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# 1. State The Third Law Of Thermodynamics. Give Its Limitations And Importance.?

The third law of thermodynamics states that:
“The entropy of a perfect crystal of each element and a compound is zero at absolute zero.”

Limitations: If any disorder like impurity or imperfection is found in a substance then the entropy of such
crystal is non-zero at 0 K. For example: The entropy of pure carbon dioxide and nitric oxide is zero at 0K. This
shows that there exists disorder in the arrangement of such molecules.

This law is applicable only to pure compounds. Thus we can say that, this law is not applicable to glass which is
a supercooled liquid. It is also not applicable to amorphous substance and supercooled solutions.

Importance:

o With the help of this law Thermodynamic properties can be calculated and chemical affinity can be measured.
o This law helps in explaining the behaviour of solids at very low temperature.
Explain The Laws Of Thermodynamics.?

o Zeroth law: If any two systems are in thermal equilibrium with the third system, then they are also in thermal
equilibrium with each other.
o First law: First law of thermodynamic states that energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but it can only
be converted from one form to another.
o Second law: This law states that “all processes in nature tend to occur with an increase in entropy and the
direction of change always lead to the increase in entropy.”
o Third law: This law states that “The entropy of a perfect crystal of each element and a compound is zero at
absolute zero.”
Explain The Following Terms: Isolated System, Open System And Closed System
And Give Example Where Ever Possible.?

o Isolated system: A system that can neither exchange matter nor heat with the surrounding is known as an
isolated system.
For example: Water placed in a vessel that is closed as well as insulated.
o Open system: A system that can exchange both matter and energy with the surrounding is said to be an open
system.
For example: A reaction taking place in an open vessel exchanges both energy and matter with the
surrounding.
o Closed system: A system that exchanges only energy and not matter with the surrounding is said to be a closed
system.
For example: A reaction taking place in a closed metallic vessel.
Write A Short Note On Gibbs Free Energy And Derive The Equation For The
Same.?
This thermodynamic quantity states that the decrease in value during a process is equal to the
useful work done by the system. It is denoted by G and the mathematical equation is:
G = H – TS

Where,

H = heat content
T = absolute temperature
S = entropy of the system

## G1 = H1 – TS1 for the initial state

G2 = H2 – TS2 for final stage

Therefore,

Now,

## ΔG = G2 – G1 is the change in Gibbs free energy

ΔH = H2 – H1 is the change in enthalpy of the system
ΔS = S2 – S1 Is the change in entropy of the system

## Thus the above equation becomes:

ΔG = ΔH – TΔS is known as Gibbs-Helmoholtz equation.

## Why Entropy Decreases With Increase In Temperature?

ds=dQ/T. Entropy is inversely proportional to the temperature so, as temp. Increases, entropy decreases.

Why Different Types Of Sound Are Produced In Different Bikes, Though They Run
On Si Engines?
Engine specifications are different in different manufactures like as Bore Diameter (CC), Ignition timing. Also
the exhaust passage takes more responsible for sound.

746.2 Watt

## Explain Bicycle Rear Wheel Sprocket Working?

Rear wheel sprocket works under the principle of ratchet and pawl.

## Definition Of Octane Number And Cetane Number?

Octane No:-Octane number is defined as the percentage, by volume, of iso octane in the mixture of iso octane
and h-heptane. It is the measure of rating of SI engine.

Cetane No:- Cetane number is defined as the percentage, by volume, of n-cetane in the mixture of n-cetane and
alpha methyl naphthalene. It is the measure of rating of CI engine.

## Which Mechanism Is Used In Automobile Gearing System?

Differential mechanism

## When Crude Oil Is Heated, Which Hydrocarbon Comes First?

Natural gas (Gasoline)… at 20 Celsius

## How To Calculate Bearing Number Ti Diameter Of The Inner And Outer?

Divide the shaft diameter size by 5, it will give last two digit of the bearing no. and according to type of load we
have to choose the type of bearing and that will give prior number of the bearing.

## The Fatigue Life Of A Part Can Be Improved By?

Improving the surface finish by Polishing & providing residual stress by Shot peening.

What Happens If Gasoline Is Used In A Diesel Engine, Siesel Engine Will Work?
No, It will not work, as the Compression ratio of Petrol engine is 6 to 10 & that of Diesel engine is 15 to 22.
Thus on such high compression, gasoline gets highly compressed & it may blast.

## Why Poisson Ratio Is Higher In, Rubber/steel/wood?

When a material is compressed in one direction, it usuallytends to expand in the other two directions
perpendicular tothe direction of compression. This phenomenon is called the Poisson effect. Poisson’s ratio is a
measure of the Poisson effect.

## For rubber = 0.5

For steel = 0.288
For wood < 0.2

## When A Real Gas Behaves Like Ideal Gas?

A real gas behaves like an ideal gas in low pressure and high temperature conditions.

## What Is The Significance Of Entropy?

As per the second law of thermodynamics, any heat input to the system (Heat engine) cannot be converted
completely into useful work. Some energy is lost and that is called 'unavailable work'. The amount of unavailable
work increases as the entropy increases.

## What Is The Difference Between Heat Transfer And Thermodynamics?

Heat transfer deals with the energy analysis which in transition and and depends on the modes of heat transfer
like conduction, convection and radiation or combination of any modes. Heat transfer deals in non equilibrium
domain and conditions while thermodynamics deals with study of system at equilibrium and does not depend on
how heat transfer is calculated.

## At Which Temperature Thermal Radiation Can Become Zero?

Not possible. Because thermal radiation becomes only zero at absolute zero temperature which can never be
attained by the third law of thermodynamics.

## Difference Between Tube And Pipe?

o There always a debate between differentiation of pipe and tube. Pipe is always designated by its Inside Diameter
(ID) because main purpose of pipe is to carry fluid, while the
o Tube is always designated by its Outside Diameter (OD). Pipe's thickness is sometimes called as schedule and
tube's thickness is gauge.
o As per the tolerance basis, tubes requires higher tolerances as to that of pipe and tubes are more costlier in
manufacturing compared to pipe production.

## 21. Difference Between Flywheel And Governor?

The function of flywheel is to store the energy/power produced during the power stroke of an engine and this
stored energy is used during remaining stroke to make piston up and down during working of engine while
governor tries control the speed of an engine due to variation in load. It does this work by reducing or increasing
the amount of fuel passing to the engine.

## 22. What Is The Importance Of The Thermodynamics In The Field Of Mechanical

Engineering?

All the mechanical engineering systems are studied with the help of thermodynamics. Hence it is very important
for the mechanical engineers.

## There are three laws of the thermodynamics.

o First Law : Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only change forms.In any process in an isolated
system, the total energy remains the same.
o Second Law : When two isolated systems in separate but nearby regions of space, each in thermodynamic
equilibrium in itself, but not in equilibrium with each other at first, are at some time allowed to interact, breaking
the isolation that separates the two systems, and they exchange matter or energy, they will eventually reach a
mutual thermodynamic equilibrium. The sum of the entropies of the initial, isolated systems is less than or equal
to the entropy of the final exchanging systems. In the process of reaching a new thermodynamic equilibrium,
entropy has increased, or at least has not decreased.
o Third Law : As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a minimum.
State Laws Of Conservation Of Energy?

According to the laws of conservation of energy, “energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only be
transformed from one form to another.”

## What Is Carnot Engine?

It was being designed by Carnot and let me tell you that Carnot engine is an imaginary engine which follows the
Carnot cycle and provides 100% efficiency.

## Which Formula Forms A Link Between The Thermodynamics And Electro

Chemistry?

Gibbs Helmholtz formula is the formula which forms the link between the thermodynamics and
electromagnetism.

## where: x – mole fraction of CO2 in the liquid phase

p – CO2 partial pressure (kPa)
T – temperature (K)
R – universal gas constant
α – mole ratio in the liquid phase (mole CO2 per mole of amine)

Diamond.

