsible for initiating and controlling the numbers.

In closing, learn everything you can about the pipe fabrication shop and look for and question any item or activity that may have a
negative impact on the cost and delivery of the finished spools.
codes & standards
• ASME/ANSI B16 - Standards of Pipes and Fittings - The ASME B16 Standards covers pipes and fittings in cast iron ,
cast bronze, wrought copper and steel .

• ASTM International - ASTM International - American Society for Testing and Materials - is a scientific and technical
organization that develops and publishes voluntary standards on the characteristics of material, products, systems and
services .

• ASTM International - Standards for Steel Pipes, Tubes and Fittings - The ASTM standards covers various types of
steel pipes, tubes and fittings for high-temperature service, ordinary use and special applications such as fire
protection use .

• ASTM International - Volume 01.01 Steel - Piping, Tubing, Fittings - An overview of the ASTM Volume 01.01 standard
.

• Bronze Flanges - ASME/ANSI 150 lb - Flange diameters, thickness, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts for
ASME/ANSI B16.15 - Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings - 150 lb Bronze flanges with plain faces .

• Bronze Flanges - ASME/ANSI 300 lb - Flange diameters, thickness, bolt circles, numbers and diameter of bolts for
ASME/ANSI B16.15 - Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings - 300 lb Bronze Flanges with plain faces .

• BSi - Pipe, Tube and Fittings Standards and Specifications - British standards and specifications for pipe, tube and
fittings .

• Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Classification - Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is
specified or required for chromium, cobalt, columbium (niobium), molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium
or zirconium .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 150 - ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings - Class 150 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 1500 - ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings - Class 1500 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 2500 - ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings - Class 2500 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 300 - ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings - Class 300 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 400 - ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings - Class 400 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 600 - ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings - Class 600 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 900 - ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings - Class 900 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Carbon and Stainless Steel Welding Neck Flange Bores - Flange bores of welding neck flanges according ASME/ANSI
B16.5-1996 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings .

• Carbon Steel Flanges - Pressure and Temperature Ratings - Maximum temperature and pressure ratings of flanges
conforming dimensions ASME B16.5 and materials specification ASTM A-105 .

• Carbon Steel Pipes - Comparing American & European Specifications - Comparing standards of carbon steel pipes
from USA, Germany, UK and Sweden .

• Cast Iron Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 125 - ASME/ANSI B16.1 - 1998 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings -
Class 125 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Cast Iron Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 25 - ASME/ANSI B16.1 - 1998 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings -
Class 25 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Cast Iron Flanges - ASME/ANSI Class 250 - ASME/ANSI B16.1 - 1998 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings -
Class 250 Flanges - outside and inside diameters, bolt circles, numbers and diameters of bolts .

• Comparing American and British Piping Standards - Comparing US American (ASTM) and British (BSi) piping
standards - specifications, grades and material descriptions .

• Cross Reference of ASTM Material Specifications - Fittings, Flanges, Unions and Cast and Forged Valves .

• DIN - Pipe, Tube and Fittings Standards and Specifications - Deutsches Institut für Normung - DIN - pipe, tube and
fittings standards and specifications .
• Fiberglass Pipes - common Standards - Commonly used standards for fiberglass pipes and their applications .

• Flanges - API vs. ASME/ANSI - Comparing API and ASME/ANSI flanges .

• Flanges - Ratings in Classes and Pressure Numbers (PN) - Pressure numbers (PN) compared to flange class
designations .

• ISO - Pipe, Tube and Fittings Standards and Specifications - International Organization for Standardization - ISO -
pipe, tube and fittings standards and specifications .

• JIS - Flanges, Bolts, Nuts, and Gaskets Standards - Japanese industrial flanges, bolts, nuts, and gaskets standards
and specifications from JAS - the Japanese Standards Association .

• JIS - Japanese Industrial Standards - The Japanese Standards Association - JSA .

• JIS - Pipe, Tube and Fittings Standards - Japanese industrial pipe, tube and fittings standards and specifications
from JAS - the Japanese Standards Association .

• Stainless Steel - Comparing International Standards - Comparing international stainless steel standards from
America (US), France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Spain, Sweden, England (UK) and the European Union .

• Stainless Steel Pipes - Comparing American and European Standards - Comparing American - US - and European -
German, British (UK) and Swedish - stainless steel pipe standards .

• Stainless Steels Classifications - Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic
stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening
stainless steels .

• Steel Pipe Standardization Organizations - The most important world wide steel pipe standardization organizations .

• Steel Pipes Dimensions - ANSI Schedule 80 - Internal and external diameters, areas, weights, volumes and number
of threads for schedule 80 steel pipes .

• Steel Pipes Dimensions - ANSI Schedule 40 - Internal and external diameters, areas, weights, volumes and number
of threads for schedule 40 steel pipes .

• Steel Tubes according BS 1387 - Dimensions and weights of steel tubes according BSi - BS 1387:1985 Specification
for screwed and socketed steel tubes and tubulars and for plain end steel tubes suitable for welding or for screwing to
BS 21 pipe threads .

• Threaded & Socket Welded Fittings -Pressure Classes and Schedules - Pressure classes, schedules and weights of
pipes for threaded & socket welded fittings .

Back to codes and standards index

ASME/ANSI B16 - Standards of Pipes and Fittings


The ASME B16 Standards covers pipes and fittings in cast iron , cast bronze, wrought copper and steel
The ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME/ANSI B16 Standards covers pipes and fittings in cast iron ,
cast bronze, wrought copper and steel.

ASME/ANSI B16.1 - 1998 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
This Standard for Classes 25, 125, and 250 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings,


(b) sizes and method of designating openings of reducing fittings,
(c) marking,
(d) minimum requirements for materials,
(e) dimensions and tolerances,
(f) bolt, nut, and gasket dimensions and
(g) tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.3 - 1998 - Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings


This Standard for threaded malleable iron fittings Classes 150, and 300 provides requirements for the following:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings


(b) size and method of designating openings of reducing fittings
(c) marking
(d) materials
(e) dimensions and tolerances
(f) threading
(g) coatings

ASME/ANSI B16.4 - 1998 - Cast Iron Threaded Fittings


This Standard for gray iron threaded fittings, Classes 125 and 250 covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings


(b) size and method of designating openings of reducing fittings
(c) marking
(d) material
(e) dimensions and tolerances
(f) threading, and
(g) coatings

ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1996 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings


The ASME B16.5 - 1996 Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions,
tolerances, marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings.

