Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 122

Hudbay Perú S.A.C.

Constancia Project
Technical Specifications for Earthworks,
Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete

January 31, 2012

prepared for:
Hudbay Perú S.A.C.
Av. El Derby No. 055, Torre 3, Piso 4
Distrito de Santiago de Surco
Provincia y Departamento de Lima, Perú
Telephone: 51 1 628-7272
Telefax: 51 1 628-7275

prepared by:
Knight Piésold and Co.
1999 Broadway Street, Suite 600
Denver, Colorado 80202-5706 USA
Telephone: (303) 629-8788
Facsimile: (303) 629-8789
E-mail: denver@knightpiesold.com

KP Project No. DV201.00245/41

Rev. No. Date Description Knight Piésold Client


A February 6, 2012 Issued for Internal Review Gilberto Domínguez NA
B September 4, 2012 Issued for Client Review Gilberto Domínguez Terry Linde
C October 26, 2012 Re-issued for Client Review Gilberto Domínguez Terry Linde
0 January 31, 2013 Issued for Construction Gilberto Domínguez Terry Linde
Hudbay Perú S.A.C.
Constancia Project
Technical Specifications for Earthworks,
Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete

Table of Contents

Page

Section 1.0 - Introduction ..................................................................................... 1-1


1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.2 Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................... 1-1

Section 2.0 - General Conditions ......................................................................... 2-1


2.1 Inspection ................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.2 Materials and Workmanship ...................................................................................... 2-1
2.3 Operations.................................................................................................................. 2-2
2.3.1 Conflict between Technical Specifications and Drawings and Discrepancies ........... 2-2
2.3.2 Drawings Submitted by Contractor ............................................................................. 2-2
2.3.3 Deviation Allowed ....................................................................................................... 2-2

Section 3.0 - Special Conditions .......................................................................... 3-1


3.1 Construction of Facilities ............................................................................................ 3-1
3.1.1 Construction/Access Roads........................................................................................ 3-1
3.1.2 Stream Diversion, Dewatering, Drainage, and Well-Point Dewatering for Cutoff Trench
Excavation.................................................................................................................. 3-1
3.1.2.1 Stream Diversion, Dewatering, and Drainage ........................................................ 3-1
3.1.3 Erosion and Sediment Control .................................................................................... 3-2
3.1.4 “As-Built” Drawings ..................................................................................................... 3-2
3.1.5 Security ....................................................................................................................... 3-2

Section 4.0 - Technical Specifications ................................................................ 4-1


4.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2 General Description of the Work ................................................................................ 4-1
4.3 Surveys and Construction Tolerances ....................................................................... 4-1
4.4 Clearing, Grubbing, Topsoil Stripping, and Bog Material Removal ........................... 4-2
4.4.1 Clearing and Grubbing................................................................................................ 4-2
4.4.2 Topsoil Stripping ......................................................................................................... 4-2
4.4.3 Bog Material Removal ................................................................................................ 4-3
4.4.4 Spoil Disposal Area and Stockpile Areas ................................................................... 4-3
4.4.5 Topsoil Stockpiles ....................................................................................................... 4-3
4.4.6 Bog Material Stockpiles .............................................................................................. 4-3
4.4.7 Surveyed Surfaces ..................................................................................................... 4-4
4.5 Stream Diversion and Dewatering ............................................................................. 4-4
4.5.1 Stream Diversion, Dewatering, Drainage, and Well-Point Dewatering for Cutoff Trench
Excavation.................................................................................................................. 4-4
4.6 General Excavation .................................................................................................... 4-4
4.6.1 Foundation Excavation for Embankments .................................................................. 4-5
4.6.2 Core Cutoff Trench Excavation into Bedrock ............................................................. 4-5
4.6.3 Revisions to Lines and Grades ................................................................................... 4-7
4.6.4 Soil-Bentonite Slurry Cutoff Wall ................................................................................ 4-7
4.6.4.1 General .................................................................................................................. 4-7
4.6.4.2 Material Descriptions ............................................................................................. 4-7

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


i
4.6.4.3 Initial Slurry Mixture ............................................................................................... 4-8
4.6.4.4 Slurry Mixture in Trench......................................................................................... 4-8
4.6.4.5 Materials for Slurry Wall Backfill ............................................................................ 4-8
4.6.4.6 Backfill ................................................................................................................... 4-8
4.6.4.7 Equipment ............................................................................................................. 4-9
4.6.4.8 Slurry Wall Construction ........................................................................................ 4-9
4.6.5 Shoring/Battering of Excavated Side Walls .............................................................. 4-11
4.7 Foundation Preparation ........................................................................................... 4-12
4.7.1 Bedrock Cleaning and Preparation Beneath Core ................................................... 4-12
4.7.2 Dental Concrete ........................................................................................................ 4-12
4.7.3 Shotcrete................................................................................................................... 4-13
4.7.3.1 General ................................................................................................................ 4-13
4.7.3.2 Shotcrete Composition ........................................................................................ 4-15
4.7.3.3 Materials .............................................................................................................. 4-16
4.7.3.4 Formwork ............................................................................................................. 4-17
4.7.3.5 Mixing and Transporting ...................................................................................... 4-17
4.7.3.6 Preparation for Shotcrete Placement ................................................................... 4-17
4.7.3.7 Reinforcement ..................................................................................................... 4-18
4.7.3.8 Shotcrete Placement ........................................................................................... 4-18
4.7.3.9 Finish ................................................................................................................... 4-20
4.7.3.10 Curing and Protection .......................................................................................... 4-20
4.7.3.11 Repairs to Shotcrete ............................................................................................ 4-20
4.7.3.12 Shotcrete Quality Control and Construction Tolerances ...................................... 4-20
4.7.3.13 Pre-construction Demonstration and Testing ....................................................... 4-21
4.7.3.14 Construction Phase Sampling and Testing .......................................................... 4-22
4.7.3.15 Shotcrete Construction Tolerances...................................................................... 4-24
4.7.4 Slush Grouting .......................................................................................................... 4-24
4.7.5 Pressure Grouting ..................................................................................................... 4-25
4.7.6 Pollution Control Measures....................................................................................... 4-25
4.7.7 Embankments Founded on Natural Soil or Bedrock (Prepared Foundation) ........... 4-25
4.7.8 Basin Liner Foundation ............................................................................................. 4-25
4.7.9 Approval of Excavated and Prepared Surfaces........................................................ 4-26
4.8 Fill Materials and Fill Placement Procedures ........................................................... 4-26
4.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................... 4-26
4.8.1.1 Deviations ............................................................................................................ 4-26
4.8.1.2 General Procedures............................................................................................. 4-27
4.8.1.3 Suspension and Resumption of Operations ........................................................ 4-28
4.8.1.4 Maintenance of Prepared Surfaces ..................................................................... 4-28
4.8.1.5 Fill Placement Weather Limitations...................................................................... 4-28
4.8.2 Borrow Areas ............................................................................................................ 4-28
4.8.2.1 General ................................................................................................................ 4-28
4.8.2.2 Fill Material Production ........................................................................................ 4-29
4.8.3 Compaction Equipment ............................................................................................ 4-29
4.8.3.1 General ................................................................................................................ 4-29
4.8.3.2 Smooth Drum Vibratory Roller ............................................................................. 4-30
4.8.3.3 Sheepsfoot Roller ................................................................................................ 4-30
4.8.3.4 Pneumatic-Tired Rollers ...................................................................................... 4-30
4.8.3.5 Special Compactors............................................................................................. 4-31
4.8.3.6 Rubber-Tired Construction Equipment ................................................................ 4-31
4.8.4 Materials ................................................................................................................... 4-31
4.8.4.1 Core ..................................................................................................................... 4-31
4.8.4.2 Filter/Drain ........................................................................................................... 4-33
4.8.4.3 Transition ............................................................................................................. 4-33
4.8.4.4 Coarse Transition ................................................................................................ 4-34
4.8.4.5 Structural Fill and Structural Rockfill .................................................................... 4-35
4.8.4.6 Embankment Fill A / Embankment Fill B / Embankment Fill C ............................ 4-40
4.8.4.7 Alluvial Drain ........................................................................................................ 4-42
4.8.4.8 Bog Embankment Fill........................................................................................... 4-43
4.8.4.9 General Fill .......................................................................................................... 4-44
4.8.4.10 Soil Liners A and B .............................................................................................. 4-44
4.8.4.11 Liner Bedding ...................................................................................................... 4-46
4.8.4.12 Fine Drainage Gravel........................................................................................... 4-46
4.8.4.13 Coarse Drainage Gravel ...................................................................................... 4-47
4.8.4.14 Drainage Rock ..................................................................................................... 4-48

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


ii
4.8.4.15 Pipe Bedding ....................................................................................................... 4-49
4.8.4.16 Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill ............................................................................ 4-49
4.8.4.17 Riprap .................................................................................................................. 4-50
4.8.4.18 Grouted Riprap .................................................................................................... 4-51
4.8.4.19 Riprap Bedding .................................................................................................... 4-53
4.8.4.20 Road Wearing Course ......................................................................................... 4-54
4.8.4.21 Piezometer Sand ................................................................................................. 4-54
4.8.4.22 Piezometer Trench Backfill .................................................................................. 4-54
4.9 Geosynthetics .......................................................................................................... 4-55
4.9.1 General ..................................................................................................................... 4-55
4.9.2 Submittals upon Completion of Installation .............................................................. 4-55
4.9.3 Coordination between the Company, Geosynthetics and Earthwork Contractors,
Installer, and Engineer ............................................................................................. 4-56
4.9.4 High-Density Polyethylene........................................................................................ 4-56
4.9.4.1 Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s Quality Control ..................................................... 4-56
4.9.5 Installation ................................................................................................................. 4-58
4.9.5.1 General ................................................................................................................ 4-58
4.9.5.2 Trial Welds ........................................................................................................... 4-59
4.9.5.3 Field Seam Inspection and Testing...................................................................... 4-60
4.9.5.4 Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection .............................................................. 4-60
4.9.5.5 Destructive Testing of Field Seams ..................................................................... 4-61
4.9.5.6 Repair Procedures ............................................................................................... 4-62
4.9.6 Linear Low-Density Polyethylene ............................................................................. 4-63
4.9.6.1 Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s Quality Control ..................................................... 4-63
4.9.6.2 Smooth and Textured LLDPE Material Properties ............................................... 4-63
4.9.6.3 Installation ........................................................................................................... 4-64
4.9.7 Geotextile .................................................................................................................. 4-69
4.9.7.1 General ................................................................................................................ 4-69
4.9.7.2 Scope .................................................................................................................. 4-69
4.9.7.3 References .......................................................................................................... 4-70
4.9.7.4 Submittals ............................................................................................................ 4-70
4.9.7.5 Product – Geotextile ............................................................................................ 4-70
4.9.7.6 Manufacture ......................................................................................................... 4-71
4.9.7.7 Transport ............................................................................................................. 4-71
4.9.7.8 Quality Assurance................................................................................................ 4-71
4.9.7.9 Installation ........................................................................................................... 4-72
4.9.8 Drainage Geocomposite ........................................................................................... 4-72
4.9.8.1 References .......................................................................................................... 4-73
4.9.8.2 Geocomposite Properties .................................................................................... 4-73
4.9.8.3 Manufacturing Quality Control ............................................................................. 4-74
4.9.8.4 Qualifications ....................................................................................................... 4-75
4.9.8.5 Material Labeling, Delivery, Storage, and Handling ............................................. 4-75
4.9.8.6 Execution ............................................................................................................. 4-76
4.9.8.7 Warranty .............................................................................................................. 4-77
4.10 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete ......................................................................... 4-77
4.11 Pipework .................................................................................................................. 4-77
4.11.1 Applicable Specifications and Regulations ............................................................... 4-77
4.11.2 Material Properties .................................................................................................... 4-78
4.11.2.1 Corrugated Polyethylene Tubing (CPT) with Smooth Interior Wall ...................... 4-78
4.11.2.2 HDPE Pipe .......................................................................................................... 4-78
4.11.2.3 Bolts and Gaskets................................................................................................ 4-79
4.11.2.4 Carbon Steel Pipe................................................................................................ 4-79
4.11.3 Pipe Installation ........................................................................................................ 4-79
4.11.3.1 General ................................................................................................................ 4-79
4.11.3.2 Corrugated Polyethylene Tubing ......................................................................... 4-80
4.11.3.3 HDPE Pipe .......................................................................................................... 4-80
4.11.3.4 Steel Pipe ............................................................................................................ 4-80
4.12 Instrumentation ........................................................................................................ 4-80
4.12.1 Vibrating Wire Piezometers General ........................................................................ 4-80
4.12.1.1 Vibrating Wire Piezometers ................................................................................. 4-80
4.12.1.2 Electrical Cable .................................................................................................... 4-81
4.12.1.3 Splice Kits ............................................................................................................ 4-81
4.12.1.4 Readout Equipment and Housing ........................................................................ 4-81
4.12.1.5 Initial Readings .................................................................................................... 4-81

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


iii
4.12.2 Survey Monuments ................................................................................................... 4-82
4.13 Skimmer, Valve, Flowmeter, and Turbidity Meter Specifications ............................ 4-82

Section 5.0 - Quality Assurance/Quality Control ................................................ 5-1


5.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.1 Construction Inspections ............................................................................................ 5-1
5.2 Earthwork ................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2.1 Foundations ................................................................................................................ 5-1
5.2.2 Core ............................................................................................................................ 5-2
5.2.3 Filter/Drain, Bog Embankment Fill, Alluvial Drain, Fine & Coarse Drainage Gravel .. 5-2
5.2.4 Transition, Coarse Transition, and Drainage Rock .................................................... 5-2
5.2.5 Structural Fill, Coarse Structural Fill, Structural Rockfill and Thick-Lift Structural
Rockfill ........................................................................................................................ 5-2
5.2.6 Embankment Fill A, Embankment Fill B, Embankment Fill C, and General Fill ......... 5-3
5.2.7 Soil Liners A and B ..................................................................................................... 5-3
5.2.8 Liner Bedding .............................................................................................................. 5-3
5.2.9 Pipe Bedding............................................................................................................... 5-3
5.2.10 Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill ................................................................................... 5-4
5.2.11 Riprap, Grouted Riprap, and Riprap Bedding............................................................. 5-4
5.2.12 Road Wearing Course ................................................................................................ 5-4
5.2.13 Piezometer Sand and Piezometers ............................................................................ 5-5
5.2.14 Piezometer Trench Backfill ......................................................................................... 5-5
5.2.15 General Fill used as Trench Backfill ........................................................................... 5-5
5.2.16 Slurry Wall Construction ............................................................................................. 5-5
5.2.16.1 General .................................................................................................................. 5-5
5.2.16.2 Sample and Test Location References .................................................................. 5-6
5.2.16.3 Observation of Excavation ..................................................................................... 5-6
5.2.16.4 Trench Depth ......................................................................................................... 5-6
5.2.16.5 Equipment Calibration ........................................................................................... 5-6
5.2.16.6 Equipment ............................................................................................................. 5-6
5.3 Pipework and Culverts ............................................................................................... 5-7
5.4 Concrete ..................................................................................................................... 5-7
5.5 Geosynthetics ............................................................................................................ 5-8
5.5.1 HDPE and LLDPE Geomembrane ............................................................................. 5-8
5.5.1.1 Raw Material, Manufacture, Delivery and Storage ................................................ 5-8
5.5.1.2 Geomembrane Storage ......................................................................................... 5-9
5.5.1.3 Geomembrane Acceptance ................................................................................... 5-9
5.5.1.4 Subgrade ............................................................................................................... 5-9
5.5.1.5 Geomembrane Deployment ................................................................................. 5-10
5.5.1.6 Geomembrane Field Panel Identification ............................................................. 5-10
5.5.1.7 Geomembrane Field Panel Inspection................................................................. 5-10
5.5.1.8 Geomembrane Field Panel Deployment Schedule .............................................. 5-11
5.5.1.9 Geomembrane Field Panel Deployment Progress Reports ................................. 5-11
5.5.1.10 Geomembrane Seaming ...................................................................................... 5-11
5.5.1.11 Geomembrane Trial Seams ................................................................................. 5-12
5.5.1.12 Geomembrane Field Seam Inspection ................................................................ 5-12
5.5.1.13 Geomembrane Seaming and Panel Deficiencies ................................................ 5-13
5.6 Geotextile ................................................................................................................. 5-14
5.6.1 Geotextile Manufacture............................................................................................. 5-14
5.6.2 Geotextile Handling and Storage .............................................................................. 5-14
5.6.2.1 Geotextile Delivery............................................................................................... 5-14
5.6.2.2 Geotextile Storage ............................................................................................... 5-14
5.6.3 Geotextile Installation ............................................................................................... 5-15
5.6.3.1 Geotextile Field Installation .................................................................................. 5-15
5.6.3.2 Geotextile Inspection ........................................................................................... 5-15
5.6.3.3 Geotextile Progress Reports ................................................................................ 5-15
5.6.4 Geotextile Joints ....................................................................................................... 5-15
5.6.4.1 Geotextile Overlap ............................................................................................... 5-15
5.6.4.2 Geotextile Joining ................................................................................................ 5-15
5.6.4.3 Geotextile Repairs ............................................................................................... 5-16
5.7 Culverts and Piping .................................................................................................. 5-16

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


iv
Section 6.0 - Testing ............................................................................................. 6-1
6.1 Earthwork ................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 Pipework and Culverts ............................................................................................... 6-1
6.2.1 Procedure for Pressure Testing HDPE Pipe .............................................................. 6-2
6.3 Concrete ..................................................................................................................... 6-3
6.4 Geomembrane Testing .............................................................................................. 6-3
6.4.1 HDPE and LLDPE Geomembrane Destructive Seam Testing ................................... 6-3
6.4.1.1 Geomembrane Non-Destructive Seam Testing ..................................................... 6-4
6.4.1.2 Geomembrane Leak Repair .................................................................................. 6-5
6.4.1.3 Geomembrane Final Acceptance .......................................................................... 6-5
6.4.1.4 Geomembrane Sample Internment........................................................................ 6-5
6.5 Field Density Tests..................................................................................................... 6-5
6.5.1 Nuclear Methods ......................................................................................................... 6-5
6.5.2 Sand Replacement and Water Replacement ............................................................. 6-6
6.6 Failed Tests................................................................................................................ 6-6
6.7 Equipment Calibration, Maintenance, and Operation ................................................ 6-6

Section 7.0 - Reports............................................................................................. 7-1


7.1 Daily Reports.............................................................................................................. 7-1
7.2 Monthly Progress Report ........................................................................................... 7-1
7.3 Construction Report ................................................................................................... 7-1

Section 8.0 - Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................................................ 8-1

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


v
Hudbay Perú S.A.C.
Constancia Project
Technical Specifications for Earthworks,
Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete

Section 1.0 - Introduction

1.1 Introduction
The technical requirements in this document cover the quality of materials and workmanship for
earthworks, Geosynthetics, pipework, and concrete; as well as structural steel, valves, fittings,
coatings, controls, and instrumentation for facilities designed by Knight Piésold and Co. (Knight
Piésold) for the Constancia Project. It is understood that the Hudbay Perú S.A.C. (Hudbay) and
STRACON-GyM Alliance, with the assistance of Ausenco, has overall responsibility for construction
management of the Constancia Project. In general, this Specification is applicable to the Tailings
Management Facility (TMF), Main Sediment Pond, Cunahuiri Reservoir, Waste Rock Facility (WRF),
WRF Ponds, Landfill, Access and Haul Roads, Diversion Channels, TMF Sediment Ponds (2), and
Construction Road Sediment Ponds (2).

1.2 Definition of Terms


Wherever these words occur in the Contract Documents, they shall have the following meanings:

“Company” is defined as Hudbay or any of its authorized representatives.

“Concrete Contractor” is defined as the party that has executed a contract agreement with the
Earthwork Contractor to supply concrete to applicable portions of the Work. The Concrete Contractor
is responsible for all Quality Control (QC) for all concrete supplied for the Work. Since the amount of
concrete required for the work associated with this specification is relatively small, for the remainder of
these Technical Specifications, the term Earthwork Contractor is used and is inclusive of the Concrete
Contractor. The Earthwork Contractor may perform the concrete construction without the involvement
of a specialty contractor for the concrete construction.

“Construction Manager” is defined as a firm specified by the Company to perform construction


management duties.

“Day” means a calendar day.

“Drawings” are defined as the construction drawings at Revision 0 or above that have been “Issued
for Construction” by the Engineer. The latest numbered revision of any Drawing shall be the Drawing
applicable to the Work.

“Earthwork Contractor” is defined as the party that has executed a contract agreement with the
Company to complete the Work shown on the Drawings and as specified herein. The Earthworks
Contractor may also be referred to as the Contractor. If the Earthworks Contractor elects to retain the
services of a Concrete Contractor, the Concrete Contractor shall be approved by the Company. If the
Earthworks Contractor elects to perform the concrete construction itself, the term Earthworks
Contractor shall include the Concrete Work. The Contractor for the Constancia project is Stracon-
GYM.

“Engineer” is defined as Knight Piésold or any of its authorized representatives. The Engineer is
independent from the Earthwork Contractor and is responsible for observing and documenting
activities related to Quality Assurance (QA) for earthworks, geosynthetics, and concrete.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


1-1
“Installer” is defined as the specialist subcontractor responsible for the delivery and deployment of
geosynthetic liner materials or any of its authorized representatives.

“Modifications” are defined as changes made to the Technical Specifications or the Drawings that are
approved by the Engineer and the Company, in writing, after the Technical Specifications and
Drawings have been issued for construction. These also refer to changes to design elements in the
field to account for unforeseen conditions. Modifications may be documented by revisions to the
drawings or specifications or Addenda issued by the Engineer.

“Plant” is defined as all equipment, materials, supplies, temporary accommodations, temporary


offices, or other things brought onto the Site by the Contractor to carry out the Work, but shall not
include any equipment, materials, supplies, or other things incorporated into the permanent portions
of the Work.

“Project” means the construction of all items necessary for the completion of the structure(s).

“Quality Assurance” is defined as the observation of the construction activities and completed Works
and review of the QC data by the Engineer to offer an opinion on the conformity of the Work to the
requirements of the drawings and specifications and intent of the design. QA is the responsibility of
the Engineer and must be carried out to meet the requirements described in these Technical
Specifications or as specified by the Engineer and/or the Company.

“Quality Control” is defined as the testing and inspection necessary to ensure that the Work is
constructed in compliance with the Technical Specifications. QC observation and/or testing is the
responsibility of the Contractor or his subcontractors.

“Reference Information” is defined as information provided to the Contractor by the Company to assist
in completing the Work. However, the Company makes no warranties or representations as to
accuracy or completeness and the Contractor shall be solely responsible for any and all conclusions
and deductions made using this information.

“Site” is defined as the Constancia site owned by Hudbay and where the Work is to be completed as
described in these Technical Specifications and detailed on the Drawings.

“Subcontractor” means a party which, with approval of the Company, has executed a subcontract with
Contractor for part of the Work.

“Technical Specifications” are defined as the Technical Specifications, Quality Assurance, and Quality
Control for Earthworks at Revision 0 or its latest revision. This title may be revised to be project
specific to the Constancia project and specific structures covered by the specification or above and
any other specifications and Addenda furnished by the Engineer and/or the Company that apply to the
Work. The latest numbered revision of any specifications shall be the document applicable to the
Work. The Technical Specifications may also be referred to as Specifications.

“Units” refer to units of measurement. In general, the Technical Specifications and the Drawings refer
to metric units, which are the standard for the project, for lineal measurements, areas, sieve sizes,
pipe diameters, etc. However, in several cases, the material purchased and/or test equipment and
results will be expressed in Imperial units, which is acceptable provided they are equivalent to the
specified metric units. Equivalent sieve sizes for metric and imperial units are provided at the end of
this section.

“Unsuitable Material” is defined as any material not meeting the technical requirements of this
Specification.

“Work” is defined as the furnishing of all Labor, Plant, Materials and Supplies, and the carrying out of
all activities in order to complete the construction as shown on the Drawings and as defined in the
Contract Documents for the Earthwork Contract, including the implementation of temporary sediment
control measures and creation and maintenance of the construction access roads that connect areas
of the Work.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


1-2
Unit Conversions

Imperial Metric
18 inches 457.2 mm
12 inches 304.8 mm
9 inches 228.6 mm
6 inches 152.4 mm
4 inches 101.6 mm
3 inches 76.2 mm
2 inches 50.8 mm
1-½ inches 37.5 mm
1 inch 25.4 mm
3/4 inch 19.1 mm
1/2 inch 12.7 mm
3/8 inch 9.52 mm
No. 4 4.75 mm
No. 8 2.36 mm
No. 16 1.18 mm
No. 30 0.60 mm
No. 40 0.43 mm
No. 50 0.30 mm
No. 100 0.15 mm
No. 200 0.075 mm
M:\Denver\Projects\201\00245.41\Deliverables\Reports Specs\1700 Tech Specs\Rev0\Text_Rev0.docx

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


1-3
Section 2.0 - General Conditions

2.1 Inspection
All Work shall be subject to inspection, examination, and test by the Engineer and/or the Company at
any time during manufacture or construction and at any place where such manufacture or
construction is carried out. The Engineer and/or the Company is authorized to call the Contractor’s
attention to any failure of the Work to conform to the Specifications or other provisions of the Contract.
The Engineer and/or the Company shall also have the right to reject defective materials without
charge therefore, and the Contractor shall promptly segregate and remove such rejected material
from the premises. Any Work done beyond the lines and grades shown on the Drawings and/or
specified by the Engineer and/or the Company will be considered as unauthorized and may be
ordered removed. If any remedial construction is required to repair over-excavations or the like,
remedial construction shall be the Contractor’s responsibility and performed in keeping with the
specification requirements or Specifications, Drawings or Addenda prepared by the Engineer. Should
the Contractor’s Work fail to comply promptly with the Specification’s or Drawing’s or any subsequent
Specification of the Engineer and/or the Company made under the provisions of this paragraph, the
Engineer and/or the Company shall have the authority to cause defective materials or Work to be
remedied or removed and replaced.

The Contractor shall furnish promptly all reasonable facilities, labor, and materials necessary for
proper and convenient inspection and for any test that may be required by the Engineer or the
Company. All inspections and tests by the Engineer or the Company shall be performed in such a
manner as not to unnecessarily delay the Work. The Engineer or Company may require that the
testing be completed by the QC personnel provided by the Contractor.

Should it be considered necessary or advisable by the Engineer and/or the Company at any time
before final acceptance of the entire Work, to make examinations of Work already completed by
removing or tearing out any part or parts of the same, the Contractor shall, upon request, promptly
furnish all necessary facilities, labor, and materials.

All materials proposed to be used may be tested at any time during their preparation and use. Unless
otherwise provided in the Specifications, the sampling and testing of materials will be done in
accordance with the current methods approved by the American Society for Testing Materials
(ASTM). If after trial, it is found that sources of supply, which have been approved, do not furnish a
uniform project, or if the product from any source proves unacceptable at any time, the Contractor
shall furnish approved materials from another approved source. No material, which after approval,
has in any way become unfit for use shall be used in the Work. The Contractor shall give the
Company reasonable notice in advance of the manufacture or production of materials to be supplied
under this contract so that the Company may arrange for mill and factory (Plant) inspection and
testing of the same. No materials shipped by the Contractor from the Plant prior to having
satisfactorily passed such testing and inspection by the Company, or prior to the receipt of notice from
the Company that such testing and inspection will not be required, shall be incorporated in the Work.
The Contractor shall furnish to the Company six (6) certified copies of all required factory and mill test
reports.

2.2 Materials and Workmanship


Unless otherwise specifically provided in the Specifications, all workmanship, equipment, materials,
and articles incorporated in the Work covered by this Contract are to be new and of the best quality
for the purpose and use intended. All such workmanship, equipment, materials, and articles shall be
subject to the approval of the Engineer and/or the Company. Equipment, materials, and articles
installed or used without such approval shall be at the risk of subsequent rejection. No permission
given by the Engineer and/or the Company to use any particular methods, equipment, or materials
shall be construed to relieve the Contractor from furnishing other equipment or materials or adopting
other methods whenever those in use prove to be unsatisfactory, nor shall such permission be
construed so as to bind the Engineer to accept Work which does not comply with this Contract.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


2-1
2.3 Operations
2.3.1 Conflict between Technical Specifications and Drawings and Discrepancies
If the Contractor, at any time, finds conflicts or discrepancies between the Technical Specifications
and Drawings, within the Drawings, within the Technical Specifications, between the Drawings and
physical conditions, between the Technical Specifications or errors in the Drawings or Technical
Specifications, working drawings, or layout as given by survey points or instruction, it shall be the duty
of the Contractor to inform the Company verbally within 24 hours of the discrepancy, conflict, or error
and in writing in a timely manner and the Company shall promptly correct or address the issue. Any
Work done after such discovery, until authorized, will be done at the Contractor’s risk. In the event of
a discrepancy or apparent discrepancy between the Drawings and any other provision of this
Technical Specification, the Contractor shall request, and the Company shall give an interpretation in
writing of the intent of this Technical Specification.

2.3.2 Drawings Submitted by Contractor


The Drawings will be supplemented by such working drawings, as necessary, to control the Work
adequately. All authorized alterations affecting the requirements and information given on the
Drawings will be in writing. Working drawings or shop details will be approved by the Engineer and
the Company before any Work involving such drawings shall be performed. The approval by the
Engineer and the Company of the working drawings relates to the requirements for strength and detail
and such approval will not relieve the Contractor from responsibility for reporting discrepancies as
provided in Section 2.3.1 of this report.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer and/or the Company for review, copies of such drawings
as may be required by the Company and/or Engineer. Such submissions shall give complete details
and information and contain sufficient views and be to such suitable scales as will show clearly the
Work or item. Each drawing shall be carefully checked and signed by the Contractor prior to
submission. The sequence of submission of drawings shall be such that all pertinent information is
available to the Engineer and/or the Company for reviewing each drawing as it is received. Each
submission shall be made sufficiently in advance of the schedule requirements for the Work shown on
the drawings to allow for the Company’s and Engineer’s proper consideration of the drawings, and for
their revision and re-submission, if necessary, without delaying the Work. Where original design is
involved, as determined by the Engineer and/or the Company, such drawings shall bear the seal or
stamp and the signature of a professional engineer with appropriate registrations.

The Contractor shall not order any materials or perform any Work shown or required on such
drawings prior to receipt of the Company’s and/or Engineer’s review thereof and written authorization
to proceed with the Work.

The review by the Company and/or Engineer of drawings and schedules submitted by the Contractor
shall not be construed as indicating any checking of the drawings and schedules, and shall not relieve
the Contractor of his responsibility for adequacy of design and accuracy of detail of the Work shown
on such drawings and schedules or for any errors therein or of any other of the Contractor’s
responsibilities under the Contract.

Upon receipt by the Company, all project-related drawings are the property of the Company.

2.3.3 Deviation Allowed


Finished surfaces in all cases shall conform to the lines, grades, cross sections, and dimensions
shown on the Drawings or described in Section 4.3 Surveys and Construction Tolerances included in
these Specifications. Deviations from the Drawings and working drawings will in all cases be
approved in writing by the Engineer and/or the Company and will be authorized in writing.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


2-2
Section 3.0 - Special Conditions

3.1 Construction of Facilities


The Contractor shall be completely responsible for the provision, operation, and maintenance of all
construction facilities required for the Work except only those stated in the Special Conditions as
being supplied by the Company or others. All of the Contractor’s construction facilities shall meet the
intent of the designs, specifications, and contract requirements in all respects.

Facilities access and haulage must meet or exceed all applicable standards.

3.1.1 Construction/Access Roads


The Contractor shall be responsible for construction and maintenance of all temporary haul/access
roads required for the execution of the Work. In some cases, existing roads may be made available
to the Contractor by the Company, in which case the Contractor shall be responsible for continuous
maintenance of the roads to ensure a suitable road surface is maintained. Routine watering of all
roads for dust control, including the Company’s roads used by the Contractor, shall be the
responsibility of the Contractor.

Construction and access roads shall be constructed to include safety berms with a minimum height of
one-half the maximum wheel diameter of the equipment that will use the road. They shall also include
drainage control to avoid uncontrolled release of water and sediment from the project site.

Haul/access roads constructed by the Contractor will not be for his exclusive use. Other contractors
working on the Site, along with the Company and the Engineer, shall be afforded the use of the roads.

The Contractor shall be responsible for traffic control on all roads under his use, whether constructed
by the Contractor or provided by the Company. For the Company’s roads such as the main Site
access road(s), the Contractor, if he elects and has approval to use these roads, will not be allowed to
significantly disrupt the normal traffic flow. Traffic stoppage or disruption shall be minimal and not
disrupt the Company’s other operations.

In general, mine haulage roads will not be available to the Contractor for use in the Work. However, if
mine haul roads are required for use in the Work and have been made available to the Contractor by
the Company, mine haulage equipment will have right-of-way, and the Contractor may at times be
subject to traffic restrictions/delays. It will be the Contractor’s responsibility to make account for and
to schedule for this.

3.1.2 Stream Diversion, Dewatering, Drainage, and Well-Point Dewatering for Cutoff Trench
Excavation
3.1.2.1 Stream Diversion, Dewatering, and Drainage
Except as otherwise specified by the Engineer and/or the Company and provided for by the Contract,
the Contractor shall investigate, design, construct, operate, maintain, and subsequently remove such
temporary cofferdams, dikes, fills, surface and subsurface dewatering, and drainage facilities as are
necessary for control and removal of all water entering the Work areas including seepage and
leakage water, precipitation and overland runoff, and water resulting from the operations of the
Contractor and others.

The Contractor shall provide, maintain, and operate any temporary diversion, drainage and/or
pumping facilities, including well-point dewatering, required to control ground and surface water in
order to keep the excavations dry and in a stable condition. The Contractor’s dewatering operations
shall be accomplished in a manner that will not adversely affect the stability of the excavated slopes
and will not cause erosion and softening of adjacent materials. Surface water accumulated in an
excavation shall be drained or pumped to a Company-approved facility. The Contractor’s dewatering
and diversion methods shall not interfere with the performance of other Work that may be ongoing
and are subject to review and approval by the Company and/or the Engineer.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


3-1
Water removed from the excavations shall be disposed of in accordance with any applicable permits
and in such a manner as will not endanger the environment, the stability of existing slopes, or the
Work.

The Contractor shall obtain written approval from the Company before discontinuing the operation of
any dewatering system.

Cofferdams, dikes, fills, and dewatering and drainage facilities provided by the Contractor shall be
subject to the approval of the Company and/or Engineer and shall be such as to permit the Work to
be performed in an orderly and efficient manner under dry conditions. Prior to commencement of the
Work, the Contractor shall develop and submit a Stormwater Protection and Prevention Plan
(SWPPP) for approval by the Company and/or the Engineer.

3.1.3 Erosion and Sediment Control


Erosion and sediment control measures shall be implemented as necessary to minimize ground
surface erosion and stream sediment loads during construction. Construction Work shall not start
until the Contractor has prepared and submitted a written Environmental Management Plan (EMP), in
accordance with the Best Management Practices (BMP), and agreed to that EMP with the Company
and it has been implemented.

3.1.4 “As-Built” Drawings


At the completion of the Work, the Contractor shall provide the Company and Engineer with a
complete set of “As-Built” drawings, using Civil 3D software, containing coordinates and elevations of
the completed Work including access ramps, borrow areas, benchmarks, geologic mapping, all
pipework, and any other items necessary to complete the “As-Built” documentation of the Work or as
requested by the Company and/or Engineer. The “As-Built” drawings shall be prepared in the local
grid system following the layout of the Design Drawings.

The Contractor shall submit the “As-Built” drawings for each Work segment as is completed.

3.1.5 Security
The Contractor shall assume full responsibility for the security of the Work and of the equipment,
supplies, and materials in the assigned Work areas. In the context of this Section, security shall
include the provision for the duration of the Contract, of all fencing, gates, lights, signs, guards,
flagmen, watchmen, and other measures necessary for the protection of the Work and materials
against theft, damage, and entry of unauthorized personnel.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


3-2
Section 4.0 - Technical Specifications

4.1 General
The technical requirements specified in this Section shall apply to all operations related to carrying out
the Work as shown on the Drawings or as specified by the Company and/or the Engineer.

The Work to be carried out under the Contract shall consist of supplying all Labor, Plant, and
Materials necessary to construct the Work as shown on the Drawings and in accordance with these
Specifications, or as otherwise specified by the Company and/or the Engineer.

Reference Information including laboratory reports, test pit and borehole logs, and figures are
available for Contractor’s information. The conclusions, interpretations, inferences drawn, and other
statements of opinion contained in the Reference Information are based upon present knowledge. No
warranties or representations as to accuracy or completeness are made. Contractor shall examine
the Site and reference information and be solely responsible for any and all conclusions and
deductions he draws with respect to all conditions, problems, and difficulties which may be
encountered in performing the Work, and shall make such use of the Reference Information as is
necessary.

4.2 General Description of the Work


The Work under this contract includes the earthworks, stream diversion, dewatering, instrumentation,
concrete, geosynthetics, and pipe work for the embankment construction, outlet works, spillway,
access roads, and related work.

These activities are in support of the construction of the TMF, Main Sediment Pond, Cunahuiri
Reservoir, WRF, WRF Ponds, Topsoil and Unsuitable Material Stockpiles, Plant Site Earthworks,
Landfill, Access and Haul Roads, Diversion Channels, TMF sediment ponds, and Construction Road
Sediment Ponds.

4.3 Surveys and Construction Tolerances


The Contractor shall complete the Work to the lines and grades shown on the Drawings within the
following tolerances: (1) the embankment crest shall be a minimum of the specified elevation shown
on the Drawings and elevations in excess of that shown on the Drawings shall not exceed 0.3 m, and
(2) the horizontal fill zones shall be within 0.15 m horizontally of the lines and grades shown on the
Drawings.

The Contractor shall set out the Work efficiently and accurately by approved methods and shall be
solely responsible; therefore, he shall provide, fix, and be responsible for the maintenance of all
monuments, stakes, templates, batter boards, benchmarks, and other reference marks, and shall take
all necessary precautions to prevent their removal or disturbance and shall be responsible for the
consequences of any such removal or disturbance and for the accurate reinstatement of all such
marks. The Contractor shall provide the Company and/or the Engineer with drawings showing his
monuments and control benchmarks.

The Work shall be set out to the specified requirements in all respects, but the Engineer’s and/or the
Company’s approval thereof shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his responsibilities for the due
fulfillment of the Contract. At the request of the Engineer, the Contractor shall at all times, without
charge, provide qualified men, equipment, tools, and materials to assist the Engineer in checking the
setting out of the Work.

If at any time during the progress of the Work any error should become evident or occur in the
location, grades, dimensions, or alignment of any part of the Work, the Contractor, upon such error
occurring or becoming evident, shall forthwith inform the Engineer and/or the Company and shall
rectify such error to the intent of the designs and specification requirements.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-1
All original field notes, cross sections, computations, measurements, and other records taken by the
Contractor, or specified by the Engineer and/or the Company for the purpose of determining
quantities, shall be furnished promptly to the Engineer and/or the Company and shall become the
property of the Company. The field notes shall be recorded and provided to the Engineer. Notes
shall be properly identified by giving title, page number, date, weather, and the names and positions
of all party personnel. Computations of volumes, records of embedded material, and other records of
Work shall be properly identified by giving title, page number, date, and names of individuals
performing and checking such computations or other data and shall be furnished in such format and
to such scales as the Engineer may require so as to be capable of duplication by contact printing
methods or electronic methods.