## What Is Hess Law?

According to the Hess law the energy transfer is simply independent of the path being followed. If the reactant
and the product of the whole process are the same then same amount of energy will be dissipated or absorbed.

## Which Has More Efficiency: Diesel Engine Or Petrol Engines?

Off course Diesel engine has the better efficiency out of two.

## Explain The Second Law Of Thermodynamics?

The entropy of the universe increases over time and moves towards a maximum value.

## How Do You Measure Temperature In A Wet Bulb Thermometer?

Wet bulb temperature is measured in a wet bulb thermometer by covering the bulb with a wick and wetting it
with water. It corresponds to the dew point temperature and relative humidity.

## What Is Bending Moment?

When a moment is applied to bend an element, a bending moment exists in the element.

What Are The Points In The Stress Strain Curve For Steel?

Proportional limit, elastic limit or yield point, ultimate stress and stress at failure.

## Define Reynolds Number.?

Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial force and viscous force. It is a dimensionless number. It determines the
type of fluid flow.

## What Is A Newtonian Fluid?

A Newtonian fluid possesses a linear stress strain relationship curve and it passes through the origin. The fluid
properties of a Newtonian fluid do not change when any force acts upon it.

What Is Ps?

## Explain Otto Cycle?

Otto cycle can be explained by a pressure volume relationship diagram. It shows the functioning cycle of a four
stroke engine. The cycle starts with an intake stroke, closing the intake and moving to the compression stroke,
starting of combustion, power stroke, heat exchange stroke where heat is rejected and the exhaust stroke. It was
designed by Nicolas Otto, a German engineer.

## Explain The Nomenclature Of A 6203-zz Bearing?

6 is the type code, which shows it is a single-row ball bearing, 2 is the series, means light, 03 is the bore, which
is 17 mm and ZZ is the suffix meaning double shielded bearing.

## What Is Gear Ratio?

It is the ratio of the number of revolutions of the pinion gear to one revolution of the idler gear.

What Is Annealing?

It is a process of heating a material above the re-crystallization temperature and cooling after a specific time
interval. This increases the hardness and strength if the material.

Define Torque.?

## What Is Ductile-brittle Transition Temperature?

It is the temperature below which the tendency of a material to fracture increases rather than forming. Below this
temperature the material loses its ductility. It is also called Nil Ductility Temperature

## 2. Zeroth law of thermodynamics defines _______

3. The ratio of specific heat of a gas at constant pressure and at constant volume always varies with _______

## 4. Internal energy of ideal gas is a function of _______ alone

5. Carnot cycle comprises _______ isothermal process and two _______ process

6. A heat engine is supplied with 300 kJ/sec of heat at 600 K and heat rejection takes place at 300 K. Heat rejected is 100

## 8. Heat and work are _______ functions

9. For a higher value of polytropic index the compressor work for a given pressure ratio is _______

## 11. Inter-cooling in an air compressor helps in _______

12. The function of providing clearance volume in a reciprocating air compressor is _______

## 13. One ton of refrigeration is _______

14. The refrigerant used in household refrigerator is _______

## 25. Define activity

26. What is an adiabatic process? Write the expression for work done during reversible adiabatic process

## 40. What are reversible and irreversible processes?

41. List out any five thermodynamic property changes for an ideal gas

## 42. Explain the terms 'state function' and 'path function'

43. What is an equation of state? Give the expression for any two equations of state

## 48. What is a multistage compression?

49. Give the classification of compression processes

## 51. What are the uses of thermodynamic formulations

52. Give any two thermodynamic relations for calculating the entropy change of a real gas

## 57. What are homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions?

58. What is the use of making free energy change calculations in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reaction equilibria?

## 83. Explain isothermal process

84. Is entropy of the universe changing? Explain

## 98. Define critical temperature and critical pressure

99. State at least three equations of state for gases and discuss the general applicability of these equations.

100. What is "Compressibility factor"? What is a generalized compressibility factor chart? Construct qualitatively such a chart

## 102. Derive Maxwell equations.

103. Derive an expression for the work involved in case of an ideal single stage reciprocating compressor having no clearance

volume.

104. What do you understand by convergent, divergent and convergent-divergent nozzle? Explain their applications.

## 107. Derive an expression for the efficiency of a Carnot cycle.

108. With the help of temperature-entropy diagram and flow diagram, explain the working of a single stage vapor compression

refrigeration system. Deduce expressions for the coefficient of performance, and horse power requirement per ton of

refrigeration.

109. What is Carnot's principle? With the help of Carnot's principle, show mathematically that it is possible to define an

absolute temperature scale, independent of the properties of any particular substance. How would you fix up the length of

## a degree in such an absolute scale of temperature?

110. What should be the desirable properties of a refrigerant for a vapor compression refrigeration system?

## 111. Mention the advantages of multistage compression.

112. State first law of thermodynamics and derive an energy equation for a steady state flow process.
113. Deduce Gibbs-Duhem equation in terms of activity coefficients.

114. What is meant by residual volume of a gas? Show mathematically that the residual volume of a gas does not necessarily

## approach zero as the temperature approaches zero along an isotherm.

115. Discuss the T-x-y, P-x-y and P'-T (vapor pressure vs temperature) diagram for binary miscible systems. How does pressure

## affect the T-x-y diagram?

116. Discuss Margules, Wohl and Wilson equation for estimation of activity coefficient.

## 117. Explain the terms fugacity, chemical potential and activity.

118. Derive the expression for volumetric efficiency in a single stage compressor.

119. Show that Van Laar equation satisfies the Gibbs-Duhem equation.

120. Discuss the effects of pressure, inerts, reactants ratio and temperature on chemical reactions.

121. What is the significance of the second law of thermodynamics with respect to transformation of energy? Briefly make a

## general statement of the law.

122. What is the objective of arranging for compressing air in stages with intermediate water cooling to the original

atmospheric temperature? Give the usual rules for the values of the intermediate pressures in the case of (i) two stage and

(A) Temperature
(B) Pressure
(C) Volume
(D) All of these

(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 8
(D) 16

## 3. Which of the following variables controls the physical properties of a

perfect gas?
(A) Pressure
(B) Temperature
(C) Volume
(D) All of the above

4. The distillation carried out in such a way that the liquid with the lowest
boiling point is first evaporated and re-condensed, then the liquid with the
next higher boiling point is then evaporated and re-condensed, and so on
until all the available liquid fuels are separately recovered in the sequence
of their boiling points. Such a process is called
(A) Cracking
(B) Fractional distillation
(C) Full distillation
(D) Carbonisation

(A) Zero
(B) Maximum
(C) Minimum
(D) Positive

## 6. Which of the following laws is applicable for the behaviour of a perfect

gas?
(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charles ‘law
(C) Gay Lussac’s law
(D) All of the above

(B) Celsius
(C) Fahrenheit
(D) Kelvin

## 8. A cycle consisting of _________ and two isothermal processes is known

as Stirling cycle.
(A) Two isentropic
(B) One constant pressure, one constant volume
(C) Two constant volumes
(D) Two constant pressures

(A) Three
(B) One
(C) Two
(D) Four

(A) Kilogram
(B) Gram
(C) Tonne
(D) Quintal

(A) Second
(B) Minute
(C) Hour
(D) Day

(A) Meter
(B) Centimeter
(C) Kilometer
(D) Millimeter

## 13. Mond gas is obtained by

(A) Partial combustion of coal, coke, anthracite coal or charcoal in a mixed air
steam blast
(B) Carbonisation of bituminous coal
(C) Passing steam over incandescent coke
(D) Passing air and a large amount of steam over waste coal at about 650°C

## 14. The main cause for the irreversibility is

(A) Unrestricted expansion
(B) Mechanical and fluid friction
(C) Heat transfer with a finite temperature difference
(D) All of the above

(A) watt
(B) Joule
(C) joule/s
(D) joule/m

## 1. According to Dalton's law, the total pressure of the mixture of gases is

equal to
(A) Greater of the partial pressures of all
(B) Average of the partial pressures of all
(C) Sum of the partial pressures of all
(D) Sum of the partial pressures of all divided by average molecular weight