The standard includes flanges with rating class designations 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS
24, with requirements given in both metric and U.S units. The Standard is limited to flanges and flanged fittings made from cast or
forged materials, and blind flanges and certain reducing flanges made from cast, forged, or plate materials. Also included in this
Standard are requirements and recommendations regarding flange bolting, flange gaskets, and flange joints.

ASME/ANSI B16.9 - 2001 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings


This Standard covers overall dimensions, tolerances, ratings, testing, and markings for wrought factory-made buttwelding fittings in
sizes NPS 1/2 through 48 (DN 15 through 1200).

ASME/ANSI B16.10 - 2000 - Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves


This Standard covers face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of straightway valves, and center-to face and center-to-end
dimensions of angle valves. Its purpose is to assure installation interchangeability for valves of a given material, type size, rating
class, and end connection

ASME/ANSI B16.11 - 2001 - Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded


This Standard covers ratings, dimensions, tolerances, marking and material requirements for forged fittings, both socket-welding
and threaded.

ASME/ANSI B16.12 - 1998 - Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings


This Standard for cast iron threaded drainage fittings covers:

(a) size and method of designating openings in reducing fittings


(b) marking
(c) materials
(d) dimensions and tolerances
(e) threading
(f) ribs
(g) coatings
(h) face bevel discharge nozzles, input shafts, base plates, and foundation bolt holes (see Tables 1 and 2).

ASME/ANSI B16.14 - 1991 - Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads
This Standard for Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe Threads covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings:


(b) size;
(c) marking;
(d) materials;
(e) dimensions and tolerances;
(f) threading; and
(g) pattern taper.

ASME/ANSI B16.15 - 1985 (R1994) - Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings


This Standard pertains primarily to cast Class 125and Class 250 bronze threaded pipe fittings. Certain requirements also pertain to
wrought or cast plugs, bushings, couplings, and caps. This Standard covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings;


(b) size and method of designating openings of reducing pipe fittings;
(c) marking;
(d) minimum requirements for casting quality and materials;
(e) dimensions and tolerances in U.S. customary and metric (SI) units;
(f) threading.

ASME/ANSI B16.18 - 1984 (R1994) - Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
This Standard for cast copper alloy solder joint pressure fittings designed for use with copper water tube, establishes requirements
for:
(a) Pressure-temperature ratings;
(b) Abbreviations for end connections;
(c) Sizes and method of designating openings of fittings;
(d) Marking;
(e) Material;
(f) Dimensions and tolerances; and
(g) Tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.20 - 1998 - Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges-Ring-Joint, Spiral-Would, and Jacketed
This standard covers materials, dimensions, tolerances, and markings for metal ring-joint gaskets, spiral-wound metal gaskets, and
metal jacketed gaskets and filler material. These gaskets are dimensionally suitable for used with flanges described in the reference
flange standards ASME/ANSI B16.5, ASME B16.47, and API-6A. This standard covers spiral-wound metal gaskets and metal jacketed
gaskets for use with raised face and flat face flanges. Replaces API-601 or API-601.

ASME/ANSI B16.21 - 1992 - Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges


This Standard for nonmetallic flat gaskets for bolted flanged joints in piping includes:

(a) types and sizes;


(b) materials;
(c) dimensions and allowable tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.22 - 1995 - Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
The Standard establishes specifications for wrought copper and wrought copper alloy, solder-joint, seamless fittings, designed for
use with seamless copper tube conforming to ASTM B 88 (water and general plumbing systems), B 280 (air conditioning and
refrigeration service), and B 819 (medical gas systems), as well as fittings intended to be assembled with soldering materials
conforming to ASTM B 32, brazing materials conforming to AWS A5.8, or with tapered pipe thread conforming to ASME B1.20.1. This
Standard is allied with ASME B16.18, which covers cast copper alloy pressure fittings. It provides requirements for fitting ends
suitable for soldering. This Standard covers:

(a) pressure temperature ratings;


(b) abbreviations for end connections;
(c) size and method of designating openings of fittings;
(d) marking;
(e) material;
(f) dimension and tolerances; and
(g) tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.23 - 1992 - Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV)
The Standard establishes specifications for cast copper alloy solder joint drainage fittings, designed for use in drain, waste, and vent
(DWV) systems. These fittings are designed for use with seamless copper tube conforming to ASTM B 306, Copper Drainage Tube
(DWV), as well as fittings intended to be assembled with soldering materials conforming to ASTM B 32, or tapered pipe thread
conforming to ASME B1.20.1. This standard is allied with ASME B16.29, Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint
Drainage Fittings - DWV. It provides requirements for fitting ends suitable for soldering. This standard covers:

(a) description;
(b) pitch (slope);
(c) abbreviations for end connections;
(d) sizes and methods for designing openings for reducing fittings;
(e) marking;
(f) material; and
(g) dimensions and tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.24 - 1991 (R1998) - Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
This Standard for Classes 25, 125, 250, and 800 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings covers:

(a) pressure temperature ratings,


(b) sizes and methods of designating openings for reduced fittings,
(c) marking,
(d) minimum requirements for materials,
(e) dimensions and tolerances,
(f) bolt, nut, and gasket dimensions, and
(g) tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.25 - 1997 - Buttwelding Ends


The Standard covers the preparation of butt welding ends of piping components to be joined into a piping system by welding. It
includes requirements for welding bevels, for external and internal shaping of heavy-wall components, and for preparation of
internal ends (including dimensions and tolerances). Coverage includes preparation for joints with the following.
(a) no backing rings;
(b) split or non continuous backing rings;
(c) solid or continuous backing rings;
(d) consumable insert rings;
(e) gas tungsten are welding (GTAW) of the root pass. Details of preparation for any backing ring must be specified in ordering the
component.

