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1. a) Discuss the behaviour of displacement versus driving force frequency in case of a forced
oscillator. Show that

i) The displacement at low frequency is independent of frequency.

ii) The resonant frequency of driving force is slightly less than the natural frequency of the

𝐹 𝑠 𝑟2
iii) The maximum amplitude 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑟𝜔0 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒𝜔 = √(𝑚) − 4𝑚2 symbols have usual

b) What is sharpness of resonance? Explain with proper diagram the effect on damping on the
sharpness of resonance.

2. What do you mean by damping in S.H.M. Prove that the damping force is independent of
acceleration & displacement and is proportional to velocity?

3. a) Derive the expression of total energy of a simple harmonic oscillator and show that it is
constant and proportional to the square of amplitude.

b) The potential energy of a particle with mass 10 gm is given by V(x) = 32x2+0.2, when x is in
metre and V in joule. Find the frequency of oscillation of the particle.

4. Establish the equation of motion of a damped oscillator. Classify the resultant motion. Solve
the equation for the motion which is oscillatory.

5. Define, Relaxation time, logarithmic decrement and quality factor of a damped oscillator.



(a) What is Compton effect?

(b) Derive Stefan’s law from Planck’s radiation law.
(a) State and explain Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
(b) Show that there cannot be any existence of electrons within the nucleus of an atom.


(a) What is Ultraviolet catastrophe? Explain with suitable diagram.

(b) Deduce the relation between scattering angle of incident radiation and recoil angle of the
electron in case of Compton scattering.
(c) What is the origin of unmodified and modified lines in Compton Effect observations?
(d) Deduce the relation between phase velocity 𝑣𝑝 and group velocity𝑣𝑔 .


(a) Why is quantum mechanics used in case of moving electrons while classical mechanics
used for moving cars?
(b) How can we justify the width of spectral lines?
(c) Deduce Wein’s displacement law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law and Stefan’s law from Planck’s
radiation law for Blackbody radiation.
(d) Discuss the laws of photoelectric emission.