The Contractor, in his schedule of the Work, shall allow sufficient time for the carrying out of such
surveys and for resolution of any differences to the surveys that may affect his authorization to
proceed with the Work.

The Contractor shall obtain prior acceptance from the Company and/or the Engineer for his quantity
survey methods. This acceptance may require that the Engineer to participate in, or direct, the
carrying out of the survey or measurement. The Company may conduct such checks, as he may
deem necessary, including the use of a third-party surveyor. The Contractor shall assist the Company
or third-party surveyor in completing the checks and provide, if requested, any surveyor notes or data
available.

The Contractor shall prepare all estimates of monthly and final quantities for Work performed or in
place together with supporting data and computations as are deemed necessary by the Company
and/or the Engineer to determine the accuracy of the quantities. All quantities shall be submitted in a
form acceptable to the Company.

4.4 Clearing, Grubbing, Topsoil Stripping, and Bog Material Removal


Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer or the Company, clearing, grubbing, topsoil stripping, and
bog removal within the project area shall conform to the specifications set out below. Clearing,
grubbing, topsoil stripping, and bog material removal by the Contractor in excess of that set forth
below and shown on the Drawings requires prior written approval from the Company, in advance of
the actual Work. Items in this Section apply to all facilities listed in Section 4.2.

4.4.1 Clearing and Grubbing


The areas described above shall be cleared and grubbed of all trees, stumps, brush, etc. Trees,
stumps, limbs, and other slash are to be moved to Company-designated stockpiles at the locations
shown on the Drawings or defined otherwise by the Company or the Engineer. Other materials to be
cleared and grubbed include surface boulders, organic matter, and roots, or any other unsuitable
materials. Unsuitable materials are those defined as not meeting the technical requirements of this
Specification.

4.4.2 Topsoil Stripping


Topsoil shall consist of soils of any gradation or degree of plasticity, which contain significant
quantities of visually identifiable organic matter, including sod, roots, or humus. In general, the
organic silts and silty sands at the Site classify as topsoil.

• The upper 0.3 m of the natural ground surface shall be considered topsoil; however, localized areas
of topsoil may be significantly thinner or thicker. Topsoil will not be suitable as fill material and shall
be stripped from all working area surfaces and from the surfaces of borrow areas where present. All
topsoil removed shall be stockpiled in accordance with Section 4.4.5.
• Topsoil stripping shall be required for all new access roads and borrow areas, as well as
embankment and other fill area footprints.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-2
After clearing, grubbing and stripping an area, and before any additional Work is undertaken:

• The Engineer shall inspect the area to determine whether clearing, grubbing and stripping has been
completed to meet the requirements of this Specification.
• A survey will be made by the Contractor to determine quantities.

4.4.3 Bog Material Removal


The Contractor shall develop excavation methods, techniques, and procedures with the consideration
of the nature of the saturated materials and/or peats associated with Bog Material to be excavated
and shall take such precautions as are necessary to preserve in an undisturbed condition all materials
outside the lines and grades shown on the Drawings or required by the Engineer. The Contractor will
be permitted to carry out excavation, shaping, etc., by whatever methods suitable, providing methods
are consistent with producing an acceptable end-result as determined by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall be solely responsible for the safety and adequacy of the methods employed.

The Contractor shall not excavate beyond the lines and grades shown on the Drawings or as required
by the Engineer, without the prior written approval of the Engineer.

Pockets of Bog Material within the limits of an excavation, as defined by the Engineer, shall be
removed and hauled to designated stockpile areas or other locations approved by the Engineer and
the Company.

4.4.4 Spoil Disposal Area and Stockpile Areas


Stockpile areas will be designated by the Company for the Contractor to stack unsuitable materials
and topsoil. All stockpile or disposal area development shall be approved in writing by the Company
or the Engineer. Stockpiled materials shall be placed in such a manner as to provide natural drainage
and form a stable configuration that is contoured to minimize erosion. Stockpiles shall not be
constructed to a height exceeding 15 m and at slopes no steeper than 2.5H:1.0V (horizontal to
vertical) unless approved in writing by the Company. Stability analyses to support the selected slopes
may be required by the Company. Slopes and disposal areas for the material excavated from the
bogs will be determined based on the physical characteristics of the material excavated and retention
berms may be required.

When the sequence of excavation and placement of fill requires temporary stockpiling of material,
different classes of material shall be stockpiled separately and shall be placed in such a manner to
provide natural drainage and a stable embankment. Measures such as the implementation of BMPs
shall be taken by Contractor to ensure minimized erosion and maximum sediment control associated
with any temporary stockpiling of material.

4.4.5 Topsoil Stockpiles


Materials resulting from the clearing, grubbing, and stripping operations shall be placed in designated
waste and stockpile areas as designated by the Company. Topsoil suitable for future reclamation
shall be stockpiled separately from cleared and grubbed materials not suitable for reclamation
purposes as described by the Company. Stockpiles shall be placed and maintained in such a manner
as to provide stable side slopes, unless specifically approved in writing by the Company. The
stockpiles shall be shaped and graded for suitable appearance and proper drainage. All measures
shall be taken to prevent undue erosion from waste and topsoil stockpiles. In any event, stockpile
locations must be approved by the Company in writing prior to placement.

4.4.6 Bog Material Stockpiles


Materials resulting from the bog removal operations shall be placed in designated waste and stockpile
areas as designated by the Company. Depending on the physical characteristics of the bog, retention
berms may need to be designed and constructed to contain the bog material.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-3
4.4.7 Surveyed Surfaces
When the clearing, grubbing, and stripping of an area is completed, and prior to further excavation,
surface preparation, backfill, etc., the existing ground surfaces shall be surveyed by the Contractor for
purposes of measurement for quantities. Such surveys shall be provided to the Company and the
Engineer. The Contractor shall not proceed to excavate or place any material prior to obtaining
written approval from the Engineer of his agreement with the location of the surveyed ground surface
in that area.

The Contractor, in his scheduling of the Work, shall allow sufficient time in his construction schedule
for the carrying out of such surveys and for the Engineer’s proper consideration thereof prior to his
authorization to proceed with the Work in the area.

4.5 Stream Diversion and Dewatering


The Contractor shall provide, construct, maintain, and operate any temporary diversion, drainage,
and/or pumping facilities required to control ground and surface water in order to keep the
excavations dry and in a stable condition. The Contractor’s dewatering operations shall be
accomplished in a manner that will not adversely affect the stability of the excavated slopes and will
not cause erosion and softening of adjacent materials. Surface water accumulated in an excavation
shall be drained or pumped to a Company-approved facility for treatment before release. The
Contractor’s dewatering and diversion methods are subject to review and approval by the Company
and/or the Engineer.

4.5.1 Stream Diversion, Dewatering, Drainage, and Well-Point Dewatering for Cutoff Trench
Excavation
Except as otherwise specified by the Engineer and/or the Company and provided for by the Contract,
the Contractor shall investigate, design, construct, operate, maintain, and subsequently remove such
temporary cofferdams, dikes, fills, surface and subsurface dewatering, and drainage facilities as are
necessary for control and removal of all water entering the Work areas. Cofferdams, dikes, fills, and
dewatering and drainage facilities provided by the Contractor shall be subject to the approval of the
Company and/or the Engineer and shall be such as to permit the Work to be performed in an orderly
and efficient manner under dry conditions. Prior to commencement of the Work, Contractor shall
develop and submit a SWPPP for approval by the Company.

The Contractor shall obtain written approval from the Company before discontinuing the operation of
any dewatering system.

The Contractor shall provide, maintain, and operate any temporary diversion, drainage, and/or
pumping facilities, including well-point dewatering, required to control ground and surface water in
order to keep the excavations dry and in a stable condition. The Contractor’s dewatering operations
shall be accomplished in a manner that will not adversely affect the stability of the excavated slopes
and will not cause erosion and softening of adjacent materials. Surface water accumulated in an
excavation shall be drained or pumped to a Company-approved facility for treatment prior to disposal.
The Contractor’s dewatering and diversion methods shall not interfere with the performance of other
Work that may be ongoing and are subject to review and approval by the Company and/or the
Engineer.

4.6 General Excavation


The Contractor can anticipate that materials within the depth of the excavations are variable, ranging
from the very soft, saturated bog to soft, saturated silts with sand and gravel, to very dense silty sands
and gravels to highly to moderately weathered rock.

Light to heavy ripping may be needed as a construction expedient for excavation and rock trimming in
localized areas. If blasting is required in deeper excavations, a blasting plan must be submitted to the
Company for review and approval. Blasting may be required to construct the spillways, outlet piping
and sumps.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-4
The Contractor shall develop his excavation methods, techniques and procedures with due
consideration of the nature of the materials to be excavated and shall take such precautions as are
necessary to preserve in an undisturbed condition all materials outside the lines and grades shown on
the Drawings or specified by the Engineer. The Contractor will be permitted to carry out excavation,
shaping, etc., by whatever method he considers most suitable, providing it is consistent with
producing an acceptable end result as specified by the Engineer. The Contractor shall be solely
responsible for the safety and adequacy of the methods employed. The estimated extent of
excavations is shown on the Drawings. The actual extent of the excavation may vary from this
depending on the ground conditions experienced during the Work.

The Contractor shall not excavate beyond the lines and grades shown on the Drawings or specified
by the Engineer without the prior written approval of the Engineer and/or the Company. The limits of
excavation may be shallower or deeper than shown on the drawings. The Engineer will determine
where and when an acceptable surface has been exposed in the excavation for founding the
embankments and related structures.

Suitable excavated materials meeting the specification requirements may be placed in the fills as
specified by the Engineer. Unsuitable materials within the limits of an excavation shall be removed
and stockpiled as specified by the Engineer. These materials may include, but will not be limited to,
soft moist zones, highly organic or other deleterious materials, and in some cases, zones of exposed
cobbles and boulders.

The Contractor shall protect and maintain all excavations until approved by the Engineer or until such
time as the adjacent placement or overlying placement of material has been completed.

The Contractor shall be solely and completely responsible, until completion of the Work, for the safety,
stability, maintenance, support, and protection of all excavated surfaces, the excavation of which is
carried out under the Contract, and for the safety of his work force and the forces of others while they
are in the Contractor’s working areas, including areas in the immediate vicinity of the excavations.
The Contractor shall supply and install rock reinforcement and provide all temporary supports,
bulkheads, canopies, sheeting and bracing, divert surface water, remove water from the excavations,
and shall provide and maintain such drainage and pumping facilities as are necessary to control
ground and surface water in order to stabilize and protect the excavations. The Contractor’s
dewatering operations shall be accomplished in a manner that will not adversely affect the stability of
the excavated slopes and will not cause erosion and softening of adjacent materials. Except as
otherwise approved by the Engineer, such temporary support and facilities shall be removed by the
Contractor on completion of the Work.

4.6.1 Foundation Excavation for Embankments


After the surface has been cleared, grubbed, stripped of topsoil, and where specified on the
Drawings, the bog and alluvial soils removed, the Contractor shall excavate the foundation under the
embankment to soil, weathered bedrock, or bedrock as indicated on the Drawings to be approved
onsite by the Engineer. If cobbles and boulders are encountered in the exposed surface, they shall
be removed if in the sole opinion of the Engineer they will interfere in the compaction of the overlying
fill.

4.6.2 Core Cutoff Trench Excavation into Bedrock


Unless otherwise specified or shown on the Drawings, the cutoff trench shall be founded a minimum
of 1 m into competent bedrock to tie the core into the natural foundation. If cobbles and boulders are
encountered in the exposed surface, they shall be removed if in the sole opinion of the Engineer they
will interfere in the compaction of the overlying fill.

General guidelines as to rock quality are discussed in the following sections. The bedrock surface
shown on the Drawings is intended to guide the initial excavation. Inspection and acceptance of the
bedrock surface by the Engineer may result in an excavation which varies from the limits shown. The
actual surface may be higher or lower than that shown on the Drawings.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-5
Unless otherwise specified or shown on the Drawings, the foundation for the core zone (Zone A) shall
be excavated to 1 m into sound bedrock, as approved onsite in writing by the Engineer. Weathered
rock which exhibits soil-like characteristics shall be removed to a depth at which sound rock is
exposed, as defined by the Engineer. The following bedrock designation scheme shall generally be
used for determination of acceptable sound bedrock:

Rock Alteration
H/E M/S
OP/OHF R1 R2
Degree of Fracturing
OMF/OPF R3 R4
CMF R5 R6
CMFI/CPFI R7 R8

Rock Alteration
H/E. Highly to extremely altered; the material is discolored and the original minerals within the rock
have been almost entirely altered to secondary minerals, even though the original rock fabric may be
intact. The rock has been weakened to such an extent that a 5-centimeter (cm) diameter core can
easily be broken by hand.

M/S. Moderately to slightly altered; the rock is discolored and noticeably weakened, but a 5-cm
diameter core cannot be broken by hand. This category also includes rock that is only slightly
discolored and that does not show a noticeable decrease in strength. Unaltered rock resides in this
category.

Degree of Fracturing
OP/OHF. Open, pulverized to highly fractured; bedding and foliation planes are not easily
distinguished or fracture density in the rock generally occurs on a frequency higher than one fracture
per 5 cm. Discontinuities are open with little or no infilling.

OMF/OPF. Open, moderately to partially fractured; fracture density in the rock generally occurs on a
frequency greater than one per 5 cm. Discontinuities are open with little or no infilling.

CMF. Closed, moderately fractured; bedding or foliation planes are not easily distinguished or
fracture density in the rock generally occurs on a frequency less than one fracture per 5 cm.
Discontinuities are closed and are neither healed nor infilled.

CMFI/CPFI. Closed, moderately to partially fractured infilled; fracture density in the rock generally
occurs on a frequency less than one per 5 cm. Discontinuities are closed and are either healed or
infilled.

According to the above classification, bedrock designations R6 and R8 are considered to be


acceptable with respect to foundation characteristics for the Core bedrock contact at the bottom of the
cutoff trenches for the Main Sediment Pond, Tailings Management Facility, and WRF Containment
Pond. The Knight Piésold on site QA supervisor may accept rock classifications outside those
described herein, as long as the overall intent of the design is not affected.

The excavated foundation surface shall be cleaned of all loose and weathered rock to produce a
clean rock surface such that consists of only intact tightly wedged or otherwise anchored rock pieces.
Where seams, cracks, or fissures containing sand or clay or other soft or incompetent material occur
in the foundation, they shall be cleaned out and treated by filling with dental concrete as follows:

Openings narrower than 2 inch (5 cm) should be cleaned to a depth of three times the width of the
opening and filled with dental concrete.

Openings wider than 2 inch (5 cm) and narrower than 5 feet (1.5 m) should be cleaned to a depth of
three times the width of the opening or to a depth where the opening is 0.5 inch (12 mm) wide or less,
but not to a depth exceeding 5 feet (1.5 m) and filled with dental concrete.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-6
Openings wider than 5 feet (1.5 m) are a special case where the required depth of cleaning and
treatment is determined in the field by the Engineer.

Such cleaning shall be done by the use of pneumatic tools, trowels, bars, hand brooms, or other hand
equipment, and high-pressure water jets and/or air jets, or by other methods approved by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall trim and shape the final excavation surface to achieve an intimate contact with
the various embankment zones and allow adequate compaction adjacent to the foundation. In
particular, final excavated surfaces adjacent to embankment fill zones shall have a maximum slope of
70 degrees to horizontal with maximum change in slope from a vertical plane of 20 degrees in
6 meters (m). Final excavated rock surfaces to receive slush grout shall have a maximum slope of
2H:1V and preferably 2.5H:1.0V or flatter. Rock overhangs and other surface irregularities are to be
excavated and/or in-filled with concrete as specified by the Engineer.

After completing excavation and foundation preparation of the embankment expansion foundation, a
geologist will map the geological features of the exposed surface and the Engineer will determine the
need for and extent of drilling to investigate subsurface conditions, if any. Based on the results of
geologic mapping and any additional subsurface investigation, the Engineer will specify the need for,
and the type and extent of, foundation surface treatment. Such treatment shall include any
combination of additional excavation, dental concrete, reinforced dental concrete blanket, and slush
grouting. The Engineer may specify another method of treatment such as a concrete cutoff trench
below a reinforced dental concrete blanket if deemed necessary by the Engineer.

While based on the current information available it is not believed a grout curtain will be necessary
except for the Containment pond. If rock conditions vary significantly from those used as a basis for
the design a partial or full grout curtain may be required.

4.6.3 Revisions to Lines and Grades


In the event that the Company and/or the Engineer should in their sole discretion, specify that the
Contractor excavate any part of the Work to lines or grades other than specified by the Engineer, or
shown on the Drawings; then such required excavation will be paid for as defined in the Contract
Documents. Similarly, if the required excavation is less than shown on the Drawings, payment will be
made as defined in the Contract Documents.

4.6.4 Soil-Bentonite Slurry Cutoff Wall


4.6.4.1 General
This Work includes, but is not limited to, preparation, placement, and cleaning of slurry; excavation of
slurry trench; stockpiling; supplying, hauling, blending, and placing all backfill materials temporary and
permanent treatment of the top of the slurry wall; disposal of excess slurry; and quality control testing.
The backfill mix design is underway as of the time this specification was prepared. Modifications to
the design details presented herein are expected as result of laboratory testing and a revision to this
specification will be issued to reflect such changes.

4.6.4.2 Material Descriptions


Below are descriptions of the materials used to construct the soil-bentonite slurry wall:

4.6.4.2.1 Bentonite
The bentonite for use in the slurry wall shall be Wyo-Ben Hydrogel, or equal, as approved by the
Engineer.

The bentonite, to be delivered, shall be tested by the Manufacturer and shall meet the following
requirements as determined from a mixture of bentonite and distilled water prepared in accordance
with API Standard Specifications, 13A, latest revision, and tested in accordance with API Code RP
13B, latest revision:

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-7
• Apparent viscosity: 15 centipoise minimum at 20 degrees Centigrade
• Filtrate loss: 20 cc max in 30 minutes at 689 kiloPascals (kPa)

Contractor must submit name of the bentonite supplier, the source of bentonite and a sample to the QA
consultant prior to construction in accordance with the specifications

4.6.4.2.2 Water
Water shall be free of excessive amounts of deleterious substances, as determined by the Engineer
that could adversely affect the properties of the slurry or backfill.

The water shall comply with the following:

• pH 6 to 8
• Hardness <50 ppm
• Low dissolved solids to allow proper hydration of bentonite

4.6.4.3 Initial Slurry Mixture


Prior to introducing slurry into the excavations, the proposed slurry mixture shall be submitted to the
Engineer for review and approval.

The Contractor shall add additional bentonite to make the slurry denser or more viscous than the
limits specified above, if deemed necessary by the Engineer.

Admixtures to alter the characteristics of the slurry in the trenches, including but not limited to
softening agents, dispersants, retarders or plugging or bridging agents, shall not be permitted unless
approved by the Engineer.

4.6.4.4 Slurry Mixture in Trench


The slurry mixture in the trench shall meet the design intent set forth by the Engineer. In-trench slurry
mixture parameters shall be provided once backfill mix design is completed.

4.6.4.5 Materials for Slurry Wall Backfill


• Materials shall be from a source approved by the Engineer.
• Materials shall be free of roots, organic soil, lumps, trash, and debris.
• Materials needed to increase the fines content of the backfill mixture shall contain at least
65 percent fines (minus 200 sieve) by weight, a plasticity index of or greater than 10 and have a
moisture content less than 15 percent, measured prior to loading in the truck at the borrow pit,
unless approved by the Engineer on a case-by-case basis.

4.6.4.6 Backfill
• Materials for the backfill mix shall consist of slurry, dry bentonite, if necessary excavated trench
materials, and approved off-site soil.
• Backfill shall be free of roots, organic soil, lumps, trash, and debris.
• The backfill mixture shall have the following gradation limits:

Percent Passing Passing US Std. Sieve No. Sieve Size (mm)


100-65 percent 3 inch 76.2
50-70 percent No. 4 4.75
10-40 percent No. 200 0.07

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-8
• The backfill mixture shall have a consistency that has the appearance of a wet concrete and a
slump of 10 to 15 cm, just prior to placing.
• The density of the backfill shall be a minimum of 2.40 kilograms per cubic meter more than the
slurry at any depth in the trench.

4.6.4.7 Equipment
4.6.4.7.1 Trench Excavation
Equipment for excavating the slurry trenches shall consist of a hydraulic excavator. The equipment
shall be capable of excavating the minimum required trench width of 1-meter in a single pass of the
excavating tool. The equipment shall be capable of excavating at least 3.0 m deeper than the
maximum depth shown on the drawings.

4.6.4.7.2 Slurry Mixing


The Contractor's slurry plant shall include a suitable mixer capable of producing a colloidal
suspension of bentonite in water, plus necessary pumps, sumps, valves, lines, hoses and storage
tanks or ponds to provide a continuous supply of slurry.

4.6.4.7.3 Cleaning Slurry


The method of cleaning used for removal of suspended solids and bottom sediments from the slurry in
the trench shall be capable of maintaining the slurry density within the specified limits. Equipment
shall include hydraulic excavators, air-lift pumps, mud shakers, settlement ponds, pipes hoses, and
fittings, or other equipment approved by the Engineer.

4.6.4.7.4 Mixing and Placing Backfill


Equipment for mixing and placing the backfill shall be any type of earthmoving or grading equipment,
such as bulldozers, disk harrows, and blade graders, or blenders and pug mills that are capable of
thoroughly mixing the backfill material (soil and bentonite slurry) into a homogeneous mixture as
specified. Placement of initial backfill in the trench may require a hydraulic excavator bucket.

4.6.4.8 Slurry Wall Construction


4.6.4.8.1 Slurry Preparation
The Contractor shall prepare slurry using a flash or paddle mixer to provide stable colloidal
suspension of bentonite in water. Freshly mixed slurry shall be allowed to hydrate initially in storage
ponds or tanks. The slurry shall be occasionally agitated or recirculated in the storage ponds until
bentonite is fully hydrated, based on stabilized Marsh Funnel viscosity readings, and until the slurry
appears homogeneous. No slurry is to be made in the trench. The slurry shall meet the requirements
set forth in these Specifications.

4.6.4.8.2 Slurry Placement


Slurry shall be introduced into the trench at the time excavation begins. The level of the slurry in the
open trench shall be maintained at all times at least 1 m above the groundwater level and no more
than 0.6 m below the temporary working surface, unless approved by the Engineer. Dilution of the
slurry by surface water shall be minimized. The slurry shall be maintained at all times in a condition
which meets the requirements set forth in these Specifications. The Contractor shall maintain the
level of the slurry in the trench at all times, including weekends, nights, and holidays.

4.6.4.8.3 Slurry Cleaning


The Contractor shall remove, from the trench, any slurry which contains excessive suspended solids
as indicated by a slurry unit weight exceeding 1,361 kilograms per cubic meter or within 240 kilograms
per cubic meter of the unit weight of the backfill mixture. The excessive suspended solids may be
separated and removed from the slurry, and the “desanded” slurry may be re-introduced into the
trench; or the slurry with the excessive suspended solids may be used for the preparation of the
backfill mixture. If the density of the slurry becomes greater than 1,361 kilograms per cubic meter, the

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-9
slurry shall be removed by methods approved by the Engineer and the excess solids shall be
removed by screening or by a centrifugal-type desander.

4.6.4.8.4 Excavation Procedure


Below are the procedures regarding excavation of the slurry wall trench:

• The Contractor shall take all precautions in conduct of Work as may be necessary to avoid
disturbance or damage to existing utilities and other structures.
• The excavation equipment shall remain at least 6 m away from overhead utilities.
• The trench excavation shall be at least 1-meter wide.
• Excavation of a lead-in trench is required if placement of the initial slurry is to be accomplished
without the use of a hydraulic excavator. The lead-in trench shall commence far enough away from
the cutoff wall and ramp down to the full depth of the cutoff wall at a slope of 1.5H:1.0V to avoid
segregation of backfill particles.
• The trench excavation shall be continuous to the depths indicated on the Drawings or as specified
by the Engineer. Actual depth of the wall will be determined based on visual observation of the
trench cuttings. The wall shall be keyed into the bedrock at least 0.3 m or as specified by the
Engineer.
• The entire depth of excavation shall be carried along the trench line. Prior to backfilling any portion,
and before the excavator starts his next cut, the Contractor shall pass the excavating tool along the
completed section of the trench excavation to confirm continuity.
• The toe of the slope of the trench excavation shall not advance beyond the backfill slope by more
than 60 m and there shall be at least 10 m between the toe of the backfill and trench excavated to
its design depth.
• The excavation shall be continuous from one end to the other, unless approved by the Engineer. If
for some reason it becomes necessary for the slurry wall to be constructed in phased segments,
some re-excavation of the previously constructed phase of the slurry wall will be necessary. This re-
excavation shall consist of backfill removal and reconstruction of a minimum horizontal length of 3 m
of slurry wall over the entire depth of the wall.
• The Contractor shall maintain trench stability to its full depth at all times. Sloughs, slides, or any
instability shall be re-excavated and/or repaired as approved by the Engineer.
• Stockpiling. Material excavated from slurry trenches that is suitable for the backfill mixture may be
stockpiled adjacent to the trench for subsequent processing.
• Cobble and Boulder Removal. The Contractor shall excavate all cobbles and boulders as
necessary along the slurry wall alignment and dispose of them at an on-site location as specified by
the Engineer.

4.6.4.8.5 Slurry Trench Backfill


Below are the procedures for mixing:

• Mixing and blending shall be performed in such a manner as to produce the required backfill as
specified in these Specifications.
• The Contractor shall make every effort to cooperate with the Engineer in developing and enacting a
mixing technique to satisfy the hydraulic conductivity criterion.
• The Contractor shall, if specified by the Engineer, employ one or more of the following techniques to
satisfy the hydraulic conductivity criterion:
− Use a higher percentage of clay and silt materials in the backfill by separating and spoiling the
excavated sandy layers.
− Add dry bentonite, up to 3.5 percent by dry weight, to the backfill. Bentonite shall be spread
over 15 to 20-cm-thick layers of soil backfill material and mixed thoroughly.
− Add more bentonite to the slurry mixture.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-10
− Use material from an approved off-site area with a high percentage of clay and/or silt in the
backfill by importing material.
• Stockpiled material from excavation and off-site materials for slurry wall backfill shall be thoroughly
mixed and blended into a homogeneous mass, free from large lumps or pockets of fines, sand, or
gravel, by windrowing, disk harrowing, bulldozing, blading, or by other methods such as a pug mill,
as approved by the Engineer.
• Slurry may be sluiced into the backfill mixture during blending operations to obtain the required
consistency and slump. Sluicing with water will not be permitted.
• Excess slurry that may drain away from the mixing operations shall be allowed to drain back into the
trench or shall be collected if mixing is done at a remote location. In no case should excess slurry
flow outside of the construction limits.
• The Contractor may be required to add dry bentonite to the backfill material by broadcasting, pug
mill or other methods approved by the Engineer to achieve the desired hydraulic conductivity value.
• If the backfill material is mixed adjacent to the trench, the Contractor shall construct a small dike
parallel to the slurry trench, if specified by the Engineer, in order to keep the backfill from flowing
uncontrolled into the trenches as a result of wave action created by the dozer mixing the backfill.
Intermittent openings in the dike will be allowed so that excess slurry may flow back into the
trenches.
• The Contractor shall mix backfill at a remote mixing area if conditions are not acceptable to the
Engineer alongside of the trench.
• Mix only the quantity of backfill that is needed to construct the wall.

Placement procedures are discussed below:

• The backfill mixture shall be in compliance with the backfill requirements, immediately prior to
introduction into the trench.
• The backfill shall be placed so that no pockets of slurry are present in the completed slurry wall.
The backfill shall not be deposited in any manner that will cause segregation. Dropping of backfill
material into the slurry will not be permitted.
• The Contractor shall backfill continuously in the direction of the excavation from the beginning of the
trench to the end of the trench, unless approved otherwise by the Engineer.
• If a lead-in trench is not excavated, the initial backfill shall be placed by lowering the material to the
bottom of the trench by means of a hydraulic excavator bucket or other approved equipment until
the backfill emerges from below the slurry surface and achieves its natural angle of repose from the
bottom of the trench to the surface.
• Placing operations shall proceed in such fashion that the top of the backfill below the surface of the
slurry shall follow a reasonably uniform grade and shall not have hollows that may trap pockets of
slurry during subsequent backfilling. The bulldozer operator shall pile sufficient backfill on the edge
of the existing backfill to cause the backfill to enter the trench by sliding down the forward face of the
previously placed backfill.
• The toe of the backfill slope shall not be less than 10 m following the toe of the excavation to permit
proper cleaning.
• Additional backfill material shall be placed on top of the trench to accommodate settlement.

4.6.5 Shoring/Battering of Excavated Side Walls


The Contractor shall be responsible for the protection, stability, and safety of all excavations. The
Contractor shall choose methods to avoid the collapse of the excavation sidewalls, e.g., shoring of
sidewalls and battering of slopes by excavating sidewalls at a safe slope. The Company and the
Engineer reserve the right to approve or reject any methods used by the Contractor. The Contractor
shall submit to the Company, a copy of his excavation and trenching standard operating procedures
(SOPs) for review and approval prior to conducting any such Work.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-11
4.7 Foundation Preparation
The Engineer will specify the final preparation requirements of the embankment foundation based on
conditions exposed in the foundation excavations. The resulting soil or rock surface is the prepared
foundation. No fill material shall be placed on any portion of the embankment foundation until the
prepared foundation is accepted in writing by the Engineer.

For rock foundations beneath the cutoff trenches, the Contractor shall place dental concrete and slush
grout or other foundation preparation measures as shown on the Drawings, described in the
Specification or as otherwise specified by the Engineer. The nature and extent of slush grouting and
dental concrete placement will depend upon the nature of the rock encountered in the excavations
and the results of the bedrock cleaning operations performed by the Contractor.

For foundations bottoming on soil, foundation preparation shall include removing loose and oversized
material, and compacting, the surface as described in Section 4.7.7 and Section 4.8.

4.7.1 Bedrock Cleaning and Preparation Beneath Core


After the completion of excavation and subsequent approval by the Engineer, the bedrock surface
shall be cleaned of all soil, loose rock, and other material subject to erosion to reveal sound bedrock.
Acceptable sound bedrock surfaces shall be as defined in Section 4.6.2. Cleaning may be by high-
pressure water or air jet with the exception that where the rock surface is subject to softening by
water, only compressed air jetting may be used. All knobs, overhangs, or semi-detached portions of
the bedrock shall be removed in a manner that does not open joints or otherwise disturb the rock
surface. If they cannot be removed, they shall be laid back or in-filled with dental concrete to enable
the embankment material to be properly compacted at the foundation contact.

Within the footprint area of the Core, all joints, cracks, and shear zones shall be cleaned of all soil and
debris. For openings narrower than 5 cm, material filling the cracks shall be cleaned to a minimum
depth of three times the crack width at the surface or as specified by the Engineer. Beneath the Core,
for openings wider than 5 cm and narrower than 1.5 m, the opening shall be cleaned to a depth where
sound material is encountered or a minimum of three times the crack width, or as specified by the
Engineer. The amount of cleaning for surface cracks with a width wider than 1.5 m, as well as
foundation treatment will be specified by the Engineer and may include a reinforced dental concrete
blanket and/or concrete cutoff trench.

Cleaning methods to be used include air and water jets, picks, and other hand tools or brooms as
necessary to ensure a bond of the slush grout to bedrock.

The final cleaned and prepared surface shall be approved in writing by the Engineer before being
covered.

Contractor shall maintain the prepared surface prior to placement of slush grout and avoid the use of
tracked vehicles on the exposed and cleaned bedrock surface. Any vehicle traffic on the cleaned
foundation surface shall be avoided unless absolutely required.

The Contractor shall use experienced personnel for slush grouting and dental concrete placement.
The materials and equipment supplied and methods and procedures employed by the Contractor
shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

4.7.2 Dental Concrete


The intent of dental concrete is to fill and shape joints, shear zones, and other discontinuities in the
foundation rock to minimize the potential for seepage, erosion, and piping along such features, to
minimize risk of potential cracking and differential settlement of the embankment and smooth irregular
surfaces in the foundation in order to facilitate slush grout placement, Core placement, and
compaction. Dental concrete placement, if deemed necessary, shall occur below the Core at the
cutoff trench/bedrock contact. Unsuitable material shall be excavated to a minimum depth of 3 times
the crack width, or as specified by the Engineer. The sidewalls of the excavation shall be sloped at

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-12
1H:1V, if necessary, to allow placement of the dental concrete. The prepared sidewalls of the
excavation shall be cleaned to allow adequate bond between the bedrock and dental concrete.

Dental concrete shall consist of cement, sand, and aggregate mixed in suitable proportions with water
and additives to produce a concrete having a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 2,000 psi or
13,79 MegaPascals (MPa). Maximum aggregate size shall be 4 cm. A smaller aggregate size may
be used to fill smaller discontinuities if the 4-cm size aggregate inhibits dental concrete penetration
into the discontinuities. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the mix design with compressive
test results of the mix design 3 weeks prior to dental concrete placement.

Depressed areas, potholes, and similar irregularities, determined by the Engineer to prohibit adequate
compaction of the fill material, shall be filled with dental concrete vibrated into place. Rock ribs or
similar irregularities shall be removed or trimmed to a suitable height, then filled with dental concrete
to produce slopes, which are no greater than 1H:1V.

Wire mesh reinforced dental concrete blankets shall be constructed to have a minimum thickness of
300 mm. If a slab is placed, all joints or cracks shall first be filled with slush grout, even when it is
decided that a slab can be placed over a large cavity or over closely spaced joints or cracks to
expedite Work. Thin areas of dental concrete over a jagged rock surface are likely places for
concrete cracking and shall be avoided by using a sufficient thickness of dental concrete or by
avoiding continuous slabs of concrete. Feathering at the ends of slabs shall be avoided. The
decision about whether to place a slab of dental concrete will be at the discretion of the Engineer.

The finished surface of the wire mesh reinforced dental concrete blankets shall have a roughened,
broomed surface to bond well to the embankment fill materials.

Dental concrete shall be cured by water or with an approved curing compound until it is covered by
earthfill. Earthfill operations shall not be permitted over dental concrete until it has reached
70 percent of its 28-day design strength. This will allow the concrete to develop sufficient strength to
withstand stresses caused by earthfill placement operations. Construction equipment shall not be
driven on exposed concrete surfaces.

The final prepared dental concrete surface shall have a relatively smooth surface against which slush
grout and soil can be placed and compacted by heavy equipment.

4.7.3 Shotcrete
4.7.3.1 General
The Engineer shall secure a competent Concrete Contractor for installing all shotcrete associated with
the completion of the Work. This contractor may be independent of the Contractor. Shotcrete may be
installed for erosion protection in conjunction with channel work and slope erosion blankets and as
shown on the Drawings.

Proposed shotcrete will be wet-hatched. If it is preferred to use a dry-batch system for producing
shotcrete, all proposed procedures and equipment shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Typically, shotcrete to be placed will come from on-site volume hatching using approved materials. In
general, shotcrete work shall be conducted in accordance with:

• American Concrete Institute (ACI) 212.2, “Guide for Use of Admixtures in Concrete”
• ACI 304, “Recommended Practice for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting and Placing Concrete”
• ACI 306, “Standard on Cold Weather Concreting”
• ACI 308, “Standard Practice for Curing Concrete”
• ACI 318, “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete”
• ACI 506R, “Guide to Shotcrete”
• ACI 506.2, “Specification for Materials, Proportioning, and Application of Shotcrete”

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-13
• ACI 506.3, “Guide to Certification of Shotcrete Nozzlemen”
• American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Al85
• ASTM A 615, “Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement”
• ASTM A 616, “Standard Specification for Rail-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement”
• ASTM A 617, “Standard Specification for Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement”
• ASTM C 31, “Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field”
• ASTM C 33, “Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates”
• ASTM C 39, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens”
• ASTM C 42, “Obtaining and Testing Drilled Codes and Sawed Beams of Concrete”
• ASTM C 78, “Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with
Third-Point Loading)”
• ASTM C 109, “Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (using 50-mm cube
specimens)
• ASTM C 131, “Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine”
• ASTM C 136, “Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates”
• ASTM C 140, “Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units and
Related Units”
• ASTM C 143, “Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete”
• ASTM C 150, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement”
• ASTM C 231, “Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure
Method”
• ASTM C 566, “Standard Test Method for Total Evaporable Moisture Content of Aggregate by
Drying”
• ASTM C 597, “Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete”
• ASTM C 642, “Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete”
• ASTM C 803, “Standard Test Method for Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete”
• ASTM C 805, “Standard Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete”
• ASTM C 881, “Standard Specification for Epoxy-Resin-Base Bonding Systems for Concrete”
• ASTM C 900, “Standard Test Method for Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete”
• ASTM C 1140, “Standard Practice for Preparing and Testing Specimens from Shotcrete Test
Panels”
• ASTM C 1141, “Standard Specification for Admixtures for Shotcrete”
• ASTM D 4791, “Standard Test Method for Flat Particles, Elongated Particles, or Flat and Elongated
Particles in Coarse Aggregate”

However, some deviation from the above standards may be required for on-site volume hatching and
is subject to the Engineer’s review and approval.

Quality control of the shotcrete shall be the responsibility of the Concrete Contractor, with quality
assurance being the responsibility of the Engineer.

Certificates of inspection by the Engineer will be required for placing reinforcement and embedded
items, placing shotcrete, placing backfill, and receiving final acceptance. These certifications shall
describe in detail the work performed and shall be signed by the Concrete Contractor and Engineer.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-14
The Concrete Contractor shall keep, in a manner prescribed by the Engineer, records of the quantities
used in the shotcreting operations and any other general records required by the Engineer and shall
submit such records daily in duplicate to the Engineer. Typical records shall include but not
necessarily be limited to:

• Areas where shotcrete was placed (stations and sketch)


• Shotcrete quantity mixed
• Shotcrete quantity placed.

4.7.3.2 Shotcrete Composition

General
Shotcrete shall be composed of, but not limited to, Portland cement, water and both fine and coarse
aggregate. Shotcrete shall be designed to give a practical combination of materials, which will
produce the required durability and strength in the hardened shotcrete.

Reinforced shotcrete to be used in the Work shall have a minimum 28-day flexural strength, according
to ASTM C 78, of 6.9 MPa. Minimum compressive strength, according to ASTM C 42, shall be
34.5 MPa. During the pre-qualification testing, a ratio of compressive to flexural strength shall be
established for quality assurance purposes. Quality assurance during actual placement of shotcrete
will be governed by compressive strength testing.

Shotcrete Workability
The slump for wet-mix shotcrete shall be near the minimum that the pump will handle with 75 mm
being the maximum slump to be used.

Mix Design and Trial Batching


The adequacy of the shotcrete mix(es) proposed by the Concrete Contractor and the Concrete
Contractor’s procedures for placement of shotcrete shall be determined by pre­ construction trial mix
tests. The mixture proportioning study shall be conducted under field conditions insofar as
practicable, through trial hatching or historical data, and shall be submitted to the Engineer for
approval.

Trial hatching of mixture proportions or materials which have had no previous use onsite shall be
accompanied by data verifying material properties, mixture proportions, test data, and performance.
At least 30 days before start of construction, the Concrete Contractor must perform and complete trial
hatching using proposed mixes approved by the Engineer to demonstrate capability of equipment,
workmanship, and materials.

Historical data of materials and mixture proportions used previously onsite may be used in lieu of trial
hatching, subject to the approval of the Engineer and MYSRL. Historical data submitted shall include
all material data, mixture proportions, and test reports or data summaries.