2. Which of the following can be regarded as gas so that gas laws could be
applicable, within the commonly encountered temperature limits?
(A) O₂, N₂, steam, CO₂
(B) O₂, N₂, water vapour
(C) SO₂, NH₃, CO₂, moisture
(D) O₂, N₂, H₂, air

## 3. The measurement of a thermodynamic property known as temperature is

based on
(A) First law of thermodynamics
(B) Second law of thermodynamics
(C) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
(D) None of these

## 4. For a perfect gas, according to Boyle’s law (where P = Absolute pressure,

V = Volume and T = Absolute temperature)
(A) V/T = constant, if p is kept constant
(B) P v = constant, if T is kept constant
(C) T/P = constant, if v is kept constant
(D) P/T = constant, if v is kept constant

## 5. The gas turbine cycle with regenerator improves

(A) Work ratio
(B) Thermal efficiency
(C) Avoid pollution
(D) None of these

## 6. The compression ratio is the ratio of

(A) Total volume to swept volume
(B) Swept volume to clearance volume
(C) Swept volume to total volume
(D) Total volume to clearance volume

## 7. The unit of pressure in S.I. units is

(A) kg/cm²
(B) mm of water column
(C) Pascal
(D) Dyne per square cm

## 8. A closed system is one in which

(A) Mass does not cross boundaries of the system, though energy may do so
(B) Mass crosses the boundary but not the energy
(C) Neither mass nor energy crosses the boundaries of the system
(D) Both energy and mass cross the boundaries of the system

## 9. Temperature of a gas is produced due to

(A) Its heating value
(B) Kinetic energy of molecules
(C) Repulsion of molecules
(D) Surface tension of molecules

## 10. According to kinetic theory of gases, the absolute zero temperature is

attained when
(A) Volume of the gas is zero
(B) Pressure of the gas is zero
(C) Kinetic energy of the molecules is zero
(D) Specific heat of gas is zero

11. Those substances which have so far not been resolved by any means into
other substances of simpler form are called
(A) Atoms
(B) Compounds
(C) Elements
(D) Molecules

## 12. Coke is produced

(A) When coal is strongly heated continuously for 42 to 48 hours in the
absence of air in a closed vessel
(B) From the finely ground coal by moulding under pressure with or without
a binding material
(C) When coal is first dried and then crushed to a fine powder
by pulverizing machine
(D) By heating wood with a limited supply of air to a temperature not less
than 280°C

13. The hard coke is obtained when carbonization of coal is carried out at
(A) 500° to 700°C
(B) 700° to 900°C
(C) 300° to 500°C
(D) 900° to 1100°C

system?
(A) Mass
(B) Temperature
(C) Energy
(D) Volume

## 15. Otto cycle is also known as

(A) Constant pressure cycle
(B) Constant volume cycle
(C) Constant temperature cycle
(D) Constant temperature and pressure cycle
1. Superheated vapour behaves
(A) Exactly as gas
(B) As steam
(C) As ordinary vapour
(D) Approximately as a gas

## 2. Absolute zero pressure will occur

(A) At sea level
(B) When molecular momentum of the system becomes zero
(C) Under vacuum conditions
(D) At a temperature of 273°K

## 3. No liquid can exist as liquid at

(A) 273°K
(B) Vacuum
(C) Zero pressure
(D) Centre of earth

(A) Newton
(B) Pascal
(C) Erg
(D) Watt

## 5. The condition of perfect vacuum, i.e., absolute zero pressure can be

attained at
(A) A temperature of 273.16°C
(B) A temperature of 0°C
(C) A temperature of 273 °K
(D) A negative pressure and 0°C temperature

## 6. The efficiency of Carnot cycle depends upon

(A) Temperature limits
(B) Volume compression ratio
(C) Cut-off ratio and compression ratio
(D) Pressure ratio

## 7. The natural solid fuel is

(A) Wood
(B) Coke
(C) Pulverised coal
(D) Anthracite coal

## 8. Intensive property of a system is one whose value

(A) Depends on the mass of the system, like volume
(B) Does not depend on the mass of the system, like temperature, pressure,
etc.
(C) Is not dependent on the path followed but on the state
(D) Is dependent on the path followed and not on the state

(A) 0.17
(B) 0.21
(C) 0.24
(D) 1.0

## 10. Characteristic gas constant of a gas is equal to

(A) Cp /Cv
(B) Cv /Cp
(C) Cp - Cv
(D) Cp + Cv

11. The volumetric or molar specific heat at constant pressure is the product
of
(A) Molecular mass of the gas and the specific heat at constant volume
(B) Atomic mass of the gas and the gas constant
(C) Molecular mass of the gas and the gas constant
(D) None of the above

12. The heat and mechanical energies are mutually convertible. This
statement was established by
(A) Boyle
(B) Charles
(C) Joule
(D) None of these

(A) 0.17
(B) 0.24
(C) 0.1
(D) 1.41

## 14. Boyle's law i.e. pV = constant is applicable to gases under

(A) All ranges of pressures
(B) Only small range of pressures
(C) High range of pressures

## 15. The condition for the reversibility of a cycle is

(A) The pressure and temperature of the working substance must not differ,
appreciably, from those of the surroundings at any stage in the process
(B) All the processes, taking place in the cycle of operation, must be extremely
slow
(C) The working parts of the engine must be friction free
(D) All of the above

1. The specific heat of water is
(A) 2.512
(B) 1.817
(C) 4.187
(D) None of these

## 2. According to which law, all perfect gases change in volume by 1/273th of

their original volume at 0°C for every 1°C change in temperature when
pressure remains constant
(A) Joule's law
(B) Boyle's law
(C) Gay Lussac’s law
(D) Charles' law

3. Gases have
(A) Only one value of specific heat
(B) Two values of specific heat
(C) No value of specific heat
(D) Under some conditions one value and sometimes two values of specific
heat

## 4. According to Avogadro's Hypothesis

(A) The molecular weights of all the perfect gases occupy the same volume
under same conditions of pressure and temperature
(B) The sum of partial pressure of mixture of two gases is sum of the two
(C) Product of the gas constant and the molecular weight of an ideal gas is
constant
(D) Gases have two values of specific heat

## 5. Stirling and Ericsson cycles are

(A) Quasi-static cycles
(B) Reversible cycles
(C) Semi-reversible cycles
(D) Irreversible cycles

## 6. Reheating in a gas turbine

(A) Increases the compressor work
(B) Increases the turbine work
(C) Increases the thermal efficiency
(D) Decreases the thermal efficiency

## 7. Extensive property of a system is one whose value

(A) Depends on the mass of the system like volume
(B) Does not depend on the mass of the system, like temperature, pressure,
etc.
(C) Is not dependent on the path followed but on the state
(D) Is dependent on the path followed and not on the state

## 8. Work done in a free expansion process is

(A) +ve
(B) -ve
(C) Zero
(D) Maximum
9. The statement that molecular weights of all gases occupy the same
volume is known as
(B) Dalton's law
(C) Gas law
(D) Law of thermodynamics

## 10. To convert volumetric analysis to gravimetric analysis, the relative

volume of each constituent of the flue gases is
(A) Divided by its molecular weight
(B) Multiplied by its molecular weight
(C) Multiplied by its density
(D) Multiplied by its specific weight

11. If a gas is heated against a pressure, keeping the volume constant, then
work done will be equal to
(A) +ve
(B) -ve
(C) Zero
(D) Anywhere between zero and infinity

## 12. Which is the incorrect statement about Carnot cycle?

(A) All the heat engines are based on Carnot cycle
(B) It is used as the alternate standard of comparison of all heat engines
(C) It provides concept of maximising work output between the two
temperature limits
(D) All of the above

## 13. The fuel mostly used in steam boilers is

(A) Brown coal
(B) Peat
(C) Coking bituminous coal
(D) Non-coking bituminous coal

## 14. An isolated system is one in which

(A) Mass does not cross boundaries of the system, though energy may do so
(B) Neither mass nor energy crosses the boundaries of the system
(C) Both energy and mass cross the boundaries of the system
(D) Mass crosses the boundary but not the energy

## 15. Properties of substances like pressure, temperature and density, in

thermodynamic coordinates are
(A) Path functions
(B) Point functions
(C) Cyclic functions
(D) Real functions

1. Which of the following is the property of a system?
(A) Pressure and temperature
(B) Volume and density
(C) Enthalpy and entropy
(D) All of the above

## 2. On weight basis, air contains following parts of oxygen

(A) 21
(B) 23
(C) 25
(D) 73
3. Which of the following is not the intensive property?
(A) Pressure
(B) Temperature
(C) Density
(D) Heat

## 4. Which of the following items is not a path function?

(A) Heat
(B) Work
(C) Kinetic energy
(D) Thermal conductivity

## 5. Work done in an adiabatic process between a given pair of end states

depends on
(A) The end states only
(C) The value of index ‘n’
(D) The value of heat transferred

## 6. Heat and work are

(A) Point functions
(B) System properties
(C) Path functions
(D) Intensive properties

7. Which of the following parameters is constant for a mole for most of the
gases at a given temperature and pressure
(A) Enthalpy
(B) Volume
(C) Mass
(D) Entropy
8. According to Kelvin-Planck’s statement of second law of
thermodynamics,
(A) It is possible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose
sole purpose is to convert heat energy into work
(B) It is impossible to construct a device which operates in a cyclic process
and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cold body to a hot
body
(C) It is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose
sole purpose is to convert heat energy into work
(D) None of the above

## 9. According to Avogadro’s law

(A) The product of the gas constant and the molecular mass of an ideal gas is
constant
(B) The sum of partial pressure of the mixture of two gases is sum of the two
(C) Equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain
equal number of molecules
(D) All of the above

## 10. The value of n = 1 in the polytropic process indicates it to be

(A) Reversible process
(B) Isothermal process
(D) Irreversible process

11. Which of the following is the lightest and most volatile liquid fuel?
(A) Gasoline
(B) Kerosene
(C) Fuel oil
(D) None of these

## 12. A process, in which the temperature of the working substance remains

constant during its expansion or compression, is called
(B) Isothermal process
(C) Hyperbolic process
(D) Polytropic process

13. A perfect gas at 27°C is heated at constant pressure till its volume is
double. The final temperature is
(A) 54°C
(B) 327°C
(C) 108°C
(D) 654°C

## 14. If value of n is infinitely large in a polytropic process pVn = C, then the

process is known as constant
(A) Volume
(B) Pressure
(C) Temperature
(D) Enthalpy

15. The total energy of a molecule is shared equally by the various degrees of
freedom possessed by it. This law is known as
(A) Law of equipartition of energy
(B) Law of degradation of energy
(C) Law of conservation of energy
(D) None of these

## 1. In an isothermal process, the internal energy of gas molecules

(A) Increases
(B) Decreases
(C) Remain constant
(D) May increase/decrease depending on the properties of gas

## 2. When cut-off ratio is ________; the efficiency of Diesel cycle approaches

to Otto cycle efficiency
(A) 1/4
(B) Zero
(C) 1/5
(D) 2

## 3. Zeroth law of thermodynamics

(A) Deals with conversion of mass and energy
(B) Deals with reversibility and irreversibility of process
(C) States that if two systems are both in equilibrium with a third system,
they are in thermal equilibrium with each other
(D) Deals with heat engines

## 4. If a certain amount of dry ice is mixed with same amount of water at

80°C, the final temperature of mixture will be
(A) 80°C
(B) 0°C
(C) 40°C
(D) 20°C

## 5. The basis for measuring thermodynamic property of temperature is given

by
(A) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
(B) First law of thermodynamics
(C) Second law of thermodynamics
(D) Third law of thermodynamics

## 6. An open cycle gas turbine works on

(A) Otto cycle
(B) Carnot cycle
(C) Joule's cycle
(D) Stirling cycle

## 7. Which of the following has the highest calorific value?

(A) Anthracite coal
(B) Bituminous coal
(C) Peat
(D) Lignite

(A) 1 Nm/s
(B) 1 N/m
(C) 1 Nm/hr
(D) 1 kNm/hr

## 9. Work done is zero for the following process

(A) Constant volume
(B) Free expansion
(C) Throttling
(D) All of the above

10. For which of the following substances, the gas laws can be used with
minimum error
(A) Dry steam
(B) Wet steam
(C) Saturated steam
(D) Superheated steam

11. In a no flow reversible process for which p = (3V + 15) × 105 N/m², V
changes from 1 m3 to 2 m3. The work done will be about
(A) 100 × 10⁵ joules
(B) 1 × 10⁵ joules
(C) 10 × 10⁵ joules
(D) 10 × 10⁵ kilo joules

## 12. An isothermal process is governed by

(A) Gay-Lussac law
(B) Charles' law
(C) Boyle's law

## 13. One kg of carbon requires 4/3 kg of oxygen and produces ________ kg

of carbon monoxide gas.
(A) 8/3
(B) 7/3
(C) 11/7
(D) 11/3

14. The value of the product of molecular weight and the gas characteristic
constant for all the gases in M.K.S. unit is
(A) 29.27 kgfm/mol °K
(B) 8314 kgfm/mol °K
(C) 848 kgfm/mol °K
(D) 427 kgfm/mol °K

(A) 21
(B) 23
(C) 25
(D) 77

## 1. In a free expansion process

(A) Work done is zero
(B) Heat transfer is zero
(C) Both (A) and (B) above
(D) Work done is zero but heat increases

## 2. If a gas vapour is allowed to expand through a very minute aperture, then

such a process is known as
(A) Free expansion
(B) Hyperbolic expansion
(D) Throttling

## 3. The specific heat of air increases with increase in

(A) Temperature
(B) Pressure
(C) Both pressure and temperature
(D) Variation of its constituents

## 4. The behavior of a perfect gas, undergoing any change in the variables

which control physical properties, is governed by
(A) Boyle's law
(B) Gay-Lussac law
(C) Charles' law
(D) All of these

## 5. A series of operations, which takes place in a certain order and restore

the initial conditions at the end, is known as
(A) Irreversible cycle
(B) Thermodynamic cycle
(C) Reversible cycle
(D) None of these

## 6. If a fluid expands suddenly into vacuum through an orifice of large

dimension, then such a process is called
(A) Free expansion
(B) Hyperbolic expansion
(D) Parabolic expansion

## 7. Which of the following processes are thermodynamically reversible?

(A) Throttling
(B) Free expansion
(C) Constant volume and constant pressure

## 8. Which of the following processes is irreversible process?

(A) Isothermal
(C) Throttling
(D) All of the above

## 9. In order that a cycle be reversible, following must be satisfied

(A) Free expansion or friction resisted expansion/compression process
should not be encountered
(B) When heat is being absorbed, temperature of hot source and working
substance should be same
(C) When beat is being rejected, temperature of cold source and working
substance should be same
(D) All of the above

## 10. For a thermodynamic process to be reversible, the temperature

difference between hot body and working substance should be
(A) Zero
(B) Minimum
(C) Maximum
(D) Infinity

## 11. Carbonization of coal consists of

(A) Drying and crushing the coal to a fine powder
(B) Moulding the finely ground coal under pressure with or without a binding
material
(C) Heating the wood with a limited supply of air to temperature not less than
280°C
(D) None of the above

12. Which of the following gas is mostly used in town for street and
domestic lighting and heating?
(A) Mond gas
(B) Coal gas
(C) Producer gas
(D) Coke oven gas

## 13. Minimum work in compressor is possible when the value of adiabatic

index ‘n’ is equal to
(A) 0.75
(B) 1
(C) 1.27
(D) 1.35

14. Molecular volume of any perfect gas at 600 × 103 N/m² and 27°C will be
(A) 4.17 m3/kg mol
(B) 400 m3/kg mol
(C) 0.15 m3/kg mol
(D) 41.7 m3/kg mol

## 15. A gas is compressed in a cylinder by a movable piston to a volume one

half its original volume. During the process 300 kJ heat left the gas and
internal energy remained same. The work done on gas in Nm will be
(A) 300 Nm
(B) 300,000 Nm
(C) 30 Nm
(D) 3000 Nm

1. Isochoric process is one in which
(A) Free expansion takes place
(B) Very little mechanical work is done by the system
(C) No mechanical work is done by the system
(D) All parameters remain constant

## 2. According to first law of thermodynamics

(A) Work done by a system is equal to heat transferred by the system
(B) Total internal energy of a system during a process remains constant
(C) Internal energy, enthalpy and entropy during a process remain constant
(D) Total energy of a system remains constant
3. For the same compression ratio, the efficiency of dual combustion cycle
is
(A) Greater than Diesel cycle and less than Otto cycle
(B) Greater than Diesel cycle
(C) Less than Diesel cycle
(D) Less than Diesel cycle and greater than Otto cycle

4. When two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are
also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This statement is called
(A) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
(B) First law of thermodynamics
(C) Second law of thermodynamics
(D) Kelvin Planck's law

5. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be converted from
one form to other is inferred from
(A) Zeroth low of thermodynamic
(B) First law of thermodynamics
(C) Second law to thermodynamics
(D) Basic law of thermodynamics

## 6. First law of thermodynamics furnishes the relationship between

(A) Heat and work
(B) Heat, work and properties of the system
(C) Various properties of the system
(D) Various thermodynamic processes

## 7. Change in enthalpy in a closed system is equal to heat transferred if the

reversible process takes place at constant
(A) Pressure
(B) Temperature
(C) Volume
(D) Internal energy

## 8. The specific heat at constant volume is

(A) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of gas
through one degree, at constant volume
(B) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of gas
through one degree, at constant pressure
(C) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water
through one degree
(D) Any one of the above

## 9. In an irreversible process, there is a

(A) No loss of heat
(B) Loss of heat
(C) Gain of heat
(D) No gain of heat

## 10. In an isothermal process, the internal energy

(A) Increases
(B) Decreases
(C) Remain constant
(D) First increases and then decreases

## 11. Change in internal energy in a closed system is equal to heat transferred

if the reversible process takes place at constant
(A) Pressure
(B) Temperature
(C) Volume
(D) Internal energy

## 12. According to first law of thermodynamics

(A) Mass and energy are mutually convertible
(B) Carnot engine is most efficient
(C) Heat and work are mutually convertible
(D) Mass and light are mutually convertible

## 13. Total heat of a substance is also known as

(A) Internal energy
(B) Entropy
(C) Thermal capacity
(D) Enthalpy

## 14. First law of thermodynamics

(A) Enables to determine change in internal energy of the system
(B) Does not enable to determine change in entropy
(C) Provides relationship between heat, work and internal energy
(D) All of the above

## 15. Addition of heat at constant pressure to a gas results in

(A) Raising its temperature
(B) Raising its pressure
(C) Raising its volume
(D) Raising its temperature and doing external work

1. Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum when
(A) Initial temperature is 0°K
(B) Final temperature is 0°K
(C) Difference between initial and final temperature is 0°K
(D) Final temperature is 0°C

## 2. If heat be exchanged in a reversible manner, which of the following

property of the working substance will change accordingly
(A) Temperature
(B) Enthalpy
(C) Internal energy
(D) Entropy

## 3. The area under the temperature-entropy curve (T – s curve) of any

thermodynamic process represents
(A) Heat absorbed
(B) Heat rejected
(C) Either heat absorbed or heat rejected
(D) None of these

(A) 3/7
(B) 11/7
(C) 11/3
(D) 4/11

## 5. If a system after undergoing a series of processes, returns to the initial

state then
(A) Process is thermodynamically in equilibrium
(B) Process is executed in closed system cycle
(C) Its entropy will change due to irreversibility
(D) Sum of heat and work transfer will be zero

## 6. An actual engine is to be designed having same efficiency as the Carnot

cycle. Such a proposition is
(A) Feasible
(B) Impossible
(C) Possible
(D) Possible, but with lot of sophistications

## 7. A manufacturer claims to have a heat engine capable of developing 20

h.p. by receiving heat input of 400 kcal/mt and working between the
temperature limits of 227° C and 27° C. His claim is
(A) Theoretically possible
(B) Not possible
(C) May be possible with lot of sophistications
(D) Cost will be very high

## 8. Which of the following is the correct statement of the second law of

thermodynamics?
(A) There is a definite amount of mechanical energy, which can be obtained
from a given quantity of heat energy
(B) It is impossible to transfer heat from a body at a lower temperature to a
higher temperature, without the aid of an external source
(C) It is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose
sole purpose is to convert heat energy into work
(D) All of the above

## 9. A mixture of gas expands from 0.03 m3 to 0.06 m3 at a constant pressure

of 1 MPa and absorbs 84 kJ of heat during the process. The change in
internal energy of the mixture is
(A) 30 kJ
(B) 84 kJ
(C) 54 kJ
(D) 114 kJ

## 10. In a Carnot cycle, heat is transferred at

(A) Constant pressure
(B) Constant volume
(C) Constant temperature
(D) Constant enthalpy

## 11. A diathermic wall is one which

(A) Prevents thermal interaction
(B) Permits thermal interaction
(C) Encourages thermal interaction
(D) Discourages thermal interaction

## 12. An adiabatic wall is one which

(A) Prevents thermal interaction
(B) Permits thermal interaction
(C) Encourages thermal interaction
(D) Discourages thermal interaction

## 13. Producer gas is obtained by

(A) Carbonization of bituminous coal
(B) Partial combustion of coal, coke, anthracite coal or charcoal in a mixed air
steam blast
(C) Passing steam over incandescent coke
(D) Passing air and a large amount of steam over waste coal at about 650°C

## 14. The efficiency of Diesel cycle depends upon

(A) Pressure ratio
(B) Cut-off ratio and compression ratio
(C) Temperature limits
(D) Compression ratio

15. The door of a running refrigerator inside a room was left open. Which of
the following statements is correct?
(A) The room will be cooled to the temperature inside the refrigerator
(B) The room will be cooled very slightly
(C) The room will be gradually warmed up
(D) The temperature of the air in room will remain unaffected

1. The gas constant (R) is equal to the __________ of two specific heats.
(A) Product
(B) Sum
(C) Difference
(D) Ratio

(A) Fine weather
(B) Rains
(C) Storm
(D) Cold wave

## 3. The unit of universal gas constant is

(A) watts/°K
(B) dynes/°C
(C) erg/°K
(D) None of the above

4. Calorie is a measure of
(A) Specific heat
(B) Quantity of heat
(C) Thermal capacity
(D) Entropy
5. 1 kgf/cm² is equal to
(A) 760 mm Hg
(B) Zero mm Hg
(C) 735.6 mm Hg
(D) 1 mm Hg

6. In an isothermal process
(A) There is no change in enthalpy
(B) There is no change in internal energy
(C) There is no change in temperature
(D) All of these

## 7. Kelvin-Planck’s law deals with

(A) Conservation of work
(B) Conservation of heat
(C) Conversion of work into heat
(D) Conversion of heat into work

## 8. Barometric pressure is equal to

(A) 760 mm Hg
(B) Zero mm Hg
(C) 735.6 mm Hg
(D) 1 mm Hg

9. Otto cycle efficiency is higher than Diesel cycle efficiency for the same
compression ratio and heat input because in Otto cycle
(A) Heat rejection is lower
(B) Expansion and compression are isentropic
(C) Combustion is at constant volume
(D) Maximum temperature is higher
10. The value of gas constant (R) in S. I. units is
(A) 0.287 J/kgK
(B) 2.87 J/kgK
(C) 28.7 J/kgK
(D) 287 J/kgK

## 11. One barometric pressure or 1 atmospheric pressure is equal to

(A) 1 kgf/cm²
(B) 1.033 kgf/cm²
(C) 0 kgf/cm²
(D) 1.0197 kgf/cm²

## 12. The first law of thermodynamics is the law of

(A) Conservation of mass
(B) Conservation of energy
(C) Conservation of momentum
(D) Conservation of heat

## 13. A perpetual motion machine is

(A) A thermodynamic machine
(B) A non-thermodynamic machine
(C) A hypothetical machine
(D) A hypothetical machine whose operation would violate the laws of
thermodynamics

## 14. Kelvin Planck's law deals with

(A) Conservation of heat
(B) Conservation of work
(C) Conversion of heat into work
(D) Conversion of work into heat
15. The pressure exerted by an ideal gas is ________ of the kinetic energy
of all the molecules contained in a unit volume of gas.
(A) One-third
(B) Three-forth
(C) One-half
(D) Two-third

1. According to Gay Lussac’s law for a perfect gas, the absolute pressure of
given mass varies directly as
(A) Temperature
(B) Absolute temperature, if volume is kept constant
(C) Volume, if temperature is kept constant
(D) None of these

## 2. An ideal gas as compared to a real gas at very high pressure occupies

(A) More volume
(B) Less volume
(C) Same volume
(D) Unpredictable behavior

## 3. In open cycle gas turbine plants

(A) Direct combustion systems is used
(B) A condenser is used
(C) The indirect heat exchanger and cooler is avoided
(D) All of the above

(A) 1 kN-m
(B) 1 N-m
(C) 10 kN-m/s
(D) 10 N-m/s

## 5. General gas equation is

(A) PV=nRT
(B) PV=mRT
(C) PV = C
(D) PV=KiRT

6. Kinetic theory of gases assumes that the collisions between the molecules
are
(A) Perfectly elastic
(B) Perfectly inelastic
(C) Partly elastic
(D) Partly inelastic

7. The pressure of a gas in terms of its mean kinetic energy per unit volume
'E' is equal to
(A) E/3
(B) E/2
(C) 3E/4
(D) 2E/3

## 8. Kinetic energy of the molecules in terms of absolute temperature (T) is

proportional to
(A) T
(B) J
(C) J²
(D) Vr
9. The efficiency of Joule cycle is
(A) Less than Carnot cycle
(B) Equal to Carnot cycle
(C) Greater than Carnot cycle
(D) None of these

10. The state of a substance whose evaporation from its liquid state is
complete, is known as
(A) Perfect gas
(B) Vapour
(C) Steam
(D) Air

11. Which law states that the internal energy of a gas is a function of
temperature?
(A) Charles' law
(B) Joule's law
(C) Boyle's law
(D) There is no such law

## 12. The same volume of all gases would represent their

(A) Densities
(B) Specific weights
(C) Molecular weights
(D) Gas characteristic constants

13. Which law states that the specific heat of a gas remains constant at all
temperatures and pressures?
(A) Charles' Law
(B) Joule's Law
(C) Regnault's Law
(D) Boyle's Law

## 14. An open system is one in which

(A) Mass does not cross boundaries of the system, though energy may do so
(B) Neither mass nor energy crosses the boundaries of the system
(C) Both energy and mass cross the boundaries of the system
(D) Mass crosses the boundary but not the energy

## 15. The hyperbolic process is governed by

(B) Boyle's law
(C) Charles' law
(D) Gay-Lussac law

1. Which of the following quantities is not the property of the system?
(A) Pressure
(B) Temperature
(C) Specific volume
(D) Heat

2. The sum of internal energy (U) and the product of pressure and volume
(p.v) is known as
(A) Work done
(B) Entropy
(C) Power
(D) Enthalpy
3. Which of the following gas has a minimum molecular mass?
(A) Nitrogen
(B) Hydrogen
(C) Methane
(D) Oxygen

## 4. According to Avogadro's law, for a given pressure and temperature, each

molecule of a gas
(A) Occupies same volume
(B) Occupies volume proportional to its specific weight
(C) Occupies volume inversely proportional to its molecular weight
(D) Occupies volume inversely proportional to its specific weight

## 5. Mixture of ice and water form a

(A) Closed system
(B) Open system
(C) Isolated system
(D) Heterogeneous system

## 6. The entropy of water at 0°C is assumed to be

(A) 0
(B) -1
(C) 1
(D) 2

7. The index of compression ‘n’ tends to reach ratio of specific heats ‘y’
when
(A) Flow is uniform and steady
(B) Process is isentropic
(C) Process is isothermal
(D) Process is isentropic and specific heat does not change with temperature
8. Change in enthalpy of a system is the heat supplied at
(A) Constant pressure
(B) Constant temperature
(C) Constant volume
(D) Constant entropy

## 9. The term N.T.P. stands for

(A) Nominal temperature and pressure
(B) Natural temperature and pressure
(C) Normal temperature and pressure
(D) Normal thermodynamic practice

10. A heat exchange process in which the product of pressure and volume
remains constant is known as
(A) Heat exchange process
(B) Throttling process
(C) Isentropic process
(D) Hyperbolic process

## 11. Universal gas constant is defined as equal to product of the molecular

weight of the gas and
(A) Specific heat at constant pressure
(B) Specific heat at constant volume
(C) Ratio of two specific heats
(D) Gas constant

12. A cycle consisting of one constant pressure, one constant volume and
two isentropic processes is known as
(A) Otto cycle
(B) Stirling cycle
(C) Carnot cycle
(D) Diesel cycle

13. During which of the following process does heat rejection takes place in
Carnot cycle?
(A) Isothermal expansion
(B) Isentropic expansion
(C) Isothermal compression
(D) Isentropic compression

14. The value of the product of molecular weight and the gas characteristic
constant for all the gases in S.I. units is
(A) 29.27 J/kmol °K
(B) 83.14 J/kmol °K
(C) 848 J/kmol °K
(D) 735 J/kmol °K

15. For which of the following substances, the internal energy and enthalpy
are the functions of temperature only
(A) Any gas
(B) Saturated steam
(C) Water
(D) Perfect gas

. The more effective way of increasing efficiency of Carnot engine is to
(A) Increase higher temperature
(B) Decrease higher temperature
(C) Increase lower temperature
(D) Decrease lower temperature

(A) Sulphur
(B) Nitrogen
(C) Oxygen
(D) Carbon

## 3. The processes occurring in open system which permit the transfer of

mass to and from the system, are known as
(A) Flow processes
(B) Non-flow processes
(D) None of these

## 4. Entropy change depends on

(A) Heat transfer
(B) Mass transfer
(C) Change of temperature
(D) Thermodynamic state

(A) Maximum
(B) Minimum
(C) Zero
(D) Negative

## 6. Carnot cycle has maximum efficiency for

(A) Reversible engine
(B) Irreversible engine
(C) Petrol engine
(D) Diesel engine

## 7. The efficiency of Diesel cycle increases with

(A) Increase in cut-off
(B) Constant cut-off
(C) Decrease in cut-off
(D) None of these

8. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of
gas through one degree at constant volume, is called
(A) Kilo Joule
(B) Specific heat at constant volume
(C) Specific heat at constant pressure
(D) None of these

## 9. Measurement of temperature is based on

(A) Thermodynamic properties
(B) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
(C) First law of thermodynamics
(D) Second law of thermodynamics

## 10. Carnot cycle efficiency depends upon

(A) Properties of the medium/substance used
(B) Condition of engine
(C) Working condition
(D) Temperature range of operation

## 11. Compressed air coming out from a punctured football

(A) Becomes hotter
(B) Becomes cooler
(C) Remains at the same temperature
(D) May become hotter or cooler depending upon the humidity of the
surrounding air

## 12. Water contained in a beaker can be made to boil by passing steam

through it
(A) At atmospheric pressure
(B) At a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure
(C) Any pressure
(D) Not possible

## 13. During throttling process

(A) Heat exchange does not take place
(B) No work is done by expanding steam
(C) There is no change of internal energy of steam
(D) All of the above

## 14. The energy of molecular motion appears as

(A) Heat
(B) Potential energy
(C) Surface tension
(D) Friction

## 15. The compression ratio for Diesel engines is

(A) 15 to 20
(B) 5 to 8
(C) 3 to 6
(D) 20 to 30

1. The efficiency of Diesel cycle approaches to Otto cycle efficiency when
(A) Cut-off is decreased
(B) Cut-off is constant
(C) Cut-off is increased
(D) Cut-off is zero

## 2. According to Clausius’ statement of second law of thermodynamics

(A) Heat can't be transferred from low temperature source to high
temperature source
(B) Heat can be transferred for low temperature to high temperature source
by using refrigeration cycle
(C) Heat can be transferred from low temperature to high temperature source
if COP of process is more than unity
(D) Heat can't be transferred from low temperature to high temperature
source without the aid of external energy

## 3. Thermal power plant works on

(A) Carnot cycle
(B) Joule cycle
(C) Rankine cycle
(D) Otto cycle

(A) 14
(B) 16
(C) 18
(D) 121

## 5. An adiabatic process is one in which

(A) The temperature of the gas changes
(B) No heat enters or leaves the gas
(C) The change in internal energy is equal to the mechanical work done
(D) All of the above

## 6. Which of the following is an irreversible cycle?

(A) Carnot
(B) Stirling
(C) Ericsson
(D) None of the above

## 7. Otto cycle consists of following four processes

(A) Two isothermal and two isentropic
(B) Two isentropic and two constant volumes
(C) Two isentropic, one constant volume and one constant pressure
(D) Two isentropic and two constant pressures

## 8. The efficiency of a Carnot engine depends on

(A) Working substance
(B) Design of engine
(C) Size of engine
(D) Temperatures of source and sink

## 9. For same compression ratio and for same heat added

(A) Otto cycle is more efficient than Diesel cycle
(B) Diesel cycle is more efficient than Otto cycle
(C) Efficiency depends on other factors
(D) Both Otto and Diesel cycles are equally efficient

## 10. Which of the following statement is incorrect?

(A) The liquid fuels have higher calorific value than solid fuels
(B) The solid fuels have higher calorific value than liquid fuels
(C) A good fuel should have low ignition point
(D) The liquid fuels consist of hydrocarbons

(A) 3 to 6
(B) 5 to 8
(C) 10 to 20
(D) 15 to 30

## 12. The efficiency of Carnot cycle is maximum for

(A) Gas engine
(B) Petrol engine
(C) Steam engine
(D) Reversible engine

13. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of
gas through one degree at constant volume, is called
(A) Specific heat at constant volume
(B) Specific heat at constant pressure
(C) Kilo Joule
(D) None of these

## 14. Diesel cycle consists of following four processes

(A) Two isothermal and two isentropic
(B) Two isentropic and two constant volumes
(C) Two isentropic, one constant volume and one constant pressure
(D) Two isentropic and two constant pressures

15. If both Stirling and Carnot cycles operate within the same temperature
limits, then efficiency of Stirling cycle as compared to Carnot cycle
(A) More
(B) Less
(C) Equal
(D) Depends on other factors

1. Stirling and Ericsson cycles are
(A) Reversible cycles
(B) Irreversible cycles
(C) Semi-reversible cycles

## 2. A cycle consisting of two adiabatic and two constant pressure processes is

known as
(A) Otto cycle
(B) Ericsson cycle
(C) Joule cycle
(D) Stirling cycle

## 3. Reversed joule cycle is called

(A) Carnot cycle
(B) Rankine cycle
(C) Brayton cycle
(D) Bell Coleman cycle

## 4. One kg of carbon monoxide requires _________kg of oxygen to produce

11/7 kg of carbon dioxide gas.
(A) 11/7
(B) 9/7
(C) 4/7
(D) All of the above
5. The absolute zero temperature is taken as
(A) 237°C
(B) -273°C
(C) -237°C
(D) 273°C

## 6. Brayton cycle consists' of following four processes

(A) Two isothermal and two isentropic
(B) Two isentropic and two constant volumes
(C) Two isentropic, one constant volume and one constant pressure
(D) Two isentropic and two constant pressures

## 7. Which of the following cycles is not a reversible cycle?

(A) Carnot
(B) Ericsson
(C) Stirling
(D) None of the above

## 8. The cycle in which heat is supplied at constant volume and rejected at

constant pressure is known as
(A) Dual combustion cycle
(B) Diesel cycle
(C) Atkinson cycle
(D) Rankine cycle

## 9. The efficiency of Diesel cycle with decrease in cut-off

(A) Increases
(B) Decreases
(C) First increases and then decreases
(D) First decreases and then increases
10. Which of the following cycles has maximum efficiency?
(A) Rankine
(B) Stirling
(C) Carnot
(D) Brayton

## 11. Which of the following is correct?

(A) Gauge pressure = Absolute pressure + Atmospheric pressure
(B) Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure
(C) Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure - Atmospheric pressure
(D) Atmospheric pressure = Absolute pressure + Gauge pressure

12. The efficiency and work ratio of a simple gas turbine cycle are
(A) Very low
(B) Low
(C) High
(D) Very high

## 13. The ideal efficiency of a Brayton cycle without regeneration, with

increase in pressure ratio will
(A) Increase
(B) Decrease
(C) Remain unchanged
(D) Increase/decrease depending on application

14. The ideal efficiency of a Brayton cycle with regeneration, with increase
in pressure ratio will
(A) Increase
(B) Decrease
(C) Remain unchanged
(D) Increase/decrease depending on application

## 15. The following cycle is used for air craft refrigeration

(A) Brayton cycle
(B) Joule cycle
(C) Carnot cycle
(D) Reversed Brayton cycle

1. A cycle consisting of __________ and two isothermal processes is
known as Stirling cycle.
(A) Two constant pressure
(B) Two constant volume
(C) Two isentropic
(D) One constant pressure, one constant volume

## 2. The condition for the reversibility of a cycle is

(A) The pressure and temperature of the working substance must not differ,
appreciably, from those of the surroundings at any stage in the process
(B) All the processes, taking place in the cycle of operation, must be extremely
slow
(C) The working parts of the engine must be friction free
(D) All of the above

## 3. The change of entropy, when heat is absorbed by the gas, is

(A) Positive
(B) Negative
(C) Positive or negative
(D) None of these
4. The throttling process is __________ process.
(A) Reversible
(B) Irreversible
(C) Reversible or irreversible
(D) None of these

## 5. The isothermal and adiabatic processes are regarded as

(A) Reversible process
(B) Irreversible process
(C) Reversible or irreversible process
(D) None of these

6. For the constant pressure and heat input, the air standard efficiency of
gas power cycle is in the order
(A) Dual cycle, Diesel cycle, Otto cycle
(B) Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, Dual cycle
(C) Dual cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle
(D) Diesel cycle, Otto cycle, Dual cycle

## 7. The general gas equation is (where p = Pressure, v = Volume, m =

mass, T = Absolute temperature, and R = Gas constant)
(A) pv = mRT
(B) pv = RTm
(C) pvm = C
(D) pv = (RT)m

## 8. For the same maximum pressure and temperature,

(A) Otto cycle is more efficient than Diesel cycle
(B) Diesel cycle is more efficient than Otto cycle
(C) Dual cycle is more efficient than Otto and Diesel cycles
(D) Dual cycle is less efficient than Otto and Diesel cycles
9. Charles' law states that all perfect gases change in volume by
__________ of its original volume at 0°C for every 1°C change in
temperature, when pressure remains constant.
(A) 1/27th
(B) 1/93th
(C) 1/173th
(D) 1/273th

## 10. A mixture of gas expands from 0.03 m3 to 0.06 m3 at a constant pressure

of 1 MPa and absorbs 84 kJ of heat during the process. The change in
internal energy of the mixture is
(A) 30 kJ
(B) 54 kJ
(C) 84 kJ
(D) 114 kJ

11. The total energy of a molecule is shared equally by the various degrees of
freedom possessed by it. This law is known as
(A) Law of equipartition of energy
(B) Law of conservation of energy
(C) Law of degradation of energy
(D) None of these

## 12. An isothermal process is governed by

(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charles' law
(C) Gay-Lussac law

13. A cycle consisting of one constant pressure, one constant volume and
two isentropic processes is known as
(A) Carnot cycle
(B) Stirling cycle
(C) Otto cycle
(D) Diesel cycle

## 14. Which of the following statement is incorrect?

(A) The liquid fuels consist of hydrocarbons
(B) The liquid fuels have higher calorific value than solid fuels
(C) The solid fuels have higher calorific value than liquid fuels
(D) A good fuel should have low ignition point

## 15. The efficiency of Joule cycle is

(A) Greater than Carnot cycle
(B) Less than Carnot cycle
(C) Equal to Carnot cycle
(D) None of these

1. Otto cycle is also known as

## (A) Constant pressure cycle

(B) Constant volume cycle
(C) Constant temperature cycle
(D) Constant temperature and pressure cycle

## 2. The heat and mechanical energies are mutually convertible. This

statement was established by
(A) Boyle
(B) Charles
(C) Joule
(D) None of these

3. The heat and work are mutually convertible. This statement is called
__________ law of thermodynamics.
(A) Zeroth
(B) First
(C) Second
(D) Third

## 4. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water

through one Kelvin is called
(A) Specific heat at constant volume
(B) Specific heat at constant pressure
(C) kilo-Joule
(D) None of these

## 5. A path 1-2-3 is given. A system absorbs 100 kJ as heat and does 60 kJ of

work while along the path 1-4-3, it does 20 kJ of work. The heat absorbed
during the cycle 1-4-3 is

(A) -140 kJ
(B) -80 kJ
(C) -40 kJ
(D) +60 kJ
6. The fuel mostly used in blast furnace for extracting pig iron from iron
ores is
(A) Hard coke
(B) Soft coke
(C) Pulverized coal
(D) Bituminous coal

## 7. Carnot cycle consists of

(A) Two constant volume and two isentropic processes
(B) Two isothermal and two isentropic processes
(C) Two constant pressure and two isentropic processes
(D) One constant volume, one constant pressure and two isentropic processes

## 8. Work-done during adiabatic expansion is given by (where p1 v1, T1 =

Pressure, volume and temperature for the initial condition of
gas, p2, v2, T2 = Corresponding values for the final condition of gas, R = Gas
constant, and γ = Ratio of specific heats)
(A) (p1 v1 - p2, v2)/(γ - 1)
(B) [m R (T1 - T2)] /(γ - 1)
(C) [m R T1/(γ - 1)][1 - (p2, v2 /p1 v1)]
(D) All of these

## 9. In a free expansion process,

(A) W1 - 2 = 0
(B) Q1 - 2 = 0
(C) dU = 0
(D) All of these

10. When the gas is heated at constant volume, the heat supplied
(A) Increases the internal energy of the gas and increases the temperature of
the gas
(B) Does some external work during expansion
(C) Both (A) and (B)
(D) None of these

## 11. Carnot cycle has maximum efficiency for

(A) Petrol engine
(B) Diesel engine
(C) Reversible engine
(D) Irreversible engine

12. The heat supplied to the gas at constant volume is (where m = Mass of
gas, cv = Specific heat at constant volume, cp = Specific heat at constant
pressure, T2 - T1 = Rise in temperature, and R = Gas constant)
(A) mR (T2 - T1)
(B) mcv (T2 - T1)
(C) mcp (T2 - T1)
(D) mcp (T2 + T1)

13. The processes occurring in open system which permit the transfer of
mass to and from the system, are known as
(A) Flow processes
(B) Non-flow processes
(D) None of these

## 14. Stirling and Ericsson cycles are

(A) Reversible cycles
(B) Irreversible cycles
(C) Semi-reversible cycles
(D) Quasi-static cycles

## 15. In an isothermal process,

(A) There is no change in temperature
(B) There is no change in enthalpy
(C) There is no change in internal energy
(D) All of these

## 1. When the expansion or compression takes place according to the

law pvn = C, the process is known as
(A) Isothermal process
(C) Hyperbolic process
(D) Polytropic process

## 2. The general law of expansion or compression is pvn = C, The process is

said to be hyperbolic, if n is equal to
(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) γ
(D) ∝

## 3. One kilowatt is equal to

(A) 1 N-m/s
(B) 100 N-m
(C) 1000 N-m/s
(D) 1 × 106 N-m/s

## 4. The __________ states that change of internal energy of a perfect gas is

directly proportional to the change of temperature.
(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charle's law
(C) Gay-Lussac law
(D) Joule's law

## 5. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of __________

water through one degree is called kilojoules.
(A) 1 g
(B) 10 g
(C) 100 g
(D) 1000 g

## 6. The work ratio of a gas turbine plant is given by

(A) (Net work output)/(Work-done by the turbine)
(B) (Net work output)/(Heat supplied)
(C) (Actual temperature drop)/(Isentropic temperature drop)
(D) (Isentropic increase in temperature)/(Actual increase in temperature)

7. The variables which control the physical properties of a perfect gas are
(A) Pressure exerted by the gas
(B) Volume occupied by the gas
(C) Temperature of the gas
(D) All of these

## 8. An open system is one in which

(A) Heat and work crosses the boundary of the system, but the mass of the
working substance does not crosses the boundary of the system
(B) Mass of the working substance crosses the boundary of the system but the
heat and work does not crosses the boundary of the system
(C) Both the heat and work as well as mass of the working substance crosses
the boundary of the system
(D) Neither the heat and work nor the mass of the working substance crosses
the boundary of the system
9. Which of the following statement is correct?
(A) The increase in entropy is obtained from a given quantity of heat at a low
temperature.
(B) The change in entropy may be regarded as a measure of the rate of the
availability or unavailability of heat for transformation into work.
(C) The entropy represents the maximum amount of work obtainable per
degree drop in temperature.
(D) All of the above

## 10. The calorific value of gaseous fuel is expressed in

(A) kJ
(B) kJ/kg
(C) kJ/m2
(D) kJ/m3

11. Which of the following is the correct statement of the second law of
thermodynamics?
(A) It is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose
sole purpose is to convert heat energy into work.
(B) It is impossible to transfer heat from a body at a lower temperature to a
higher temperature, without the aid of an external source.
(C) There is a definite amount of mechanical energy, which can be obtained
from a given quantity of heat energy.
(D) All of the above

12. The ratio of specific heat at constant pressure (cp) and specific heat at
constant volume (cv) is
(A) Equal to one
(B) Less than one
(C) Greater than one
(D) None of these
13. The expansion ratio (r) is the ratio of (where v1 = Volume at the
beginning of expansion, and v2 = Volume at the end of expansion)
(A) v1/v2
(B) v2/v1
(C) (v1 + v2)/v1
(D) (v1 + v2)/v2

## 14. Coke is produced

(A) When coal is first dried and then crushed to a fine powder
by pulverizing machine
(B) From the finely ground coal by molding under pressure with or without a
binding material
(C) When coal is strongly heated continuously for 42 to 48 hours in the
absence of air in a closed vessel
(D) By heating wood with a limited supply of air to a temperature not less
than 280°C

15. The hard coke is obtained when carbonization of coal is carried out at
(A) 300° to 500°C
(B) 500° to 700°C
(C) 700° to 900°C
(D) 900° to 1100°C

1. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be transformed
from one form to another. This statement is known as
(A) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
(B) First law of thermodynamics
(C) Second law of thermodynamics
(D) