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Tompkins Chapter Notes

Chapter 1:
The big idea of Chapter One is all about what makes up the six language arts and how
we use them in the classroom. This chapter talks about the ways in which students might learn
the language arts by using strategies and cueing systems. We also learn about the levels of
understanding and well as the importance of equilibrium and disequilibrium. Another big idea
in this chapter is knowing when and how to use language, having communicative competence.

Chapter 2:
This chapter is all about the four patterns of practices as well as how to use modifications
and scaffolding to better support the diversity of your classroom. And lastly, assessing students
in a variety of ways. The four patterns of practice are Literature focus units, literature circles,
reading and writing workshops, and thematic units. This chapter addresses teaching to the
standards and using the standards to to plan our lessons as well as to monitor or students
progress.

Chapter 3:
This chapter is all about how students learn words both orally and phonemically. There
are all kinds of different factors and ways to learn, for example environmental text versus
reading words in a book. Students go through different stages of their reading and writing as they
develop their phonemic awareness.

Chapter 4:
The big idea covers the basis of listening and talking in the classroom. There are four
types of listening that each have their specific strategies and uses in the classroom the four types
of listening are; discriminative, aesthetic, efferent, and critical. This chapter also covers how talk
is important in the classroom ranging from grand conversations, small group talking, and
interviews. All different strategies provide a different approach to helping student build
comprehension and deeper understanding.

Chapter 5:
The big idea of this chapter how to effectively teach students the writing process and
different writing strategies. Both reading and writing are processes of constructing meaning, in
this chapter we learn that integrating the two processes in the same lesson is most beneficial. We
learn about the five stages of the reading process as well as the five stages of the writing process.
It is important to know the differences between the different stages and how to clearly teach each
step of the process. Reading and writing processes can be learned and practiced through the use
of focus units, literature circles, reading and writing workshops, and thematic units.

Chapter 6:
This chapter covers the topics of how visual learning is incorporated in a class
room. The role of colors, symbols, lines, graphic and humor are all important parts of language
arts. Student needs to be instructed on how to interpret visual arts and masterpieces. This chapter
also gives ways in which to help students bring their literature to life and create their own visual
arts. Some ways they might do that would be puppet shows, process drama, or improvisation.
Chapter 7:
English is a historical language that has developed over the years, as it has developed it
has borrowed words from many other languages. The diversity in our words is because English
has borrowed words from over 50 languages, this is also why there are so many inconsistencies
in the English spelling and pronunciation. Most words in the English language has more than one
meaning, so it is important to learn all about morphemes or root words, as well as prefixes,
suffixes, and affixes, but don’t forget about the homonyms, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms. It
is important to know about origins of words to understand their meanings and to build students
vocabulary.

Chapter 8:
This chapter is all about teaching literature to students, covering everything from parts of
stories to the genres. Each genre has it’s own unique characteristics and each story does as well.
It is important to understand the different techniques an author can use like the point of view or
narrative devices. This chapter also gives different strategies for helping student understand
stories and even to write their own stories.

Chapter 9:
This chapter is all about teaching nonfiction texts to students; how to understand and read
informational texts, how to find/organize the information, and how to write or create projects
from nonfiction resources. In this chapter it covers how nonfiction, or expository texts, are often
presented or organized using the five expository text structures. Nonfiction books also have
many features that we want to make sure students understand how to use and understand, for
example table of contents or the glossary. It is important that student understand there are many
types of nonfiction books, texts, and resources. It is also important to make sure students know
how to find the key points of the information and can organize and use the information
effectively.

Chapter 10:
This chapter covers teaching poetry to students; reading poetry and writing poetry. This
chapter covers the importance of teaching students how to play with words, this play with words
helps students to understand how different words may work without relying on rhyming to make
a poem. Teaching students about all different types of poems can be done by exposing them to
all sorts through different books, reading to them, and teaching them how to write poems.
Different elements are also important to learn about, for example, rhyming, similes, metaphors,
and onomatopoeia. Using formula poems is a great way to introduce young students to writing
poems because it gives them structure to follow and allows the students to be more creative with
their words.

Chapter 11:
The big idea of this chapter is teaching students grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and
handwriting. This chapter covers both instructional key concepts as well as the stages of
development in each of these topics. This chapter suggest that’s teaching grammar through texts
is a more effective way for students to grasp the concept and ideas. When it comes to spelling, it
is important to focus on the words they are using frequently, as well as practicing their spelling
in their writing. This is a more effective way to learn spelling as they are learning to use it within
their writing as oppose to the old school spelling tests on Fridays and then never thinking about
those words again, or never using the words in context.

Chapter 12:
The big idea of this chapter is to create lessons that connect reading and writing while
including other topics as well. Some ways to do that is by using literature circles or reading and
writing workshops. Developing literature focus units requires a lot of planning; it is helpful to
use web charts to map out all the activities and martials that will be used. Thematic units are not
only used for language arts but are also a great way to include social studies and science.