The total chloride content from all sources including mixing water, cement, admixtures, and aggregate
shall not exceed 0.10 percent by mass of cement for reinforced shotcrete applications in a moist
environment exposed to chloride and 0.15 percent in a moist environment not exposed to chloride.

If there is substantial concern of the shotcrete being subjected to freezing and thawing conditions, air
entraining may be used subject to the approval of the Engineer. Typically, an air content of 8 to
12 percent in the mixture results in in-place shotcrete having a proper air­ void system to provide
sufficient frost resistance.

The responsibility for the design of all shotcrete mixes to be used in the Work shall rest entirely with
the Concrete Contractor. Shotcrete shall conform to all requirements of ACI 506.2, “Specification for
Material, Proportioning and Application of Shotcrete,” except as modified by the requirements of these
Specifications or as directed by the Engineer. For on­ site volume hatching, some deviation may be

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-15
required and is acceptable subject to the review and approval of the on-site Engineer and provided
the required 28-day strength can be achieved.

Details of concrete mix designs and reasonable evidence demonstrating the mix proportions selected
will produce concrete complying with these Specifications, such as results of cylinder compression
tests of trial mixes, shall be submitted to the Engineer by the Concrete Contractor 30 days in advance
of commencement of any concreting operations. The Concrete Contractor shall not alter such mix
designs without the Engineer’s written approval.

The Concrete Contractor shall cooperate with and provide assistance to the Engineer in obtaining
samples of aggregates and shotcrete and in maintaining quality control of all aspects of shotcrete
production at the batch plant and at the point of placement.

4.7.3.3 Materials

Water
Water to be used for shotcrete mixing shall be for cleanup and curing of concrete as well as water
used for spraying Concrete Aggregates and shall be potable water, fresh, clean, and free from
deleterious amounts of silt, organic matter, alkali, acids, salts, and other impurities. The Concrete
Contractor shall submit water quality information to the Engineer for review prior to approval of the
water source by the Engineer and MYSRL.

Cement
Except as approved by the Engineer, Portland cement shall be Type I or Type II and shall conform to
ASTM C 150. Where the shotcrete will be exposed to soil or water high in soluble sulfates, Type II or
V shall be used.

Any request to deviate from the use of Type I, Type II, or Type V Portland cement must be submitted
in writing to the Engineer for approval. No rapid hardening (Type III) cement types will be allowed.

Admixtures
Any admixtures proposed for use by the Concrete Contractor shall be submitted to the Engineer for
approval. The Concrete Contractor must obtain written approval from the Engineer prior to use.

Aggregates
Fine aggregate shall be processed natural sand. Aggregate proposed for shotcrete purposes shall be
subject to inspection and approval by the Engineer.

All shotcrete aggregates shall be sound, free of harmful materials, and non-reactive with the alkali that
may be contained in the cement. Aggregates shall comply with the quality requirements and shall be
properly graded in accordance with ASTM C 33, C 131, and C 136. The table below shows
acceptable grading limits. Aggregate failing to comply with tills grading may be used if
pre-construction tests demonstrate that it gives good results and subject to the approval of the
Engineer; however, a uniform grading is essential. The Concrete Contractor shall be responsible for
the quality of all such materials used in the Work.

The dust content, measured as the percentage of material passing the 0.07 mm sieve, shall not
exceed 5 percent in the case of fine aggregate and 1.5 percent in the case of coarse aggregate. The
fineness modulus shall fall in the range of 1.6 to 3.5 (inclusive).

The chloride content of the aggregates shall not exceed 0.03 percent by mass, and the aggregate
shall be free of organic materials.

Soundness and durability requirements will conform to Standard ACI Specifications for structural
concrete.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-16
Grading Limits for Aggregate

Sieve Size Percent by Mass Passing Individual Sieves


Grading No. 1 Grading No. 2 Grading No. 3
0.750-in (19.0 mm) - - 100
0.500-in (12.2 mm) - 100 80-95
0.375-in (9.5 mm) 100 90-100 70-90
No.4 (4.75 mm) 95-100 70-85 50-70
No. 8 (2.36 mm) 80-100 50-70 35-55
No. 16 (1.18 mm) 50-85 35-55 20-40
No. 30 (0.6 mm) 25-60 20-35 10-30
No. 50 (0.3 mm) 10-30 8-20 5-17
No. 100 (0.15 mm) 2-10 2-10 2-10
Note:
If Shotcrete is used at the Constancia Project, the designer/installer is to confirm these grading limits.

4.7.3.4 Formwork
In general, formwork will not be required in shotcrete applications. If formwork is deemed necessary,
it shall meet the same requirements as for concrete installation.

4.7.3.5 Mixing and Transporting


Shotcrete equipment shall be capable of hatching and mixing materials for shotcrete and delivering
them to an approved shotcrete nozzle. Shotcrete shall be mixed in a mechanical mixer for a minimum
of one minute and must be placed within one hour of mixing. The mixer shall be capable of
discharging all hatched material without any carryover from one batch to the next. It shall be
inspected and cleaned thoroughly at least twice a day, more often if necessary, to prevent
accumulations of hatched material and minimize unplanned shutdowns.

The addition of water at the hatching and mixing equipment shall be solely at the Concrete
Contractor’s risk. Any materials that are hatched too wet shall be disposed of at the Concrete
Contractor’s expense.

If admixtures are to be used, dispensers shall receive special attention to ensure that the material is
dispensed within ±3 percent of the required batch quantity and is uniformly dispersed throughout the
mixture.

4.7.3.6 Preparation for Shotcrete Placement


Before any shotcrete is placed, the Concrete Contractor shall prepare the area for placement in
accordance with all requirements specified herein and obtain written authorization from the Engineer
for placement of shotcrete. Shotcrete shall not be applied when the air temperature is below 5°C nor
during other adverse weather conditions as determined by the Engineer.

Earth or granular foundations shall be thoroughly compacted and be kept damp several hours prior to
application of the shotcrete. Shotcrete shall not be placed on any surface which is frozen or spongy
or where there is free water.

All rock surfaces against which shotcrete is to be placed shall be clean and sound.

Where shotcrete is to be applied to a previously applied layer of shotcrete or to concrete, the


previously applied layer shall be completely free of laitance and rebound. Loose material shall be
removed so that the surface to receive the shotcrete provides a base which is sufficiently sound as
determined by the Engineer.

Safe, adequate scaffolding shall be provided so that the nozzleman can hold the nozzle at the
optimum angle and distance from the surface for all parts of the Work. The scaffolding should also
provide easy access to the shotcrete surface for screening and finishing operations.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-17
Final cleanup shall comprise removing all mud, grease, water, debris, and other foreign matter from
the surfaces on and against which fresh shotcrete is to be placed by means of air or water jets and/or
other methods approved by the Engineer. Final cleanup shall be completed before the Engineer will
make his inspection for authorization to place shotcrete.

4.7.3.7 Reinforcement
All reinforcement shall conform to ASTM A 615, A 616, or A 617, whichever is most applicable, as
determined by the Engineer. The minimum characteristic yield strength for all reinforcement is
fy=400 MPa. Reinforcing bars used for shotcrete shall not be larger than No.5, and bar spacing shall
be limited to between 150 mm and 300 mm unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings.

Welded wire fabric (WWF) shall be galvanized flat stock and shall conform to American Association of
State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Designation M55-89 (ASTM A 1851).
Minimum wire spacing shall be 150 mm and nominal wire diameter 6.4 mm unless otherwise indicated
on the Drawings. Fabric sheets shall be lapped one and one-half spaces in all directions and wire
tied.

Chain link fabric, when used, shall conform to AASHTO Designation M181-90 Type I (zinc-coated
steel) with 50-mm mesh and 4.0-mm-diameter wire.

Tie wires for reinforcement shall be 16-gauge wire, bent flat in the plane of the mesh. Ties for
reinforcement shall be black annealed and not less than 1.5 mm in diameter. At the time shotcrete is
placed, reinforcement shall be free from rust, scale, oil, or other coatings which will impair the ability of
shotcrete to bond with the reinforcement.

When several layers of wire fabric are required, the first layer is covered with shotcrete prior to placing
the next layer, with ties extending from the first layer to the next. At least one layer of fabric shall be
used for each 75 mm of shotcrete thickness.

Anchors to support reinforcement shall be spaced each way at a maximum of 900 mm.

The minimum shotcrete cover to any reinforcement bar shall be 75 mm and 37.5 mm to any welded
wire or chain link fabric unless indicated otherwise on the Drawings.

4.7.3.8 Shotcrete Placement


Prior to the placement of any shotcrete for payment, the Concrete Contractor shall demonstrate the
acceptable performance of equipment and personnel.

Within 24 hours of completing the earthworks, the Concrete Contractor shall provide the Engineer with
24 hours’ notice stating when and where shotcrete is to be placed. Final inspection for approval of
shotcrete placement will be undertaken by the Engineer only after placement of reinforcement and
embedded items and surface preparation have been completed. No shotcrete shall be placed before
the Engineer has inspected the reinforcement and embedded items and certified them in writing as
being ready for shotcrete placement. Such inspection and certification shall in no way relieve the
Concrete Contractor of any liabilities due to errors and/or omissions of any part of the construction.

After the surface has been prepared to receive shotcrete, the Concrete Contractor shall install taut
ground wires or other means such as non-corroding pins or nails to demonstrate that the required
thickness has been obtained. Install such devices on approximate 1.5 m maximum center-to-center
spacing and on all high points of the surface.

When placing shotcrete, the operator shall generally hold the nozzle at a 90-degree angle to the
surface where shotcrete is being applied. When shotcreting around reinforcement, the nozzle shall
be held at a slight angle to assure sufficient shotcrete is applied beneath said reinforcement. In the
case of wire mesh reinforcement, the nozzle should be held close enough to the surface to ensure
that shotcrete adheres to the underlying surface before building up on the reinforcement. Interior
corners shall be gunned by directing the nozzle in the plane bisecting the angle of intersection of the

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-18
two surfaces. The operator shall provide a natural gun finish unless directed otherwise by the
Engineer.

In general, a distance of 1.0 m shall be maintained between the nozzle and the shotcrete surface
during application.

At all times during application of the shotcrete, a separate operator shall use an air hose or other
adequate means to clear away all rebound which may settle on the surface being treated, ahead of
the advancing shotcrete.

When a layer is to be covered by a succeeding layer, it shall first be allowed to develop its initial set.
After initial set has occurred, all loose material and rebound shall be removed by brooming, scraping,
or other means. Surface deposits, which take a final set, shall be removed by sandblasting and the
surface cleaned with an air-water jet.

All areas that may contain loose aggregate trapped between the applied shotcrete and the underlying
surface shall be cut out and repaired with shotcrete at the Concrete Contractor’s expense.

In channel lining applications and slopes, slotted weep hole pipes shall be placed through the
shotcrete bed, into the subgrade, as shown on the Drawings or at the discretion of the Engineer. The
pipe end penetrating the subgrade shall be capped. The purpose of the weep holes is to provide
ground water pressure relief below the shotcrete bed.

Rebound
Rebound is aggregate and cement paste that bounce off the surface during the application of
shotcrete because of collision with the hard surface, the reinforcement, or the aggregate particles
themselves.

Rebound shall not be worked back into the construction and shall not be salvaged for use in later
batches of shotcrete. If it does not fall clear of the Work, it must be removed before it hardens and
discarded as approved.

Measurement of rebound from test panels shall be considered before beginning the shotcrete
operation to ensure sufficient material supplies during the actual application.

Suitable headgear, protective clothing, and safety equipment shall be the sole responsibility of the
Concrete Contractor to prevent serious injury from rebound during its application.

Construction Joints
In general, a panel shall not be started unless it can be completed during the shift. However, if the
Work must be stopped or is interrupted for a period of time, joints shall be made that allow the in-
place shotcrete to set or harden. At joints, shotcrete shall be tapered from full thickness to zero over
a minimum distance of 1 m.

Prior to placing additional shotcrete, the tapered joint surface and adjacent rock shall be wet
sandblasted and washed to break the mortar surface and clean away any laitance, rebound, or other
contamination. High-pressure air/water jets may be used in lieu of wet sandblasting if satisfactory
results can be demonstrated to the Engineer.

The wet cleaned surface shall then be coated with a rich mortar paste using the shotcrete equipment.
Alternately, the surface may be coated with a cement water paste after which the shotcrete shall be
applied. The shotcrete may be applied directly to the wet, cleaned surface if rebound during the initial
application results in a rich mortar coating on the joint surface free of trapped rebound, voids, or
objectionable lamination and the Engineer approves such application.

Contraction Joints
Contraction joints shall be installed in channel lining applications, or as indicated by the Engineer or
on the Drawings, to control shrinkage cracking of the shotcrete. The joints shall be created by pre-

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-19
positioning strips of plastic or metal and leaving them in place or by saw­ cutting the newly hardened
shotcrete.

Cold Weather Shotcreting


Shotcreting may proceed when the ambient temperature is 4.5°C and rising but shall discontinue
when the ambient temperature is 4.5°C and falling. Shotcrete material temperature, when shot, shall
not be less than 5°C or more than 32°C. Shotcrete shall not be placed against frozen surfaces.

4.7.3.9 Finish
All shotcrete surfaces shall be left in their rough, natural gun finish.

4.7.3.10 Curing and Protection


The curing procedures of ACI Standard 308, paragraph A-1, shall be followed for the curing of
shotcrete.

Surfaces shall be kept continuously moist for at least seven days to allow sufficient tensile strength to
resist shrinkage strains.

Agents are not recommended. However, if the Concrete Contractor proposes to use curing agents,
approval by the Engineer is required prior to use.

Fill shall not be placed adjacent to or upon any shotcrete, which has not attained 70 percent of the
designed minimum compressive strength measured at 28 days.

No heavy equipment shall be allowed on the surface of the shotcrete.

4.7.3.11 Repairs to Shotcrete


Repair of imperfections in placed shotcrete shall be completed as soon as possible after initial
placement of the shotcrete. The Concrete Contractor shall keep the Engineer advised as to when
repairs of shotcrete will be performed, and repairs shall be performed in the presence of the Engineer
unless inspection is waived in each specific case.

All shotcrete which lacks uniformity, which exhibits segregation, honeycombing, or lamination, or
which contains any dry patches, slugs, voids, or sand pockets shall be removed and replaced with
fresh shotcrete at the Concrete Contractor’s expense.

Core holes shall not be repaired with shotcrete. Instead, they shall be filled with a tightly compacted
epoxy mortar or compound, as directed by the Engineer, that is moisture insensitive with an epoxy
binder that conforms to ASTM C 881, Type III.

Where surface crazing, shrinkage cracks, or low strengths occur, additional analysis will be required
by the Engineer to determine the effect upon the structure. In some cases, no remedial action may
be required; in others, a surface treatment with a polymer may be satisfactory. In cases where the
performance of the structure is significantly degraded, the affected shotcrete areas shall be removed
and replaced with sound shotcrete at the Concrete Contractor’s expense.

In general, repaired sections of shotcrete shall be secured through the use of keys, dovetails, or
anchors.

4.7.3.12 Shotcrete Quality Control and Construction Tolerances

General
The Engineer will inspect from time to time all aspects of the Work to ensure the Work is being carried
out properly. The Concrete Contractor shall cooperate fully and provide all necessary assistance to
enable the Engineer to carry out such inspections and tests.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-20
Submittals
• Cementitious Materials. Manufacturer’s certified test results shall be furnished to verify that the
cement meets the Specifications.
• Aggregates. Test data shall be submitted to verify that borrow sources meet the quality and grading
requirements.
• Mixture Proportions. Test data shall be submitted to verify the Concrete Contractor’s proposed
mixture proportions will produce shotcrete that meets Specifications.
• Nozzleman Certification. A current certification for each nozzleman who will be placing shotcrete
shall be submitted.
• Equipment. The equipment and layout of the proposed plant for producing, conveying, and placing
shotcrete shall be submitted.
• Curing and Protection. The method of providing the required curing and protection of the in-place
shotcrete shall be submitted.

4.7.3.13 Pre-construction Demonstration and Testing


The Concrete Contractor is required to conform to the following requirements for pre­construction
demonstration and testing.

• Within 30 days prior to construction, provide the following in sufficient quantities to perform the test
trials:
− Shotcrete equipment and materials as approved.
− Plywood forms for use as test panels fabricated in accordance with ASTM C 1140, each 1 m
square and 100 mm deep, so constructed that the test panels do not vibrate when shotcrete is
placed. Mount test panels firmly in a sturdy timber framework so constructed that the shotcrete
nozzle is exactly 1 m away from test panels, all as observed by the Engineer.
• For each shotcrete mix, fabricate test panels for three vertical and three horizontal panels shooting
positions.

Subject to the approval of the Engineer, rock or existing concrete surfaces may be used for testing.
Where the shotcrete will contain reinforcement, this shall be duplicated in at least part of the test
panels to show whether sound shotcrete is obtained behind reinforcing bars or welded wire fabric.

Test panels shall consist of a minimum 100 mm thickness of dense, uniform shotcrete without
rebound inclusions, segregation voids, or weakness of bond between layers. For each test panel
produced, records of mix proportions and details of placement procedure such as nozzle distance,
rate, and angle of application, thickness of layers, time lapse between layers, and time lapse between
mixing and application shall be made and submitted to the Engineer.

Each panel shall be cured in a manner identical to that anticipated for curing in the field, or as directed
by the Engineer. The panels shall also be protected against being disturbed and from exposure to
extreme heat or cold during this period.

Test panels will be tested to determine conformance of the shotcrete to Specifications. If the results
are unacceptable, fabricate additional test panels using revised mix proportions, mixing and
application equipment, or application procedures until acceptance test panels are achieved.

Methods of Sampling and Testing


At least five cubes or cores shall be extracted from the interior of each panel for testing at least
100 mm from the panel edge. Cores shall have a minimum diameter of 75 mm and a length-to-
diameter ratio (LID) of at least one, if possible. Core strengths shall be corrected for LID as described
in ASTM C 42. Cube strengths may be reported as determined or converted to cylinder (LID = 2)
strengths by multiplying by the factor 0.85.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-21
Beams for toughness evaluation and flexural strength testing shall be sawn from the test panels. Test
beams shall be 100 mm x 100 mm x 400 mm in dimension. They shall be sawn from the interior of
the test panel and not closer than 100 mm to any panel edge. The beams shall be tested in the same
orientation as shotcrete on the structure and with the shot surface normal to the load application.

Panels shall be cored or sawn no sooner than after 7 days of standard curing. The specimen shall be
tested in compression at 28 days to evaluate the mixture performance. Depending on the expected
strengths, testing at 7 or 14 days is adequate to determine the suitability of the nozzleman and
process. Core specimens shall be tested for compressive strength in accordance with ASTM C 42.
Beam specimens shall be tested for flexural strength in accordance with ASTM C 78. Generally, two
specimens shall be tested at 7 days and two at 28 days with an additional two specimens being
available for special testing if required.

Visual Examination
Visual examination of sawn surfaces shall be performed to determine the uniformity of the shotcrete.
Panels shall be sawn into quadrants after seven days of standard curing. The cut surfaces of the
specimens shall be carefully examined, and additional surfaces shall be exposed by sawing the panel
when this is considered necessary to check the soundness and uniformity of the material. All cut and
broken surfaces shall be dense and substantially free from laminations and sand pockets.

Other Tests and Considerations


Tests for absorption, drying shrinkage, resistance to freezing and thawing, and other properties shall
also be made if so required by the Engineer. If it is determined necessary to test other properties, it
shall be done using appropriate specimens cored or sawed from the panels.

The maximum absorption and voids of the shotcrete in place, when tested under ASTM C 642, shall
be 7 percent for absorption and 16 percent for voids.

Pre-construction testing and evaluation shall precede the actual work by sufficient time to allow for
nozzleman certification at the start and ending with strength testing at 28 days. Construction of
shotcrete for payment shall not begin prior to nozzleman certification and 28-day strength testing
unless approved by MYSRL.

4.7.3.14 Construction Phase Sampling and Testing


An ongoing program of testing shall be performed by the Concrete Contractor to verify that the
materials, methods, and in-place shotcrete meet the requirements of these Specifications.

During the shotcreting operations, the Engineer will sample and test all classes of concrete in
accordance with ACI Standard 318. The Concrete Contractor shall provide such facilities as may be
necessary for procuring and handling representative test samples, including suitable devices for
obtaining representative samples of concrete for uniformity tests. All necessary tools, equipment, and
labor for obtaining and testing samples shall be furnished by the Engineer. The Engineer will carry
out continuous inspection of shotcrete quality and placement of shotcrete through the course of the
Work.

Shotcrete Testing Frequencies


The following tables specify the minimum number of QC tests to be completed by the Concrete
Contractor during the Work. The Engineer may require additional tests to be carried out if, in the
opinion of the Engineer, such additional tests are required due to variability in the materials or
material properties that may affect the Work.

All shotcrete will be subject to inspection and testing according to applicable ASTM standards as
listed under Section 1, Volume 01.04, “Steel-Structural, Reinforcing, Pressure Vessel, Railway,” and
Section 4, Volumes 04.01, “Cement; Lime; Gypsum” and 04.02, “Concrete and Aggregates,” without
compromising the requirements of other standards detailed elsewhere herein.

The Concrete Contractor shall perform as many control tests on material as necessary to determine
suitability of borrow areas. These control tests shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-22
removing material from borrow areas for use in the shotcrete operation. Upon review of the Concrete
Contractor’s control test data, the Engineer may require that additional tests be performed prior to
approval of a borrow area.

Shotcrete Quality Control Requirements


Property/Activity Test Procedure Frequency Comment
Cementitious Materials Mill Test Per 400 tons of --
cement
Aggregate Materials
Quality ASTMC33 Initial Increase if necessary
Grading ASTMC 136 Per Shift Change in approved borrow source
Particle Shape ASTMD4791 Initial --
Moisture Content ASTMC566 Daily --
Unhardened Properties
Air Content ASTM C 231 Per batch Wet-mix only
Slump ASTM C 143 Per batch Wet-mix only
Mix Properties Per approved mix Per shift --
design
Rebound Per specifications Daily --
Thickness Per specifications Per 5 m2 Probe shotcrete or check gauge
wires
Hardened Properties
Fabricate Test Panels Per specifications Per test trial --
Drill In-Situ Cores ASTM C 42 3 per 1,000 m2 --
Compression Strength ASTM C 42/C 39 3 per 1,000 m2 --
Flexural Strength ASTM C 42/C 78 2 per 2,000 m2 --
Surface Roughness Per specifications 2 per 400 m2 --
Delaminations Per specifications 1 per 100 m2 --

Materials
Manufacturer’s certified results for cement shall be supplied at the specified intervals and whenever a
change in the appearance or performance of the material is suspected.

The moisture content of each aggregate group shall be used to determine the amount of free water to
be added to each batch of shotcrete. Moisture contents shall be established prior to the start of each
shift and when a change is made in stockpile or borrow sources.

Shotcrete
A test panel shall be shot at least once a shift. The panel shall be shot by a nozzleman who is placing
shotcrete in the permanent work. The panel shall be at least 450 mm x 450 mm x 75 mm. Cores
shall be taken from the panel in accordance with the provisions of ASTM C 42 to verify the
compressive strength of the shotcrete.

At established intervals, and whenever deemed necessary by the Engineer, cores shall be obtained
from the in-place shotcrete to verify the strength. The samples shall be cured and tested in a manner
similar to that of test panels.

The mixture proportions of the shotcrete shall be checked regularly to verify that the original
properties are being maintained. This shall generally be accomplished by verifying that the batch
weights, especially the cementitious materials and water weights, are as required.

The wet-mix shotcrete shall have a specified air content as determined by ASTM C 231 and shall be
determined at regular intervals and at locations throughout the Work as indicated by the Engineer.
The air content shall be determined by sampling at the pump.

The in-place thickness of the shotcrete may be verified by probing the fresh shotcrete with a sharp
tool. Areas of reduced thickness shall be corrected immediately by application of additional material.
Cores of hardened shotcrete may be taken to verify areas of suspect thickness as directed by the
Engineer.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-23
The Concrete Contractor shall verify that the required curing and protection of the shotcrete is being
furnished.

Nondestructive testing of the uniformity and quality of in-place shotcrete may be assessed through the
use of testing devices such as impact hammers or probes (ASTM C 805 and ASTM C 803), ultrasonic
equipment (ASTM C 597), and pull-out devices (ASTM C 900). The use of such devices shall be at
the direction of the Engineer and shall be used to identify areas of suspect quality and relative
strength, not for actual strength determination.

Where appropriate, complete shotcrete coatings shall be checked for complete bond to the substrate
and bond between each shotcrete layer using a small hammer on the surface. All areas of
delamination shall be removed and shotcrete reapplied at the Concrete Contractor’s expense.

The quality of the shotcrete shall be thoroughly evaluated by visual inspection. Surfaces shall be
inspected for uniformity, voids at the surface, varying finish conditions, dry conditions, seepage of
water, cracking, and damaged sections.

4.7.3.15 Shotcrete Construction Tolerances


Gauge wires or other approved methods shall be used during the shotcrete operation such that the
dimensions of the completed shotcrete structure fall within the following tolerances except as
approved by the Engineer.

Shotcrete Construction Tolerances


Elevation +6 mm maximum deviation
Variation in plumb +6 mm in 3 m
Variation in all structural dimensions -6 mm to +12 mm
Variation in location of inserts, openings, embedded items -6 mm to +6 mm
Variation of protection cover for steel reinforcement -0 mm to +12 mm

Shotcrete work and embedded items that exceed the specified tolerance limits shall be remedied or
removed as required by the Engineer.

When testing shotcrete cylinders, no more than one test per structure shall yield strengths less than
the specified strength, and no individual test shall yield a strength less than 10 percent below the
specified strength.

4.7.4 Slush Grouting


Slush grouting shall be used on the entire foundation bedrock surface beneath the Core at the cutoff
trench/bedrock contact. Foundation treatment shall be specified by the Engineer and the
requirements of Section 4.7.1 shall apply to all slush grout.

Grout for slush grouting shall consist of cement and sand thoroughly mixed in the proportions of one
part cement to two parts fine aggregate by volume (or as specified by the Engineer), with sufficient
water to produce a mixture which can be poured and broomed into cracks and fractures in the surface
of the rock to fill completely all open joints, crevices, and minor imperfections in the rock surface. The
slush grout shall have a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 2,000 psi or 13.79 MPa. The grout
shall be mixed in a mechanical mixer for at least 2 minutes and shall be applied to the surface and
broomed into cracks and fractures within 40 minutes of mixing. The Contractor shall submit details to
the Engineer of a slush grout-mix design that meets this specification. Upon approval by the Engineer
of the mix design, the Contractor shall provide a truck scale batch for testing to confirm performance
of the 28-day mix design.

After approval of all bedrock cleaning and other surface preparation by the Engineer, the bedrock
surfaces to be treated shall be moistened prior to slush grout placement. Slush grout shall then be
applied into individual cracks by funneling, troweling, pouring, or rodding, or applied over closely

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-24
spaced cracks by brooming. Care must be taken to ensure that grout fills the joints, cracks, and
cavities and is not simply spread on the surface. Special attention shall be given to the weather
conditions at the time of the slush grout placement. To avoid shrinkage cracking development, the
slush grout shall not be placed on a hot foundation surface heated by the direct sunlight. If
necessary, the slush grout placement shall be scheduled on early mornings.

Core material shall be placed on the finished surface within 30 minutes after the slush grout has been
placed and approved by the Engineer. The initial 30-cm-thick layer of Core material shall have a
moisture content 0 to 4 percent above optimum. The initial layer shall be wheel-rolled in order to
protect the foundation from damage. After the initial 30-cm-thick layer of material has been placed
with the wheel rolling procedure, normal compaction equipment as specified elsewhere herein shall
be utilized. To avoid deterioration of the slush grout and initial lift of Core material the Engineer may
specify the Contractor to place a minimum of 1 m of Low Permeability Core material (Zone A) over the
prepared foundation in accordance with the normal placement and compaction procedures described
in Section 4.8.4.1.

4.7.5 Pressure Grouting


In support of design and installation of a grouted curtain beneath the WRF Containment Pond
embankment, the work consists of at least and not limited to drilling grout holes, exploratory holes,
and check holes; pressure testing, pressure washing, and injecting suspension grout under pressure;
and includes furnishing of all materials, labor, and equipment as described and specified in a stand-
alone technical specification, “Especificaciones Técnicas Para Las Inyecciones Cemento
(Volumen 2)”, dated December 2012 and prepared by ARTHALTUNA Grouting, Geotechnical &
Instrumentation. Quality Control/Quality Assurance specifications are also included therein.

4.7.6 Pollution Control Measures


PCM are to be installed and maintained by the Contractor to prevent waste grout materials, chemical
wastes, and soil from entering the stream. A plan for pollution control is to be submitted by the
Contractor to the Engineer for review before installation of any measures. After grouting has been
completed, pollution control measures are to be removed.

4.7.7 Embankments Founded on Natural Soil or Bedrock (Prepared Foundation)


The foundations for embankments founded on natural soil shall consist of dense to very dense or stiff
to very stiff soils or acceptable bedrock exposed in the bottom of required excavations and beneath
stripped areas. There is no specific gradation requirement for the soils or bedrock exposed. The
finished surface shall be generally smooth and suitable for the planned construction. The completed
surface is referred to as Prepared Foundation.

The surface of exposed soils shall be proof rolled by at least four passes of a Caterpillar Model 825
compactor or approved equivalent. Other compactors can be considered provided that they can be
demonstrated to obtain a compacted surface comparable to that obtained by the Caterpillar
Model 825 compactor or approved equivalent.

Any soft or loose areas that deform significantly under the weight of the roller shall be removed. This
is the minimum requirement for foundation preparation of the natural soil surface. The Contractor
shall provide any additional foundation preparation as necessary to achieve the specified compaction
requirements for compacted materials to be placed and compacted above the foundation surface.

4.7.8 Basin Liner Foundation


The foundations for the basin liner shall be founded on Liner Bedding material (see Section 4.8.4.11),
medium dense to dense alluvium, or extremely to highly weathered bedrock beneath stripped areas
that meet the requirements specified for the Liner Bedding. The surface to receive Geomembrane
liner shall be rolled by at least four passes of an approved sheepsfoot or smooth drum roller. The
final surface is to be proof rolled with an approved smooth drum roller. Particles that protrude from
the surface or are not bedded during the rolling process that are deemed by the Engineer to be
detrimental to Geomembrane performance under loading shall be removed by raking, brooming, or

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-25
hand picking such that the final surface meets with the approval of the Engineer and the Installer.
Areas where the foundation surface does not provide a smooth surface consistent with the planned
construction shall be reworked or, in the case of a rock surface, Liner Bedding material may need to
be placed over the surface to provide a surface smooth enough for the subsequent construction.

4.7.9 Approval of Excavated and Prepared Surfaces


When a section of excavation has been completed to the required lines and grades, and the surface
prepared, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer, who will inspect the Work. If the surface meets the
requirements of the Drawings and these Specifications, the Engineer will approve the Work. Written
documentation of the approval will be provided by the Engineer and signed by the Contractor, the
Company and the Engineer. If it does not meet those requirements, the Engineer will indicate this
and may specify the Work needed to meet the requirements of the Drawings and these
Specifications. The surfaces shall not be covered by any material until approved by the Engineer,
geologic mapping is completed by the Engineer, and surveys required for development of the
Construction Completion Report have been completed by the Contractor. The Contractor shall
uncover, at the Contractor’s expense, any excavated surface that has been covered prior to
inspection and approval by the Engineer, if required by the Engineer.

4.8 Fill Materials and Fill Placement Procedures


4.8.1 General
The intent of this construction effort is to use available “onsite” materials to the maximum extent
practical to construct the facility. The core and shells will be constructed using on site natural soils
that are primarily glacial till and quarried rock. Rock for shells and/or Riprap can be quarried from
rock outcrops located close to the construction site, excavations from other construction activities, or
obtained from non- Potentially Acid Generating (PAG) waste rock from the mining operation. Material
for dental concrete, slush grout, concrete, drain, Riprap Bedding, and instrumentation trench backfill
will be processed at a central plant and hauled to the Site. Materials for the embankment construction
shall be obtained from borrow areas shown on the Drawings and described in this Specification. The
origin of any material in no way determines its suitability as fill material. Designation and approval of
a borrow source does not mean that all material within that area is suitable for construction. Suitability
of fill material will be based on its condition in place relative to the requirements of this Specification
and approval of the Engineer.

Embankment and fill materials shall be placed to the lines and grades as shown on the Drawings. All
fill materials shall be free of vegetation, debris, organic matter, and other deleterious materials and
meet the requirements of the Specifications and designs.

No fill shall be placed within a minimum distance of 30 m on any part of the foundation until all
required foundation preparation has been completed and the foundation preparation has been
approved by the Engineer.

4.8.1.1 Deviations
The permissible maximum horizontal and vertical deviation from the finished outside slope surfaces or
zone boundaries of the embankment expansion from the lines and grades shown on the Drawings, or
specified by the Engineer, shall be in accordance with Section 4.3, and:

• The finished outside slope surfaces shall not be lower than the required lines and grades shown on
the Drawings.
• The dam crest width shall not be less than the dimensions shown on the Drawings or specified by
the Engineer.
• The Contractor shall allow for any settlement that may take place during the course of construction.
The levels on the Drawings will allow for post-construction settlement and the Contractor shall build
to and be paid for building to these levels.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-26
4.8.1.2 General Procedures
All materials used for fill shall be loaded and hauled to the placement site, dumped, spread, and
leveled to the specified layer thickness, moisture-conditioned as required and compacted to form a
dense integral fill meeting these specification requirements. Generally, moisture conditioning shall be
accomplished in the borrow area prior to placing the material in the fill to minimize the risk of having
pockets or layers of material in the fills that do not meet the specification requirements. The
Contractor shall at all times exercise care to avoid segregation of the material being placed and shall,
if specified by the Engineer, remove all pockets of segregated or undesirable material and replace it
with material which matches the surrounding material and meets the Specification requirements.

Material placed on the fill that is too wet for compaction shall be removed, left to dry, or be aerated
and dried by disking or other approved means until the moisture content is uniform throughout the
layer and within the limits specified or approved by the Engineer. Material placed on the fill that is too
dry shall be moistened by sprinkling with water. The layer shall then be disked or otherwise mixed
prior to compaction until the moisture content is uniform throughout the layer and within the limits
specified or approved by the Engineer. Any section of fill containing material that is too wet or too dry
shall not be compacted until the moisture content of the material is brought within the desired limits.
Material which cannot be brought within the specified limits shall be removed and replaced with
suitable material.

The Contractor shall exercise care to avoid cross contaminating the fill materials and/or the fill zones
on embankments. Contaminated fill materials that do not meet the requirements of this Specification
shall not be used in the fill or shall be removed from the fill if already placed.

In general, the fill is to be constructed in horizontal layers with each layer being completed over the
full length and breadth of the zone as approved by the Engineer before placement of subsequent
layers. Each zone shall be constructed only with materials meeting the specified requirements and
shall be free from lenses, pockets, and layers of materials which are substantially different in
gradation from the surrounding material in the same zone, as specified by the Engineer.

Except in areas approved by the Engineer, where space is limited or as otherwise specified, fill shall
be placed and compacted by routing the hauling, spreading, processing, and compaction units
approximately parallel to the axis of the embankment. Where impractical limits exist, the hauling,
spreading, processing, and compaction units shall be so routed that they do not follow in the same
paths but spread their traveled paths evenly over the surface of the fill. Special compactors shall be
used, as specified in Section 4.8.3.5, in areas that are not accessible to large compaction equipment.
The specified moisture contents and densities are to be achieved.

If materials require moisture conditioning, the Contractor shall employ whatever method and
equipment is necessary to condition the material to meet the specified moisture content.

Should the fill surface become rutted or uneven subsequent to compaction, it shall be re-leveled and
recompacted before the next layer of fill is placed. Material which is soft and yielding as a result of the
presence of excessive water shall either be removed from the fill or allowed to dry naturally or by
scarifying, until the specified moisture content has been attained. The material shall then be
recompacted to provide a firm, unyielding surface meeting the density requirements of this
Specification.

For zoned embankments, the Contractor shall maintain a minimum slope of 0.5 percent across
constructed fill zones to promote surface drainage during construction to the upstream slope for the
core and upstream shell, and downstream slope for the drain and downstream shell.

In the case of the core, if the surface of the fill becomes too dry or hard to permit suitable bonding with
the subsequent layer, the material shall be loosened to a depth not to exceed 20 cm by scarifying or
disk harrowing and reprocessed to meet the Specification requirements before an additional lift is
placed. If the dry or hard layer is greater than 20 cm thick and is judged by the Engineer to be
detrimental to the construction it shall be removed and replaced.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-27
Some oversize material should be anticipated by the Contractor. In general, the Contractor shall
remove oversize material from the fill. At the sole discretion of the Engineer, some oversize material
may be permitted in the fill as long as it does not adversely affect the uniform compaction of the fill
and its compliance with the Specification requirements. All particles that interfere with compaction in
the layer thicknesses specified, or as specified by the Engineer, shall be removed from the zone in
which they were placed by blading or other methods, either prior to or during compaction as specified.

The Contractor shall take every precaution, when operating equipment near existing structures, to
avoid damage to adjacent structures and disturbing the foundation system(s).

The rolling pattern along all zone boundaries or construction joints shall be such that the full number
of roller passes required shall be applied to each material on each side of the boundary. Where
materials are similar on each side of the boundary the compaction equipment can straddle the
boundary such as the boundary between the core and upstream shell where the potential to cross
contaminate materials is minimal. Where dissimilar materials are adjacent to each other, compaction
equipment shall not cross the material boundaries. For instance, where drain material is adjacent to
the core or downstream shell use of compaction across the construction boundaries shall not be
permitted since the risk of contaminating the drain material is high.

4.8.1.3 Suspension and Resumption of Operations


In planning and implementing suspension and resumption of fill placement operations, the Contractor
shall take into account the requirements for foundation clearing, grubbing and stripping, excavation,
and preparation as described in Sections 4.4, 4.6, and 4.7, respectively, and for fill placement in
Section 4.8.

4.8.1.4 Maintenance of Prepared Surfaces


The Contractor shall maintain any prepared foundation and fill placed in a condition meeting the
Specification requirements until completion of the Work. The Contractor shall take such steps as are
necessary to avoid ponding of water on the fill or foundation or contamination of the fill or foundation
by traffic or other causes, and shall at all times, keep the surface and slopes of the fill or foundation
free from rubbish, rejected or unsuitable fill, or waste materials.

The Contractor shall do whatever is necessary to prevent surface runoff or water from any other
source from eroding fill materials placed for the Work, and shall immediately repair any damage
resulting from such erosion, using materials and methods approved by the Engineer.

4.8.1.5 Fill Placement Weather Limitations


The Contractor shall not place fill materials at such times that, in the opinion of the Engineer,
conditions for such operations are unsatisfactory due to precipitation, low temperatures or any other
reason that will result in fills not meeting the specification requirements.

4.8.2 Borrow Areas


4.8.2.1 General
The onsite borrow areas shall be developed by the Contractor within the project limits at the locations
indicated on the Drawings and shall be operated and maintained in accordance with these
specifications. Borrow areas are shown on the Drawings, and shall be developed to the lines and
grades and within the stripping limits indicated or specified by the Company and/or the Engineer.

The Contractor may perform a supplementary investigation for his own purposes but a copy of the
results of any such investigation shall be submitted to the Company and the Engineer. The
Contractor’s borrow area operations shall be subject to the approval of the Company and the
Engineer. The Contractor shall clear and strip the borrow area and shall as and where specified by
the Engineer, stockpile all topsoil which, in the opinion of the Company or the Engineer, can be
salvaged. The borrow areas shall be developed with due consideration for drainage and runoff from
the excavated surfaces so as not to cause erosion of the adjacent terrain. The borrow areas shall be

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-28
excavated in such a manner that water will not collect and stand therein. On completion of borrow
material excavation and removal, the slopes of the borrow areas shall be shaped to generally conform
to the surrounding topography. Before being abandoned, the borrow area reclamation shall be
approved by the Company. All rubbish, Contractor’s equipment, and structures shall be removed
from the area. Waste piles shall be leveled, trimmed and shaped to regular lines and grades to
prevent the occurrence of ponding or of concentrations of surface runoff and to provide a neat
appearance. All surface water runoff shall be directed to available natural drainage course.

Except as permitted by the Company, waste material from an excavation for the Work or from a
processing operation in a borrow area shall be disposed of in a spoil area or in an approved area set-
aside for the purpose within the project site.

The Contractor’s borrow area operations shall be subject to the approval of the Company and/or the
Engineer and shall be such as to avoid waste of any suitable construction material therein. In order to
develop the borrow area, both topsoil and, in some cases, up to several meters of overburden shall
be stripped. Suitable topsoil shall be stockpiled and the remainder of the stripped material, if suitable
in accordance with this Specification, shall be used as embankment fill. Before being abandoned, the
sides of the borrow area shall be brought to stable slopes (2.5H:1.0V maximum, or as specified by the
Company and/or the Engineer), with slope intersections rounded and shaped to provide a natural
appearance. All rubbish, Contractor’s equipment, and structures shall be removed from the area.
Waste piles shall be leveled, trimmed and shaped to regular lines to prevent the occurrence of
ponding or of concentrations of surface runoff and to provide a neat appearance. All borrow areas will
be graded to provide natural drainage.

4.8.2.2 Fill Material Production


The Contractor shall develop and operate any borrow area in accordance with Section 4.6 in such a
manner as to avoid contamination or waste of any material which could be used as fill. Approval of
the Contractor’s operations shall not relieve the Contractor of full responsibility for the adequacy and
safety of such operations.

The Contractor shall clear, grub, and strip all borrow areas in accordance with the provisions of
Section 4.4.

The Contractor shall excavate any open trenches and install such other drainage facilities as are
required to divert water around and drain water from any borrow area as specified by the Engineer.

The methods and equipment used for excavation of fill materials from the borrow area shall be such
that satisfactory selection and blending is achieved to provide material suitable for the respective
zones.

Where, in a borrow area, materials are encountered which would not be acceptable as fill, they shall
be left in place or excavated separately and disposed of in accordance with Section 4.4.4.

Where, in the opinion of the Engineer, the methods of excavations and operations are unsatisfactory
in that they produce materials that are not suitable for use in the fill, such methods shall be
discontinued, and the Contractor shall adopt such revised techniques and procedures as are specified
or approved by the Engineer to obtain satisfactory materials.

The Contractor shall operate the borrow areas in an orderly manner at all times, maintain them free of
surface water runoff and leave them in a tidy, well-drained condition approved by the Company and/or
the Engineer on completion.

4.8.3 Compaction Equipment


4.8.3.1 General
The Contractor shall provide sufficient compaction equipment of the types and sizes specified herein
as is necessary for compaction of the various fill and subgrade materials. If the Contractor wishes to
use alternative equipment, he shall submit to the Engineer for approval, complete details of such

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-29
equipment and the methods proposed for its use. The Engineer’s approval of the use of alternative
equipment will be dependent upon the Contractor demonstrating that such alternative equipment will
compact the fill materials to a density not less than that which is specified herein. Contractor shall
submit a list of proposed compaction equipment prior to the start of any fill placement.

The Contractor’s procedures for compaction of fill shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.
Compaction of each layer of fill or subgrade shall proceed in a systematic, orderly, and continuous
manner approved by the Engineer such as to ensure that all of each layer receives the compaction
specified. The compaction shall be carried out by routing the compaction equipment parallel to the
axis of the embankment, except that where such routing is impractical such as: in roller turning areas,
in areas adjacent to structures or at the lower elevations of the fill, in areas adjacent to pipework, and
where otherwise specified by the Engineer. The compaction equipment may be routed in any
direction approved by the Engineer. Required densities and moisture contents shall be as required
elsewhere in the same material zone.

For compaction by vibratory, pad or sheepsfoot rollers, one coverage shall consist of one pass of the
roller. A minimum overlap of 0.3 m shall be maintained between the surfaces traversed by adjacent
passes of the roller drum. The power of the motor driving the vibrator shall be sufficient to maintain
the specified frequency and centrifugal force under the most adverse conditions which may be
encountered during the compaction of the fill.

Should the surface of the fill become rutted or uneven subsequent to compaction, it shall be re-
leveled before the next layer of fill is placed and, if specified by the Engineer, recompacted at the
expense of the Contractor.

Compaction equipment shall be maintained in good working condition at all times to ensure that the
compactive effort obtained is in accordance with that specified by the manufacturer. The Contractor
shall immediately make adjustments to the equipment to achieve this when necessary.

4.8.3.2 Smooth Drum Vibratory Roller


Smooth drum vibratory rollers shall be of the vibratory, single smooth steel drum type and shall be
equipped with a suitable cleaning device to prevent the accumulation of material on the drum during
rolling. Each roller shall have a total static weight of not less than 9,026 kilograms at the drum when
the roller is standing on level ground. The drum shall be not less than 1,500 cm in diameter and
2,000 cm in width. The vibration frequency of the roller drum during operation shall be between
1,100 and 1,500 vibrations per minute and the centrifugal force developed by the roller at
1,250vibrations per minute shall not be less than 17,237 kilograms. The smooth drum roller
compactor shall also contain a timing device for indicating actual roller operating time.

4.8.3.3 Sheepsfoot Roller


On fine-grained soils, the Contractor shall compact the fill with a sheepsfoot roller. The compactor
shall be a Caterpillar Model 825H soil compactor or equivalent. Other sheepsfoot compactors can be
considered provided that they can be demonstrated to obtain the required material densities on a test
fill. Thinner lifts and more passes may however be required to obtain the required densities.

4.8.3.4 Pneumatic-Tired Rollers


Pneumatic-tired rollers shall have not less than four wheels equipped with pneumatic tires and a body
suitable for ballast loading such that the load per wheel can be varied from 10 to 25 tons. Roller
wheels shall be located abreast and be so articulated that each wheel exerts approximately the same
load under any conditions likely to be encountered during its use including conditions met in
traversing uneven ground. The tires shall be such that the tire pressure during rolling operations can
be maintained between 620 kPa and 827 kPa for a 10-ton wheel load and between 827 kPa and
11,103 kPa for a 25-ton wheel load. The spacing of the wheels shall be such that the distance
between the adjacent tire impressions during rolling will not be greater than 50 percent of the width of
a single tire when operating at the maximum specified pressure and wheel loading.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-30
4.8.3.5 Special Compactors
Special compactors shall be used to compact materials that cannot, in the opinion of the Engineer, be
compacted by the specified pneumatic-tired (rubber tire hauling equipment), sheep’s foot, or vibratory
rollers because of location or accessibility.

The Contractor shall adopt special compaction measures such as hand-operated vibratory
compactors or other methods approved by the Engineer to compact fill in trenches, around structures
and in other confined areas that are not accessible to the larger vibratory roller or pneumatic-tired
roller. Such compaction shall consist of not fewer than four coverages of the compaction equipment.

Before commencing Work with the proposed compaction equipment, the Contractor shall provide the
Engineer with a list of each piece of equipment to be used, together with the Manufacturer’s
specification.

4.8.3.6 Rubber-Tired Construction Equipment


It is expected that systematic routing of rubber-tired construction equipment will contribute significantly
to the compaction effort. All haul trucks and other rubber-tired construction equipment used for
compaction shall have tires inflated to maximum practical tire pressures as defined by the
manufacturer, and a minimum of 552 kPa at all times. Rubber tire hauling equipment such as the
large mine haul trucks may be proved suitable by a test fill or performance assessment on the first lift
as the sole means to compact General Fill, Coarse Structural Fill, Structural Rockfill, and Thick-Lift
Structural Rockfill.

4.8.4 Materials
4.8.4.1 Core
4.8.4.1.1 Use
Core material will be used to construct low-permeability embankment zones designated as Zone A.
The purpose of Zone A is to reduce and control seepage passing through embankments. Placement
of Core material within Zone A is planned for the TMF, Main Sediment Pond, and WRF Containment
Pond.

4.8.4.1.2 Material Description


Core material shall meet the grading requirements set forth below and be obtained from borrow areas
designated on the Drawings or by the Company and approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall
be responsible for processing the materials to obtain the required moisture content prior to
compaction regardless of the moisture condition of the materials at the source. The material shall
generally be comprised of silty or clayey sands and gravels with a minimum of 25 percent passing the
No. 200 sieve (fines) meeting the following, as specified by ASTM D 422. Core material shall have a
minimum Plasticity Index (PI) of 8 as specified by ASTM D4318.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 100
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 89
2-inch (50.8 mm) 100 83
1-inch (25.4 mm) 100 72
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 100 46
No. 10 (2 mm) 100 41
No. 40 (0.426 mm) 100 33
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 85 25

Core material placed adjacent to and within 0.5 meters of pipe encasements and other concrete faces
shall comprise materials with maximum particle size of 76.2 mm (3 inches).

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-31
4.8.4.1.3 Placement Procedure
Core material shall be placed in horizontal lifts not to exceed 30 cm in loose lift thickness unless
otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction
requirements as specified by the Engineer. The maximum particle size shall be limited to two thirds of
the compacted lift thickness. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction equipment described
in Section 4.8.3.

Core material shall be compacted to a minimum of 95 percent of the Modified maximum dry density
as specified by ASTM D 1557. The moisture content during compaction shall be maintained within
the limits of optimum moisture content of 2 percent below to 4 percent above optimum moisture
content as specified by ASTM D 1557. The Engineer may permit minor variations from these
moisture limits if an acceptable density and permeability is being achieved. In addition, variations in
the gradation may be allowed at the sole discretion of the Engineer if permeability tests conducted in
the laboratory on samples obtained from the proposed borrow areas demonstrate the permeability
criteria is being achieved.

Core material shall be placed in a manner which does not allow planes or construction joints between
layers. As necessary, the top surface of placed Core material shall be scarified to a maximum depth
of 5 cm, or as specified by the Engineer before placement of the next layer to facilitate bonding
between layers. At no time shall the fill be placed on in-place material that has been compacted
smooth. Any fill that has not bonded adequately with in-place fill shall be removed or reworked as
specified by the Engineer. The use of sheepsfoot or other pad-type compaction equipment, which
results in a roughened compacted surface, will be considered sufficient and scarification will not be
required.

When a vertical construction joint is formed due to an interruption in the construction of that layer, the
Contractor shall spread Core material in the new section adjacent to the existing layer, mix and
moisture-condition the material on both sides of the construction joint over a distance of at least 2 m
measured from the construction joint to blend the materials together.

A test fill shall be developed at the start of the Core placement to determine the number of passes the
compactor shall make to achieve the specified density. Once the number of passes is determined the
Contractor shall make at least that many passes to compact the fill. If the field density test results
indicate that the density achieved with ongoing fill placement is above or below that specified the test
fill shall be repeated and the number of passes revised accordingly.

Test fills may be completed as part of the ongoing fill placement operation and if it meets the
specification requirements incorporated in the fill as part of the completed works.

Where fill is placed adjacent to the concrete encasement of embankment outlet works the material
placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of the concrete encasement shall be placed between optimum
moisture content and 4 percent above optimum moisture content and compacted with relatively
heavy, rubber-tired compactors For the concrete encased outlet works the rubber tires equipment
shall include load haul trucks, large front end loaders with a loaded bucket, motor graders such as
Caterpillar Model 14G or larger or other rubber tired equipment approved by the Engineer. The
rubber-tired equipment shall be operated parallel to the concrete encasement. The rubber tire
adjacent to the concrete shall be operated immediately adjacent to the concrete to insure a bonding of
the fill to the concrete. Thinner lifts shall be used, if needed, to obtain the required degree of
compaction. The fill shall be brought up evenly on each side of the concrete structures. Care shall be
taken to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while not shifting or damaging
any of the outlet works and encasement.

In areas where geomembrane liner is to be placed above Core material, particles that protrude from
the surface or are not bedded during the rolling process that are deemed by the Engineer to be
detrimental to geomembrane performance under loading shall be removed by raking, brooming, or
hand picking such that the final surface meets with the approval of the Engineer and the Installer.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-32
4.8.4.2 Filter/Drain
4.8.4.2.1 Use
Filter/Drain material will be used to construct embankment filter and drain zones designated as
Zone B. The purpose of the Zone B is to (1) collect and transport seepage that passes through Zone
A and the foundation to the downstream toe of the embankment, and (2) to prevent migration of finer
soils into coarser zones associated with the various structures. Filter/Drain material will be placed in
Zone B of the TMF, Cunahuiri Reservoir, Main Sediment Pond, and the WRF Containment Pond as
well as adjacent to concrete encasements of outlet works.

4.8.4.2.2 Material Description


To achieve the functions described above, the Filter/Drain material shall:

• Not segregate during processing, handling, placing, spreading or compacting


• Not change in gradation (by degradation or break down) during processing, handling, placing and/or
compacting, or degrade with time, e.g., by freeze-thaw or wetting and drying by seepage flow
• Be internally stable, that is, the fines particles should not erode from the Filter/Drain material under
seepage flows

The Filter/Drain material shall consist of processed sands and gravels produced by the Contractor.
The Filter/Drain material shall meet the following grading requirements as specified by ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 100
1.5-inch (38.1 mm) 100 95
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 90
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 100 78
No. 4 (76.2 mm) 100 66
No. 10 (2 mm) 80 44
No. 30 (0.6 mm) 54 10
No. 50 (0.3 mm) 37 0
No.100 (0.15 mm) 17 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0

4.8.4.2.3 Placement Procedure


The Filter/Drain material shall be placed and spread in lifts not to exceed 50 cm in thickness.
Compaction shall be achieved by 4 passes using a smooth drum roller in static mode. The
compaction shall be achieved by compaction equipment described in Section 4.8.3. Care must be
taken to avoid contaminating the material, both in the stockpile area and the in-place fill. Any
contaminated material shall be removed.

Where Filter/Drain material is placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of concrete encasement of
embankment outlet works, the material shall be compacted with hand operated vibratory plate
compactors. Care shall be taken to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while
not shifting or damaging any of the outlet works and encasement.

4.8.4.3 Transition
4.8.4.3.1 Use
Transition material will be used to construct embankment zones designated as Zone C. The purpose
of the Zone C is to prevent migration of finer soils from Zone B into coarser structural zones of the
project structures. The Transition will be placed in Zone C of the TMF.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-33
4.8.4.3.2 Material Description
Transition material shall consist of sands and gravels provided by the Company at the location shown
on the Drawings. Transition material shall meet the following grading requirements as specified by
ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
4-inch (101.6 mm) 100 100
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 44
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 88 20
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 77 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 20 0

Transition material placed adjacent to pipe encasements and other concrete faces shall comprise
materials with maximum particle size of 76.2 mm (3 inches) within 0.5 m of the concrete.

4.8.4.3.3 Placement Procedure


Transition material shall be placed and spread in lifts not to exceed 50 cm in loose lift thickness
unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction
requirements as specified by the Engineer. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction
equipment described in Section 4.8.3.

Transition material shall be compacted to a minimum of 95 percent of the modified maximum dry
density as specified by ASTM D 1557.

All Transition material shall be placed in a manner which does not allow planes or construction joints
between layers. As necessary, Transition material shall be scarified to a maximum depth of 5 cm, or
as specified by the Engineer before placement of the next layer to facilitate bonding between layers.
At no time shall the fill be placed on in-place material that has been compacted smooth. Any fill that
has not bonded adequately with in-place fill shall be removed or reworked as specified by the
Engineer. The use of sheepsfoot or other pad-type compaction equipment, which results in a
roughened compacted surface, will be considered sufficient and scarification will not be required.

Where fill is placed adjacent to the concrete encasement of embankment outlet works the material
placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of the concrete encasement shall be placed between optimum
moisture content and 4 percent above optimum moisture content and compacted with relatively
heavy, rubber-tired compactors. For the concrete encased outlet works the rubber tires equipment
shall include load haul trucks, large front end loaders with a loaded bucket, motor graders such as
Caterpillar Model 14G or larger or other rubber tired equipment approved by the Engineer. The
rubber-tired equipment shall be operated parallel to the concrete encasement. The rubber tire
adjacent to the concrete shall be operated immediately adjacent to the concrete to insure a complete
bonding of the fill to the concrete. Thinner lifts shall be used, if needed, to obtain the required degree
of compaction. The fill shall be brought up evenly on each side of the concrete structures. Care shall
be taken to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while not shifting or
damaging any of the outlet works and encasement.

4.8.4.4 Coarse Transition


4.8.4.4.1 Use
Coarse Transition material will be placed in zones designated as Zone CA, downstream of Zone B,
during modified centerline construction for the TMF. The purpose of this zone is to facilitate better
drainage for the modified centerline raises, and provide filtration between Zone B and the downstream
shell.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-34
4.8.4.4.2 Material Description
Coarse Transition material shall consist of sands and gravels provided by the Company at the location
shown on the Drawings. Coarse Transition material shall meet the following grading requirements as
specified by ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
4-inch (101.6 mm) 100 100
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 44
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 88 20
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 77 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0

Coarse Transition material placed adjacent to and within 0.5 meters of pipe encasements and other
concrete faces shall comprise materials with maximum particle size of 76.2 mm (3 inches).

4.8.4.4.3 Placement Procedure


Coarse Transition material shall be placed and spread in lifts not to exceed 50 cm in thickness.
Compaction shall be achieved by 4 passes using a vibratory smooth drum roller in static mode. The
compaction shall be achieved by compaction equipment described in Section 4.8.3.

Where fill is placed adjacent to the concrete encasement of embankment outlet works the material
placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of the concrete encasement shall be placed between optimum
moisture content and 4 percent above optimum moisture content and compacted with relatively
heavy, rubber-tired compactors. For the concrete encased outlet works the rubber tires equipment
shall include load haul trucks, large front end loaders with a loaded bucket, motor graders such as
Caterpillar Model 14G or larger or other rubber tired equipment approved by the Engineer. The
rubber-tired equipment shall be operated parallel to the concrete encasement. The rubber tire
adjacent to the concrete shall be operated immediately adjacent to the concrete to insure a complete
bonding of the fill to the concrete. Thinner lifts shall be used, if needed, to obtain the required degree
of compaction. The fill shall be brought up evenly on each side of the concrete structures. Care shall
be taken to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while not shifting or
damaging any of the outlet works and encasement.

4.8.4.5 Structural Fill and Structural Rockfill


Structural Fill and Structural Rockfill materials comprise main fill zones within embankments, berms,
and roads designated as Zone D1, D1A, D2, and D3. The four sub-zones require different criteria for
placement, compaction and material sizes within selected areas of the fill. Material for these zones
will be comprised of well-graded, granular material with limited fines. Structural Fill and Structural
Rockfill will be specified as hard and durable to provide resistance to break-down during compaction
and weathering. The main source for these zones will be non-PAG mine waste rock, Diorite and
Sandstone. Structural Fill may also be generated from cut to fill construction of the project’s haul
roads. Additional requirements are provided in the following sections.

4.8.4.5.1 Structural Fill


4.8.4.5.1.1 Use
Structural Fill material will be used to construct main embankment fill zones, berms and haul roads
designated as Zone D1. Placement of Structural Fill material within Zone D1 is planned for the TMF,
Cunahuiri Reservoir, WRF Retention Pond, Topsoil Stockpile No. 1, Landfill, and Haul Roads.

In addition, the following materials can also be used to construct access and haul roads: Core,
Transition and Coarse Transition materials, and Structural Rockfill and Thick-Lift Structural Rockfill.
Material specifications and placement procedures associated with these materials are presented in
sections within these Specifications.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-35
4.8.4.5.1.2 Material Description
The Structural Fill material shall be obtained from the borrow areas shown on the Drawings. The
material gradation shall meet the following gradation limits in accordance with ASTM D 422:

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
12-inch (304.8) 100 100
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 74
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 50
2-inch (50.4 mm) 92 34
3/4-inch (19 mm) 73 0
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 60 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 20 0
Note:
The maximum particle size shall be no larger than two-thirds the lift thickness.

Structural Fill material placed adjacent to pipe encasements and other concrete faces shall comprise
materials with maximum particle size of 76.2 mm (3 inches).

4.8.4.5.1.3 Placement Procedure


Structural Fill material shall be placed in loose lifts not to exceed a thickness of 50 cm unless
otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction
requirements as specified by the Engineer. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction
equipment described in Section 4.8.3. Cobbles and boulders that exceed two-thirds of the lift
thickness shall be removed and disposed of in areas approved by the Engineer. At the sole discretion
of the Engineer, larger particles may be incorporated in the fill so long as they do not adversely affect
the overall compaction and density of the fill. Care shall be taken to avoid creating zones where the
large particles become concentrated in the fill. Such zones shall be removed and replaced as
specified by the Engineer.

Structural Fill material shall be compacted to a minimum of 95 percent of the maximum modified dry
density as specified by ASTM D 1557.

Structural Fill material placed in Haul and Access Roads shall be compacted with a minimum of four
passes of the fully loaded haul trucks (CAT 777 haul truck equivalent or larger). The trucks shall be
operated on the fill to provide uniform compaction of each lift. The trucks shall “split their tracks” and
not travel on the fill in a manner that concentrates traffic in a singular path but instead distributes the
compactive effort uniformly over the entire fill.

Alternatively, should the Earthworks Contractor elect to use a compactor, a test fill shall be developed
at the start of Structural Fill placement to determine the number of passes the compactor shall make
to achieve adequate compaction. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction equipment
described in Section 4.8.3. The number of passes required to achieve adequate compaction is to be
agreed upon by the Engineer and the Company. Once the number of passes is determined the
Contractor shall make at least that many pass to compact the fill. If during construction, in the
Engineer or Company’s opinion, it is noted that the ongoing fill placement is not achieving adequate
compaction, the test fill shall be repeated and the number of passes revised accordingly.

Density testing and the use of a test fill will not be required unless, in the opinion of the Engineer,
sufficient compactive effort is not being applied to the fill. If this is the case, the Engineer will design a
test fill to determine the revised lift thickness and minimum number of passes of the loaded haul
trucks to meet the shear strength and settlement criteria as the basis for design.

Where fill is placed adjacent to the concrete encasement of embankment outlet works the material
placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of the concrete encasement shall be placed between optimum
moisture content and 4 percent above optimum moisture content and compacted with relatively
heavy, rubber-tired compactors. For the concrete encased outlet works the rubber tires equipment

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-36
shall include load haul trucks, large front end loaders with a loaded bucket, motor graders such as
Caterpillar Model 14G or larger or other rubber tired equipment approved by the Engineer. The
rubber-tired equipment shall be operated parallel to the concrete encasement. The rubber tire
adjacent to the concrete shall be operated immediately adjacent to the concrete to insure a complete
bonding of the fill to the concrete. Thinner lifts shall be used, if needed, to obtain the required degree
of compaction. The fill shall be brought up evenly on each side of the concrete structures. Care shall
be taken to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while not shifting or
damaging any of the outlet works and encasement.

4.8.4.5.2 Coarse Structural Fill


4.8.4.5.2.1 Use
Coarse Structural Fill material will be placed in zones designated as Zone D1A, downstream of Zone
CA, during modified centerline construction for the TMF. The purpose of this zone is to facilitate
drainage within the main structural zone of the vertical centerline constructed embankment.

4.8.4.5.2.2 Material Description


The Coarse Structural Fill material shall be obtained from the borrow areas shown on the Drawings
and/or from Non-Acid Generating Waste Rock material made available during mining operations. The
material gradation shall meet the following gradation limits in accordance with ASTM D 422:

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
12-inch (304.8) 100 100
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 74
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 50
2-inch (50.4 mm) 92 34
3/4-inch (19 mm) 73 0
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 60 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0
Note:
The maximum particle size shall be no larger than two-thirds the lift thickness.

Coarse Structural Fill material placed within 0.5 m of pipe encasements and other concrete faces shall
comprise materials with maximum particle size of 76.2 mm (3 inches).

4.8.4.5.2.3 Placement Procedure


Coarse Structural Fill material shall be placed in loose lifts not to exceed a thickness of 50 cm unless
otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction
requirements as specified by the Engineer. Cobbles and boulders that exceed two-thirds of the lift
thickness shall be removed and disposed of in areas approved by the Engineer. At the sole discretion
of the Engineer, larger particles may be incorporated in the fill so long as they do not adversely affect
the overall compaction and density of the fill. Care shall be taken to avoid creating zones where the
large particles become concentrated in the fill. Such zones shall be removed and replaced as
specified by the Engineer.

The Coarse Structural Fill shall be compacted with a minimum of four passes of the fully loaded haul
trucks (CAT 777 haul truck equivalent or larger). The trucks shall be operated on the fill to provide
uniform compaction of each lift. The trucks shall “split their tracks” and not travel on the fill in a
manner that concentrates traffic in a singular path but instead distributes the compactive effort
uniformly over the entire fill.

Where fill is placed adjacent to the concrete encasement of embankment outlet works the material
placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of the concrete encasement shall be placed between optimum
moisture content and 4 percent above optimum moisture content and compacted with relatively

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-37
heavy, rubber-tired compactors. For the concrete encased outlet works the rubber tires equipment
shall include load haul trucks, large front end loaders with a loaded bucket, motor graders such as
Caterpillar Model 14G or larger or other rubber tired equipment approved by the Engineer. The
rubber-tired equipment shall be operated parallel to the concrete encasement. The rubber tire
adjacent to the concrete shall be operated immediately adjacent to the concrete to insure a complete
bonding of the fill to the concrete. Thinner lifts shall be used, if needed, to obtain the required degree
of compaction. The fill shall be brought up evenly on each side of the concrete structures. Care shall
be taken to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while not shifting or
damaging any of the outlet works and encasement.

Alternatively, should the Earthworks Contractor elect to use a compactor, a test fill shall be developed
at the start of the Coarse Structural Fill placement to determine the number of passes the compactor
shall make to achieve adequate compaction. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction
equipment described in Section 4.8.3. The number of passes required to achieve adequate
compaction is to be agreed upon by the Engineer and the Company. Once the number of passes is
determined the Contractor shall make at least that many pass to compact the fill. If during
construction, in the Engineer or Company’s opinion, it is noted that the ongoing fill placement is not
achieving adequate compaction, the test fill shall be repeated and the number of passes revised
accordingly.

Density testing and the use of a test fill will not be required unless, in the opinion of the Engineer,
sufficient compactive effort is not being applied to the fill. If this is the case, the Engineer will design a
test fill to determine the revised lift thickness and minimum number of passes of the loaded haul
trucks to meet the shear strength and settlement criteria as the basis for design.

4.8.4.5.3 Structural Rockfill


4.8.4.5.3.1 Use
Structural Rockfill material will be used to construct fill zones designated as Zone D2 in the TMF,
downstream of Zones D1 and D1A.

4.8.4.5.3.2 Material Description


Structural Rockfill material shall be obtained from the borrow areas shown on the Drawings and/or
from Non-Acid Generating Waste Rock material made available during mining operations. The
material gradation shall meet the following gradation limits in accordance with ASTM D 422:

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
24-inch (609.6 mm) 100 100
12-inch (304.8 mm) 100 74
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 50
1-1/2-inch (38.1 mm) 78 0
No. 10 (2 mm) 30 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0
Note:
The maximum particle size shall be no larger than two-thirds the lift thickness.

Structural Rockfill material placed within 0.5 m of concrete pipe encasements and other concrete
faces shall comprise materials with maximum particle size of 76.2 mm (3 inches).

4.8.4.5.3.3 Placement Procedure


The Structural Rockfill material shall be placed and spread in the fill to form layers that shall not
exceed 1 m in thickness after compaction unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Cobbles and
boulders that exceed two-thirds of the lift thickness shall be removed and disposed of in areas
approved by the Engineer. At the sole discretion of the Engineer, larger particles may be
incorporated in the fill so long as they do not adversely affect the overall compaction and density of

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-38
the fill. Care shall be taken to avoid creating zones where the large particles become concentrated in
the fill. Such zones shall be removed and replaced as specified by the Engineer.

The Structural Rockfill shall be compacted with a minimum of four passes of the fully loaded haul
trucks (CAT 777 haul truck equivalent or larger). The trucks shall be operated on the fill to provide
uniform compaction of each lift. The trucks shall “split their tracks” and not travel on the fill in a
manner that concentrates traffic in a singular path but instead distributes the compactive effort
uniformly over the entire fill.

Density testing and the use of a test fill will not be required unless, in the opinion of the Engineer,
sufficient compactive effort is not being applied to the fill. If this is the case, the Engineer will design a
test fill to determine the revised lift thickness and minimum number of passes of the loaded haul
trucks to meet the shear strength and settlement criteria as the basis for design.

4.8.4.5.4 Thick-Lift Structural Rockfill


4.8.4.5.4.1 Use
The Thick-Lift Structural Rockfill will be placed in fill zones of the TMF designated as Zone D3,
downstream of Zone D2.

4.8.4.5.4.2 Material Description


Thick-Lift Structural Rockfill material shall be obtained from the borrow areas shown on the Drawings
and/or from Non-Acid Generating Waste Rock material made available during mining operations. The
material gradation shall meet the following gradation limits in accordance with ASTM D 422:

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
1200 mm 100 100
1000 mm 100 90
24-inch (609.6 mm) 100 77
500 mm 100 70
12-inch (304.8 mm) 100 52
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 26
3-inch (76.2 mm) 88 0
1-1/2-inch (38.1 mm) 78 0
No. 10 (2 mm) 30 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0
Note:
The maximum particle size shall be no larger than two-thirds the lift thickness.

4.8.4.5.4.3 Placement Procedure


The Thick-Lift Structural Rockfill material shall be placed and spread in the fill to form layers that shall
not exceed 2 m in loose lift thickness unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Cobbles and
boulders that exceed two-thirds of the lift thickness shall be removed and disposed of in areas
approved by the Engineer. At the sole discretion of the Engineer, larger particles may be
incorporated in the fill so long as they do not adversely affect the overall compaction and density of
the fill. Care shall be taken to avoid creating zones where the large particles become concentrated in
the fill. Such zones shall be removed and replaced as specified by the Engineer.

The Thick-Lift Structural Rockfill shall be compacted with a minimum of four passes of the fully loaded
haul trucks (CAT 777 haul truck equivalent or larger). The trucks shall be operated on the fill to
provide uniform compaction of each lift. The trucks shall “split their tracks” and not travel on the fill in
a manner that concentrates traffic in a singular path but instead distributes the compactive effort
uniformly over the entire fill.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-39
Density testing and the use of a test fill will not be required unless, in the opinion of the Engineer,
sufficient compactive effort is not being applied to the fill. If this is the case, the Engineer will design a
test fill to determine the revised lift thickness and minimum number of passes of the loaded haul
trucks to meet the shear strength and settlement criteria as the basis for design.

4.8.4.5.5 Rockfill
4.8.4.5.5.1 Use
Rockfill will be used for the construction of the WRF Sediment Retention Structure.

4.8.4.5.5.2 Material Description


Rockfill material shall be relatively well-graded with particles ranging in size from 15 mm to 600 mm.
Material shall be non-acid generating, sound, durable, and hard rock obtained from on-site sources.

4.8.4.5.5.3 Placement Procedure


Rockfill material shall be placed and spread in horizontal layers that shall not exceed 1 m in loose lift
thickness unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Cobbles and boulders that exceed two-thirds
of the lift thickness shall be removed and disposed of in areas approved by the Engineer. At the sole
discretion of the Engineer, larger particles may be incorporated in the fill so long as they do not
adversely affect the overall compaction and density of the fill. Care shall be taken to avoid creating
zones where the large particles become concentrated in the fill. Such zones shall be removed and
replaced as specified by the Engineer.

Rockfill shall be compacted with a minimum of four passes of the fully loaded haul trucks. The trucks
shall be operated on the fill to provide uniform compaction of each lift. The trucks shall “split their
tracks” and not travel on the fill in a manner that concentrates traffic in a singular path but instead
distributes the compactive effort uniformly over the entire fill.

Density testing and the use of a test fill will not be required unless, in the opinion of the Engineer,
sufficient compactive effort is not being applied to the fill. If this is the case, the Engineer will design a
test fill to determine the revised lift thickness and minimum number of passes of the loaded haul
trucks to meet the shear strength and settlement criteria as the basis for design.

4.8.4.6 Embankment Fill A / Embankment Fill B / Embankment Fill C


4.8.4.6.1 Use
Embankment Fill material will be used to construct the upstream and downstream shells of the Main
Sediment Pond, WRF Containment Pond, and Cunahuiri Reservoir.
4.8.4.6.2 Material Description
Embankment fill material for the construction of the Main Sediment Pond and WRF Containment Pond
shall be sandstone excavated from either the right abutment of the Main Sediment Pond or Borrow
Area 6B, alluvium from within the pond basin areas or similar, on-site materials. There are no specific
gradation requirements for this material.

Embankment Fill A, placed in the modified transition zones that extend 5 meters upstream and
downstream of the Main Sediment Pond and 5 meters upstream of the WRF Containment Pond
Cores, shall be sandstone that breaks down to a soil with no visible pore spaces.

Embankment Fill B, located within the Main Sediment Pond and WRF Containment Pond shells, shall
be sandstone that is generally less than two-thirds of the compacted lift thickness. Alternatively if
alluvium is available from the required excavation in the Main Sediment Pond reservoir area it can be
used as Embankment Fill B. If alluvium is used it shall be comprised of sands and gravels with less
than 12 percent passing the number 200 sieve.

Embankment Fill C, placed within the Cunahuiri Reservoir embankment, shall be glacial till excavated
from within the limits of the Waste Rock Facility footprint.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-40
The Contractor shall be responsible for processing the materials to obtain the required moisture
content prior to compaction regardless of the moisture condition of the materials at the source.

4.8.4.6.3 Placement Procedure


Embankment Fill A placed in the modified transition zones shall be placed in horizontal lifts not to
exceed 30 cm in loose lift thickness unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be
required to meet the compaction requirements as specified by the Engineer. The maximum particle
size shall be limited to two thirds of the compacted lift thickness. The compaction shall be achieved
by compaction equipment described in Section 4.8.3.

Embankment Fill A shall be compacted to a minimum of 92 percent of the Modified maximum dry
density as specified by ASTM D 1557. The moisture content during compaction shall be maintained
within the limits of 2 percent below to 4 percent above optimum moisture content as specified by
ASTM D 1557. The Engineer may permit minor variations from these moisture limits if an acceptable
density is being achieved.

A test fill shall be developed at the start of the Embankment Fill A placement to determine the number
of passes the compactor shall make to achieve the specified density. Once the number of passes is
determined the Contractor shall make at least that many pass to compact the fill. If the field density
test results indicate that the density achieved with ongoing fill placement is above or below that
specified the test fill shall be repeated and the number of passes revised accordingly.

Test fills may be completed as part of the ongoing fill placement operation and if it meets the
specification requirements incorporated in the fill as part of the completed works.

Embankment Fill B placed in the upstream and downstream shells of the embankments shall be
sandstone from Borrow Area 6A breaks down to a soil or that does not break down to a soil. If the
material breaks down to a soil it shall be placed and compacted as described for Embankment Fill A.
If it is sandstone that does not break down to a soil it shall be placed in 50 cm lifts and compacted by
controlled routing of the hauling equipment. If it is alluvium with sufficient fines it shall be placed in
horizontal lifts not to exceed 30 cm in loose lift thickness unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction requirements as specified by the Engineer. The
maximum particle size shall be limited to two thirds of the compacted lift thickness. It shall be
compacted to a minimum of 92 percent of the Modified maximum dry density as specified by ASTM D
1557. The moisture content during compaction shall be maintained within the limits of 2 percent
below to 4 percent above optimum moisture content as specified by ASTM D 1557. The Engineer
may permit minor variations from these moisture limits if an acceptable density is being achieved. If
the alluvium is too coarse to be controlled by the modified proctor density test it shall be placed in
30 cm loose lifts and compacted by a minimum of four passes of the fully loaded haul trucks. The
trucks shall be operated on the fill to provide uniform compaction of each lift. The trucks shall “split
their tracks” and not travel on the fill in a manner that concentrates traffic in a singular path but
instead distributes the compactive effort uniformly over the entire fill.

Embankment Fill C shall be placed in horizontal lifts not to exceed 30 cm in loose lift thickness unless
otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction
requirements as specified by the Engineer. The maximum particle size shall be limited to two thirds of
the compacted lift thickness. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction equipment described
in Section 4.8.3.

Embankment Fill C material shall be compacted to a minimum of 92 percent of the Modified maximum
dry density as specified by ASTM D 1557. The moisture content during compaction shall be
maintained within the limits of optimum moisture content of 2 percent below to 4 percent above
optimum moisture content as specified by ASTM D 1557. The Engineer may permit minor variations
from these moisture limits if an acceptable density is being achieved.

Where fill is placed adjacent to the concrete encasement of embankment outlet works the material
placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of the concrete encasement shall be placed between optimum
moisture content and 4 percent above optimum moisture content and compacted with relatively

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-41
heavy, rubber-tired compactors. For the concrete encased outlet works the rubber tires equipment
shall include load haul trucks, large front end loaders with a loaded bucket, motor graders such as
Caterpillar Model 14G or larger or other rubber tired equipment approved by the Engineer. The
rubber-tired equipment shall be operated parallel to the concrete encasement. The rubber tire
adjacent to the concrete shall be operated immediately adjacent to the concrete to insure a complete
bonding of the fill to the concrete. Thinner lifts shall be used, if needed, to obtain the required degree
of compaction. The fill shall be brought up evenly on each side of the concrete structures. Care shall
be taken to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while not shifting or
damaging any of the outlet works and encasement.

4.8.4.7 Alluvial Drain


4.8.4.7.1 Use
Alluvial Drain material will be used to construct embankment filter and drain in the Cunahuiri Reservoir
embankment. It will be select pit run material from the alluvial sands and gravels to be excavated
from the Main Sediment Pond reservoir area.

4.8.4.7.2 Material Description


To achieve the functions described above, the Alluvial Filter/Drain material shall:

• Not segregate during processing, handling, placing, spreading or compacting


• Not change in gradation (by degradation or break down) during processing, handling, placing and/or
compacting, or degrade with time, e.g., by freeze-thaw or wetting and drying by seepage flow
• Be internally stable, that is, the fines particles should not erode from the Filter/Drain material under
seepage flows

The Alluvial Drain material shall consist of processed sands and gravels produced by the Contractor.
The Alluvial Drain material shall meet the following grading requirements as specified by
ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
4-inch (101.6 mm) 100 100
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 44
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 88 20
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 77 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 12 0

4.8.4.7.3 Placement Procedure


The Alluvial Drain material shall be placed and spread in lifts not to exceed 50 cm in thickness.
Compaction shall be achieved by 4 passes using a smooth drum roller in static mode. The
compaction shall be achieved by compaction equipment described in Section 4.8.3. Care must be
taken to avoid contaminating the material, both in the stockpile area and the in-place fill. Any
contaminated material shall be removed.

Where Alluvial Drain material is placed adjacent to or within 0.5 meters of concrete encasement of
embankment outlet works, the material shall be compacted with hand operated vibratory plate
compactors. The maximum particle size adjacent to concrete shall be 76.2 mm. Care shall be taken
to establish a test fill and achieve proper minimum compaction while not shifting or damaging any of
the outlet works and encasement.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-42
4.8.4.8 Bog Embankment Fill
4.8.4.8.1 Use
Bog Embankment Fill material will be used to construct fill zones designated as Zone E for the Bog
Storage Facility embankment. This material will be sourced from residual diorites from within the TMF
basin.

4.8.4.8.2 Material Description


Bog Embankment Fill material shall consist of clays, silts, sands, and/or gravels, and may derive from
residual diorite from other areas of the TMF basin. Bog Embankment Fill material shall meet the
following grading requirements in accordance with ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 100
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 70
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 100 60
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 100 52
No. 10 (2 mm) 100 42
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 50 7

4.8.4.8.3 Placement Procedure


Bog Embankment Fill shall be placed in horizontal lifts not to exceed 30 cm in compacted thickness.
Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction requirements as specified by the Engineer. The
compaction shall be achieved by compaction equipment described in Section 4.8.3.

The Bog Embankment Fill shall be compacted to a minimum of 95 percent of the maximum modified
dry density as specified by ASTM D 1557. The moisture content during compaction shall be
maintained within the limits of optimum moisture content of 2 percent below to 4 percent above
optimum moisture content as specified by ASTM D 1557. The Engineer may permit minor variations
from these moisture limits if an acceptable density is being achieved.

All Bog Embankment Fill material shall be placed in a manner which does not allow planes or
construction joints between layers. As necessary, the Bog Embankment fill shall be scarified to a
maximum depth of 5 cm, or as specified by the Engineer before placement of the next layer to
facilitate bonding between layers. At no time shall the fill be placed on in-place material that has been
compacted smooth. Any fill that has not bonded adequately with in-place fill shall be removed or
reworked as specified by the Engineer. The use of sheepsfoot or other pad-type compaction
equipment, which results in a roughened compacted surface, will be considered sufficient and
scarification will not be required.

For the Bog Embankment fill, when a vertical construction joint is formed due to an interruption in the
construction of that layer, the Contractor shall spread the material in the new section adjacent to the
existing layer, mix and moisture-condition the material on both sides of the construction joint over a
distance of at least 2 m measured from the construction joint to blend the materials together.

A test fill shall be developed at the start of the Bog Embankment Fill placement to determine the
number of passes the compactor shall make to achieve the specified density. Once the number of
passes is determined the Contractor shall make at least that many pass to compact the fill. If the field
density test results indicate that the density achieved with ongoing fill placement is above or below
that specified the test fill shall be repeated and the number of passes revised accordingly.

Test fills may be incorporated in the embankment as long as the material placed meets this
specification requirement.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-43
4.8.4.9 General Fill
4.8.4.9.1 Use
General Fill material will be used as trench backfill, site grading fill, and for the construction of safety
berms. This material will be used throughout the project site.

4.8.4.9.2 Material Description


General Fill material shall consist of clays, silts, sands, and gravels provided by the Company at the
location shown on the Drawings or as otherwise approved by the Engineer. General Fill material shall
meet the following grading requirements in accordance with ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 100
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 44
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 100 20
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 90 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 50 0

4.8.4.9.3 Placement Procedure


General Fill material shall be placed and spread in lifts not to exceed 50 cm in loose lift thickness
unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction
requirements as specified by the Engineer. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction
equipment described in Section 4.8.3.

When placed in larger areas as site grading fill, General Fill material shall be compacted to a
minimum of 95 percent of the maximum modified dry density as specified by ASTM D 1557.

When placed as trench backfill, General Fill material shall be placed and spread in lifts not to exceed
30 cm in loose lift thickness, and the maximum particle size shall not exceed two-thirds of the loose lift
thickness. Special compaction measures such as hand-held vibratory compactors or other methods
approved by the Engineer shall be used as described in Section 4.8.3.5.

When placed as safety berms, the General Fill material may be placed loosely unless specified
otherwise in Drawings.

4.8.4.10 Soil Liners A and B


4.8.4.10.1 Use
Soil Liner material will be used to construct low-permeable layers in various structures including a low
permeability layer beneath geomembranes. Placement of Soil Liner material is planned for the
Cunahuiri Reservoir. Soil liner A shall be placed in the 20 cm immediately below the liner and Soil
Liner B beneath Soil Liner A as indicated on the drawings.

4.8.4.10.2 Material Description


Soil Liner A material shall meet the grading requirements set forth below and be obtained from borrow
areas designated on the Drawings or by the Company and approved by the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for processing the materials to obtain the required moisture content prior to
compaction regardless of the moisture condition of the materials at the source. The material shall
generally be comprised of silty or clayey sands and gravels with a minimum of 25 percent passing the
No. 200 sieve (fines) and a maximum particle size of 25.4 mm meeting the following gradation limits in
accordance with ASTM D 422.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-44
Soil Liner A Gradation
Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 100
2-inch (50.8 mm) 100 100
1-inch (25.4 mm) 100 100
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 100 50
No. 10 (2 mm) 100 43
No. 40 (0.426 mm) 100 33
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 100 25

Soil Liner B material shall meet the grading requirements set forth below and be obtained from borrow
areas designated on the Drawings or by the Company and approved by the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for processing the materials to obtain the required moisture content prior to
compaction regardless of the moisture condition of the materials at the source. The material shall
generally be comprised of silty or clayey sands and gravels with a minimum of 25 percent passing the
No. 200 sieve (fines) and a maximum particle size of 152.4 mm meeting the following gradation limits
in accordance with ASTM D 422.

Soil Liner B Gradation


Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 100
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 89
1-inch (25.4 mm) 100 72
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 100 46
No. 10 (2 mm) 100 41
No. 40 (0.426 mm) 100 33
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 85 25

4.8.4.10.3 Placement Procedure


Soil Liner A or B material shall be placed in horizontal lifts not to exceed 30 cm in loose lift thickness
unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Thinner lifts may be required to meet the compaction
requirements as specified by the Engineer. The compaction shall be achieved by compaction
equipment described in Section 4.8.3.

Soil Liner material shall be compacted to a minimum of 95 percent of the maximum modified dry
density as specified by ASTM D 1557. The moisture content during compaction shall be maintained
within the limits of optimum moisture content of 2 percent below to 4 percent above optimum moisture
content as specified by ASTM D 1557. The Engineer may permit minor variations from these
moisture limits if an acceptable density and permeability is being achieved. In addition, variations in
the gradation may be allowed at the sole discretion of the Engineer if permeability tests conducted in
the laboratory on samples obtained from the proposed borrow areas demonstrate the permeability
criteria is being achieved.

Soil Liner material shall be placed in a manner which does not allow planes or construction joints
between layers. As necessary, the top surface of placed Soil Liner material shall be scarified to a
maximum depth of 5 cm, or as specified by the Engineer before placement of the next layer to
facilitate bonding between layers. At no time shall the fill be placed on in-place material that has been
compacted smooth. Any fill that has not bonded adequately with in-place fill shall be removed or
reworked as specified by the Engineer. The use of sheepsfoot or other pad-type compaction
equipment, which results in a roughened compacted surface, will be considered sufficient and
scarification will not be required.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-45
When a vertical construction joint is formed due to an interruption in the construction of that layer, the
Contractor shall spread Core material in the new section adjacent to the existing layer, mix and
moisture-condition the material on both sides of the construction joint over a distance of at least 2 m
measured from the construction joint to blend the materials together.

A test fill shall be developed at the start of the Soil Liner placement to determine the number of
passes the compactor shall make to achieve the specified density. Once the number of passes is
determined the Contractor shall make at least that many pass to compact the fill. If the field density
test results indicate that the density achieved with ongoing fill placement is above or below that
specified the test fill shall be repeated and the number of passes revised accordingly.

In areas where geomembrane liner is to be placed above Soil Liner, particles that protrude from the
surface or are not bedded during the rolling process that are deemed by the Engineer to be
detrimental to geomembrane performance under loading shall be removed by raking, brooming, or
hand picking such that the final surface meets with the approval of the Engineer and the Installer. In
addition, in areas where soil liner is to be used beneath a geomembrane it shall be placed in at least
two lifts.

4.8.4.11 Liner Bedding


4.8.4.11.1 Use
The Liner Bedding will be used as bedding layer material for areas which will require a geomembrane
liner wherein the in-situ soils are not able to be reworked to generate a smooth, firm, and unyielding
surface. Additional Liner Bedding material will be used as a protective a protective layer above the
geomembrane in select areas. In contrast to Soil Liner, it will be used in areas where a low
permeability liner is not required.

4.8.4.11.2 Material Description


The Liner Bedding material shall consist of clays, silts, sands and gravels, and may derive from
residual diorite from other areas of the TMF basin. The bedding layer material shall meet the
following grading requirements in accordance with ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 100
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 100 75
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 100 55
No. 10 (2 mm) 100 45
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 50 12

4.8.4.11.3 Placement Procedure


Liner Bedding material shall be placed and spread in lifts of 30 cm in loose lift thickness unless
otherwise approved by the Engineer, and compacted by at least four passes of a vibratory smooth
drum compactor or approved equivalent. Particles that protrude from the surface or are not bedded
during the rolling process that are deemed by the Engineer to be detrimental to geomembrane
performance under loading shall be removed by raking, or hand picking such that the final surface
meets with the approval of the Engineer and the Installer.

4.8.4.12 Fine Drainage Gravel


4.8.4.12.1 Use
Fine Drainage Gravel will be used as drainage material within drains and channels beneath the TMF
and the WRF.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-46
4.8.4.12.2 Material Description
Fine Drainage Gravel material shall consist of processed sands and gravels provided by the Company
at the location shown on the Drawings. Fine Drainage Gravel shall meet the following grading
requirements in accordance with ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 100
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 100 35
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 70 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0

4.8.4.12.3 Placement Procedure


Fine Drainage Gravel material shall be placed and spread in lifts not to exceed 1,000 cm in loose lift
thickness unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Compaction of the Fine Drainage Gravel
shall be avoided. Care must be taken to avoid contaminating the material, both in the stockpile area
and the in-place fill. Any overly compacted or contaminated material shall be removed.

4.8.4.13 Coarse Drainage Gravel


4.8.4.13.1 Use
Coarse Drainage Gravel will be used as drainage material to construct TMF groundwater underdrains,
Topsoil Stockpile No.1 drains, and the WRF drains and channels.

4.8.4.13.2 Material Description


Coarse Drainage Gravel material shall consist of processed sands and gravels provided by the
Company at the location shown on the Drawings. Coarse Drainage Gravel material shall meet the
following grading requirements in accordance with ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 100
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 34
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 73 0
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 50 0
No. 10 (2 mm) 20 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0

4.8.4.13.3 Placement Procedure


Coarse Drainage Gravel material shall be placed in a manner to avoid segregation and to facilitate the
construction of embankment zones in accordance with the details and to the lines and grades shown
on the Drawings or as specified by the Engineer.

Coarse Drainage Gravel placed over and around underdrain pipes shall be placed by mechanical or
labor-intensive methods, ensuring that the pipework remains undamaged and undisplaced after
placement. Extreme care shall be taken during backfilling operations around all connections and
fittings to ensure that these connections and fittings remain intact after aggregate placement.

Placement of the Coarse Drainage Gravel around the main collector pipes shall be conducted in a
manner such that the material fills the void beneath the haunches of the pipes. Hand placement of
the material beneath the haunches of the pipe will be required if necessary to achieve complete
bedding of the pipe.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-47
Coarse Drainage Gravel shall be placed to, or slightly below, the crown of the pipe and compacted by
four passes of a vibratory plate compactor a distance of at least four pipe diameters on each side of
the pipe. Sufficient Coarse Drainage Gravel shall be placed to maintain the pipes in position but not
more than needed such that there is adequate compaction of materials beneath the haunches of the
pipe.

Coarse Drainage Gravel placed within embankments and channels shall be placed and lightly
compacted with an excavator bucket in loose lifts not to exceed 30 cm in thickness unless otherwise
approved by the Engineer. Care must be taken to avoid contaminating the material, both in the
stockpile area and the in-place fill. Any contaminated material shall be removed.

4.8.4.14 Drainage Rock


4.8.4.14.1 Use
Drainage Rock will be used at the downstream toe of the Bog Storage Facility embankment to provide
drainage for seepage passing through the geomembrane liner. Additionally, this material will be used
as backfill for the large culverts at the Chilloroya River crossing and for smaller culverts if local
material is unsuitable.

4.8.4.14.2 Material Description


Drainage Rock material shall consist of unprocessed river gravels composed of sands and gravels
provided by the Company at the location shown on the Drawings. The Drainage Rock material shall
meet the following grading requirements in accordance with ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size
(by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
6-inch (152.4 mm) 100 100
2-inch (50.4 mm) 100 68
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 40
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 100 20
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 83 0
No. 50 (0.3 mm) 17 0
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 5 0

Drainage Rock material placed within 0.5 m of pipe encasements and other concrete faces shall
comprise materials with maximum particle size of 76.2 mm (3 inches).

4.8.4.14.3 Placement Procedure


Drainage Rock material shall be placed in a manner to avoid segregation and to facilitate the
construction of embankment zones in accordance with the details and to the lines and grades shown
on the Drawings or as specified by the Engineer.

Drainage Rock placed over and around underdrain pipes shall be placed by mechanical or labor-
intensive methods, ensuring that the pipework remains undamaged and undisplaced after placement.
Extreme care shall be taken during backfilling operations around all connections and fittings to ensure
that these connections and fittings remain intact after aggregate placement.

Placement of the Drainage Rock around the main collector pipes shall be conducted in a manner
such that the material fills the void beneath the haunches of the pipes. Hand placement of the
material beneath the haunches of the pipe will be required if necessary to achieve complete bedding
of the pipe.

Drainage Rock shall be placed to, or slightly below, the crown of the pipe and compacted by four
passes of a vibratory plate compactor a distance of at least four pipe diameters on each side of the
pipe. Sufficient Drainage Rock shall be placed to maintain the pipes in position but not more than
needed such that there is adequate compaction of materials beneath the haunches of the pipe.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-48
Drainage Rock placed within embankments and channels shall be placed and spread in loose lifts not
to exceed 50 cm in thickness unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Compaction shall be
achieved by 4 passes using a vibratory smooth drum roller in static mode. The compaction shall be
achieved by compaction equipment described in Section 4.8.3. Care must be taken to avoid
contaminating the material, both in the stockpile area and the in-place fill. Any contaminated material
shall be removed.

4.8.4.15 Pipe Bedding


4.8.4.15.1 Use
Pipe Bedding material will be used to bed the culverts and pipes associated with the TMF and
diversion channels. Pipe bedding will also be required for the buried sections of the outlet pipes
downstream of the Cunahuiri Reservoir, Main Sediment Pond, and construction sediment pond
embankments.

4.8.4.15.2 Material Description


Pipe Bedding shall consist of a sandy, well-graded gravel with some fines. The Earthwork Contractor
shall obtain the material from crushing and screening, a stockpile, or borrow areas indicated on the
Drawings or as designated by the Engineer and approved by the Company.

Pipe Bedding shall have a gradation as specified in the following table.

Grade Limits for Pipe Bedding Aggregate

Percent Passing
Sieve Size (by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
3-inch (76.2 mm) 100 100
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 60
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 85 40
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 65 30
No. 10 (2 mm) 50 20
No. 40 (0.426 mm) 30 12
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 15 5

In addition, the Pipe Bedding shall be non-plastic in accordance with ASTM D 4318.

4.8.4.15.3 Placement Procedure


Pipe Bedding shall be placed in horizontal lifts with a maximum compacted lift thickness of 150 mm
beneath the culverts. The pipe shall then be placed on the bedding, and the Pipe Bedding shall be
placed again in horizontal lifts with a maximum loose lift thickness of 150 mm to the springline of the
pipe. The pipe bedding shall be worked under the pipe haunches. Pipe Bedding shall be compacted
to a minimum of 95 percent maximum dry density of the Modified Proctor, in accordance with ASTM D
1557 within 3 percent of optimum moisture content.

4.8.4.16 Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill


4.8.4.16.1 Use
Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill material will be used to backfill the culverts associated with the site
access and haul road construction as well as the runoff diversion facilities.

4.8.4.16.2 Material Description


Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill shall consist of onsite silty sands and gravels. Trench, Vault and Pipe
Backfill shall contain less than 50 percent passing the No. 200 sieve. The maximum particle size

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-49
within 30 centimeters of the pipes or culverts shall be 50.8 mm. In areas over 0.5 meters away from
pipes or culverts, the maximum particle size shall be no larger than two-thirds of the lift thickness.

4.8.4.16.3 Placement Procedure


Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill shall be placed in horizontal lifts with a maximum loose lift thickness of
30 cm and be compacted to at least 95 percent of the maximum dry density as determined by ASTM
D 1557. The placement moisture content shall be between 3 percent below and 3 percent above
optimum moisture content as determined by ASTM D 1557. Fill within one meter of the pipes or
culverts shall be compacted with hand held compactors or compaction equipment demonstrated by
the Earthwork Contractor to achieve the required density specification without damage to the pipe or
culvert. Fill over 1 meter away from the pipe should be compacted using a Caterpillar Model 825
sheepsfoot compactor or equivalent. If pipe deformations occur with this procedure, the one-meter
distance shall be increased to the point that deformations do not occur. Care shall be taken in the
operation of the compaction equipment to not damage the pipe or distort its alignment, yet achieve
the required compaction specification.

4.8.4.17 Riprap
4.8.4.17.1 Use
Riprap shall be used for erosion protection for the WRF Facility drains and channels, within spillways,
as upstream slope protection of embankments, and within the diversion channels.

4.8.4.17.2 Material Description


Riprap shall be sound, hard, durable diorite, limestone, or other rock either quarried from a borrow
area, obtained from construction excavations at other facilities, or provided from the mining operation.
It shall be hard, angular, durable, and reasonably well graded rock free of overburden, organic,
deleterious, or other objectionable material. Rounded rock is not acceptable unless authorized by
special provision. The stone shall have a minimum specific gravity of 2.50, with a preferred value of
2.65. The Riprap stone shall be such that its greatest dimension is not greater than three times its
smallest dimension. The quality of the material must be approved by the Engineer prior to removal
from the stockpile. If the riprap quality is questionable additional testing may be specified to evaluate
it, however it is anticipated it can be approved based on a visual and digital examination.

The Riprap shall generally conform to the following gradation requirements in accordance with ASTM
C136:

Riprap D50 = 75 mm (Maximum Size 150 mm)

Sieve Size Percent Passing Typical Stone Mass


(Square Openings) (by Weight) (kg)
Maximum Minimum
150 mm 100 100
75 mm 55 35 0.6
37.5 mm 20 0

Riprap D50 = 150 mm (Maximum Size 300 mm)

Sieve Size Percent Passing Typical Stone Mass


(Square Openings) (by Weight) (kg)
Maximum Minimum
300 mm 100 100
225 mm 70 50 16
150 mm 55 35 4.5
50 mm 10 2 0.2

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-50
Riprap D50 = 300 mm (Maximum Size 600 mm)

Sieve Size Percent Passing Typical Stone Mass


(Square Openings) (by Weight) (kg)
Maximum Minimum
600 mm 100 100
525 mm 100 70 200
450 mm 70 50 125
300 mm 55 35 40
100 mm 10 2 1.4

Riprap D50 = 450 mm (Maximum Size 900 mm)

Sieve Size Percent Passing Typical Stone Mass


(Square Openings) (by Weight) (kg)
Maximum Minimum
900 mm 100 100
750 mm 100 70 580
600 mm 70 50 295
450 mm 55 35 125
150 mm 10 2 4.5

Some minor deviation from these limits may be acceptable for specific cases, subject to the
Engineer’s approval. Processing may be required to produce the specified material.

Acceptance of the Riprap gradation will be based on visual observations made by the Engineer.
Testing may be required if specified by the Engineer.

4.8.4.17.3 Placement Procedure


The Earthwork Contractor shall haul from the stockpile area, place, and level the Riprap to the lines
and grades specified on the Drawings. Riprap shall be placed in a manner that minimizes
segregation and produces a reasonably well-graded mass of rocks with a minimal practical
percentage of voids as specified by the Engineer. The material shall be placed and distributed such
that there are no large accumulations of either larger or smaller sizes of rock. Rearranging of
individual stones by mechanical equipment may be required to achieve this result. Hand placement is
not required. For Riprap used as upstream slope protection on embankments, the voids between the
individual rocks shall be chinked with the finer rock particles by placing them using a trackhoe or
loader into the void space between the individual rock particles. The chinking material will be
relatively well-graded sands and gravels less than 10 cm in size. It is usually obtained from the fines
remaining from the Riprap stockpile after the larger sizes have been placed.

4.8.4.18 Grouted Riprap


4.8.4.18.1 Use
Grouted Riprap shall be used for erosion protection for spillways and channels as shown on the
Drawings.

4.8.4.18.2 Material Description


Grouted Riprap shall be sound hard durable diorite, limestone, or other rock either quarried from a
borrow area, obtained from construction excavations at other facilities, or provided from the mining
operation. It shall be hard, angular, durable, and reasonably well graded rock free of overburden,
organic, deleterious, or other objectionable material. Rounded rock is not acceptable unless
authorized by special provision. The stone shall have a minimum specific gravity of 2.50, with a
preferred value of 2.65. The quality of the material must be approved by the Engineer prior to
removal from the stockpile. If the riprap quality is questionable additional testing may be specified to
evaluate it, however it is anticipated it can be approved based on a visual and digital examination.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-51
The Riprap shall generally conform to the following gradation requirements as determined by ASTM
C136:

Grouted Riprap Dn = 300 mm (Maximum Size 450 mm)

Sieve Size Percent Passing Typical Stone Mass


(Square Openings) (by Weight) (kg)
Maximum Minimum
450 mm 100 100 125
375 mm 100 70 75
300 mm 50 0 40
225 mm 5 0 16

Grouted Riprap Dn = 450 mm (Maximum Size 600 mm)


Sieve Size Percent Passing Typical Stone Mass
(Square Openings) (by Weight) (kg)
Maximum Minimum
600 mm 100 100 295
525 mm 100 70 200
450 mm 50 0 125
375 mm 5 0 75

Grouted Riprap Dn = 600 mm (Maximum Size 900 mm)

Sieve Size Percent Passing Typical Stone Mass


(Square Openings) (by Weight) (kg)
Maximum Minimum
900 mm 100 100
750 mm 100 70 580
600 mm 50 0 295
450 mm 5 0 125

Some minor deviation from these limits may be acceptable for specific cases, subject to the
Engineer’s approval. Processing may be required to produce the specified material.

Concrete mortar for Grouted Riprap shall consist of medium strength concrete with a 28-day strength
of 2,000 psi (13.8 MPa). Maximum aggregate size shall be 13 mm and the concrete is to have a
slump of between 125 and 200 mm. Sand mixes may be used provided sufficient cement is added to
give good strength and workability. The Engineer shall approve the concrete mortar mix prior to any
commencement of the grouting.

Acceptance of the Grouted Riprap gradation will be based on visual observations made by the
Engineer. Testing may be required if specified by the Engineer.

4.8.4.18.3 Placement Procedure


Do not place grout mix when the daily minimum temperature is less than 4½ degrees Celsius.
Maintain at minimum temperature of 10 degrees C and not more than 32 degrees C during the
placement and the curing periods. Do not place on frozen surfaces. Riprap surfaces shall be lightly
moistened before grout placement. Allow excess water to drain. Low pressure shall be used to inject
grout into the voids between stones by puming through a maximum 60 mm diameter hose. Deposit
grout to fill all voids by injecting the grout into the bottom of the riprap layer and allowing it to fill the
voids by flowing from the bottom to the top of the layer. Effort shall be taken to ensure that all void
spaces, especially those near the exposed surface, are filled and that the grout penetrates to the
subgrade. Grout is to be applied from bottom to top starting with application in the lowest course and
continuing upward ensuring that all voids lower in the depth of the rock layer are filled and that proper
coverage is achieved throughout the required Riprap thickness to be grouted. Subject to visual

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-52
examination and subsequent judgments by the Engineer, a pencil vibrator shall be used to further
consolidate grouting and eliminate void spaces.

Providing a finished, smooth surface for the Grouted Riprap is not intended or acceptable. The grout
is intended to stabilize the Riprap in place, not provide a smooth drainage surface. The contractor
shall apply water or cover with wet burlap or polyethylene for a period of 7 days after placement.

Weep holes shall be provided in the blanket to relieve hydrostatic pressure build-up behind the grout
surface. Weeps shall extend through the grout into the underlying bedding layer or soil. Weeps shall
consist of 50 mm diameter slotted PVC pipes having a maximum horizontal spacing of 2 m. The
buried end of the weep shall be covered with an end cap or wire screen. Where a filter layer is not
placed under the Riprap blanket, the buried end of the weep shall extend a minimum 150 mm beyond
the grout and be encapsulated in a coarse geotextile fabric filled with 19 mm aggregate.

4.8.4.19 Riprap Bedding


4.8.4.19.1 Use
Riprap Bedding shall be used for erosion protection for the Upstream Shell face of the embankment
beneath the Riprap within the limits shown on the Drawings. It is also used beneath Grouted Riprap
in channels, as shown on the drawings. For embankments the Riprap serves to break the force of the
waves and the Riprap Bedding to prevent erosion of the face of the Upstream Shell by the water
running down the face around the Riprap pieces.

4.8.4.19.2 Material Description


To achieve the functions described above, the Riprap Bedding material shall:

• Not segregate during processing, handling, placing, spreading or compacting


• Not change in gradation (by degradation or break down) during processing, handling, placing and/or
compacting, or degrade with time; e.g., by freeze-thaw or wetting and drying by seepage flow

The Riprap Bedding material shall consist of processed sands and gravels. The material shall meet
the following gradation requirements as specified by ASTM D 422.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size (by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
1-1/2-inch (38.1 mm) 100 100
1-inch (25.4 mm) 100 90
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 65
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 80 45
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 65 30
No. 10 (2 mm) 52 22
No. 40 (0.426 mm) 35 15
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 20 5

4.8.4.19.3 Placement Procedure


Riprap Bedding material shall be placed in a single lift parallel to the upstream embankment or
channel centerline in a loose lift of at least 15 cm in thickness. Compaction of the Riprap Bedding
material is not required.

Care must be taken to avoid contaminating the Riprap Bedding material, both in the stockpile area
and the in-place fill. Any contaminated material shall be removed.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-53
4.8.4.20 Road Wearing Course
4.8.4.20.1 Use
Road Wearing Course will be used to surface the embankment crests, haul roads, construction roads,
and access roads.

4.8.4.20.2 Material Description


Road Wearing Course to be used as road surfacing shall consist of a sandy, well-graded gravel with
some fines. The Earthwork Contractor shall obtain the material from a stockpile provided by the
Company in the area indicated on the Drawings.

Road Wearing Course material shall have a gradation as specified in the following table.

Percent Passing
Sieve Size (by Weight)
(Square Openings)
Maximum Minimum
1-1/2-inch (38.1 mm) 100 100
1-inch (25.4 mm) 100 80
3/4-inch (19 mm) 100 65
3/8-inch (9.53 mm) 80 45
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 65 30
No. 10 (2 mm) 52 22
No. 40 (0.426 mm) 35 12
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 20 5

4.8.4.20.3 Placement Procedure


The Contractor shall haul the material from the stockpile and place and spread the material to the
lines and grades shown on the Drawings. Road Wearing Course shall be leveled to form a smooth
surface, free of rock pockets or protrusions of rock fragments and providing the proper cross
drainage.

The material shall be placed in loose lift thicknesses between 150 and 200 mm, and compacted to a
minimum of 92 percent of the maximum modified dry density as specified by ASTM D 1557.

4.8.4.21 Piezometer Sand


4.8.4.21.1 Use
Piezometer Sand shall be placed around the tips of the vibrating wire piezometers as indicated on the
Drawings.

4.8.4.21.2 Material Description


The Piezometer Sand shall consist of clean Ottawa Sand or equivalent with less than 3 percent
passing the No. 200 sieve.

4.8.4.21.3 Placement Procedure


The Piezometer Sand shall be placed to fully bed and surround the piezometer tips. No compaction
shall be applied.

4.8.4.22 Piezometer Trench Backfill


4.8.4.22.1 Use
Piezometer Trench Backfill shall be placed for the piezometer leads in the structural fill of the TMF to
their exit at the downstream toe. Piezometer leads within the Filter/Drain and the tailings do not
require Piezometer Trench Backfill.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-54
4.8.4.22.2 Material Descriptions
Piezometer Trench Backfill shall consist of Liner Bedding material unless otherwise recommended by
piezometer manufacturer.

4.8.4.22.3 Placement Procedure


Unless otherwise instructed by piezometer manufacturer, Piezometer Trench Backfill shall be placed
with a 10 cm thick bedding layer consisting of the piezometer trench backfill beneath the piezometer
cable and the upper 20 cm placed over the piezometer cable. Compaction is accomplished by four
passes using a hand operated vibratory plate compactor on the bottom 10 cm bedding layer and
20 cm cover.

4.9 Geosynthetics
The technical requirements in this document cover the quality of materials and workmanship for
Geosynthetics designed by Knight Piésold for the Constancia Project, and as detailed on the
Drawings.

4.9.1 General
The Geosynthetics Manufacturer and/or Installer shall submit the following information, where
applicable to the type of geosynthetic they are supplying and installing, in writing to the Company prior
to installation of Geomembrane material.

• The Geosynthetics Manufacturer shall confirm in writing that the guarantees covering materials and
all workmanship as well as degradation due to ultraviolet light listed in these Specifications can be
achieved prior to the award of the bid.
• Certification stating that all resin is from the same manufacturer.
• Copy of QA/QC certificates issued by Geomembrane Manufacturer, resin supplier, and third party
independent Quality Assurance tester.
• Certification that extrudate resins and/or rod is from one manufacturer, is the same resin type, and
was obtained from the same resin supplier as the resin used to manufacture the Geomembrane
rolls.
• A copy of the Installer’s QC Manual shall be submitted through the Company to the Engineer prior
to the award of the bid. If the manual has been provided for previous project Work and no changes
have been made to the manual since that submittal, then this requirement may be waived by the
Company. If there are discrepancies between these Geosynthetics Specifications and the Installer’s
QC Manual, the more stringent will apply unless approved otherwise by the Engineer.
• Weld test data for high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)
welds (both extrusion and wedge welds) shall be supplied to the Engineer upon request prior to the
award of the bid.
• Upon award of the bid, the Geosynthetics Installer shall supply the Engineer with the proposed
panel layout. The review will be for concept only, and actual panel placement will be determined by
site conditions and will be approved at the time of installation.

4.9.2 Submittals upon Completion of Installation


• Certificate stating the Geomembrane has been installed in accordance with the Drawings and
Geosynthetics Specifications.
• Record of Construction drawings showing all actual Geomembrane panel layouts, seams, location
of destructive test samples, and all repairs clearly marked. The Record of Construction panel layout
shall include the Bog Storage Facility, Tailings Management Facility, Cunahuiri Reservoir, and
channels that require Geomembrane to complete the Work. The Record of Construction panel
layout must be submitted in A3 drawings and digital (minimum ACAD R14) format to the Company
and the Engineer.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-55
4.9.3 Coordination between the Company, Geosynthetics and Earthwork Contractors, Installer, and
Engineer
After the Earthworks Contractor has completed preparing the surface that will lie directly below a
Geomembrane Liner, the Earthwork Contractor, the Installer, the Engineer, and the Company will
verify their acceptance by signing a form that describes the extent of the area. At that time, the
Installer assumes the responsibility of protecting the approved surface through the use of barriers or
other means to eliminate vehicle traffic on approved surfaces until it is covered by Geomembrane.

Any damage by mechanical or other means such as water entering through non-welded panels or
incomplete patches, repairs, etc., shall be repaired to meet the requirements of the Geosynthetics
Specifications or as approved by the Engineer. The Installer shall promptly cover approved subgrade
to avoid damage to the approved subgrade. Damage caused by weather to approved areas not
attributed to the Installer shall be repaired to meet the Geosynthetics Specifications requirements or
as approved by the Engineer by the Contractor. Any damage to approved areas resulting from poor
surface runoff control (e.g., allowing surface runoff onto approved areas) as a result of operations of
the Installer shall be repaired to meet the Specifications requirements or as approved by the Engineer
and the Company.

After installation of the Geomembrane Liner and final QC measures are completed by the Installer
and approved by the Engineer, areas receiving a cover material shall be clearly identified, and the
Engineer and the Company shall be notified for Geomembrane inspection. Upon signed acceptance
by the Installer, Earthwork Contractor, Engineer, and the Company that the Geomembrane has been
installed in accordance with the Geosynthetics Specifications, it will be available to the Earthwork
Contractor, as applicable, for placing cover material. At that time, the Earthwork Contractor will
assume responsibility for maintaining the condition of that portion of the Geomembrane until it is
covered.

Any damage to accepted Geomembrane Liner as a result of the Earthwork Contractor’s operation will
be repaired to meet the Geosynthetics Specifications requirements or as approved by the Engineer
and the Company.

4.9.4 High-Density Polyethylene


These Geosynthetics Specifications define the QC requirements during manufacturing and installation
of HDPE.

4.9.4.1 Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s Quality Control


The Geomembrane liner shall be of high quality formulation containing approximately 97 percent
polymer and 2 percent to 3 percent carbon black with anti-oxidants and heat stabilizers. It shall be
resistant to ultraviolet rays.

All resin shall consist of all virgin material from the same manufacturer, shall not be intermixed (third
party to confirm), and no reclaimed polymer may be added to the resin. The manufacturing process
shall not use more than 10 percent rework. If rework is used, it must be similar HDPE to the parent
material.

The Geomembrane shall be HDPE material manufactured of new, first-quality products designed and
manufactured specifically for the purpose of liquid containment in hydraulic structures. The finished
material shall be free of holes, blisters, undispersed raw materials, or any sign of contamination by
foreign matter.

Geomembrane material is to be supplied in roll form. Each roll is to be identified with labels indicating
the manufacturer’s name, product identification, thickness, length, width, and roll number.

The Geosynthetics Manufacturer must be ISO 9000-certified, and the manufacturer’s laboratory must
be certified by GAI/LAP for the tests being performed and shall have a third-party in-plant
independent QA Program. The proposed third-party company must be submitted to the Company
and approved by the Company prior to manufacture of the Geomembrane. The third-party shall

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-56
perform the tests required at the required frequency as stated in these Geosynthetics Specifications.
The third party shall inform the Geosynthetics Manufacturer, the Company, and the Engineer of any
discrepancies or non-conformance test results that occur. Material produced by the Geosynthetics
Manufacturer that does not conform to the third-party test results or meet the standards specified
herein shall not be shipped to site. All test results (the Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s and third party)
shall be supplied through the Company to the Engineer, and the rolls of material shall be clearly
identified and correlate to the test results provided. The Engineer shall not approve the material that
has arrived at site prior to reviewing the third party and the Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s test results
and confirming the results of each laboratory (i.e., meet minimum values stated in these
Geosynthetics Specifications).

The HDPE Geomembrane material shall be certified in writing by the manufacturer to meet the
following minimum criteria. One such certificate shall accompany each batch delivery of HDPE to
site.

Smooth HDPE Properties

Property Value Test Method


Minimum Thickness, mil (mm) 60 (1.50) 80 (2.00) ASTM D 1599
Density, g/cm3 0.94 0.94 ASTM D 1505
Tensile properties (each direction)
Strength at break, lb/in-width (N/mm) 243 (42) 327 (57) ASTM D 6693, Type IV
Strength at yield, lb/in-width (N/mm) 132 (23) 177 (30) Dumbbell, 2 ipm
Elongation at break, % 700 700 G.L. 2.0 in (51 mm)
Elongation at yield, % 13 13 G.L. 1.3 in (33 mm)
Tear Resistance, lb (N) 42 (186) 58 (257) ASTM D 1004
Puncture Resistance, lb (N) 125 (556) 160 (711) ASTM D 4833
Carbon Black Content, % (Range) 2.0 – 3.0 2.0 – 3.0 ASTM D1603*/4218
Carbon Black Dispersion Note (1) Note (1) ASTM D 5596
Notched Constant Tensile Load, hr 1,000 1,000 ASTM D 5397, Appendix
Oxidative Induction Time, min > 140 >140 ASTM D 3895, 200o C; O2, 1 atm
Notes
(1)

Dispersion only applies to near spherical agglomerates. Nine of ten views shall be Category 1 or 2. No more than one view
from Category 3.
Properties from GSE specifiers guide handbook

Textured HDPE Properties

Property Value Test Method


Minimum Thickness, mil (mm) 60 (1.50) 80 (2.00) ASTM D 1599
Density, g/cm3 0.94 0.94 ASTM D 1505
Tensile properties (each direction)
Strength at break, lb/in-width (N/mm) 115(20) 115 (27) ASTM D 6693, Type IV
Strength at yield, lb/in-width (N/mm) 132 (23) 177 (31) Dumbell, 2 ipm
Elongation at break, % 100 100 G.L. 2.0 in (51 mm)
Elongation at yield, % 12 12 G.L. 1.3 in (33 mm)
Tear Resistance, lb (N) 45 (200) 60 (266) ASTM D 1004
Puncture Resistance, lb (N) 130 (578) 160 (711) ASTM D 4833
Carbon Black Content, % (Range) 2.0 – 3.0 2.0 – 3.0 ASTM D1603*/4218
Carbon Black Dispersion Note (1) Note (1) ASTM D 5596
Asperity Height, mil (mm) 18 (0.45) 18 (0.45) ASTM 7466
Notched Constant Tensile Load, hr 1,000 1,000 ASTM D 5397, Appendix
Oxidative Induction Time, min > 140 >140 ASTM D 3895, 200o C; O2, 1 atm
Note:
(1)

Dispersion only applies to near spherical agglomerates. Nine of ten views shall be Category 1 or 2. No more than one view
from Category 3.
Properties from GSE specifiers guide handbook

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-57
Extrudate resins and/or rods shall be from the same manufacturer as the Geomembrane rolls and of
the same resin type.

4.9.5 Installation
4.9.5.1 General
The Geomembrane shall be installed into the Geomembrane Liner on the area shown on the
Drawings or as specified by the Company or the Engineer.

Prior to deployment of Geomembrane, the Installer shall inspect, certify, and accept with the,
Engineer, Earthwork Contractor, Geosynthetics Contractor, and the Company all surfaces on which
the Geomembrane is to be placed to ensure conformance with the Earthwork Specifications.
Surfaces not in compliance with the Earthwork Specifications shall be rectified by the Contractor.

The amount of Geomembrane deployed without final QC and final repairs being completed shall not
exceed 25,000 m2 without the written approval of the Engineer and the Company. In addition, no
seams shall be left unwelded, and no openings in the liner shall be left at the end of a shift without the
Installer notifying the Engineer and obtaining the Engineer’s approval.

The Geomembrane shall be placed over the prepared surface using methods and procedures that
ensure a minimum of handling and do not damage the Geomembrane or the underlying surface. The
Installer shall provide adequate temporary anchoring and ballast devices (commonly sandbags),
which will not damage the Geomembrane, to prevent uplift and damage due to winds. Ballasting by
means of placing loose piles of material shall not be used unless expressly approved by the
Company. The Installer is solely responsible for the safety of his operation including decisions
regarding Geomembrane deployment in adverse weather conditions and the amount of temporary
anchoring and ballasting required.

Handling and storage of Geomembrane shall be in accordance with the Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s
printed instructions. Personnel walking or working on the Geomembrane shall not engage in activities
or wear shoes that could damage the Geomembrane. Smoking is not permitted on the
Geomembrane or in Geomembrane storage areas.

The Geomembrane shall be installed in a relaxed condition and shall be free of tension or stress upon
completion of the installation. All necessary precautions, including provisions for installing extra
material, shall be taken to avoid trampolining of Geomembrane, which will remain exposed (i.e., pad
and pond slope breaks and corners, solution channels, etc.).

If wrinkles develop in the Geomembrane that result in folding that does not disappear in the cooler
times of the day when the Geomembrane lies relatively flat, then some of the excess Geomembrane
may need to be removed. Prior to any corrective action, problem areas should be monitored over a
two- to three-day period during the cooler and hotter times of the day to determine whether the
wrinkles are a problem and the extent of excess Geomembrane to be removed. Problem areas
should be brought to the attention of the Engineer who then, with the Installer, will specify the
corrective action to be taken.

To the maximum extent possible, panels shall be oriented such that seams are parallel to the line of
the slope.

Horizontal field seams on slopes should be kept to a minimum. Seams shall be made by lapping the
uphill material over the downhill material with sufficient overlap. Three feet are to be allowed from the
toe or the top of the slope to any horizontal seam on flat areas. Also, horizontal seams of adjacent
panels shall, in general, be separated by a minimum 1 m. A sequential seam numbering system
compatible with the panel numbering system shall be used to identify seams.

Installation shall be performed under the direction of a superintendent who has installed a minimum of
2
one million m of HDPE or other flexible lining material. The superintendent shall be provided by the
Installer and shall be in charge of the installation.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-58
Extreme care shall be taken by the Installer in the preparation of the areas to be welded. The seam
area shall be cleaned and prepared according to the approved procedures in the Installer’s QC
Manual, and all sheeting shall be welded together by thermal methods.

The welding equipment used shall be capable of continuously monitoring and controlling the speed
and the temperatures in the zone of contact where the machine is actually fusing the lining material to
ensure that changes in weather conditions will not affect the integrity of the weld. The welding
machine manufacturer’s published data for ranges of temperature and speed in conjunction with the
Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s recommendations shall be followed.

An adequate amount of handling equipment, welding apparatuses, and test equipment shall be
maintained onsite to avoid delays due to problems with equipment failures. The Engineer shall, at the
start of the project and periodically during the project, review the Installer’s available equipment and
its performance and shall make recommendations to the Company if he considers that the equipment
is inadequate to perform the work without delays.

No “fish mouths” shall be allowed within the seam area. Where “fish mouths” occur, the material shall
be cut, overlapped, and extrusion welded. All welds on completion of the Work shall be tightly
bonded. Any membrane area showing distress due to excessive scuffing or puncture from any cause
shall be replaced or repaired by the Installer.

The Installer shall take into account that rapid weather changes are very possible, resulting in delays
in construction of field seams. Jointing of panels and repairs shall only be completed under weather
conditions allowing such work within the warranty limits imposed by the Geosynthetics Manufacturer.
No seams shall be welded unless the ambient air temperature is above 0°C, unless approved by the
engineer in advance. If approved more frequent weld testing may be required to evaluate the integrity
of the cold temperature welding. In addition other cold weather welding techniques may be required.

4.9.5.2 Trial Welds


Trial welds shall be performed on Geomembrane to verify the performance of the welding equipment
and operator prior to performing production welds. The following stipulations shall apply to trial welds:

• No welding equipment or operator shall be allowed to perform production welds until equipment and
operators have successfully completed a trial weld.
• A minimum of two trial welds per day per welding apparatus are to be completed, one made prior to
the start of work and one at midday. Notwithstanding the above, trial welds shall be completed, at a
minimum, for every 4 hours of seaming operation or as specified by the Engineer.
• Trial welds shall be completed after repairs have been made to equipment.
• Each technician using the equipment shall complete a trial weld.
• Trial welds shall be made under the same surface and environmental conditions as the production
welds, i.e., in contact with subgrade and similar ambient temperatures and using similar materials
and pre-seaming and seaming techniques as will be used for production welds.
• Trial weld samples shall be a minimum of 900 mm long by 300 mm wide, marked with the date,
technician’s name, ambient temperature, and welding machine number and temperature.
• Four 25 mm wide-by 150 mm long test strips shall be cut from the trial weld. These strips shall be
tested for peel adhesion and bonded seam strength.
• A trial weld specimen shall pass when the values specified in these Specifications are achieved in
both peel and shear tests. The minimum values specified for peal and shear are presented in the
following Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI) Test Method GM19, Revision 4: November 15,
2010, titled Seam Strength and Related Properties or Thermally Bonded Polyolefin Geomembranes.
• The trial weld is to be repeated in its entirety when any of the trial weld samples fail in either peel or
shear.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-59
4.9.5.3 Field Seam Inspection and Testing
A maximum effort and goal shall be made to install a perfect Geomembrane. This means that all
seams completed in the field, patches, and extrusions shall be inspected, tested, and recorded.

A QC technician shall inspect each seam, marking his initials and the date inspected at the end of
each panel. Any area showing a defect shall be marked and repaired in accordance with HDPE repair
procedures.

All field inspection, sampling, and testing shall be done by the Installer in accordance with these
Geosynthetics Specifications and be approved by the Engineer.

The field installation-testing program shall consist of periodic visual observations and continuity and
strength tests. These inspections and tests are to be made routinely and are automatic regardless of
other types of testing required. The program shall include the following non-destructive and
destructive testing inspections and repair procedures as described below.

4.9.5.4 Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection


All seams shall be non-destructively tested and inspected over their full length as outlined below:

• Visual observations are to be made routinely and shall include the following:
− Visually check field seams for squeeze out, footprint, melt, and overlap.
− Check machines for cleanliness, temperature, and related items.
− Examine all seams and non-seam areas of the Geomembrane for defects, holes, blisters,
undispersed raw materials, and any sign of contamination by foreign matter.
• Continuity testing is required for all field seams and repaired areas. Inter-seam pressure or “air
testing” and testing using a vacuum box are considered acceptable methods for continuity testing.
Inter-seam testing shall be used as the primary method for continuity testing, and other methods
shall be used in places not practical for inter-seam testing. The test procedure for inter-seam
pressure or air testing is the following:
− Seal both ends of the seam to be tested by applying heat to the end of the seam until flow
temperature is achieved. Clamp off the ends and let cool.
− Insert a pressure gauge/needle assembly into the end of the seam and seal.
− Apply air pressure to the void between the two seams according to the following schedule:

HDPE Initial Pressure Schedule for Air Testing

Material Thickness Pressure Range Allowable Leak Down


Minimum Maximum After 5 Minutes
HDPE (kPa) (kPa) (kPa)
60 and 80-mil 193 241 20

• The initial start pressure is read after a 2-minute relaxing period, which allows the air to reach
ambient liner temperature; the ending pressure is read after 5 minutes.
• The results of the leak test shall be marked at the test location and shall be recorded by the
Installer. If the test fails, the location of the leak shall be found and repaired, or the entire seam shall
be repaired and retested.
• After the test is complete, the air is to be released from the opposite end of the seam from where
the air is applied.
• Repair the area where the pressure gauge/needle assembly was installed, and the air was released.
• Observation for melt- or burn-through shall be conducted on all wedge welds in addition to air
pressure testing of the seam.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-60
The test procedure for vacuum box testing is as follows:

• Vacuum Box Testing Procedure


− Mix a solution of liquid detergent and water and apply an ample amount to the area to be tested.
If a seam contains excess overlap or loose edges, it is to be trimmed before testing.
− Place a translucent vacuum box over the area and apply a slight amount of downward pressure
to the box to seat the seal strip to the liner.
− Apply a vacuum (20 to 35 kPa) to the area for a minimum period of 10 seconds. Any leaks will
become visible by bubbles.
• Air Lance Method. A continuous sustained jet of air at approximately 345 kPa pressure passes
through a lance with an orifice of 5 mm diameter. It is directed beneath the flap to detect melt or
burn holes or areas with significant Geomembrane thinning created by the wedge welding. When
such an area is located, the air passes through the liner causing a slight inflation and/or fluttering in
the localized area.
• Mechanical Point Stress or “Pick” Test Method. A dull tool (such as a blunt screwdriver) is run
under the flap to detect melt or burn holes or areas with significant Geomembrane thinning created
by the wedge welding.
• On steep slopes and as an alternative to vacuum box testing, at the direction of the Engineer, all
extrusion welded patches, caps, etc., shall be “spark” tested. The basic concept for spark testing is
as follows:
− The seam shall be prepared for extrusion welding in accordance with the Installer’s procedures.
− Just prior to applying the extrusion bead, a small gauge copper wire is placed into the seam.
An 18-gauge bare copper wire usually works well. The wire should be grounded at one end
and be placed at the edge of the top sheet of the overlap seam. Tucking the wire under the
edge of the top sheet will help hold the wire in place during welding, but this should be done
prior to grinding to avoid the risk of contamination of the weld area.
− Apply the extrudate bead as normal, and allow the weld to cool.
− Energize the spark tester, and move the electrode wand near a grounding source to determine
the maximum length of spark that can be generated. Adjust the output voltage setting until the
spark length exceeds the greatest potential leak path distance. This is typically the diagonal
distance from the embedded wire to the edge of the weld bead at a “T” joint.
− Once the output voltage has been set, testing may be started. Testing is performed by passing
the electrode over the seams with the electrode in contact with the membrane and/or the
extruded weld bead. The audible and visual indication of a spark provides the determination of
a potential leak path.
− If a potential leak is detected, the area can be repaired by grinding and re-welding. Applying
additional weld beads adjacent to the leaking weld is not an acceptable repair technique. This
will only lengthen the leak path to the extent that the spark tester may not be capable of
generating a spark of sufficient length to breach the lengthened gap.
− After grinding and re-welding, the seam must be retested. If there is still an indication of a
potential leak (spark), it may be required to apply a patch over the area.

4.9.5.5 Destructive Testing of Field Seams


The following procedures shall be used for destructive testing of field seams:

• Destructive samples may be obtained from field seams or repaired areas by cutting perpendicular to
the seams. The sample should be approximately 600 mm long by 300 mm wide. This sample shall
be cut into two samples of 300 mm by 300 mm and labeled with the welder identification, date, and
location. One of the samples will be retained by the Company, and one of the samples will be
tested by the Installer in accordance with the applicable ASTM or GRI standards as appropriate.
• The frequency for obtaining destructive test samples shall be not less than one sample per 150 m of
field seam. Coupons (five per series of tests 25 × 200 mm) from the destructive sample shall be

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-61
tested for peel and bonded-seam strength as well as for thickness in accordance with the applicable
ASTM standards. The minimum values specified for peal and shear are presented in the GRI Test
Method GM19, Revision 4: November 15, 2010, titled Seam Strength and Related Properties or
Thermally Bonded Polyolefin Geomembranes.
• Values measured for shear and peel are required to meet the requirements for field seams in GRI
Test Method GM 19. If one or more of the coupons fails, the sample will be considered a failure.
• In the event of a failing test result, the following procedure shall be used:
− The Installer shall follow one of two options:
o Reconstruct the seam between the two passed test locations on either side of the failed test
location, or
o Trace the failed weld by a series of tests to delineate the length of the failed weld. New
capons shall be cut within 3 m in both directions of the failed sample and testing. This
process is repeated until a zone is established defining the seam to be repaired.
− If any sample fails, the process shall be repeated until passing tests are achieved to establish
the zone in which the seam shall be reconstructed or capped. Acceptable seams shall be
bounded by two locations from which samples have passed destructive tests.
− Once the failing limits of the seam are isolated, that portion of the seam shall be reconstructed
or capped.
− Seams welded prior to and after the failed seam using the same welding device shall be tested.
− Generally, destructive testing of small extrusion-welded repairs or patches is not practical and
will not be required. However, as an alternative to destructive testing these production extrusion
welds, the Installer shall periodically destructive test (minimum once per 150 m of extrusion-
welded seams) a sample weld completed at the same time as a repair or patch weld is
completed. Except when not practical, the test weld shall be completed on material from the
same lot or roll used for the repair or patch. If the sample weld fails, then the repair or patch
weld shall be sampled and tested.

4.9.5.6 Repair Procedures


Damaged or defective Geomembrane or seam areas failing a destructive or non-destructive test shall
be repaired. The Installer shall be responsible for repair of damaged or defective areas.

The agreement upon the appropriate repair method shall be decided between the Installer and the
Engineer. Procedures available include the following:

• Replacement. Remove damaged Geomembrane or unacceptable seam and replace with


acceptable Geomembrane materials if damage cannot be satisfactorily repaired.
• Patching. Used to repair large holes, tears, undispersed raw materials, and contamination by
foreign matter.
• Abrading and re-welding. Used to repair small seam sections.
• Capping. Used to repair large lengths of failed seams.
• Flap Welding. Used to extrusion-weld the flap (excess outer portion) of a fusion weld in lieu of a full
cap.

In addition, the following procedures shall be observed:

• Surfaces of the polyethylene that are to be repaired by extrusion welds shall be lightly abraded to
ensure cleanliness.
• All Geomembrane shall be clean and dry at the time of repair.
• Extend patches or caps at 150 mm for extrusion weld and 100 mm for wedge weld beyond the edge
of the defect, and round corner of patch material. The edges of all patches are to be beveled.
• All patches and caps shall be surveyed and displayed on Record of Construction Drawings.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-62
Furthermore, repair verification shall be performed as follows:

• Number and log each patch repair.


• Non-destructively test each repair using methods specified in this Specification.

4.9.6 Linear Low-Density Polyethylene


These Geosynthetics Specifications define the Quality Control requirements during manufacturing
and installation of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE).

4.9.6.1 Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s Quality Control


The Geomembrane liner shall be of high quality formulation containing approximately 97 to 98 percent
polymer and 2 percent to 3 percent carbon black with anti-oxidants and heat stabilizers. It shall be
resistant to ultraviolet rays. The minimum thickness shall be the thickness of the Geomembrane
specified.

All resin shall consist of all virgin material from the same manufacturer, shall not be intermixed (third
party to confirm), and no reclaimed polymer may be added to the resin. The manufacturing process
shall not use more than 10 percent rework. If rework is used, it must be similar LLDPE to the parent
material.

The Geomembrane shall be LLDPE material manufactured of new, first-quality products designed and
manufactured specifically for the purpose of liquid containment in hydraulic structures. The finished
material shall be free of holes, blisters, undispersed raw materials, or any sign of contamination by
foreign matter.

Geomembrane material is to be supplied in roll form. Each roll is to be identified with labels indicating
the manufacturer’s name, product identification, thickness, length, width, and roll number.

The Geosynthetics Manufacturer must be ISO 9000-certified, and the manufacturer’s laboratory must
be certified by GAI/LAP for the tests being performed and shall have a third-party in-plant
independent QA Program. The proposed third-party company must be submitted to the Client and
approved by the Client prior to manufacture of the Geomembrane. The third party shall perform the
tests required at the required frequency as stated in these Geosynthetics Specifications. The third
party shall inform the Geosynthetics Manufacturer, Company, and the Engineer of any discrepancies
or non-conformance test results that occur. Material produced by the Geosynthetics Manufacturer
that does not conform to the third-party test results or meet the standards specified herein shall not be
shipped to site. All test results (the Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s and third party) shall be supplied
through Company to the Engineer, and the rolls of material shall be clearly identified and correlate to
the test results provided. The Engineer shall not approve the material that has arrived at site prior to
reviewing the third party and the Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s test results and confirming the results
of each laboratory (i.e., meet minimum values stated in these Geosynthetics Specifications).

Extrudate resins and/or rods shall be from the same manufacturer as the Geomembrane rolls and of
the same resin type.

4.9.6.2 Smooth and Textured LLDPE Material Properties


The material provided for leach pads, ponds, solution channels, and other process component liners
as smooth and textured LLDPE Geomembrane shall be subject to the warranty presented below. If
the requirements of Attachment A conflict with requirements in other portions of these Geosynthetics
Specifications, the more stringent of the two shall apply unless approved otherwise by the Engineer.

The material shall be warranted against manufacturer’s defects as well as degradation due to
ultraviolet light for exposed areas for a minimum of 20 years from the date of installation or as
mutually agreed prior to award of the Contract for Geosynthetics supply between the Client and the
Geosynthetics Manufacturer. This warranty shall, except as agreed otherwise by the Client or the

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-63
Geosynthetics Manufacturer, cover the cost of material, shipping and handling, labor, and equipment
to replace the defective or failed material.

Smooth LLDPE Properties

Property Value Test Method


Minimum Thickness, mil (mm) 60 (1.50) 80 (2.00) ASTM D 1599
Minimum Density, g/cm3 0.919 0.919 ASTM D 1505
Tensile properties (each direction) ASTM D 6693, Type IV
Strength at break, lb/in-width 228 (40) 304 (53) Dumbell, 2 ipm
(N/mm)
Elongation at break, % 800 800
Tear Resistance, lb (N) 33 (150) 44 (200) ASTM D 1004
Puncture Resistance, lb (N) 84 (370) 112 (500) ASTM D 4833
Carbon Black Content, % (Range) 2.0 – 3.0 2.0 – 3.0 ASTM D1603/4218
Carbon Black Dispersion Note (1) Note (1) ASTM D 5596
Oxidative Induction Time, min N.R Note N.R Note ASTM D 3895, 200o C; O2, 1
(2) (2)
atm
Notes:
(1)

Carbon black dispersion (only near spherical agglomerates) for 10 different views: 9 in Categories 1 or 2 and 1 in Category 3.
(2)

Not recommended since the high temperature of the Std-OIT test produces an unrealistic result for some of the antioxidants in
the UV exposed samples.

Textured LLDPE Properties

Property Value Test Method


Minimum Thickness, mil (mm) 60 (1.50) 80 (2.00) ASTM D 1599
Minimum Density, g/cm3 0.919 0.919 ASTM D 1505
Tensile properties (each direction) 90(16) 120 (21) ASTM D 6693, Type IV
Strength at break, lb/in-width (N/mm) 250 250 Dumbell, 2 ipm
Elongation at break, %
Tear Resistance, lb (N) 33 (150) 44 (200) ASTM D 1004
Puncture Resistance, lb (N) 66 (300) 88 (400) ASTM D 4833
Carbon Black Content, % (Range) 2.0 – 3.0 2.0 – 3.0 ASTM D1603*/4218
Carbon Black Dispersion Note (1) Note (1) ASTM D 5596
Asperity Height, mil (mm) 10 (0.25) 10 (0.25) GM 12
Oxidative Induction Time, min N.R Note (2) N.R Note (2) ASTM D 3895, 200o C; O2, 1
atm
Notes:
(1)

Carbon black dispersion (only near spherical agglomerates) for 10 different views: 9 in Categories 1 or 2 and 1 in Category 3.
(2)

Not recommended since the high temperature of the Std-OIT test produces an unrealistic result for some of the antioxidants in
the UV exposed samples.

Extrudate resins and/or rods shall be from the same manufacturer as the Geomembrane rolls and of
the same resin type.

4.9.6.3 Installation
4.9.6.3.1 General
The Geomembrane shall be installed into the Geomembrane Liner on the area shown on the
Drawings or as specified by the Client or the Engineer.

Prior to deployment of Geomembrane, the Installer shall inspect, certify, and accept with the,
Engineer, Earthwork Contractor, Geosynthetics Contractor, and the Client all surfaces on which the
Geomembrane is to be placed to ensure conformance with the Earthwork Specifications. Surfaces
not in compliance with the Earthwork Specifications shall be rectified by the Contractor.

The amount of Geomembrane deployed without final QC and final repairs being completed shall not
exceed 250,000 square feet without the written approval of the Engineer and the Client. In addition,

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-64
no seams shall be left unwelded, and no openings in the liner shall be left at the end of a shift without
the Installer notifying the Engineer and the Engineer’s approval.

The Geomembrane shall be placed over the prepared surface using methods and procedures that
ensure a minimum of handling and do not damage the Geomembrane or the underlying surface. The
Installer shall provide adequate temporary anchoring and ballast devices (commonly sandbags),
which will not damage the Geomembrane, to prevent uplift and damage due to winds. Ballasting by
means of placing loose piles of material shall not be used unless expressly approved by the Client.
The Installer is solely responsible for the safety of his operation including decisions regarding
Geomembrane deployment in adverse weather conditions and the amount of temporary anchoring
and ballasting required.

Handling and storage of Geomembrane shall be in accordance with the Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s
printed instructions. Personnel walking or working on the Geomembrane shall not engage in activities
or wear shoes that could damage the Geomembrane. Smoking is not permitted on the
Geomembrane or in Geomembrane storage areas.

The Geomembrane shall be installed in a relaxed condition and shall be free of tension or stress upon
completion of the installation. All necessary precautions, including provisions for installing extra
material, shall be taken to avoid trampolining of Geomembrane, which will remain exposed (i.e., pad
and pond slope breaks and corners, solution channels, etc.).

If wrinkles develop in the Geomembrane that result in folding that does not disappear in the cooler
times of the day when the Geomembrane lies relatively flat, then some of the excess Geomembrane
may need to be removed. Prior to any corrective action, problem areas should be monitored over a
two to three day period during the cooler and hotter times of the day to determine whether the
wrinkles are a problem and the extent of excess Geomembrane to be removed. Problem areas
should be brought to the attention of the Engineer who then, with the Installer, will specify the
corrective action to be taken.

To the maximum extent possible, panels shall be oriented such that seams are parallel to the line of
the slope.

Horizontal field seams on slopes should be kept to a minimum. Seams shall be made by lapping the
uphill material over the downhill material with sufficient overlap. Three feet are to be allowed from the
toe or the top of the slope to any horizontal seam on flat areas. Also, horizontal seams of adjacent
panels shall, in general, be separated by a minimum 3 feet (ft). A sequential seam numbering system
compatible with the panel numbering system shall be used to identify seams.

Installation shall be performed under the direction of a superintendent who has installed a minimum of
10 million square feet of LLDPE or other flexible lining material. The superintendent shall be provided
by the Installer and shall be in charge of the installation.

Extreme care shall be taken by the Installer in the preparation of the areas to be welded. The seam
area shall be cleaned and prepared according to the approved procedures in the Installer’s QC
Manual, and all sheeting shall be welded together by thermal methods.

The welding equipment used shall be capable of continuously monitoring and controlling the speed
and the temperatures in the zone of contact where the machine is actually fusing the lining material to
ensure that changes in weather conditions will not affect the integrity of the weld. The welding
machine manufacturer’s published data for ranges of temperature and speed in conjunction with the
Geosynthetics Manufacturer’s recommendations shall be followed.

An adequate amount of handling equipment, welding apparatuses, and test equipment shall be
maintained onsite to avoid delays due to problems with equipment failures. The Engineer shall, at the
start of the project and periodically during the project, review the Installer’s available equipment and
its performance and shall make recommendations to Company if he considers that the equipment is
inadequate to perform the work without delays.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-65
No “fish mouths” shall be allowed within the seam area. Where “fish mouths” occur, the material shall
be cut, overlapped, and extrusion welded. All welds on completion of the Work shall be tightly
bonded. Any membrane area showing distress due to excessive scuffing or puncture from any cause
shall be replaced or repaired by the Installer.

The Installer shall take into account that rapid weather changes are very possible, resulting in delays
in construction of field seams. Jointing of panels and repairs shall only be completed under weather
conditions allowing such work within the warranty limits imposed by the Geosynthetics Manufacturer.
No seams shall be welded unless the ambient air temperature is above 32°F, unless approved by the
Engineer in advance. If approved more frequent weld testing may be required to evaluate the
integrity of the cold temperature welding. In addition other cold weather welding techniques may be
required.

4.9.6.3.2 Trial Welds


Trial welds shall be performed on Geomembrane to verify the performance of the welding equipment
and operator prior to performing production welds. The trial seam acceptance criteria shall be in
accordance with GRI Test Method GM 19. The following stipulations shall apply to trial welds:

• No welding equipment or operator shall be allowed to perform production welds until equipment and
operators have successfully completed a trial weld.
• A minimum of two trial welds per day per welding apparatus are to be completed, one made prior to
the start of work and one at midday. Notwithstanding the above, trial welds shall be completed, at a
minimum, for every 5 hours of seaming operation or as specified by the Engineer.
• Trial welds shall be completed after repairs have been made to equipment.
• Each technician using the equipment shall complete a trial weld.
• Trial welds shall be made under the same surface and environmental conditions as the production
welds, i.e., in contact with subgrade and similar ambient temperatures and using similar materials
and pre-seaming and seaming techniques as will be used for production welds.
• Trial weld samples shall be a minimum of 3 ft long by 1 ft wide, marked with the date, technician’s
name, ambient temperature, and welding machine number and temperature.
• Four 1-inch-wide by 6-inch-long test strips shall be cut from the trial weld. These strips shall be
tested for peel adhesion and bonded seam strength.
• A trial weld specimen shall pass when the values specified in these Specifications are achieved in
both peel and shear tests.
• The trial weld is to be repeated in its entirety when any of the trial weld samples fail in either peel or
shear.

4.9.6.3.3 Field Seam Inspection and Testing


A maximum effort shall be made to install a perfect Geomembrane. This means that all seams
completed in the field, patches, and extrusions shall be inspected, tested, and recorded.

A QC technician shall inspect each seam, marking his initials and the date inspected at the end of
each panel. Any area showing a defect shall be marked and repaired in accordance with LLDPE
repair procedures.

All field inspection, sampling, and testing shall be done by the Installer in accordance with these
Geosynthetics Specifications and be approved by the Engineer.

The field installation testing program shall consist of periodic visual observations and continuity and
strength tests. These inspections and tests are to be made routinely and are automatic regardless of
other types of testing required. The program shall include the following non-destructive and
destructive testing inspections and repair procedures as described below.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-66
4.9.6.3.4 Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection
All seams shall be non-destructively tested and inspected over their full length as outlined below:

• Visual observations are to be made routinely and shall include the following:
• Visually check field seams for squeeze out, footprint, melt, and overlap.
• Check machines for cleanliness, temperature, and related items.
• Examine all seams and non-seam areas of the Geomembrane for defects, holes, blisters,
undispersed raw materials, and any sign of contamination by foreign matter.
• Continuity testing is required for all field seams and repaired areas. Inter-seam pressure or “air
testing” and testing using a vacuum box are considered acceptable methods for continuity testing.
Inter-seam testing shall be used as the primary method for continuity testing, and other methods
shall be used in places not practical for inter-seam testing. The test procedure for inter-seam
pressure or air testing is the following:
• Seal both ends of the seam to be tested by applying heat to the end of the seam until flow
temperature is achieved. Clamp off the ends and let cool.
• Insert a pressure gauge/needle assembly into the end of the seam and seal.
• Apply air pressure to the void between the two seams according to the following schedule:

LLDPE Initial Pressure Schedule for Air Testing

Material Thickness Pressure Range Allowable Leak Down


Minimum Maximum After 5 Minutes
LLDPE (kPa) (kPa) (kPa)
80-mil 193 241 20

• The initial start pressure is read after a 2-minute relaxing period, which allows the air to reach
ambient liner temperature; the ending pressure is read after 5 minutes.
• The results of the leak test shall be marked at the test location and shall be recorded by the
Installer. If the test fails, the location of the leak shall be found and repaired, or the entire seam shall
be repaired and retested.
• After the test is complete, the air is to be released from the opposite end of the seam from where
the air is applied.
• Repair the area where the pressure gauge/needle assembly was installed, and the air was released.
• Observation for melt- or burn-through shall be conducted on all wedge welds in addition to air
pressure testing of the seam.

The test procedure for vacuum box testing is as follows:

• Vacuum Box Testing Procedure


• Mix a solution of liquid detergent and water and apply an ample amount to the area to be tested. If
a seam contains excess overlap or loose edges, it is to be trimmed before testing.
• Place a translucent vacuum box over the area and apply a slight amount of downward pressure to
the box to seat the seal strip to the liner.
• Apply a vacuum (3 to 5 psi) to the area for a minimum period of 10 seconds. Any leaks will become
visible by bubbles.
• Air Lance Method. A continuous sustained jet of air at approximately 50 psi pressure passes
through a lance with an orifice of 3/16 inch diameter. It is directed beneath the flap to detect melt or
burn holes or areas with significant Geomembrane thinning created by the wedge welding. When
such an area is located, the air passes through the liner causing a slight inflation and/or fluttering in
the localized area.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-67
• Mechanical Point Stress or “Pick” Test Method. A dull tool (such as a blunt screw driver) is run
under the flap to detect melt or burn holes or areas with significant Geomembrane thinning created
by the wedge welding.
• As an alternative to vacuum box testing, all extrusion welded patches, caps, etc., may be “spark”
tested. The basic concept for spark testing is as follows:
• The seam shall be prepared for extrusion welding in accordance with the Installer’s procedures.
• Just prior to applying the extrusion bead, a small gauge copper wire is placed into the seam. An 18-
gauge bare copper wire usually works well. The wire should be grounded at one end and be placed
at the edge of the top sheet of the overlap seam. Tucking the wire under the edge of the top sheet
will help hold the wire in place during welding, but this should be done prior to grinding to avoid the
risk of contamination of the weld area.
• Apply the extrudate bead as normal, and allow the weld to cool.
• Energize the spark tester, and move the electrode wand near a grounding source to determine the
maximum length of spark that can be generated. Adjust the output voltage setting until the spark
length exceeds the greatest potential leak path distance. This is typically the diagonal distance from
the embedded wire to the edge of the weld bead at a “T” joint.
• Once the output voltage has been set, testing may be started. Testing is performed by passing the
electrode over the seams with the electrode in contact with the membrane and/or the extruded weld
bead. The audible and visual indication of a spark provides the determination of a potential leak
path.
• If a potential leak is detected, the area can be repaired by grinding and re-welding. Applying
additional weld beads adjacent to the leaking weld is not an acceptable repair technique. This will
only lengthen the leak path to the extent that the spark tester may not be capable of generating a
spark of sufficient length to breach the lengthened gap.
• After grinding and re-welding, the seam must be retested. If there is still an indication of a potential
leak (spark), it may be required to apply a patch over the area.

4.9.6.3.5 Destructive Testing of Field Seams


The following procedures shall be used for destructive testing of field seams. The acceptance criteria
are described in GRI Test Method GM 19 in Attachment E.

• Destructive samples may be obtained from field seams or repaired areas by cutting perpendicular to
the seams. The sample should be approximately 2 ft long by 1 ft wide. This sample shall be cut
into two samples of 1 ft by 1 ft and labeled with the welder identification, date, and location. One of
the samples will be retained by the Client, and one of the samples will be tested by the Installer
using a calibrated tensiometer in accordance with the applicable ASTM standards as appropriate.
• The frequency for obtaining destructive test samples shall be not less than one sample per 500 ft of
field seam. Coupons (five per series of tests 1.0 × 8.0-inch) from the destructive sample shall be
tested for peel and bonded-seam strength as well as for thickness in accordance with the applicable
ASTM standards. All shear and peel test results shall meet or exceed the project requirements. If
one or more of the coupons fails, the sample will be considered a failure.
• In the event of a failing test result, the following procedure shall be used:
• The Installer shall follow one of two options:
• Reconstruct the seam between the two passed test locations on either side of the failed test
location, or
• Trace the failed weld by a series of tests to delineate the length of the failed weld. New coupons
shall be cut within 10 feet in both directions of the failed sample and testing. This process is
repeated until a zone is established defining the seam to be repaired.
• If any sample fails, the process shall be repeated until passing tests are achieved to establish the
zone in which the seam shall be reconstructed or capped. Acceptable seams shall be bounded by
two locations from which samples have passed destructive tests.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-68
• Once the failing limits of the seam are isolated, that portion of the seam shall be reconstructed or
capped.
• Seams welded prior to and after the failed seam using the same welding device shall be tested.
• Generally, destructive testing of small extrusion-welded repairs or patches is not practical and will
not be required. However, as an alternative to destructive testing these production extrusion welds,
the Installer shall periodically destructive test (minimum once per 500 feet of extrusion-welded
seams) a sample weld completed at the same time as a repair or patch weld is completed. Except
when not practical, the test weld shall be completed on material from the same lot or roll used for
the repair or patch. If the sample weld fails, then the repair or patch weld shall be sampled and
tested.

4.9.6.3.6 Repair Procedures


Damaged or defective Geomembrane or seam areas failing a destructive or non-destructive test shall
be repaired. The Installer shall be responsible for repair of damaged or defective areas.

The agreement upon the appropriate repair method shall be decided between the Installer and the
Engineer. Procedures available include the following:

• Replacement. Remove damaged Geomembrane or unacceptable seam and replace with


acceptable Geomembrane materials if damage cannot be satisfactorily repaired.
• Patching. Used to repair large holes, tears, undispersed raw materials, and contamination by
foreign matter.
• Abrading and Re-welding. Used to repair small seam sections.
• Capping. Used to repair large lengths of failed seams.

In addition, the following procedures shall be observed:

• Surfaces of the polyethylene that are to be repaired by extrusion welds shall be lightly abraded to
ensure cleanliness.
• All Geomembrane shall be clean and dry at the time of repair.
• Extend patches or caps at least 6-inches for extrusion weld and 4-inches for wedge weld beyond
the edge of the defect, and round corner of patch material. The edges of all patches are to be
beveled.
• All patches and caps shall be surveyed and displayed on Record of Construction Drawings.

Furthermore, repair verification shall be performed as follows:

• Number and log each patch repair.


• Non-destructively test each repair using methods specified in this Specification.

4.9.7 Geotextile
4.9.7.1 General
These Specifications cover the requirements for the geotextile to be incorporated into the Work,
specifically for spillway and channel construction.

4.9.7.2 Scope
Contractor shall furnish all geotextile, labor, incidental materials, tools, supervision, transportation,
and installation equipment necessary for the installation of geotextile, as specified herein, and as
shown on the drawings.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-69
4.9.7.3 References
In the event that the Engineer requires testing by the Contractor of the geotextile, such testing shall
be in accordance with the following references:

• ASTM D 5261, Standard Test Method for Measuring Mass per Unit Area of Geotextiles
• ASTM D 4632, Standard Test Method for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles
• ASTM D 4533, Standard Test Method for Index Trapezoidal Tearing Strength of Geotextiles
• ASTM D 4833, Standard Test Method for Index Puncture Resistance of Geotextiles,
Geomembranes and Related Products
• ASTM D 4491, Standard Test Method for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity
• ASTM D 4751, Standard Test Method for Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile
• ASTM D 4354, Standard Practice for Sampling of Geosynthetics for Testing
• ASTM D 4759, Standard Practice for Determining the Specifications Conformance of Geosynthetics

4.9.7.4 Submittals
Prior to material delivery to project site, the Contractor shall provide the Engineer with a written
certification or manufacturer’s quality control data sheet that displays that the geotextile meets or
exceeds minimum average roll values (MARV) specified herein.

The Contractor shall submit, if required by the Engineer, the manufacturer’s quality control manual for
the geotextile to be delivered to the site.

4.9.7.5 Product – Geotextile


The non-woven needle punched geotextile specified herein shall be made from polypropylene staple
fiber.

The geotextile shall be manufactured from prime quality virgin polymer.

The geotextile shall be able to withstand direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun for up to
30 days without any noticeable effect on index or performance properties.

The geotextile shall meet or exceed all of the following material properties:

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-70
MARV Required for Nonwoven Needle-punched Geotextiles

Test
Tested Property Frequency NW4 NW6 NW8 NW10 NW12 NW16
Method
AASHTO M288
3 2 1 >1 >>1 >>>1
Class
Mass per Unit Area, ASTM D 4 6 8 10 12 16
8,500m2
oz/yd2 (g/m2) 5261 (135) (200) (270) (335) (405) (540)
Grab Tensile ASTM D 120 170 220 260 320 390
8,500m2
Strength, lb (N) 4632 (530) (755) (975) (1,155) (1,420) (1,735)
ASTM D
Grab Elongation, % 8,500m2 50 50 50 50 50 50
4632
Puncture Strength, ASTM D 60 90 120 165 190 240
8,500m2
lb (N) 4833 (265) (395) (525) (725) (835) (1,055)
Trapezoidal Tear ASTM D 50 70 95 100 125 150
8,500m2
Strength, lb (N) 4533 (220) (310) (420) (445) (555) (665)
Apparent Opening
ASTM D 70 70 80 100 100 100
Size, Sieve No. 50,000m2
4751 (0.212) (0.212) (0.180) (0.150) (0.150) (0.150)
(mm)
ASTM D
Permittivity, sec-1 50,000m2 1/50 1.50 1.50 1.20 0.80 0.70
4491
Permeability, ASTM D
50,000m2 0.22 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.27
cm/sec 4491
Water Flow Rate, ASTM D 120 110 110 85 60 50
50,000m2
gpm/ft2 (l/min/m2) 4491 (4,885) (4,480) (4,480) (3,460) (2,440) (2,035)
UV Resistance
ASTM D per
(% Retained after 70 70 70 70 70 70
4355 formulation
500 hours)
Roll Length(1), 600 600 600 300 300 300
ft (m) (182) (182) (182) (91) (91) (91)
15 15 15 15 15 15
Roll Width(1), (m)
(4.6) (4.6) (4.6) (4.6) (4.6) (4.6)
9,000 9,000 9,000 4,500 4,500 4,500
Roll Area, ft2, (m2)
(836) (836) (836) (418) (418) (418)
Notes:
The property values listed are in weaker principal direction. All values listed are MARV except apparent opening size in mm
and UV resistance. Apparent opening size (mm) is a Maximum Average Roll Value. UV is a typical value.
(1)
Roll lengths and widths have a tolerance of +/- 1 percent.

4.9.7.6 Manufacture
All rolls of the geotextile shall be identified with permanent marking on the roll or packaging, with the
manufacturer’s name, product identification, roll number, and roll dimensions.

4.9.7.7 Transport
Transportation of the geotextile shall be the responsibility of the Contractor.

During shipment, the geotextile shall be protected from ultraviolet light exposure, precipitation, mud,
dirt, dust, puncture, or other damaging or deleterious conditions.

Upon delivery at the Site, the Contractor shall ensure that the geotextile rolls are handled and stored
in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions to prevent damage.

4.9.7.8 Quality Assurance


The Engineer shall examine the geotextile rolls upon delivery to the site and report any deviations
from these Specifications to the Contractor.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-71
The Engineer may decide to arrange for conformance testing of the rolls delivered to the Site. For this
purpose, the Engineer shall take a sample 900 mm (along roll length) by roll width according to ASTM
Practice D 4354. The sample shall be properly marked, wrapped, and sent to an independent
laboratory for conformance testing.

The pass or fail of the conformance test results shall be determined according to ASTM Practice D
4759.

4.9.7.9 Installation
The geotextile shall be handled in such a manner as to ensure that it is not damaged in any way.
Should the Contractor damage the geotextile to the extent that it is no longer usable as determined by
these Specifications or by the Engineer, the Contractor shall replace the geotextile.

The geotextile shall be installed to the lines and grades as shown on the Drawings and as described
herein.

The geotextile shall be rolled down the slope in such a manner as to continuously keep the geotextile
in tension by self-weight. The geotextile shall not be dragged across rough surfaces to avoid
“combing” or damaging the geotextile.

The geotextile shall be securely anchored where applicable. In the presence of wind, all geotextiles
shall be weighted by sandbags or approved equivalent. Such anchors shall be installed during
placement and shall remain in place until replaced with cover material.

The Contractor shall take necessary precautions to prevent damage to adjacent or underlying
materials during placement of the geotextile. Should damage to such material occur due to the fault
of the Contractor, the latter shall repair the damaged materials as specified by the Engineer.

During placement of the geotextile, care shall be taken not to entrap soil, stones, or excessive
moisture that could hamper subsequent seaming of the geotextile as judged by the Engineer.

The geotextile shall not be exposed to precipitation prior to being installed and shall not be exposed to
direct sun light for more than 15 days after installation.

The geotextile shall be seamed using heat seaming or stitching methods as recommended by the
manufacturer and approved by the Engineer. Sewn seams shall be made using polymeric thread with
chemical resistance equal to or exceeding that of the geotextile. All sewn seams shall be continuous.
Seams shall be oriented down slopes perpendicular to grading contours unless otherwise specified.
For heat seaming, fusion-welding techniques recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.

The Contractor shall not use heavy equipment to traffic above the geotextile without approved
protection.

The geotextile shall be covered as soon as possible after installation and approval.

Material overlying the geotextile shall be carefully placed to avoid wrinkling or damage to the
geotextile.

4.9.8 Drainage Geocomposite


This section of the Geosynthetics Specifications describes specifications and guidelines for
manufacturing and installing the Drainage Geocomposite for the Main Sediment Pond and Chilloroya
Reservoir Spillway.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-72
4.9.8.1 References

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

• D 1505-98 Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique
• D 1603-94 Standard Test Method for Carbon Black in Olefin Plastics
• D 4355-02 Standard Test Method for Deterioration of Geotextiles by Exposure to Light, Moisture
and Heat in a Xenon Arc Type Apparatus
• D 4491-99 Standard Test Method for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity
• D 4716-00 Standard Test Method for Determining the (In-Plane) Flow Rate Per Unit Width and
Hydraulic Transmissivity of a Geosynthetic Using a Constant Head
• D 4751-99 Standard Test Method for Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile
• D 4833-88 (1996) Standard Test Method for Index Puncture Resistance of Geotextiles,
Geomembranes and Related Products
• D 5035-95 Standard Test Method for Breaking Force and Elongation of Textile Fabrics (Strip
Method)
• D 5199-99 Standard Test Method for Measuring Nominal Thickness of Geotextiles and
Geomembranes
• D 5261-92 (1996) Standard Test Method for Measuring the Mass Per Unit Area of Geotextiles
• D70005-03 Determining the Bond Strength (Ply-Adhesion) of Geocomposites

Relevant publications from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

• Daniel, D.E. and R.M. Koerner, (1993), Technical Guidance Document: Quality Assurance and
Quality Control for Waste Containment Facilities, EPA/600/R-93/182.

4.9.8.2 Geocomposite Properties

• The drainage geocomposite shall be manufactured by extruding two crossing strands to form a
bi-planar or tri-planar drainage net structure (geonet) with a 6 ounces per square yard (oz/yd2)
non-woven geotextile bonded to both sides.
• The drainage geocomposite specified shall have properties that meet or exceed the values listed in
the following table.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-73
Drainage Geocomposite Specifications

Test
Tested Property Frequency Average Value
Method
2
Geocomposite 6 oz/yd 8 oz/yd2 10 oz/yd2
Product Code FR82060060T FR82080080T FR82100100T
Transmissivity(a),gal/min/ft (m2/sec) ASTM D 4716 1/540,000ft2 4.8 (1x10-3) 4.8 (1x10-3) 4.8 (1x10-3)
Ply Adhesion, lb/in (g/cm) ASTM D 7005 1/50,000 ft2 1.0 (178) 1.0 (178) 1.0 (178)
Roll Width(b), ft (m) 15 (4.5) 15 (4.5) 15 (4.5)
Roll Length(b), ft (m) 150 (45) 140 (42) 130 (39)
Roll Area, ft2 (m2) 2,250 (202) 2,100 (189) 1,950 (175)
Geonet Properties Average Value
Transmissivity(c), gal/min/ft (m2/sec) ASTM D 4716 24 (5x10-3)
Compression Strength, lb/ft2 (kPa) ASTM D 1621 1/540,000ft2 50,000 (2,390)
once per
Creep Reduction Factor 1.3 @ 25,000 psf
formulation
2 2
Mass, lb/ft (g/m ) ASTM D 5261 1/50,000 ft2 0.43 (2,100)
Density, g/cm3 ASTM D 1505 1/50,000 ft2 0.94
Tensile Strength (MD), lb/in (N/mm) ASTM D 5035 1/50,000 ft2 100 (17)
ASTM D 1603
Carbon Black Content, % 1/50,000 ft2 2.0
(modified)
Geotextile Properties
Mass, oz/yd2 (g/m2) ASTM D 5261 1/90,000 ft2 6 (200) 8 (270) 10 (335)
Grab Tensile, lb (N) ASTM D 4632 1/90,000 ft2 170 (755) 220 (975) 260 (1,155)
Puncture Strength, lb (N) ASTM D 4833 1/90,000 ft2 90 (395) 120 (525) 165 (725)
AOS, US Sieve (mm) ASTM D 4751 1/540,000 ft2 70 (.21) 80 (0.180) 100 (0.150)
Permittivity, (sec-1) ASTM D 4491 1/540,000 ft2 1.5 1.5 1.2
Flow Rate, gpm/ft2 (lpm/m2) ASTM D 4491 1/540,000 ft2 110 (4,480) 110 (4,480) 85 (3,460)
ASTM D 4355 once per
UV Resistance, % Retained 70 70 70
(after 500 hrs) formulation
Notes:
(a) This is an index transmissivity value measured at stress = 25,000 psf; gradient = 0.1; time = 15 minutes; boundary
conditions = plate/geocomposite/plate.
(b) Roll widths and lengths have a tolerance of ±1%.
(c) This is an index transmissivity value measured at stress = 25,000 psf; gradient = 0.1; time = 15 minutes; boundary
conditions = plate/geonet/plate.
(d) All geotextile properties are minimum average values except AOS (in mm) which is a maximum value and UV resistance
which is a typical value.

• Resin
− Resin shall be new, first quality compounded polyethylene resin.
− Natural resin (without carbon black) shall meet the following additional minimum requirements:

Sample Table
Property Test Method (1) Value
Density (g/cm3) ASTM D 1505 >0.94
Melt Flow Index (g/10 min) ASTM D 1238 <1.0

4.9.8.3 Manufacturing Quality Control


The drainage geocomposite shall be manufactured in accordance with the Manufacturer’s QC Plan
submitted to and approved by the Engineer.

The drainage geocomposite shall be tested according to the test methods and frequencies listed
below:

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-74
Manufacturing Quality Control Test Frequencies
Frequency
Characteristics Test Method Units
Bi-Planar
Resin
Polymer Density ASTM D 1505 g/cm3 Once per lot
Melt Flow Index ASTM D 1238 g/10 min Once per lot
Geonet Test
Carbon Black ASTM D 1603 % 1/50,000 ft2
Tensile Strength, MD ASTM D 5035 lb/ft 1/50,000 ft2
Density ASTM D 1505 g/cm3 1/50,000 ft2
Geotextile Tests
Mass per Unit Area ASTM D 5261
oz/yd2 1/90,000 ft2
Grab Tensile ASTM D 4632
lb 1/90,000 ft2
Puncture ASTM D 4833
lb 1/90,000 ft2
AOS, US Sieve ASTM D 4751
mm 1/540,000 ft2
Water Flow Rate ASTM D 4491
gpm/ft2 1/540,000 ft2
UV Resistance ASTM D 4355
% retained Once per resin formulation
(after 500 hours)
Geocomposite Tests
Ply Adhesion ASTM D7005 lb/in 1/50,000 ft2
Transmissivity ASTM D 4716 m2/sec 1/540,000 ft2

4.9.8.4 Qualifications

• Geocomposite Manufacturer
• Geocomposite Manufacturer shall have manufactured a minimum of 10 million ft2 of polyethylene
geocomposite material during the last year.
• Installer
• Installer shall have installed a minimum of 1 million ft2 of geocomposite in the last five years.
• Installer shall have worked in a similar capacity on at least three projects similar in complexity to the
project described in the contract documents.
• The Installation Supervisor shall have worked in a similar capacity on projects similar in size and
complexity to the project described in the Contract Documents.

4.9.8.5 Material Labeling, Delivery, Storage, and Handling

• Labeling – Each roll delivered to the site shall be wrapped and labeled by the Geosynthetics
Manufacturer. The label will identify:
• Manufacturer’s name
• Product identification
• Length
• Width
• Roll number
• Delivery – Rolls will be prepared to ship by appropriate means to prevent damage to the material
and to facilitate off-loading.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-75
• Storage – The onsite storage location provided by the Geosynthetics Contractor to protect the
geonet from abrasions, excessive dirt and moisture shall have the following characteristics:
• Level (no wooden pallets)
• Smooth
• Dry
• Protected from theft and vandalism
• Adjacent to the area being liner
• Handling
• The Geosynthetics Contractor and Installer shall handle all rolls in such a manner to ensure they are
not damaged in any way.
• The Installer shall take any necessary precautions to prevent damage to underlying layers during
placement of the drainage material.

4.9.8.6 Execution
4.9.8.6.1 Familiarization
Prior to installing any of the geocomposite in the Work, the installer shall carefully inspect the installed
Work of all other sections and verify that all Work is complete to the point where the installation of the
section may properly commence without adverse impact.

If the installer has any concerns regarding the installed Work of other sections, he shall notify the
Engineer.

4.9.8.6.2 Material Placement


The geocomposite roll shall be installed in the direction of the slope and in the intended direction of
flow unless otherwise specified by the Engineer.

The geocomposite shall be installed over some long, steep slopes, and special care shall be taken so
that only full-length rolls are used at the top of the slope.

In the presence of wind, all geocomposites shall be weighted down with sandbags or the equivalent.
Such sandbags shall be used during placement and remain until replaced with the covering
Geomembrane.

Each roll of geocomposite on a slope shall be properly anchored in the anchor trench at the top of the
slope to resist sliding. Anchor trench compacting equipment shall not come into direct contact with
the geocomposite.

In applying fill material or an overlying Geomembrane, no equipment shall drive directly across the
geocomposite. The specified fill material shall be placed and spread utilizing vehicles with a low
ground pressure.

The cover soil shall be placed on the geocomposite in a manner that prevents damage to the
geocomposite. Placement of the cover soil shall proceed immediately following the placement and
inspection of the geocomposite.

4.9.8.6.3 Seams and Overlaps


Each component of the geocomposite will be secured or seamed to the like component at overlaps.
Adjacent edges of the geonet along the length of the geocomposite roll shall be placed with the edges
of each geonet overlapping a distance of 4 inches.

The overlaps shall be joined by tying the geonet structure with cable ties. These ties shall be spaced
every 5 feet along the roll length.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-76
For each joint, the overlying and underlying geotextile from each side of the joint shall be overlapped
across the joint such that a double thickness of geotextile covers both the top and bottom of each
joint. The overlapped geotextile above and below the joint shall be heat bonded the full length of
each joint.

Adjoining geocomposite rolls (end to end) across the roll width should be shingled down in the
direction of the slope with the upslope geonet overlapping the downslope geonet a minimum of
12 inches across the roll width.

4.9.8.6.4 Repair
Prior to covering the deployed geocomposite, each roll shall be inspected for damage resulting from
construction.

Any rips, tears, or damaged areas on the deployed geocomposite shall be removed and patched.
The patch shall be secured to the original geonet by tying every 6 inches with the approved tying
devices. If the area to be repaired is more than 50 percent of the width of the panel, the damaged
area shall be cut out, the two portions of the geonet shall be cut out, and the two portions of the
geonet shall be joined in accordance with the previous section

4.9.8.7 Warranty

• Material shall be warranted, against defects for a period of 20 years from the date of the
geocomposite installation.
• Installation shall be warranted against defects in workmanship for a period of 20 years from the date
of geocomposite completion.

4.10 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete


Unless otherwise noted on construction drawings, the requirements for concrete and reinforced
concrete materials, grades and mix designs, placement and sampling/testing for such items as, but
not limited to, outlet works concrete, energy dissipater structures, and spillway concrete paving shall
conform with Ausenco’s concrete specifications “Constancia Project Concrete Construction
Engineering Specification, Rev 1” dated 15 March, 2012, or the most recent version thereof. The
Ausenco specification is included herein by reference.

4.11 Pipework
The pipework requirements outlined herein and as shown on the Drawings include furnishing all labor,
materials, construction equipment, and services for installation and/or relocation of certain pipes as
outlined in these Specifications and as shown on the Drawings.

4.11.1 Applicable Specifications and Regulations


All pipework shall be new and of good quality, complying with the latest standards for:

• American National Standard Institute (ANSI)


• American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
• American Water Works Association (AWWA)
• American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
• Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. (SPI)
• Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI)

Any contradictions between standards shall be submitted to the Engineer for decision.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-77
The Contractor shall submit a written statement signed by a responsible representative of the pipe
and coupling supplier(s) that the materials supplied meet the requirements of this Specification.

4.11.2 Material Properties


4.11.2.1 Corrugated Polyethylene Tubing (CPT) with Smooth Interior Wall
Pipe and fittings shall be made of virgin polyethylene compounds, which shall have a minimum cell
classification of 324420C for 100 mm through 250 mm diameters or 335420C for 300 mm through
1,500 mm diameters, as defined in ATSM D 3350. Pipe and fittings shall be manufactured and
comply with AASHTO Standard Specifications M 252, M 294, and MP 7. All sizes shall conform to the
AASHTO classification “Type S” for smooth wall interior solid pipe and “Type SP” for smooth wall
interior perforated pipe. Sealed couplers shall conform to ASTM D3212.

The pipe shall have a minimum pipe stiffness of 5 percent deflection when tested in accordance with
ASTM D 2412, as follows:

Minimum CPT Pipe Stiffness Requirements at 5 Percent Deflection

Internal Diameter
Pipe Stiffness
(mm)
100-300 345 kPa
375 290 kPa
450 275 kPa
600 235 kPa
750 195 kPa
900 150 kPa
1,050 140 kPa
1,200 125 kPa
1,500 95 kPa

Where perforations are specified, they shall conform to the requirements as follows:

• AASHTO M252 “Class 2” for 100 to 250 mm dia. CPT


• AASHTO M294 “Class 2” for 300 to 1,500 mm dia. CPT

Slots shall be cut circumferentially unless specified otherwise.

Couplings shall be corrugated to match the pipe corrugations and shall provide sufficient longitudinal
strength to preserve pipe alignment and prevent separation at the joints. Couplings, unless watertight
connections are specified, shall be split collar and shall engage at least two full corrugations on each
pipe section.

4.11.2.2 HDPE Pipe


Materials used for the manufacture of polyethylene pipe and fittings shall not contain any recycled
compounds other than those generated in the manufacturer’s plant from the resin of the same
specification and from the same raw material supplier. The material shall be very high molecular
weight, high-density ethylene/hexane copolymer polyethylene resin, having a material designation of
PE 3408. The material classification shall be ASTM D 1248 Type III; PE 34. The minimum Cell
Classification shall be 345464C as per ASTM D 3350. Dimensions and workmanship for HDPE pipe
shall be as specified by ASTM F 714, D 2513, and D 3035, and pipe diameters shall be as specified
on the Drawings.

HDPE pipe lengths shall be joined by thermal butt fusion in strict accordance with the pipe
manufacturer’s recommendations unless flanged end pipes are specified on the Drawings. The butt

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-78
fusion equipment used in the joining procedures shall be capable of meeting all conditions
recommended by the pipe manufacturer.

Stub ends and pipe fittings for butt fusion shall be of at least the same wall thickness and pressure
rating and the same resin type, grade, and cell classification and manufacture as the pipe to be joined
unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. Thermal butt fusion of HDPE shall be carried
out by qualified technicians.

Backup rings for flanged joints shall be the convoluted type of ductile iron material (ASTM 536-80
Grade Range from 60/40/18 to 64/45/12), drilled to ANSI bolt circles, and have a pressure rating of
1,034 kPa unless otherwise specified. Backup flanges and bolts shall be as approved or supplied by
the pipe manufacturer.

Slotting of HDPE pipe shall be equally spaced around the pipe circumference and spaced on 10 mm
centers down the axis of the pipe. Each slot shall be nominally 30 mm in length and 0.5 mm in width.

4.11.2.3 Bolts and Gaskets


Flange gaskets shall conform to ANSI B16.21 and shall be used with all flanged joints unless
specified otherwise by the supplier of valves, fittings, or pipework, and approved by the Engineer.

4.11.2.4 Carbon Steel Pipe


Steel Pipe shall be ANSI Class Rating 300 and pipe diameters shall be as specified on the Drawings.
Fittings shall conform to the appropriate ANSI and ASTM standards.

4.11.3 Pipe Installation


4.11.3.1 General
All pipes shall be laid upgradient unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer. Pipes shall be installed
to the lines and grades and generally in the manner shown on the Drawings. Where specific lines
and grades are not indicated on the Drawings, the lines and grades will be specified by the Engineer
in the field to suit the existing ground conditions. The Contractor shall use equipment and methods
approved by the Engineer and in accordance with the pipe manufacturer’s recommendations for
handling and placement of the pipe and fittings.

The Contractor shall install all piping required to complete the piping installation in accordance with
good piping practices whether such piping is specifically detailed on the Drawings or not. The general
layout as shown on the Drawings shall be maintained. Where interference is encountered during
installation or relocation of pipelines is deemed necessary, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer,
who will specify and approve any changes that are made.

All pipelines shall be erected to preserve accurate alignment. Care shall be taken in the installation of
pipeline runs where drainage is required to ensure that the pipeline has a continuous slope to the
point of drainage.

Prior to installation, each segment of pipe and all fittings shall be inspected for defects and/or
damage. Care shall be taken to prevent foreign material from entering the pipe while it is being
installed. Any foreign material entering the pipe shall be removed by the Contractor at his expense.
Open ends of the pipe shall be covered by temporary end caps or other approved means when
installation is not in progress. The Contractor shall be fully responsible for repairing any damage to
the pipes that occur as a result of not placing the temporary end caps.

Pipe bends to form curves either in the horizontal or vertical plane shall not exceed that
recommended by the manufacturer or approved by the Engineer. The cutting of pipe for inserting
fittings or closure pieces shall be done in a neat and workmanship like manner without damage to the
pipe and so as to leave a smooth end at right angles to the axis of the pipe.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-79
4.11.3.2 Corrugated Polyethylene Tubing
The Contractor’s method for placement of the CPT shall be reviewed by the Engineer prior to the start
of installation. The Contractor shall develop methods which will ensure that the CPT is not damaged
during installation or backfilling.

Couplings for CPT shall be tied with plastic zip locks or wire approved by the Engineer. Where
applicable, the cut ends of the wire or protrusions of the zip lock or wire tie shall be placed so as not
to be in contact with underlying or overlying geomembrane liner.

Backfill and cover materials shall be as indicated on the Drawings and as described within these
Specifications.

4.11.3.3 HDPE Pipe


Sections of HDPE pipe shall be joined into continuous lengths at the installation location. Dragging
the pipe into place shall be kept to a minimum and will only be permitted provided the pipe is not
damaged from sharp rocks or excessive abrasion.

All pipes and fittings shall be carefully lowered into trenches. Under no circumstances shall they be
dropped into trenches.

Backfill and cover materials shall be as indicated on the Drawings and within these Specifications.

All HDPE pipe shall be pressure tested according to the procedure described in Section 6.2.1.

4.11.3.4 Steel Pipe


Steel pipe materials and welded joints in the steel piping shall conform to the requirements of
B31.1 Chapter V and AWWA C206. Welding shall be performed only by welders holding current,
valid welding tickets issued by the relevant authority. Prior to assembly and welding operations, pipe
ends and all welding fittings shall be cleaned and be free of foreign matter. Special precautions
including the provision of adequate shelter shall be taken when welding in wet or cold weather to
avoid undue chilling of weld metal within the zone of welding influence. Approved shop-fabricated or
butt-welded fittings shall be used for all bends and connections. One hundred percent visual
inspection will be performed on all welds. The contractor will be responsible to perform this task and
document the inspection with a weld report. The Company at his discretion may undertake the
services of a certified third-party inspection service to audit and verify the contractors welding. Any
defects found not meeting the requirements will have all repairs corrected by the contractor. Costs
associated with testing will be charged to the contractor if repairs are required.

4.12 Instrumentation
4.12.1 Vibrating Wire Piezometers General
Vibrating wire piezometers complete with piezometers cables and cable protection, Ottawa Sand,
readout box, installation, piezometer calibration, and survey monuments for each structure shall be
provided and installed by the Contractor. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer when piezometers
are to be calibrated and after successful calibration and installation, the Contractor, the Engineer, and
the Company shall sign off on the completed installation.

4.12.1.1 Vibrating Wire Piezometers


A vibrating wire piezometer consists of a transducer capable of transforming a piezometric pressure
into resonant frequencies which can be transmitted and displayed. The piezometers shall have an
average accuracy of 0.1 percent over its entire pressure range of 0 to 1,700 kPa. Manufacturer’s
calibration data must be provided with each instrument. The transducers shall be capable of
operation in temperatures from -40°C to 60°C and shall have an over-pressurization capability of
200 percent. Each piezometer shall be provided with a 50-micron sintered stainless steel filter. All
materials shall be stainless steel except the vibrating wire. The interior shall be hermetically sealed to
provide a stable, inert atmosphere around the wire to ensure long life of the gauge. Each piezometer

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-80
shall be equipped with a thermistor with a range of -50° to 60°C with an accuracy of ±1°C. Vibrating
wire piezometers shall be Geokon, Model No. 4500S or equivalent.

4.12.1.2 Electrical Cable


Each vibrating wire piezometer shall be furnished with enough electrical cable for its required length
to the readout box, and additional 10 percent for slack, and an additional 3 m per instrument. Each
cable shall include four conductor-solid round wires of commercially pure annealed copper.
Conductors shall meet the requirements of ASTM B3-69. The conductors shall be installed with
colored insulating-grade, HDPE. All conductors in any single length of wire shall be insulated with the
same type of material. The piezometer conductor insulation colors shall be red, white, black, and
green.

Each cable shall be attached to the appropriate piezometer and permanently marked with the number
of the instrument to which it is attached. This marking shall be every 3 m over the length of the cable
and shall be provided by the instrument manufacturer prior to shipment to the construction site. Each
cable shall be mounted on a reel and mechanically protected to prevent damage during shipping.
Each reel shall be stenciled or labeled with the name of the instrument, and all wire ends shall be
capped on the open end of the wire on the reel. The electrical cables shall be Geokon Model No. 02-
500PE-1 or equivalent.

4.12.1.3 Splice Kits


Splicing of the electrical cable is not recommended and should be avoided. However, if required,
splice kits may be purchased from Geokon. The kits shall produce waterproof, epoxy-resin-filled
splices and shall use solderless crimps.

4.12.1.4 Readout Equipment and Housing


It is assumed that data collection will be a manual system where a portable readout box is required.
The model GK-403-1-220 vibrating wire readout supplied by Geokon, or equivalent, shall be used. A
battery charger that is capable of recharging the unit’s battery from a 220-volt AC source shall be
provided.

All piezometer leads shall terminate in the Outlet Works Control House located as shown on the
Drawings and shall be mounted on a panel or panels for accessibility and to prevent damage of the
cables. All leads shall be clearly marked with each instrument number on the terminal panels.

A lockable, waterproof, and dust-resistant steel box is required to house the terminal panel. The
Geokon Terminal Box Model No. 4999, or equivalent, can handle up to 16 four-conductor sensors
(e.g., 16 vibrating wire gages with their thermistors) and fits these requirements.

4.12.1.5 Initial Readings


Upon receipt of the piezometer, the tips shall be submerged in water for at least 24 hours after which
the zero reading shall be checked and noted. Connections from the GK-403 readout are normally
black to black and red to red, etc. A thermistor is to be included inside the body of the piezometer
and is read on the green and white connectors.

Calibration data are supplied with each piezometer. A zero reading taken at a specific temperature
and barometric pressure is included. Zero readings at the site should coincide with the factory
readings within a few digits after barometric and temperature corrections are made. According to
Geokon, Inc., the factory elevation is ±175 m. At altitudes below about 1,500 m, the barometric
pressure decreases as elevation increases at a rate of approximately 3.4 kPa per 300 m.

It is important that the temperature of the piezometer be uniform and held constant. Otherwise,
variations in temperature across the body of the piezometer will give rise to temperature transients
and spurious readings. These are particularly noticeable if the piezometer is gripped momentarily in
the hand.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-81
When measuring the in-situ zero pressure reading, the piezometer must be maintained in a constant
temperature environment for a period of about 30 minutes.

4.12.2 Survey Monuments


The survey monuments shall be installed in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.

4.13 Skimmer, Valve, Flowmeter, and Turbidity Meter Specifications


Separate, stand-alone specifications have been prepared for surface drains (skimmers), valves,
flowmeters, and turbidity meters. These have been prepared by Knight Piésold for Hudbay and the
Contractor for submission to suppliers, with the following list of specifications provided.

Specification Name
®
8” Faircloth Skimmer Surface Drain – Instructions for Assembly, Use and Maintenance
Butterfly Valve Specification
Flowmeter Specification
HDPE Pipe Specification
Sediment Pond Turbidity Meter Specification

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


4-82
Section 5.0 - Quality Assurance/Quality Control

5.1 General
It will be the responsibility of the Contractor to provide independent Quality Control (QC) for the Work
carried out by the Contractor relative to the Work meeting the requirements of the Specifications and
as shown on the Drawings.

It will be the responsibility of the Engineer to provide QA for the Work carried out by the Contractor
relative to the Work meeting the requirements of the Specifications and as shown on the Drawings.
This shall not however, relieve the Contractor of the sole responsibility for completion of the work in
conformance with the requirements of the Drawings and Specifications.

The Engineer will be responsible during construction for, but not necessarily be limited to, the
following:

• Evaluating materials and procedures for compliance with the requirements of the Drawings and
Specifications.
• Observing the QC Work to offer an opinion that it is being performed in accordance with the
requirements of the Specifications.
• Assessing the Work and results of the QC testing to provide an opinion that conformance with the
intent of the design and the requirements of the Drawings and Specifications are achieved.

5.1.1 Construction Inspections


The QC Contractor will interpret the Specifications and the site conditions and shall direct
observations and tests as considered necessary to assess and accept the quality of the Work. The
QC Contractor will evaluate and approve materials to be removed from structure foundation limits and
approve foundation materials for the facilities. The QC Contractor shall advise the Contractor as to
the suitability of proposed borrow materials for its specified use in the project construction.
Acceptance of the embankment and fill materials shall be after placement and compaction in the
completed Work.

The Engineer, QC Contractor, QA Contractor, and/or the Company is authorized to call the
Contractor’s attention to any failure of the Work to conform to the Specifications or other provisions of
the Contract. The Engineer will work with the QA Contractor to review the inspections performed by
QC Contractor to prepare reports as described in Section 7, below.

5.2 Earthwork
5.2.1 Foundations
In general, the foundation must be of material having density and strength parameters sufficient for
the support of the proposed construction. The Engineer and Contractor must sign the Work Activity
Inspection Form indicating approval of the foundation prior to the placement of overlying material or
ongoing construction.

Inspections required:

• Check for correct and complete stripping of topsoil, organic material, and unsuitable materials
• Check for preparation and compaction of foundation surface
• Check for location of porous zones
• Check for location of encased pipes
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design, Drawings and Specifications

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-1
5.2.2 Core
Careful attention must be paid to material consistency as the material appearance and properties may
vary. This material may be delivered directly to the point of use from onsite excavations or borrow
areas or stockpiled and reclaimed.

All Core material shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form.

Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding material gradation, moisture
conditioning, spreading, layer thickness, surface finish, and compaction
• Check for prevention of desiccation
• Check for avoidance of damage to finished surfaces
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design and Drawings

5.2.3 Filter/Drain, Bog Embankment Fill, Alluvial Drain, Fine & Coarse Drainage Gravel
All fill shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form.

Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding spreading, layer thickness,
compaction if required, and material gradation
• Check for avoidance of damage to the related construction
• Check for avoidance of damage to piping, Geosynthetics, or Geomembranes
• Check for maintenance of consistent and uniform drainage characteristics
• Check for avoidance of damage to completed Work and surfaces
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Designs and Drawings

5.2.4 Transition, Coarse Transition, and Drainage Rock


All fill shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form.

Inspection required:

• Check for compliance with Specifications regarding moisture, spreading, layer thickness, surface
finish, and compaction.
• Check for compliance with the lines and grades shown on the Drawings
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design
• Check for the presence of organic material
• Check for control on maximum particle size
• Check for regular, consistent mixing of particles to eliminate segregation of coarse particles and
formation of seepage paths

5.2.5 Structural Fill, Coarse Structural Fill, Structural Rockfill and Thick-Lift Structural Rockfill
All fill shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections
required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding moisture, spreading, layer thickness,
surface finish, and compaction
• Check for uniform distribution of haul truck traffic and\or compactor passes over the entire fill.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-2
• Check for the presence of organic material.
• Check for control on maximum particle size.
• Check for regular, consistent mixing of particles to eliminate segregation or nesting of fine particles
that would block or adversely retard seepage paths.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design, Drawings and Specifications.

5.2.6 Embankment Fill A, Embankment Fill B, Embankment Fill C, and General Fill
All fill shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections
required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding moisture, spreading, layer thickness,
surface finish, and compaction.
• Check for uniform distribution of haul truck traffic and\or compactor passes over the entire fill.
• Check for the presence of organic material.
• Check for control on maximum particle size.
• Check for regular, consistent mixing of particles to eliminate segregation or nesting of fine particles
that would block or adversely retard seepage paths.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design, Drawings and Specifications.

5.2.7 Soil Liners A and B


Soil Liner material will be used to construct low-permeable layers in various structures including a low
permeability layer beneath geomembranes. All fill shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the
Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding material gradation, moisture
conditioning, spreading, layer thickness, surface finish, and compaction.
• Check for prevention of desiccation.
• Check for avoidance of damage to finished surfaces.
• Check to see that the finished surface is compatible with serving as a foundation for the
Geomembrane in accordance with the Earthwork Geosynthetics Specifications.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design and Drawings.

5.2.8 Liner Bedding


All Liner Bedding material shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection
Form. Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding material gradation, moisture
conditioning, spreading, layer thickness, surface finish, and compaction.
• Check for prevention of desiccation.
• Check for avoidance of damage to finished surfaces.
• Check to see that the finished surface is compatible with serving as a foundation for the
Geomembrane in accordance with the Earthwork Geosynthetics Specifications.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design and Drawings.

5.2.9 Pipe Bedding


All fill shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections
required:

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-3
• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding moisture, spreading, layer thickness,
surface finish, and compaction.
• Check for uniform distribution of haul truck traffic over the entire fill.
• Check for the presence of organic material.
• Check for control on maximum particle size.
• Check for regular, consistent mixing of particles to eliminate segregation or nesting of fine particles
that would block or adversely retard seepage paths.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design.

5.2.10 Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill


Trench, Vault and Pipe Backfill will be used in construction as shown on the Drawings. All fill shall be
accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding moisture, spreading, layer thickness,
surface finish, and compaction.
• Check for uniform compaction over the entire fill.
• Check for the presence of organic material.
• Check for control on maximum particle size.
• Check for regular, consistent mixing of particles to eliminate segregation or nesting of fine particles
that would block or adversely retard seepage paths.
• Check to be sure the compaction equipment does not contact or otherwise damage the pipe.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design.

5.2.11 Riprap, Grouted Riprap, and Riprap Bedding


All proposed Riprap, Grouted Riprap, and Riprap Bedding material and final placement shall be
accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form.

Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with the Earthwork Specifications regarding layer thickness.
• Check for hardness and durability.
• Check for correct placement and distribution of the particles in a uniform manner without nesting of
particles of the same size, avoiding damage to underlying materials.
• Check for grout penetration to subgrade soils and that smooth finished surfaces are avoided (in
Grouted Riprap applications).
• Final acceptance may be based on visual observation.

5.2.12 Road Wearing Course


Wearing Course will be used to surface the gravel roads to provide an all-weather travel surface. All
proposed Wearing Course material and its final placement shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on
the Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections required:

• Check gradation.
• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding layer thickness and compaction.
• Check for correct placement.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-4
5.2.13 Piezometer Sand and Piezometers
Sand for use in construction of the piezometers shall consist of Ottawa Sand or approved equivalent
with less than 3 percent passing the No. 200 sieve (0.075 mm). The sand placement around the
piezometers, cable leads, piping and monitoring station are shown on the Drawings. The pipes, cable
leads, and drainage materials can be constructed in a variety of ways, and continuous appropriate
inspection is required to ensure that the intention of the design is achieved. All drainage material,
cable leads and pipework will be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection
Form. Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding spreading, layer thickness, and
material gradation.
• Check for oversize material.
• Check for avoidance of damage to the piezometer tip and cables.
• Check for avoidance of damage to piping, Geosynthetics, or Geomembranes.
• Check for avoidance of damage to completed Work and surfaces.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design.

5.2.14 Piezometer Trench Backfill


Piezometer Trench Backfill will be used in construction as shown on the Drawings. All fill shall be
accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding moisture, spreading, layer thickness,
surface finish, and compaction.
• Check for uniform distribution of haul truck traffic over the entire fill.
• Check for the presence of organic material.
• Check for control on maximum particle size.
• Check for regular, consistent mixing of particles to eliminate segregation or nesting of fine particles
that would block or adversely retard seepage paths.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design.

5.2.15 General Fill used as Trench Backfill


All fill shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form. Inspections
required:

• Check for compliance with Earthwork Specifications regarding moisture, spreading, layer thickness,
surface finish, and compaction.
• Check for uniform distribution of compaction effort over the entire fill.
• Check for the presence of organic material.
• Check for control on maximum particle size.
• Check for regular, consistent mixing of particles to eliminate segregation or nesting of fine particles
that would block or adversely retard seepage paths.
• Check to be sure compaction equipment does not damage the Geomembranes.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design.

5.2.16 Slurry Wall Construction


5.2.16.1 General
The Contractor shall establish and maintain records of quality control for all slurry wall construction
operations to assure compliance with contract requirements.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-5
5.2.16.2 Sample and Test Location References
All quality control samples and testing shall be referenced to the trench station (or baseline station)
and depth at which the sample was obtained or the test was conducted.

5.2.16.3 Observation of Excavation


The Engineer will be present, whenever trench excavation is near the design depth of the wall, to
visually check and classify soil excavated from the proposed maximum depth of trench excavation.
Cuttings from the bottom of the trench shall be examined on a continuous basis to ensure continuity.
The Engineer shall document the soil classification of samples obtained from the bottom of trench.
The Contractor shall provide sufficient notice of excavation and allow sufficient time during the
excavation cycle for observation and sampling of the soil as it is removed from the trench.

5.2.16.4 Trench Depth


The Contractor, in the presence of the Engineer, shall provide and place a 1-meter minimum length
wood lath parallel to the trench. Sound or probe the trench with a measuring devise with incremental
markings at 0.1-meter increments. The trench depth measurement shall be rounded (up or down
from the measurement) to the nearest 15 cm, and record the depth every 5 m along the trench
centerline. The Contractor shall measure and record the depth to the bottom of the trench excavation
immediately after excavating and immediately before backfilling to document the depth and silt
conditions at the bottom of the trench.

5.2.16.5 Equipment Calibration


The test equipment shall be calibrated in accordance with applicable API and ASTM standards.

5.2.16.6 Equipment
The Contractor shall furnish and maintain the following minimum equipment (one-half of the amount of
each type of equipment is for exclusive use by the Company or Engineer). The equipment shall be in
accordance with applicable API Standard Specifications. All equipment used by the Company or
Engineer shall be returned to the Contractor upon completion of the slurry trench Work.

• Marsh Funnel Sets (2)


• Direct Indicating Viscometer, hand crank (2)
• Standard Filter Presses (4) with the following modifications for hydraulic conductivity tests:
− Regulators and gages which have a range of 5 to 70 kPa for application of low pressures
− A trimming jig to control thickness of bentonite paste to be applied to the inside diameter of the
rigid wall test cylinder
− Porous stone filters and filter papers (adequate supply)
− dA 20 cc graduated cylinder with accuracy of 1/2 cc
− Regulators and gages which have a range of 690 kPa+/- which may be adapted to the Standard
Filter Press for Slurry Filtrate Loss testing (2)
• Mud Balances (direct reading of density) (2)
• Sand Content Sets (2)
• Slurry Samplers (2)
• Sets of U.S. Standard Sieves (No. 4 (4.76 mm), 16 (1.19 mm), 40 (0.42 mm), 70 (0.21 mm),
200 (0.074 mm) and 3-inch (76.1 mm) size) (2)
• Pressure sources and feed lines (2)
• Dry bentonite and Ottawa sand (adequate supply)
• Analytical scales (accuracy: 0.01 grams) (2)

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-6
• Drying ovens (2)

The Contractor shall also furnish a measuring devise with 0.1-meter incremental markings, or
approved equivalent, for determining the depth of trench and sediment accumulations.

5.3 Pipework and Culverts


All pipework and culverts shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection
Form.

Inspections required:

• Prior to delivery, check material certifications for compliance with the Earthwork Specifications.
• On delivery, check that the material delivered is that matching the material certifications.
• Check for damage to pipe and culvert materials prior to installation.
• After installation, check for damage and conformance with Earthwork Specifications and Drawings.
• Check for compliance of installation with manufacturer’s recommendations.
• Check for compliance with the intent of the Design.

5.4 Concrete
The requirements for concrete and reinforced concrete materials, mixing, and placement for such
items as, but not limited to, outlet works concrete, energy dissipater structures, and spillway concrete
paving are detailed in Ausenco’s concrete specification “Constancia Project Concrete Construction
Engineering Specification, Rev 1” and dated 15 March 2012, or the most recent version thereof. The
specification is included herein by reference.

All concrete shall be accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form. The QC
Contractor will perform three inspections:

• One prior to placement of concrete.


• One during placement of the concrete.
• Final inspection following curing.

Inspections required:

• Check for compliance with the Earthwork and Concrete Specifications regarding materials and
methods
• Check for compliance with the Drawings for line, grade, and method
• Check for reinforcing size, spacing, and alignment
• Check for form dimensions
• Check for casting surface cleanliness
• Check for vibration
• Check for surface finish
• Check for curing
• One set of tests shall be performed to check slump, total entrained air and compressive strength

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-7
5.5 Geosynthetics
5.5.1 HDPE and LLDPE Geomembrane
5.5.1.1 Raw Material, Manufacture, Delivery and Storage
5.5.1.1.1 Raw Material
Quality control testing shall be carried out by the Geomembrane Manufacturer to demonstrate that the
product meets the Specifications. Prior to installing any Geomembrane materials, the Geomembrane
supplier, through the Contractor, shall provide the QC Contractor via the Construction Manager with
the following information:

• The origin (name and production plant), identification (brand name, number), production date, and
batch (or rail car number) of the resin
• A copy of the quality control certificates issued by the resin manufacturer with results of the density
and melt index tests
• A copy of the quality control test results issued by the Geomembrane manufacturer verifying the
quality of the resin used to manufacture the Geomembrane

5.5.1.1.2 Geomembrane Manufacture


The Contractor shall provide the QC Contractor via the Construction Manager with a certified sheet
including, at a minimum, all specified properties using test methods as indicated in the Specifications
as described in GRI Test Method GM 13 for HDPE and GRI Test Method GM 17 for LLDPE. A typical
list of properties that should be included follows:

• Thickness
• Carbon black
• Density or specific gravity
• Tensile properties
• Tensile strength at break
• Tensile strength at yield
• Elongation at break
• Elongation at yield
• Tear resistance
• Puncture resistance
• Testing methods employed and results of testing

The QC Contractor shall verify that the property values supplied by the resin and Geomembrane
manufacturers meet all the Specifications, that the measurements of the properties by the
Geomembrane manufacturer are properly documented, and that the test methods employed meet the
Geosynthetics Specifications.

5.5.1.1.3 Geomembrane Delivery


Upon arrival of Geomembrane materials at the site, the QC Contractor shall immediately receive via
the Construction Manager a copy of the bill of lading of all Geomembrane materials and accessories
delivered. All materials received on the site shall be immediately logged on the Log of Geosynthetics
Received. Upon unloading of the Geomembrane, the QC Contractor shall verify that the materials
delivered:

• Meet the Geosynthetics Specifications


• Match those which are listed on the bill of lading

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-8
Any discrepancies shall be brought to the immediate attention of the Construction Manager. The
materials shall be inspected for any visible damage or defects, which shall be noted in the log.
Materials damaged during unloading shall be noted as such.

A sample of each batch type shall be taken at this time. These samples shall be a minimum of
600 mm by 900 mm and cut from an undamaged area of the end of a roll. These samples shall be
used for verification of properties as listed in Section 4.9, if required, by the Contractor, the
Construction Manager, or the Company. Samples shall be submitted to the Construction Manager for
retention onsite for a minimum of one year.

Conformance tests shall be conducted for each 10,000 m2 of liner.

5.5.1.2 Geomembrane Storage


Geomembrane materials shall be stored at a site near the Work place that is free of hazard. Materials
should be stored on a smooth surface free of sharp objects and in an area that will remain in a
relatively dry condition at all times. The extrusion rod shall be stored in a dry and covered condition.
The Construction Quality Assurance (CQA)/QC Contractor shall note any material damaged while in
storage.

5.5.1.3 Geomembrane Acceptance


The QC Contractor shall neither accept nor allow the installation of any materials that do not meet the
requirements of the Geosynthetics Specifications and GRI Test Method GM 13 for HDPE and GRI
Test Method GM 17 for LLDPE. Materials that are not acceptable shall be clearly marked as such by
the QC Contractor. The Geosynthetics Contractor shall be notified by the QC Contractor via the
Construction Manager as soon as possible as to the deficiencies of materials which do not meet the
Geosynthetics Specifications. Materials that do not meet the requirements of the Specifications shall
be removed from the site.

5.5.1.4 Subgrade
5.5.1.4.1 Subgrade Inspection
The QC Contractor shall inspect and accept on the Work Activity Inspection Form the subgrade prior
to submittal of an area to the Contractor via the Construction Manager for his acceptance. The
subgrade is the upper surface of the Prepared Subbase. Inspections required:

• Check for proper compaction


• Check for proper moisture content
• Check for correct material type
• Check for required surface smoothness
• Check for fill free of debris and sharp objects

5.5.1.4.2 Subgrade Acceptance


The QC Contractor shall obtain from the Earthwork and Geosynthetics Contractor via the Construction
Manager written acceptance for the subgrade prior to the installation of Geomembrane material. In
the event the Geosynthetics Contractor uses a Geomembrane Installation Contractor for installation of
the Geosynthetics, the written acceptance of the subgrade shall be signed by the Installer, the
Earthwork and Geosynthetics Contractors, the Company, and the Engineer.

This acceptance shall be recorded on the Work Activity Inspection Form. If any damage has occurred
since acceptance, the QC Contractor shall obtain reacceptance of any area that has been damaged
and repaired prior to installation of Geomembrane materials. The Geosynthetics Contractor is
responsible for maintaining the condition of the accepted area(s) until it is accepted by others for later
stages of Work.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-9
5.5.1.5 Geomembrane Deployment
5.5.1.5.1 Geomembrane Field Panel Deployment
Deployment of Geomembrane shall be in a systematic and planned fashion. Inspections required:

• Check for correct direction of deployment


• Check for correct amount and shingling of overlap
• Check for the amount of Geomembrane deployed
• Check for prevention of “trampolines”
• Check for prevention of water from entering between panels
• Check for acceptability of air vents, if needed
• Check for temporary anchorage
• Check for no open holes or seams at the end of day

The QC Contractor shall record any remarks concerning deployment along with the time and weather
in the Geosynthetics Panel Deployment Log.

The QC Contractor shall re-inspect any subgrade that may have been damaged after deployment has
taken place to ensure that the subgrade still meets the Specifications. This may include removal of
deployed panels. Re-inspection will be recorded on the Work Activity Inspection Form.

5.5.1.6 Geomembrane Field Panel Identification


The panel layout code shall be prepared by the Geosynthetics Contractor and approved by the QC
Contractor via the Construction Manager. Immediately after deployment takes place, the Contractor
shall give each panel an identification code. This identification shall be consistent with the layout
plan. The identification should contain at least the following information:

• Panel layout code


• Roll number
• Date of deployment

This code shall be marked on each panel with a non-toxic, indelible material and be clearly visible.
These data will be recorded by the QC Contractor in the Geosynthetics Panel Deployment Log.

5.5.1.7 Geomembrane Field Panel Inspection


After deployment, the field panel is to be inspected for defects or damage. Inspections required:

• Check for striations


• Check for roughness
• Check for pinholes
• Check for bubbles
• Check for holes
• Check for blisters
• Check for pockets of raw material
• Check for foreign material contamination

All defects or damaged areas that require repair shall be identified by the QC Contractor by circling
the defect or area. Excessively defective panels shall be removed.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-10
Field panels shall be checked for proper thickness. Thickness should be checked on the leading
edge and on one side of the panel as a minimum. A micrometer should be used to check thickness.
Thickness shall meet the requirements of the Specifications. All information concerning inspection of
field panels shall be recorded in the Geosynthetics Panel Deployment Log.

5.5.1.8 Geomembrane Field Panel Deployment Schedule


Deployment of Geomembrane materials shall take place within an acceptable period as agreed by
both the Contractor and the QC Contractor via the Construction Manager. The speed of deployment
shall consider the seaming rate and the deterioration of subgrade with time.

5.5.1.9 Geomembrane Field Panel Deployment Progress Reports


The Construction Contractor shall record on a daily basis the identification number, location, date, and
roll number of each panel deployed. Daily progress reports shall be submitted to the Construction
Manager.

The Construction Manager shall check these daily reports against his own records to ensure
completeness. The exact location of each panel deployed shall be surveyed for the as-built records.

5.5.1.10 Geomembrane Seaming


5.5.1.10.1 Geomembrane Seam Layout
Geomembrane field panel deployment shall be conducted such that the long direction of the sheet is
parallel to the slope direction to minimize the number of horizontal seams on the slopes. On the
upstream face of the in-heap embankment, horizontal seams, if needed, shall be placed as close to
the bottom of the slope as reasonably practical. Horizontal seams shall be no closer than 1.5 m from
the toe of the slope or areas of potential stress concentrations. In general, seams shall be parallel
with the line of maximum slope. In corners and odd shapes, the number of seams shall be minimized.

5.5.1.10.2 Geomembrane Seam Overlap


The Geomembrane field panel layout shall be inspected for proper overlap prior to seaming. Field
joints shall have a minimum overlap of 75 mm for extrusion seaming and 100 mm for hot wedge
seaming. Overlaps shall be made to minimize shear stress and to limit seepage between the
Geomembrane in the event of seam failure (proper shingling of the Geomembrane).

5.5.1.10.3 Geomembrane Seaming Equipment


Only approved techniques listed in the Specifications shall be employed in the seaming of
Geomembrane materials. Alternative seaming techniques are not permitted unless approved by the
Engineer. All seaming equipment shall be equipped with gauges for monitoring working temperatures
and speed of travel, if applicable.

5.5.1.10.4 Geomembrane Seam Identification


The Geomembrane field seam identification number shall be compatible with the panel identification
system.

5.5.1.10.5 Geomembrane Seam Preparation


The Contractor, prior to seaming, shall clean the immediate area of seaming of all dust, dirt, moisture,
debris of any kind, and foreign material. Failure to properly clean the liner prior to welding shall be
sufficient reason for the QC Contractor via the Construction Manager to stop welding operations.
Seams are to be aligned with the fewest possible wrinkles. All fish mouths shall be properly prepared
for seaming.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-11
5.5.1.10.6 Geomembrane Seaming Weather Conditions
Seaming shall not take place during inclement weather. The QC Contractor shall have the final
authority to determine if weather conditions warrant halting or not starting seaming operations. These
conditions include, but are not limited to, the following:

• Precipitation of any kind including condensing fogs.


• Areas of ponded water.
• Periods of excessive wind.
• Extreme heat or cold unless seaming techniques are shown to produce acceptable and consistent
results.

5.5.1.11 Geomembrane Trial Seams


Geomembrane trial seams shall be made by the Geosynthetics Contractor operators to verify that
seaming conditions and techniques are acceptable for field seaming that will meet the Specifications.
The acceptance criteria shall be that described in GRI Test Method GM 19. These trial seams shall
be made under the following conditions:

• At the beginning of seaming operations or the beginning of each shift and following breaks for
meals.
• After every four hours of seaming machine operation.
• After repairs have been made to the seaming equipment.
• By each operator using the seaming equipment (an operator must be qualified for each separate
piece of seaming equipment used).
• Under the same environmental conditions and with the same materials and pre-seaming and
seaming techniques as the field seams are to be fabricated.
• At the sole discretion of the QC Contractor.

All trial seam data is to be recorded in the Geosynthetics Start-Up Trial Weld/Seam Log. Trial seams
shall meet the following the Geosynthetics Specifications:

• Clearly marked with Sample Identification number.


• 900 mm long for extrusion and 3 m long for wedge seaming.
• 300 mms wide after seaming.
• Same overlap as required in field seaming.
• Centered along the long axis of the sample.
• Allowed to cool naturally to ambient temperature.

The Geosynthetics Contractor shall complete destructive testing, which shall be witnessed by the QC
Contractor, on a calibrated tensiometer. The Geosynthetics Contractor shall provide a copy of the
calibration certificate to the QC Contractor via the Construction Manager. Calibration of the
tensiometer shall be completed before the start of the project. Results of the tests shall be recorded
by the QC Contractor in the Geosynthetics Start-Up Trial Weld/Seam Log.

For trial seams, if one or more of either of the five shear strength or five peel strength test is non-
passing, an additional trial seam will be welded. If testing of the new trial seam results in any coupon
failures, neither the individual nor the welding machine will be allowed to weld production welds until
two consecutive trial seams are produced and all five shear and five peel tests from each trial weld
have passing results.

5.5.1.12 Geomembrane Field Seam Inspection


Field seams shall be inspected by the QC Contractor. Inspections required:

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-12
• Check for correct centering of the weld in fusion seaming.
• Check for water and air blisters in the weld in fusion seaming.
• Check for proper adhesion of the extrusion bead in fusion seams.
• Check for overgrinding of the Geomembrane panel adjacent to the extrusion seams. If the
overgrind is greater than 10 percent of the panel thickness, an extrusion bead shall be placed over
the overgrind.
• Check for poor workmanship.
• Check for insufficient overlap.
• Check for lack of extrudate in the extrusion seam bead.

The QC Contractor may also reject any portion of a seam for any additional reason that may cause
the seam to not meet the Geosynthetics Specifications.

The Geomembrane field seamer shall mark next to each seam his or her initials, the date of the
seaming, the time, machine number, welding temperatures, and, if applicable, preheat and machine
speed and indicate with arrows the start and finish points of the seaming.

The QC Contractor shall record all seaming information as required in the Geosynthetics Field
Seaming Log.

5.5.1.13 Geomembrane Seaming and Panel Deficiencies


Any deficiency found in the Geomembrane seams or panel shall be indelibly marked by the QC
Contractor. The following terms may be used to describe the action required to correct the deficiency:

• B = Bead
• P = Patch
• Leak = Leak
• O = Insufficient Overlap
• Bridge = Bridge
• DS = Destructive Sample

Further markings shall be used to identify the repair or destructive sample number. Bead repairs do
not need to be recorded. Insufficient overlaps shall be patched, and bridges shall be cut and patched
as required. All holes, leaks, and areas where destructive samples have been taken shall be
patched. Patching materials shall be of the same material type and thickness as the material being
repaired. A patch shall be a minimum of 150 mm larger in all directions than the area requiring repair
and shall have rounded corners. All intersections of channels created in double-wedge seaming shall
be properly prepared and seamed to eliminate leaks at the seam terminations. All repairs shall be
logged as required in the Geosynthetics Field QC Log.

Capping shall be used in the repair of fusion welds and areas of excessive overgrind. However,
extrusion over a fusion weld and excessive overgrind should be minimized. Any material on the
support layer which may cause damage shall be removed and the area repaired.

All repairs shall be non-destructively tested. Repairs shall also be inspected by the QC Contractor for
deficiencies prior to panel acceptance and seam acceptance. The QC Contractor shall record the
non-destructive test results of the seams in the Geosynthetics Field QC Log.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-13
5.6 Geotextile
5.6.1 Geotextile Manufacture
Quality control testing shall be carried out by the geotextile manufacturer to demonstrate that the
product meets the Specifications. Prior to installing any geotextile materials, the geotextile
manufacturer and/or supplier through the Geosynthetics Contractor shall provide the QC Contractor
via the Construction Manager with a certified sheet including, at a minimum, all specified properties,
using test methods as indicated in the Geosynthetics Specifications. A typical list of properties that
should be included follows.

Geotextile:

• Material type
• Fabrication method
• Weight
• Thickness
• Grab strength
• Grab elongation
• Puncture strength
• Mullen burst strength
• Apparent opening size
• Trapezoidal tear strength

The QC Contractor shall verify that the property values supplied by the geotextile manufacturer and/or
supplier meet all Specifications, that the measurements of the properties by the geotextile supplier are
properly documented, and that the test methods employed meet the Specifications.

5.6.2 Geotextile Handling and Storage


5.6.2.1 Geotextile Delivery
Upon arrival of the geotextile at the site, the QC Contractor shall immediately receive via the
Construction Manager a copy of the bill of lading of all geotextile materials delivered. All materials
received onsite shall be immediately logged in the Log of Geotextiles Received. The QC Contractor
shall verify that the materials delivered:

• Meet the Geosynthetics Specifications


• Match those which are listed on the bill of lading

Any discrepancies shall be brought to the immediate attention of the Construction Manager. The
materials at this time shall be inspected for any visible damage. All geotextile materials delivered
shall be protected from ultraviolet light using a watertight protective wrapping.

5.6.2.2 Geotextile Storage


Geotextile materials shall be stored at a site near the Work place that is free of hazards. Geotextile
materials shall be stored in an area that will protect the materials from:

• Ultraviolet light exposure


• Precipitation
• Mud, dirt, and dust
• Puncture or cutting
• Any other damaging condition

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-14
The QC Contractor shall neither accept nor approve the installation of any materials that do not meet
the Specifications. Materials that are not acceptable shall be tagged as such by the QC Contractor.
The Geosynthetics Contractor shall be notified by the Construction Manager as soon as possible as
to materials which do not meet the Geosynthetics Specifications. Materials that do not meet the
Geosynthetics Specifications requirements shall be removed from the site.

5.6.3 Geotextile Installation


The QC Contractor shall obtain from the Geosynthetics Contractor via the Construction Manager
written acceptance for the surface on which the geotextile is to be installed prior to the installation of
geotextile material. In the event the Geosynthetics Contractor uses a Geomembrane Installation
Contractor for installation of the Geosynthetics, the written acceptance of the surface on which the
geotextile is to be deployed shall be signed by the Geosynthetics Contractor. This acceptance shall
be recorded on the Work Activity Inspection Form. If any damage has occurred since acceptance, the
QC Contractor shall obtain reacceptance of any area that has been damaged and repaired prior to
installation of Geosynthetics materials. The Geosynthetics Contractor is responsible for maintaining
the condition of the accepted area(s) until it is accepted by others for later stages of the Work.

The QC Contractor shall also make an independent inspection of the surfaces on which the geotextile
is to be deployed.

5.6.3.1 Geotextile Field Installation


Installation of geotextile shall be in a systematic and planned fashion so that:

• Installation does not cause damage to the subgrade or Geomembrane


• Installed geotextile is properly anchored as soon as possible
• Geotextile is kept clean
• All subgrade and/or Geomembrane surfaces are cleaned of all debris prior to installation

5.6.3.2 Geotextile Inspection


All geotextile materials installed shall be inspected by the QC Contractor immediately after installation
for defects or damage. All defects or damaged areas shall be identified by the QC Contractor by
circling the defect or area. Excessively damaged geotextile shall be removed. All inspections shall be
recorded in the Geosynthetics Field Seaming Log, the Geosynthetics Field QC Log, and the
Geosynthetics Panel Deployment Log.

5.6.3.3 Geotextile Progress Reports


The Geosynthetics Contractor shall provide, on a daily basis, an account indicating the square
footage of geotextile installed and the number of rolls used. The Construction Manager shall check
this daily report against his own to ensure completeness and correctness.

5.6.4 Geotextile Joints


5.6.4.1 Geotextile Overlap
The QC Contractor shall inspect the overlap to ensure that the minimum overlap as required in the
Geosynthetics Specifications is obtained.

5.6.4.2 Geotextile Joining


Only approved techniques shall be employed in the joining of geotextile materials. The accepted
technique is to use thermal bonding to join the geotextile. Alternative joining techniques are not
permitted without prior approval. Joining equipment shall be inspected to ensure that it will not cause
any damage to the subgrade and/or any previously installed Geosynthetics materials. The QC

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-15
Contractor shall approve geotextile joining on the appropriate inspection forms prior to the
commencement of further work on the geotextile.

Geotextile field seams shall be inspected by the QC Contractor for:

• Burn-through when using thermal bonding of the geotextile


• Proper overlap and shingling

5.6.4.3 Geotextile Repairs


All holes or tears in the geotextile shall be repaired by patching with the same geotextile. The patch
shall be a minimum of 300 mm larger in all directions than the area to be repaired and shall be
repaired in the same fashion as the parent material is joined. Repairs shall be inspected and
approved by the QC Contractor on the appropriate inspection form prior to commencing further work
on the geotextile. All repairs shall be recorded by the QC Contractor in the Geosynthetics Field
QC Log.

5.7 Culverts and Piping


General procedures for ensuring QC of piping and culverts are provided in Section 6.2. In addition, all
HDPE pipe shall be pressure tested in accordance with Section 6.2.1.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


5-16
Section 6.0 - Testing

Standard testing forms developed by the QC Contractor shall be used for the tests described in this
section. When reference is made to an external test procedure, e.g., ASTM, the relevant test
procedure documentation is considered to be an integral part of this manual. If these external test
procedures reference or require other additional external procedures, they also are considered to be
an integral part of this document.

The tests required are divided into two categories:

• Control tests
• Record tests

Control tests are used to determine that materials comply with the Earthwork Specifications prior to
placement and to determine other parameters such as optimum moisture content and maximum dry
density so that the requirements of the Earthwork Specifications are achieved. The frequency of
control tests can be reduced when material characteristics are relatively constant and consistent.

Record tests are performed, usually after placement of the materials, to determine that the in-place
materials meet the requirements as set forth in the Specifications and/or are in accordance with the
Design intent.

Tests are performed by the methods indicated and at the frequencies shown in the tables. The tests
will be performed at least the minimum number of times indicated. The Engineer may increase the
number of tests required.

6.1 Earthwork
Testing of all fill materials shall be completed in accordance with the procedures and at the
frequencies detailed in tables included in Section 7.

If the layer thickness for fill exceeds the test equipment working depth, compaction through the layer
must be verified at the commencement of fill placement. This is done by excavating a pit. Thereafter,
the compaction profile is established by testing the top of the layer. Periodic testing using pits may
then be used to confirm continued acceptable compaction throughout the layer.

Acceptance of Riprap shall be based on the visual observation of the placed Riprap by the QC
Contractor. If the QC Contractor deems it necessary, field measurements to determine the particle
size distribution of the Riprap shall be undertaken and other test work undertaken to determine its
suitability and compliance with the requirements of the Specifications.

6.2 Pipework and Culverts


The following tests are required prior to burial:

• Visual inspection of all non-welded joints connected by “snap-fittings” or the like including a wire tie.
• Visual inspection of all welds, particularly butt-welded HDPE pipe.

The following tests are required after backfill placement and compaction around the pipes.

• Visual inspection and testing, as required, of all pipe backfill.


• Periodically, the backfilled pipes shall be exposed when specified by the QC Contractor to allow
inspection of the completed backfill.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


6-1
Installation of each type of pipe shall begin with a test section to verify the Earthwork Contractor’s
procedures and results relative to the intent of the design and the Earthwork Specifications
requirements. This will involve construction of a test section and then exposure of the pipe to allow
the QC Contractor to observe the results of the work. Acceptable installation work will be
incorporated into the work.

All inspections and test results are to be recorded on the Work Activity Inspection Form.

6.2.1 Procedure for Pressure Testing HDPE Pipe


All HDPE pipe installed as part of outlet works at the sediment ponds and reservoirs shall be pressure
tested. For pipe that is encased in concrete, testing shall be undertaken both before and after the
concrete encasement has been cast.

Prior to hydro-testing, each line will have the following items completed:

• The line will be inspected for defects and checked by ultrasound to verify wall thickness of the pipe.
• The pipe to be tested will be blind flanged on the dam with a vent valve and gauge installed to check
pressures and to relieve air during initial line charge and during the test. The gauge will be
calibrated before the test.
• A tee will be installed in the line, with a 12-inch air actuated valve on the drain side to facilitate pipe
draining in case of a line failure during testing. The drain valve will have an air supply line hooked to
it during testing. A test gauge will also be installed to check pressure. The gauge will be calibrated
before the test.
• The 4-inch JC fresh water line will be used for the initial charging of the line to be tested.
• Before the line is charged with water, spotters will be staged at regular intervals along the pipe to
check for leakage during the test. A minimum of three spotters will be used along the containment
ditch. Also, during the entire test, there will be a person at the vent valve on the dam and at the
fill/drain line at the pump house.
• Each spotter and those at each end of the line will have a radio tuned to a predetermined frequency
to communicate during the testing procedure.
• A guzzler truck, a loader, and a track hoe will be on stand-by to respond to any leaks.

During the hydro-test, the following procedures will be followed.

• Ensure that all personnel are in place and that communications are operational.
• Commence the initial charging of the line with the 4-inch JC line. While charging the line, the vent
valve will be open.
• The line will be charged for the full length. Once it is full, it will be drained to flush the line.
• The line will then been charged for the test.
• Once the line is charged, the line will set 15 minutes to allow the air to migrate to the vent valve.
Then the air will be bled off and the line charged again.
• Once the line has been charged the 4-inch JC line will be disconnected from the line.
• The test pump will then be started and the line will be pressured. The test parameters set forth in
the specified guidelines will be used to do the test.
• The pressure will be recorded every 5 minutes during the entire test.
• If at any time a leak is spotted in the line, all personnel will be notified, the drain valve at the pump
house will be opened and the line drained. The standby equipment will be directed to the leak area
and containment efforts will commence.

The test is considered a success if the pressure does by less than 5 percent over the duration of the
test. If the pressure drops by more than 5 percent, reasons for this must be investigated and
corrected before the test is repeated.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


6-2
After the test is completed, the following items will be completed.

• The line will be drained. The line will then be connected to the operating system.
• Spotter procedures will be the same as with the test procedures.

6.3 Concrete
Unless otherwise noted on construction drawings, the requirements for concrete and reinforced
concrete materials, grades and mix designs, placement and sampling/testing for such items as, but
not limited to, outlet works concrete, energy dissipater structures, and spillway concrete paving shall
conform with Ausenco’s concrete specifications “Constancia Project Concrete Construction
Engineering Specification, Rev 1” dated 15 March, 2012, or the most recent version thereof. The
Ausenco specification is included herein by reference.

Inspections required are detailed in the most recent version of Ausenco’s Concrete Specification. Any
testing deemed necessary will be performed at the discretion of the Engineer. All concrete shall be
accepted by the QC Contractor on the Work Activity Inspection Form.

6.4 Geomembrane Testing


6.4.1 HDPE and LLDPE Geomembrane Destructive Seam Testing
Geomembrane destructive seam tests shall be performed at locations randomly selected by the
QC Contractor. The purpose of these tests is to check that seams are fully integrated with each panel
and to evaluate seam strength. Seam strength testing shall be done as the seaming work progresses
and not at the completion of all field seaming. The acceptance criteria shall be as described in GRI
Test Method GM 19. All testing shall be completed by the Installer and witnessed by the
QC Contractor. The QC Contractor shall obtain samples for destructive testing, over and above the
testing completed by the Installer, if determined necessary by the Engineer and at a frequency
determined by the Engineer. At the Engineer’s discretion, the samples may be sent to a third-party
testing laboratory for confirmation testing.

Destructive shear and peel tests shall be performed on field seams at a minimum frequency of one
test per 150 lineal m of field seam. The following procedure is to be used for taking samples of field
seams:

• The QC Contractor shall designate the sample locations.


• Each location shall be marked with a sample identification code.
• The exact location shall be marked with an indelible pencil.
• The location of each sample should be chosen at a location that represents:
− Areas of poor seaming conditions
− Areas of high stress
− Areas of critical importance in the design
− Average seam conditions

The Installer shall be responsible for the actual cutting and testing of the sample coupons. Using a
calibrated tensiometer, five coupons shall be tested for peel strength, and five coupons shall be tested
for shear strength. Coupons must be cut with a die to ensure uniformity. Before testing, the top and
bottom of each coupon shall be measured for thickness with a zero-to-25 mm micrometer. The
micrometer should be checked prior to use for a correct zero reading.

The QC Contractor shall record the results of the seam destructive tests along with all other required
information on the Geomembrane Destructive Sample Test Data Sheet. Each coupon tested shall be
described in the log. Tested coupons as well as a 300 mm by 300 mm sample shall be provided to

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


6-3
the Company for retention for a minimum of one year. Samples shall be labeled with the date of
testing and sample identification number. The Contractor shall ensure that his testing equipment is
calibrated and must supply the QC Contractor via the Manager with the appropriate documents.

In the event of a failing test result, the following procedure shall be used:

• The Installer shall follow one of two options:


− Reconstruct the seam between the two passed test location on either side of the failed test
section, or
− Trace the failed weld by a series of tests to delineate the length of the failed weld. New
coupons shall be cut within 3 m in both directions of the failed sample and tested. This process
is repeated until a zone is established defining the seam to be repaired.

The QC Contractor shall not accept any seam until the destructive test results are deemed to have
passed. In the event that the Geosynthetics Contractor wishes to proceed prior to receiving the test
results, the Construction Manager shall obtain a statement in writing from the Installer that all liability
and cost incurred in the event of a failing test is the responsibility of the Geosynthetics Contractor.

For trial seams, if one or more of either the five shear or the five peel coupon tests result in a non-
passing test, an additional trial seam will be welded. If testing of the new trial seam results in any
coupon failures, the individual will be required to complete seaming operations until two consecutive
trial seams are produced and all five shear and five peel tests from each trial seam have passing
results.

Values measured for shear and peel are required to meet the requirements for field seams in GRI
Test Method GM 19.

6.4.1.1 Geomembrane Non-Destructive Seam Testing


Non-destructive testing of all Geomembrane seams and repairs shall be conducted by the
Geosynthetics Contractor under the observation of the QC Contractor. The purpose of non-
destructive testing is to check the continuity of the seams. It does not provide information on the
seam strength. Testing shall take place as the seaming work progresses and not at the completion of
all field seaming. The accepted methods of non-destructive testing are:

• Vacuum box testing


• Air pressure testing
• Ultrasonic pulse echo testing
• Visual inspection
• Spark gap

The results of all tests are to be recorded in the Geosynthetics Field QC Log.

6.4.1.1.1 Vacuum Box Testing


The Geosynthetics Contractor may inspect single-wedge fusion seams and extrusion seams using
vacuum box apparatus as follows:

• Trim excess sheet overlaps.


• Check the vacuum box for leaks.
• Wet the Geomembrane surface with a nontoxic soap and water solution.
• Apply a vacuum 20 kPa to 35 kPa sufficient to lift liner off the supporting layer for a minimum period
of 10 seconds.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


6-4
The vacuum box testing apparatus shall be free of any defect that may cause damage to the
Geomembrane or subgrade. The overlap between vacuum tests shall be a minimum of 75 mm inside
the viewing area of the box. The Geomembrane being inspected shall be cleaned prior to testing and
free of all debris.

6.4.1.1.2 Air Pressure Testing


The Contractor may inspect double-wedge fusion seams with air pressure testing equipment as
follows:

• The air pump shall be capable of pressurizing a seam to between 172 and 207 kPa.
• If needles are used, all needles shall be accounted for. Broken needles in a seam shall be removed
and discarded properly.
• If loss of pressure exceeds 20 kPa in a 5-minute time period, the Installer must locate and define the
extent of the leak.
• The QC Contractor shall inspect the air pressure gauge to ensure that it is working properly.

6.4.1.1.3 Geomembrane Spark Testing


This testing method may be used on extrusion seams. This method uses a 24-gauge copper ground
wire embedded in the extrusion seam and a wire brush connected to a high voltage source. All
deficiencies in the fused seam will cause a spark between the wire and the brush. When spark
testing is completed, the exposed wire end shall be clipped and sealed.

6.4.1.2 Geomembrane Leak Repair


All defects found shall be marked as a “leak” by the QC Contractor. All leaks shall be noted in the
Geosynthetics Field QC Log. Leaks shall be repaired as described in Repair Procedures under
Section 4.9.5. All repairs shall be retested, pass all required tests, and be recorded in the log prior to
acceptance of any seam or respective panel.

6.4.1.3 Geomembrane Final Acceptance


After completion of installation, repairs and all testing, the QC Contractor shall visually inspect all
panels and seams prior to acceptance. All accepted panels shall be recorded on the Final
Geosynthetics Acceptance Form.

6.4.1.4 Geomembrane Sample Internment


All samples and coupons from the trial seams and destructive tests shall be archived on site by the
Manager for retention for a minimum of one year after the completion of installation.

6.5 Field Density Tests


6.5.1 Nuclear Methods
The test methods and frequencies applicable to field testing are detailed in the tables. All field tests
shall be recorded on the appropriate forms. Different test numbering systems will be established for
each type of material.

The density of soil and soil-aggregate materials is determined using the methods and equipment
according to ASTM Test Method D 2922. Nuclear methods are useful as rapid, non-destructive
techniques for the in-place determination of soil and soil aggregate at or near the surface. This
equipment must only be used, calibrated, and maintained by those staff specifically trained and
designated for this work.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


6-5
6.5.2 Sand Replacement and Water Replacement
In general, the in-place density and unit weight of soil and rock are determined using the appropriate
ASTM test method:

• ASTM D 5030:
− Minimum test pit volume: 28 to 56 liters.
− Maximum particle size: 75 to 125 mm.
• ASTM D 1556 or D 2167:
− Minimum test pit volume: 1.5 to 3.0 liters.
− Minimum particle size: 12.5 to 50 mm.

The material being tested must be sufficiently cohesive to maintain stable sides during testing. It must
not deform or slough while digging the hole or pouring the sand. In general, these test methods are
limited to materials in an unsaturated condition and are not recommended for soft, friable, or seeping
materials.

6.6 Failed Tests


The QC Contractor will individually consider each record test which fails to meet the requirements of
the Specifications and recommend an appropriate course of action. This may involve resampling,
reworking, and retesting or some combination of these. In every case, all documentation associated
with the original test and the recommended remedial work will be clearly cross referenced so that the
entire sequence of activities can be completely reconstructed.

6.7 Equipment Calibration, Maintenance, and Operation


Manufacturers’ specifications for instrument calibration and maintenance will be followed. A record of
calibration and maintenance activities will be maintained in field notebooks.

The calibration, maintenance, and operating procedures for all instruments, equipment, and sampling
tools are based on or are the actual manufacturer’s instructions, specifications, and criteria for
calibration, maintenance, and operation.

Each piece of equipment used in activities affecting data quality shall be calibrated at a frequency
specified by the manufacturer.

Each piece of equipment used in activities affecting data quality shall be maintained. Following
maintenance, instruments will be calibrated according to the manufacturer’s specifications to ensure
proper completion of the maintenance procedure.

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


6-6
Section 7.0 - Reports

7.1 Daily Reports


The QC Contractor will prepare a daily report summarizing work inspected, tests performed, and other
relevant items. The daily report will indicate any failed inspections or tests, the actions taken to rectify
these, and reports received or given about unacceptable or substandard procedures or materials.

The QA Contractor will review the QC Contractor’s daily report and prepare a daily report
summarizing the work observed and provide a technical and professional opinion on the conformance
of the QC services to the design intent.

Daily reports should be submitted to the Engineer and Hudbay Minerals, Inc. no later than noon the
day following the report subject date.

The QC Contractor will work with the QA Contractor to develop summary and detail report formats to
be incorporated into comprehensive Construction Report as described in Section 7.3, below.

7.2 Monthly Progress Report


The QC Contractor will prepare a monthly progress report. This report will:

• Summarize construction activities


• Summarize construction methods
• Summarize all QC activities
• Summarize all inspection and testing results
• Indicate problems encountered and resolutions
• Indicate potential difficulties
• Provide photographs

The QC Contractor may include such other items as Drawings, figures, and tables as are necessary
to clearly present the work performed and planned.

The QA Contractor will review the QC Contractor’s monthly report and prepare a monthly report
summarizing the conformance (or otherwise) to the Engineer’s design intent.
th
Monthly reports should be submitted to the Engineer and Hudbay Minerals, Inc. no later than the 10
calendar day following the report subject month.

7.3 Construction Report


Upon completion of the work, the Engineer will prepare a comprehensive Construction Report. This
report will include:

• A summary of construction methods and materials


• A summary of any design or specification revisions and/or problems encountered and the solutions
to them
• Results of inspections
• Results of all tests
• A record of Construction Drawings
• Photographs

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


7-1
Within 30 calendar days of completion of each element of the work, the Contractor will submit all
relevant information (including as-built drawings) to the Engineer. Elements of the work to include
Main Sediment Pond, Cunahuiri Reservoir, Tailings Management Facility, Construction Sediment
Ponds, Internal Access and Haul Roads.

The Construction Report will be submitted to the Company.

Following is a summary of the test methods and frequencies for earthworks testing. Testing methods
and frequencies for other materials are presented in their respective sections.

Summary of Test Methods

Test Method
Type of Test
(ASTM)
Atterberg Limits D 4318
Moisture Content
a) Laboratory D 2216
b) In-Place D 3017
Particle-Size Analysis of Soils D 422
Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates D 422/C136
Moisture-Density Relationship (Modified Proctor) D 1557
Field Density
a) Nuclear Method D 2922
b) Sand Cone Method D 1556
Slake Durability D 4644
Freeze/Thaw Durability AASHTO T103
Los Angeles Abrasion ASTM C131/C535

Summary of Test Frequencies

Test Method Test Frequency


Material Test Designation
(ASTM) (Minimum)
1 per soil type and 1 for
Particle Size D422 each 5,000 m3 of core
placed
1 per soil type and 1 for
Atterberg Limits D4318 each 5,000 m3 of core
placed
1 per soil type and 1 for
Laboratory Compaction D1557 each 25,000 m3 of core
Core, Soil Liner, placed
Anchor Trench Field Density/Moisture
Backfill D2922/D3017 1 per 2,000 m3
(Nuclear Gauge)
Field Density/Moisture
D1556/D2216 1 per 10 D2922 tests
(Sand Cone)

Lift thickness N/A Continuous monitoring

Number of passes of compaction


N/A Continuous monitoring
equipment

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


7-2
Summary of Test Frequencies

Test Method Test Frequency


Material Test Designation
(ASTM) (Minimum)
1 per soil type and 1 for
Particle Size D422 each 5,000 m3 of
Structural fill placed
1 per soil type and 1 for
Atterberg Limits D4318 each 5,000 m3 of
Structural fill placed
1 per soil type and 1 for
Laboratory Compaction D1557 each 25,000 m3 of
General Fill Structural fill placed
Field Density/Moisture
D2922/D3017 1 per 2,000 m3
(Nuclear Gauge)
Field Density/Moisture
D1556/D2216 1 per 10 D2922 tests
(Sand Cone)
Lift thickness N/A Continuous monitoring
Number of passes of compaction
N/A Continuous monitoring
equipment
Drain Particle Size D422 1 per 1,000 m3
Atterberg Limits D4318 1 per 1,000 m3
Wearing Course Particle Size D422/C136 1 per 5,000 m3
Atterberg Limits D4318 1 per 5,000 m3
Field Density/Moisture (Sand D1556./D2216 No testing required unless
Cone) specified by the Engineer.
Piezometer Particle Size D422 1 per 1,000 m3
Trench Backfill 1 test minimum per
installation
Atterberg Limits D4318 1 per 1,000 m3
1 test minimum per
installation
Rockfill, Riprap, Slake Durability D 4644 If needed, as specified by
Transition Engineer
Specific Gravity D 854 If needed, as specified by
Engineer
Freeze/Thaw Durability AASHTO T103 If needed, as specified by
Engineer
Los Angeles Abrasion ASTM If needed, as specified by
C131/C535 Engineer
Rockfill, Riprap, Lift thickness N/A Continuous monitoring
Transition, Number of passes of compaction
Riprap Bedding N/A Continuous monitoring
equipment
Particle Size D422 If needed, as specified by
Engineer
Slake Durability D 4644 If needed, as specified by
Engineer
Specific Gravity D 854 If needed, as specified by
Engineer
Freeze/Thaw Durability AASHTO T103 If needed, as specified by
Engineer

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


7-3
Summary of Test Frequencies

Test Method Test Frequency


Material Test Designation
(ASTM) (Minimum)
Riprap Bedding Los Angeles Abrasion ASTM If needed, as specified by
Prepared C131/C535 Engineer
Foundation Particle Size D422 1 per soil type and 1 for
(Soils) each 1000 m2
Atterberg Limits D4318 1 per soil type and 1 for
(No testing each material type
required where Laboratory Compaction D1557 1 per soil type and 1 for
foundation is each material type
bedrock.) Field Density/Moisture * D2922/D3017 1 per soil type and 1 for
(Nuclear Gauge) each 1000 m2
Prepared Field Density/Moisture (Sand D1556/D2216 1 per each 10 Nuclear
Foundation Cone)* Gage tests
(Soils)

(No testing
required where
foundation is
bedrock.)

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


7-4
Section 8.0 - Acronyms and Abbreviations

°C degrees Celcius
°F degrees Fahrenheit
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
ACI American Concrete Institute
ANSI American National Standard Institute
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
AWWA American Water Works Association
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
BMP Best Management Practice
cm centimeter(s)
CQA Construction Quality Assurance
EMP Environmental Management Plan
ft2 cubic foot(feet)
g/cm3 grams/cubic centimeter
H:V horizontal to vertical
Hudbay Hudbay Perú S.A.C.
Knight Piésold Knight Piésold and Co.
kPa kiloPascal(s)
lb pound(s)
LID length-to-diameter ratio
m meter(s)
m2 square meter(s)
m3 cubic meter(s)
mm millimeter(s)
MPa megapascal(s)
NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service
PAG Potentially Acid Generating
PI Plasticity Index
PPI Plastics Pipe Institute
ppm parts per million
QA quality assurance
QC quality control
SOP standard operating procedure(s)
SPI Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.
SWPPP Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan
TMF Tailings Management Facility
WRF Waste Rock Facility
WWF welded wire fabric

Technical Specifications for Earthworks, Geosynthetics, Pipework, and Concrete, Rev 0


8-1