ASME/ANSI B16.26 - 1988 - Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes
This standard for Cast Copper Alloy Fitting for Flared Copper Tubes covers:
(a) pressure rating;
(b) material;
(c) size;
(d) threading;
(e) marking.

ASME/ANSI B16.28 - 1994 - Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
This Standard covers ratings, overall dimensions, testing, tolerances, and markings for wrought carbon and alloy steel buttwelding
short radius elbows and returns. The term wrought denotes fittings made of pipe, tubing, plate, or forgings.

ASME/ANSI B16.29 - 1994 - Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV)
The standard for wrought copper and wrought copper alloy solder joint drainage fittings, designed for use with copper drainage
tube, covers:

(a) Description,
(b) Pitch (slope),
(c) Abbreviations for End Connections,
(d) Sizes and Method of Designating Openings for Reducing Fittings,
(e) Marking,
(f) Material,
(g) Dimensions and Tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.33 - 1990 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems Up to 125 psig
General This Standard covers requirements for manually operated metallic valves sizes NPS 1.2 through NPS 2, for outdoor
installation as gas shut-off valves at the end of the gas service line and before the gas regulator and meter where the designated
gauge pressure of the gas piping system does not exceed 125 psi (8.6 bar). The Standard applies to valves operated in a
temperature environment between .20 degrees F and 150 degrees F (.29 degrees C and 66 degrees C). Design This Standard sets
forth the minimum capabilities, characteristics, and properties, which a valve at the time of manufacture must possess, in order to
be considered suitable for use in gas piping systems.

ASME/ANSI B16.34 - 1996 - Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End


This standard applies to new valve construction and covers pressure-temperature ratings, dimensions, tolerances, materials,
nondestructive examination requirements, testing, and marking for cast, forged, and fabricated flanged, threaded, and welding end,
and wafer or flangeless valves of steel, nickel-base alloys, and other alloys shown in Table 1. Wafer or flangeless valves, bolted or
through-bolt types, that are installed between flanges or against a flange shall be treated as flanged end valves.

ASME/ANSI B16.36 - 1996 - Orifice Flanges


This Standard covers flanges (similar to those covered in ASME B16.5) that have orifice pressure differential connections. Coverage
is limited to the following:

(a) welding neck flanges Classes 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500
(b) slip-on and threaded Class 300
Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters
ASME/ANSI B16.38 - 1985 (R1994) - Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution
The standard covers only manually operated metallic valves in nominal pipe sizes 2 1/2 through 12 having the inlet and outlet on a
common center line, which are suitable for controlling the flow of gas from open to fully closed, for use in distribution and service
lines where the maximum gage pressure at which such distribution piping systems may be operated in accordance with the code of
federal regulations (cfr), title 49, part 192, transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline; minimum safety standard, does not
exceed 125 psi (8.6 bar). Valve seats, seals and stem packing may be nonmetallic.

ASME/ANSI B16.39 - 1986 (R1998) - Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions


This Standard for threaded malleable iron unions, classes 150, 250, and 300, provides requirements for the following:

(a) design
(b) pressure-temperature ratings
(c) size
(d) marking
(e) materials
(f) joints and seats
(g) threads
(h) hydrostatic strength
(i) tensile strength
(j) air pressure test
(k) sampling
(l) coatings
(m) dimensions

ASME/ANSI B16.40 - 1985 (R1994) - Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gas


The Standard covers manually operated thermoplastic valves in nominal sizes 1.2 through 6 (as shown in Table 5). These valves are
suitable for use below ground in thermoplastic distribution mains and service lines. The maximum pressure at which such
distribution piping systems may be operated is in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Title 49, Part 192,
Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline; Minimum Safety Standards, for temperature ranges of .20 deg. F to 100 deg. F
(.29 deg. C to 38 deg. C). This Standard sets qualification requirements for each nominal valve size for each valve design as a
necessary condition for demonstrating conformance to this Standard. This Standard sets requirements for newly manufactured
valves for use in below ground piping systems for natural gas [includes synthetic natural gas (SNG)], and liquefied petroleum (LP)
gases (distributed as a vapor, with or without the admixture of air) or mixtures thereof.
ASME/ANSI B16.42 - 1998 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150 and 300
The Standard covers minimum requirements for Class 150 and 300 cast ductile iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings. The
requirements covered are as follows:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings


(b) sizes and method of designating openings
(c) marking
(d) materials
(e) dimensions and tolerances
(f) blots, nuts, and gaskets
(g) tests

ASME/ANSIB16.44 - 1995 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in House Piping Systems
This Standard applies to new valve construction and covers quarter turn manually operated metallic valves in sizes NPS 1/2-2 which
are intended for indoor installation as gas shutoff valves when installed in indoor gas piping between a gas meter outlet & the inlet
connection to a gas appliance.

ASME/ANSI B16.45 - 1998 - Cast Iron Fittings for Solvent Drainage Systems
The Standard for cast iron drainage fittings used on self-aerating, one-pipe Solvent drainage systems, covers the following:

(a) description
(b) sizes and methods for designating openings for reducing fittings
(c) marking
(d) material
(e) pitch
(f) design
(g) dimensions and tolerances
(h) tests

ASME/ANSI B16.47 - 1996 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60
This Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for pipe flanges in sizes
NPS 26 through NPS 60 and in ratings Classes 75, 150,0300, 400, 600, and 900. Flanges may be cast, forged, or plate (for blind
flanges only) materials. Requirements and recommendations regarding bolting and gaskets are also included.

ASME/ANSI B16.48 - 1997 - Steel Line Blanks


The Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for operating line blanks
in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 for installation between ASME B16. 5 flanges in the 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 pressure
classes.
ASME/ANSI B16.49 - 2000 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Induction Bends for Transportation and
Distribution Systems
This Standard covers design, material, manufacturing, testing, marking, and inspection requirements for factory-made pipeline
bends of carbon steel materials having controlled chemistry and mechanical properties, produced by the induction bending process,
with or without tangents. This Standard covers induction bends for transportation and distribution piping applications (e.g., ASME
B31.4, B31.8, and B31.11) Process and power piping have differing requirements and materials that may not be appropriate for the
restrictions and examinations described herein, and therefore are not included in this Standard.
piping tips
This is where we try to bring you tips and help for all piping designers and drafters.

Keep coming back to see more piping tips as they are added, or suggest a tip for particular area of piping expertise, be
it pharmaceutical, chemical, oil & gas or biotech. If there is anything you would like to submit, send it in and we'll put it
up.

Thoughts on Job Descriptions - Some thoughts Job descriptions within the piping profession, with kind thanks to James
O. Pennock, Piper and regular contributer to pipingdesigners.com.

Puddle flanges - a brief guide to puddle flanges.

High purity Terms and definitions - ASME/BPE-1997, GR-10 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Thinking outside the box - By James O. Pennock, Piper, Consultant (Retired), Bayonet Point, Florida USA Courtesy of
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING.

PFD's - A brief introduction to Process Flow Diagrams.

P&ID's - A Brief introduction to Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams.

Dead Legs - A Short paper on pharmaceutical pipe and dead legs.

Checking Drawings - Tips to reduce what a checker would find to almost nothing.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

if you have any tips or help you wish to pass on, regarding piping, pipes, valves, fittings, drawings, isometrics,
software etc, please send them to info@pipingdesigners.com

Thoughts on Job Descriptions


By James O. Pennock

(The thoughts, ideas, concepts and opinions contained in this article are solely those of the author and are
not necessarily endorsed by pipingdesigners.com or website creator.)

Before I get into this, I want to clarify a few things. First, I am not trying to tell you what your job
description should be. Second, I am not trying to tell your company (or any other) how they should write
their job descriptions or how to run their business. Third, job descriptions are created by and belong to the
company. Forth, the information in this article is not intended to be the last and only definitive word on the
subject of job descriptions, it's not. It is simply my thoughts on the subject.

There are hundreds of companies, each of which has it's own method of doing things. Some of these
companies have more than one engineering office; some may have as many as twenty. Within each of
those companies there may be as few as ten pipers or as many as a thousand total pipers. Every company
has job descriptions. Most companies, in fact, will have two types of job descriptions. I do not know if all
engineering companies (that do piping) use the two job-description approach, but most of the time there is
a big difference between what they call you and what assign you to do.

Normally the first job description is purely for the purpose of employment and pay scale. The second job
description is functional. It is specific to a job assignment. This is what you actually do and may change
from time to time without a change of pay. This is not unlike the military; they have rank and they have
assignments. They will have someone with the rank of Sargent who is assigned as a Crew Chief on a
helicopter, a Sargent who is a chief cook in the mess hall or a Sargent who is in charge of truck repairs in
the motor pool. Your engineering company may use this same idea and have a 'rank' of 'Senior Designer',
who is assigned to plant layout, or as a checker or as a field engineer.

People who say that all job descriptions should be only this or only that are taking a very narrow view of
the subject. As stated before, job descriptions, be it pay scale or functional, are the prerogative of each
individual company. It helps each of us to know what a specific company uses when we are applying for a
job at that company. It is also very important to fit in to the company's job descriptions once we get the
job. For piping managers and supervisors it helps to know both the pay scale and functional job
descriptions used at other companies. This can be critical when they hire an employee from another
company.
The table below displays my concept of 'Pay Scale' job descriptions and 'Functional' job assignments for
piping designers. I know, not everyone will agree with this. That's okay, it's only a concept.

Piping Designer Job Description Table

Approximate yearsIn Functional (or job


Training and/or Pay Scale Job
Piping and SR (Supervision assignment) Job
ExperienceLevel Description
Requirements) Description

Lead Piping Design


SupervisorArea/Unit
supervisor (Complex Unit)
Year 12 (plus or minus)
Depending on the individual, Heavy equipment and
Principal prior experience or additional piping layouts
Heavy
Designer training, job assignments, etc..
Vessel orientation
SR= Minimum
Field Piping Engineer

Pipe Fab Shop Monitor

Assistant to Area/Unit
Supervisor
Years 9 or 10 plus
Heavy equipment and
piping layouts
Depending on prior
Senior experience, additional training
Heavy Large complex vessel
Designer and job assignments
orientation
SR= Minimum depending on
Complex CAD files or
assignment
drawings

Checking

Medium equipment and


Years 6 through 8 or 9 piping layouts
Depending on prior
experience, additional training Medium vessel Orientation
Medium Designer and job assignments
Complex CAD files or
SR= Minimum to moderate drawings
depending on assignment
Checking

Designer -1
Years 4and 5
Medium equipment and
or piping layouts
Depending on prior
experience, additional training
Medium Designer - I Light vessel Orientation
and job assignments
or Complex CAD files or
SR= Moderate to heavy as
drawings
required
Designer - A

Designer -2
Years 2 and 3
Simple equipment and
or piping layouts
More depending on prior
experience or additional
Light Designer - II Simple CAD files or
training and job assignments
Drawings
or
SR= Moderate to heavy as
Piping isometrics
required
Designer - B
Year 1
Designer -3
Entry level/new hire/no Simple drawings or CAD
or experience trainee to one year files
(+/-) depending on the
Light Designer - III training, the trainee and the Isometrics
job assignments
or Drawing or CAD
SR= Full time during training. Corrections
Designer - C Heavy during first project
assignments

As stated this table defines only the job descriptions for the piping designer positions. A total project will
have other piping department or piping related functions as well as other engineering disciplines such as
Civil, Structural, Mechanical, Vessels, Electrical, etc. The other piping related positions are portrayed in the
following organization chart.

Typical Piping Project Organizational


Chart

The explanation for only the positions shown in the solid line boxes is listed below.

Project Piping Engineering Lead


Responsible for the entire piping group functions for assigned project(s). Provides supervisory and technical
management for piping personnel.

Duties of the Piping Engineering Lead (PEL) include the following:


*Responsible for coaching, teaching, and effective supervision of assigned personnel.
*Develops plans for the project execution. Determines Project Piping Engineering organization.
*Initiates the piping department section of the scope of work and services.
*Initiates and compiles estimates for Piping Engineering labor hours, computer charges and field/shop
trips. Reviews estimate with Piping Engineering Management for approval and submission to Project.
*Develops and maintains the Piping Engineering Work Plan. Establish need dates for assignment of all
personnel.
*Initiates and approves the development of project specific piping standards and specifications.
*Initiates discipline document distribution list for the project.
*Attends kick-off, Project staff, Client, Construction, Supplier, Flow Diagram reviews or other meetings as
required.
*Maintains contact with Client and other discipline Engineering Leads to assure accurate, timely
communications and flow of information is taking place.
*Responsible for the piping engineering section of the Project Procedure Manual.
*Identifies deviations in job scope, estimates magnitude of changes, and initiates deviation notice.
*Monitors and controls project budget/schedule including labor, trends, change orders, and progress.
*Initiates and presents piping engineering's recommendations for materials inspection, identification,
certification and expediting to Project.
*Monitors, controls, schedules and reports pipe shop fabrication and delivery (when applicable).
*Reports discipline progress to project and discipline management on predetermined intervals.
*Initiates and monitors quality control checking.
*Responsible for issuing piping design documents and drawings.
*Coordinates field construction inquires for resolutions.
*Initiates and assures completion of the piping engineering project completion report.

*Project Lead Piping Design Supervisor

Supervises, assigns, and schedules work, usually for a major project or several minor projects,
simultaneously, under general direction of the Project Piping Engineering Lead(s). May supervise
specialized technical subgroups.

Duties of the Project Piping Lead Design Supervisor are the following:
*Responsible for coaching, teaching, and effective supervision of assigned piping design personnel.
*Responsible for developing piping design estimates, schedules and staffing requirements.
*Responsible for developing piping design administrative and technical practices, specifications, and
procedures.
*Responsible for Plot Plan development and maintenance.
*Assures that design continuity is maintained throughout the entire project.
*Reports to the project Piping Engineering Lead the status of piping design activities.
*Ensures communication flow, both verbal and written, is maintained within piping engineering and with
other design and engineering disciplines.
*Coordinates piping design activities with other design and engineering groups.
*Identifies deviations in job scope, estimates magnitude of changes, and initiates deviation notices.
*Monitors and controls budget, schedule labor hours, costs, deviation notices, and progress.
*Prepares and distributes design instructions pertaining to plant design requirements and drafting
procedures.
*Represents piping design in meetings with suppliers, subcontractors, licensors, clients, and other
Company disciplines, and produces documentation required for conference or meeting notes.
*Submits Piping Design standards, specifications, drawings and isometrics to Project Piping Engineering
Lead for issue.
*Executes quality control procedures.
*Distributes shop fabricator and field construction inquiries for resolution.
*Assists in the development of the piping engineering project completion report.

Project Piping Area/Unit Supervisor

Supervises, assigns, and schedules the piping design activities for a specific Area/Unit. Normally reports
the Lead Piping Design Supervisor and may supervise five to ten designers or detailers.

Duties of the Project Piping Area/Unit Supervisor are the following:


*Responsible for coaching, teaching, and effective supervision of assigned piping design personnel.
*Responsible for developing piping design estimates, control level schedules and, staffing needs for the
assigned area.
*Reports to the Project Piping Lead Design Supervisor status of Area/Unit piping design activities.
*Initiates the development of all required discipline deliverables for the assigned area.
*Ensures communication flow, both verbal and written, is maintained within Piping Engineering and with
other design and engineering disciplines.
*Coordinates piping design activities with other design and engineering groups.
*Identifies deviations in job scope, estimates magnitude of changes, and initiates deviation notices.
*Monitors and controls budget/schedule including labor hours, deviations, and progress.
*Receives and distributes design instructions pertaining to plant design requirements and procedures.
*Represents Area/Unit piping design in meetings with suppliers, subcontractors, licensors, clients, and
other Company disciplines, and produces documentation required for conference or meeting notes.
*Reviews and approves Area/Unit piping design drawings and isometrics.
*Submits Area/Unit piping design drawings and isometrics to lead design supervisor for issue.
*Monitors quality control for assigned area.
*Researches Shop Fabricator and Field Construction inquiries and drafts responses.
*Assists in the development of the piping engineering project completion report.

*Project Piping Designer(s)

Under the direct supervision of the Project Lead Piping Design Supervisor and/or Area/Unit Design
Supervisor, develops and checks system design CAD files or drawings in conformance with project
specifications, scope of work, design parameters, codes, and industry practices. Work assignments should
be made based on the training and experience of the designer weighed against the complexity and critically
of the equipment and piping.

Duties of the Project Piping Designer are the following:


*Review project specifications, administrative and technical practices, design instructions, plot plan, flow
diagrams, and supplier information.
*Performs manual/computer layouts using specifications, standard drawings, design instructions, plot plan,
flow diagrams, line list and supplier information.
*Draw and update material and stress sketches.
*Communicates and interfaces with other project design and engineering disciplines.
*Complete manual/computer drawings and isometrics.
*Check, back check, and correct manual/computer drawings and isometrics.
*Check other departments' design drawings and supplier equipment drawings.
*Update master flow diagrams.
*Update location control plan.
*Reports progress to the project piping area/unit supervisor.
*On assignment to the field, supports construction in drawing and specification interpretations, design
modifications, scheduling, and system checkout and testing.

Project Lead Piping Material Engineer

Supervises, assigns, and schedules work, for a major project or several minor projects simultaneously
under general direction of the Project Piping Engineering Lead (PEL).

Duties of the Project Lead Piping Material Engineer are the following:
*Provides direct supervision for the personnel assigned to them.
*Responsible for developing estimates, schedules, and staffing.
*Responsible for developing piping material specifications and procedures.
*Reports to the project Piping Engineering Lead regarding status of material engineering.
*Ensures communication flow, both verbal and written, is maintained within piping engineering and with
other design, engineering, and purchasing disciplines.
*Coordinates material engineering activities with other design, engineering, and purchasing disciplines.
*Identifies deviations in job scope, estimates magnitude of changes, and initiates trends or change orders.
*Monitors and controls budget/schedule including laborhours, costs, trends, change orders and progress.
*Represents material engineering in meetings with suppliers, subcontractors, licensors, clients, and other
Company disciplines, and produces documentation required for conference or meeting notes.
*Submits material engineering Specifications and Line List to Project Piping Engineering Lead for issue.
*Reviews and approves bidders list.
*Develops and submits recommendations for materials inspection, identification, certification and
expediting to the project Piping Engineering Lead.
*Reviews quotation summaries.
*Assists in the development of the piping engineering project completion report.

Project Piping Material Engineer

Develops and checks specification, line list, and line numbers flow diagrams in conformance with project
requirements, design parameters, codes, and industry practices. Normally reports to the Project Lead
Piping Material Engineer.

Duties of the Project Piping Material Engineer are the following:


*Develop material, insulation and coatings specifications.
*Review flow diagrams for internal cleaning requirements.
*Assign line numbers and line class specifications to flow diagrams.
*Develop line list.
*Identify and list special piping components.
*Develop the piping material dimensional data book.
*Perform pipe wall calculations.
*Update master flow diagrams.
*Compile the commodity catalog.
*Assist in development of the Request for Quotation packages.
*Review bid tabulations and substitutions for technical acceptability.
*Develops piping pressure test data and test system packages.

*Project Lead Piping Material Controller

Supervises, assigns, and schedules work for a major project or several minor projects simultaneously,
under general direction of the Project Piping Engineering Lead (PEL).

Duties of the Project Lead Piping Material Controller are the following:
*Provides direct supervision for the personnel assigned to them.
*Responsible for developing estimates, schedules, and staffing.
*Reports to the project Piping Engineering Lead regarding status of material control.
*Responsible for material requirements identification and initiation of procurement activities.
*Ensures communication flow, both verbal and written, is maintained within piping engineering and with
other design, engineering, and procurement disciplines.
*Ensures utilization of approved material control practices and guidelines in performing the work.
*Coordinates material control activities with other design, engineering, and procurement disciplines.
*Prepares piping logistics plan for the project.
*Identifies deviations in job scope, estimates magnitude of changes, and initiates deviation notices.
*Monitors and control budget/schedule including laborhours, costs, deviation notices, and progress.
*Represents material control in meetings with suppliers, subcontractors, licensors, clients, and other
Company disciplines, and produces documentation required for conference or meeting notes.
*Submits bills of material, bills of material/field material requisitions, and material summary to the project
Piping Engineering Lead for issue.
*Reviews quotation summaries.
*Monitors material receivers from jobsite and shop fabricator.
*Distributes shop fabricator and field construction inquiries for resolution.
*Initiates and monitors quality control procedures for assigned work.
*Assists in the development of the piping engineering project completion report.

*Project Piping Material Controller

Responsible for material control including take-offs, procurement support and expediting in conformance
with project requirements, design parameters, codes and industry practices, under the direction of the
Project Lead Piping Material Controller.

Duties of the Project Piping Material Controller are the following:


*Review flow diagrams, plot plans, transpositions, and miscellaneous piping details to maintain and update
material take-offs (MTO).
*Communicates and interfaces with other project design and engineering disciplines.
*Make valve take-off from flow diagrams.
*Make preliminary MTO and input to the computer using flow diagrams, transpositions, miscellaneous
piping details and material sketches from piping design.
*Assists in developing request for quote packages, both shop and field material.
*Make intermediate MTO and input to the computer for purchasing.
*Assist in preparation of purchase requests for shop and field material
*Assist in review of bid summaries.
*Assist in expediting and statusing materials.
*Make final MTO and prepare piping bills of materials.
*Provide input to resolve field material inquiries.
*Maintain material control documentation.

Project Lead Piping Stress Engineer

Supervises, assigns and schedules work, for a major project or several minor projects simultaneously,
under general direction of the Project Piping Engineering Lead (PEL).

Duties of the Project Lead Piping Stress Engineer are the following:
*Responsible for developing piping stress engineering specifications *Determines the level and need for
analysis of all lines on the project.
*Provides direct supervision for the personnel assigned to them.
*Responsible for developing estimates, schedules, and staffing.
*Reports to the project Piping Engineering Lead status of stress engineering.
*Ensures communication flow, both verbal and written, is maintained within piping engineering and with
other design, engineering, and purchasing disciplines.
*Coordinates stress engineering activities with other design, engineering, and purchasing disciplines.
*Submits all pipe stress engineering specifications and other project related documents to the Piping
Engineering Lead for issue.
*Identifies deviations in job scope, estimates magnitude of changes, and initiates deviation notices.
*Monitors and controls budget/schedule including laborhours, costs, deviation notices and progress.
*Represents stress engineering in meetings with suppliers, subcontractors, clients, and other disciplines,
and produces documentation required for conference or meeting notes.
*Submits analyzed stress sketches to piping design for implementation.
*Reviews quotation summaries for stress related components.
*Resolves field construction stress related inquiries.
*Maintains complete and auditable calculation files for all systems reviewed or analyzed.
*Works with the lead design supervisor to identify pre-engineered support requirements.
*Identifies inline flexibility element and expansion joint requirements.
*Ensures that quality control procedures are enforced for assigned work.
*Assists in the development of the piping engineering project completion report.

*Project Piping Stress Engineer

Responsible for stress analysis of piping systems in conformance with project requirements, design
parameters, codes and industry practices under the direction of the Project Lead Piping Stress Engineer.
Duties of the Project Piping Stress Engineer are the following:
*Develops piping flexibility, support element, expansion joint and shock arrestor specifications.
*Performs visual, manual, and computer analysis of piping systems.
*Compiles calculation packages for each system analyzed.
*Reviews request for quotation and purchase requests for cost and technical completeness for stress
related components.
*Assists in resolving field construction inquiries.

*Project Piping Cad (2D & 3D) Coordinator

Under the direction of the Lead Piping Design Supervisor is responsible for coordination and management
of all piping CAD related issues, conventions, practices, and file maintenance. Coordinates project related
CAD issues with the Project CAD Coordinator, other project discipline CAD Coordinators, the Piping
department CAD Coordinator, and/or the CIE department.

*Interface with the project CAD coordinator to determine best methods of xref/attachment and layer
conventions.
*In concert with project and other discipline CAD coordinators, determines requirements for sequence of
data production and sharing of databases.
*Establish project specific CAD related E-mail mailing list to communicate all CAD related issues.
*Responsible for distributing approved piping related CAD symbology and communication.
*Monitor all piping related CAD standards and conventions.
*Establish and tracks all drawing blocks, x-refs, and cell libraries.
*Maintain piping related network space, directory structures, and CAD files. Implements project specific
naming convention.
*Interface with company CAD department on piping related hardware/software problems, concerns, and
requests.
*Provide training and CAD support to piping designers.
*Prepare and/or gather and distribute approved CAD related written materials, manuals, procedures, and
CAD notes to assigned designers.
*Provide a central focus for CAD within the project piping group. Interface with client CAD counterparts.
*Assist the company CAD department and the project CAD coordinator in the archival of project piping CAD
files.
*Assist piping lead design supervisor(s) in scheduling, determining work station needs, and forecasting
CAD related costs and estimates. Monitors station utilization and forecasts deviations from workstation
plan.
Puddle Flanges
Where pipes pass through external walls, in basement areas, a puddle flange may be required.
Location which may be below the water table or in areas liable to flooding or in areas which may
need to be sealed against methane gas coming from made up ground etc.

The puddle flange reduces the risk of water entering


the building by capillary action when installed in a
water retaining structure. In figure 21 a typical build in
detail is shown. The two piece loose puddle flange is
bolted onto the pipe once it has been bedded on denso
tape or similar.

Fig. 1

Figure 2 shows a pipe passing through a sleeve. This


would be used where pipe work is installed after walls
have been constructed. The areas between the pipe
and sleeve is sealed using a mastic type sealant.

Fig. 2

In figure 3 we see how the puddle flange is fixed and


sealed onto the pipe, with Ensign this type of puddle
flange is available as ED078 in 100mm and 150mm
diameters.

Fig. 3

Figure 4 shows the build in type again, this time one


piece (4set screws) for use with a 200mm pipe. The
ED078 is a compression puddle flange which needs to
be slipped over the end of the pipe and put into
position. Then it can be tightened up with the rachet
wrench. The gasket within the unit is compressed on to
the pipe, therefore no denso tape is required.

Fig. 4
High purity terms and definitions
back to tips

Terms and Definitions


ASME/BPE-1997, GR-10 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Annealing: a treatment process for steel for the purpose of reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold
working or producing a desired mechanical physical or other property.

Aseptic: free of pathogenic (causing or capable of causing disease) microorganisms.

Aseptic processing: operating in a manner that prevents contamination of the process.

Automatic welding: welding with equipment that performs the welding operation without adjustment of the controls by
a welding operator. The equipment may or may not perform the loading and unloading of the work (see machine
welding).

Bioprocessing: the creation of a product utilizing living organisms.

Bioprocessing equipment: equipment, systems or facilities used in the creation of products utilizing living organisms.

Cavitation: a condition of liquid flow where, after vaporization of the liquid, the subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles
can produce surface damage.

Certification: documented testimony by qualified authorities that a system qualification, calibration, validation or
revalidation has been performed appropriately, and that the results are acceptable.

cGMPs: current Good Manufacturing Practices. Current design and operating practices developed by the pharmaceutical
industry to meet FDA requirements as published in the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, Title 21, Parts 210 and
211.

Clean: free of dirt, residues, detergents or any contaminants that may affect or adulterate the product or process.

Clean-in-Place (CIP): internally cleaning a piece of equipment without relocation or disassembly. The equipment is
cleaned, but not necessarily sterilized. The cleaning is normally done by acid, caustic or a combination of both, with
Water-For-Injection (WFI) rinse.

Clean steam: steam free from boiler additives that may be purified, filtered or separated. Usually used for incidental
heating in pharmaceutical applications.

Cloudiness: the appearance of a milky white hue across some portion of a surface resulting from the electropolish
process.

Dead leg: an area of entrapment in a vessel or piping run that could lead to contamination of the product.
Demarcation: a localized area that is dissimilar to the surrounding areas with a defined boundary after electropolishing.

Fermentation: the biochemical synthesis of organic compounds by microorganisms or cultivated cells.

Fermentor (fermenter): a vessel for carrying out fermentation.

Full penetration: a weld joint is said to be fully penetrated when the depth of the weld extends from its face into the
weld joint so that the joint is fully fused. For a tube-to-tube weld, no unfused portions of the weld joint shall be visible
on the inside diameter of a fully penetrated weld.

GMP facility: a facility designed, constructed and operated in accordance with cGMP guidelines established by the FDA.

Heat number: an alphanumeric identification of a stated tonnage of metal obtained from a continuous melting in a
furnace.

Hold-up volume: the volume of liquid remaining in a vessel or piping system after it has been allowed to drain.

Hydrotest: a pressure test of piping, pressure vessels or pressure-containing parts, usually performed by pressurizing
the internal volume with water at a pressure determined by the applicable code.

Hygienic: of or pertaining to equipment and piping systems that by design, materials of construction and operation
provided for the maintenance of cleanliness so that products produced by these systems will not adversely affect
human or animal health.

Hygienic clamp joint: a tube outside diameter union consisting of two neutered ferrules having flat faces with a
concentric groove and mating gasket that is secured with a clamp, providing a nonprotruding, recessless product
contact surface.

Liquid penetrant indication: refer to ASME BPVC, Section V, Article 6, para. T-600, for testing an anomaly or an
indication.

Machine welding: welding with equipment that performs the welding operation under the constant observation and
control of a welding operator. The equipment may or may not perform the loading and unloading of the works (see
automatic welding).

Micron or micrometer (mm): one-millionth of a meter.

Orange peel: an appearance of a pebbly surface.

Passivation: a final treatment/cleaning process used to remove free iron or other anodic contaminants from the
surfaces of corrosion-resistant steel parts such that uniform formation of a passive layer is obtained.

Passive layer: a passive oxidized film that forms naturally on the stainless steel surface when exposed to air or similar
oxidizing environment protecting the underlying base metal from corrosion.

Pipe: pipe size is determined by diameter and schedule. For bioprocessing equipment, pipe does not include tube.

Pitch: to cause to be set at a particular angle or slope. Degree of slope or elevation.

Porosity: cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification.

Pure steam: steam that is produced by a steam generator which, when condensed, meets requirements for Water-For-
Injection (WFI).

Pyrogen: a fever-producing substance.

Ra: log of the arithmetic mean of the surface profile. Usually expressed in min as related to roughness (see ASME
B46.1).

Self-draining: the elimination of all fluid from the system due to the force of gravity alone.

Square cut: a tube end cut perpendicular to the tangent plane.

Steam-in-Place (SIP): the use of steam to sanitize or sterilize a piece of equipment without the use of an autoclave.

Sterile: free from living organisms.

Surface inclusion: particles of foreign material in a metallic matrix. The particles are usually compounds such as oxides,
sulfides or silicates, but may be a substance foreign to and essentially insoluble in the matrix.

Surface residual: a foreign substance that adheres to a surface by chemical reaction, adhesion, adsorption, or ionic
bonding. For example, corrosion, rouging and staining.
Tube: tube is sized by its nominal outside diameter. For bioprocessing equipment, tube does not include pipe.

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram - P&ID


What is a Piping and Instrumentation Diagram - P&ID?

A Piping and Instrumentation Diagram - P&ID, is a schematic illustration of functional relationship of piping, instrumentation and
system equipment components.

P&ID shows all of piping including the physical sequence of branches, reducers, valves, equipment, instrumentation and control
interlocks.

The P&ID are used to operate the process system.

A P&ID should include:

Instrumentation and designations


Mechanical equipment with names and numbers
All valves and their identifications
Process piping, sizes and identification
Miscellaneous - vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers and increasers
Flow directions
Interconnections
Control inputs and outputs, interlocks
This figure depict a very small and simplified P&ID:
BACK TO TIPS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

if you have any tips or tricks you wish to pass on, please send them to info@pipingdesigners.com

Process Flow Diagram - PFD


What is a Process Flow Diagram - PFD. A short definition.

A Process Flow Diagram - PFD, is a schematic illustration of the system.

PFD's show the relationships between the major components in the system. PFD's also tabulate process design values for the
components in different operating modes, typical minimum, normal and maximum. PFD's do not show minor components, piping
systems, piping ratings and designations.

A PFD should include:

Process Piping
Major equipment symbols, names and identification numbers
Control, valves and valves that affect operation of the system
Interconnection with other systems
System ratings and operational values as minimum, normal and maximum flow, temperature and
pressure
Composition of fluids
This figure depicts a small and simplified PFD:
Pharmaceutical pipe dead-legs: what's that all about?
Purified water (drinking water treated using million pound purification plants) is frequently used in the pharmaceutical industry
during the manufacture of tablets and medicines. This water is distributed throughout the manufacturing facility to points-of-use
using high quality process pipework. The installation of a pipe tee in this pipework often creates a stagnant dead-leg zone. This
dead-leg can contaminate the entire distribution network resulting in lost production, contaminated product and down time for
cleaning.

Considerable basic research is required to address the lack of understanding of this problem and to assist during design,
manufacture, installation and operation of these critical systems. Research work within the School of Mechanical and Manufacturing
Engineering at Dublin City University involves the application of CFD software (Computational Fluid Dynamics) to the study of pipe
dead-legs. The outcome of this research will benefit designers of next generation sterile and hygienic piping systems.

The formal definition of a pipe dead-leg as given by the Food and Drug Administration (the FDA) is:
Pipelines for the transmission of purified water for manufacturing or final rinse should not have an unused portion greater in length
than 6 diameters (the 6D rule) of the unused portion of pipe measured from the axis of the pipe in use.
Left: Velocity contours – Right: Computational grid.

The FDA suggest the above 6D rule will help prevent contamination: however industrial experts are designing systems with dead
legs limited to 3D or less. Some systems and fittings claim to have zero dead legs. The result of this confusion is an escalation in
design and manufacture cost within an already highly expensive industry. Current research includes the development of a CFD
model of a pipe tee and the application of turbulent models to analyse flow profiles within the tee branch (see illustration). Recent
results indicate that the 6D rule is indeed insufficient to prevent stagnation and that areas exist within the branch of the tee which
are undisturbed by the turbulent flow in the main loop pipe. Future work will involve the investigation of turbulence intensity and
wall shear stress in the near wall region, and close investigation of the viscous sub-layer.

Piping Designers - Check yourselves


For those independant designers that work on there own, or that preliminary work that goes out for bid, there is no substitution for
perfect work. Incomplete work and errors, all cost extra. Here are some useful tips to reduce what a checker would find to almost
nothing.

As a first step, check all of the information in the title block for conformance with the P&ID and the plot plan. Double check the line
number, area number and piping material spec. Step two, yellow off the flowsheet as the isometric is traced on the flowsheet from
start to finish. All inline components should appear on the iso. Check flow dierction. Check all continuations on the iso (against
vessel drawings, including nozzle number, nozzle orientation, coordinates and flange type, gasket and rating.

Using a 3-D system and computer spec ? Check the Bill of Materials. Getting carbon steel materials in stainless stell lines is easy,
especially if the final spec was not available when modelling started. Are all of the components in the line from the spec the line was
modelled in? Check for fabrication category (shop - field) against the requirements for your projects. Many designers field run every
thing below 40mm, some field run everything below 50mm.

Valves can be a pain, especially generic ones. Small bore valve dimensions change. Every manufacturer and valve type uses
different overall dimensions. Here it is important to specify the make and model of every valve. The use of generic face to face
dimensions will produce spool drawings with cut lengths that will be incorrect. The overall length of control valves, speciality items,
instrumentation and anything else that is inline needs to be checked against the certified vendor data published for the project.

Always consider manufacturing restrictions when selecting field weld locations. Prefabricated spools will be shipped by tractor-trailor.
Make spools fit on trailers and where appropriate into the average stress relieving oven. Allways allow for adjustment with
appropriately selected field welds.

Colour is an extremely usefull tool. Yellowing off checked items on the P&ID, linelist, iso and GA takes away the need to recheck
already checked areas.

With practices like these, your checker may be left with little to find.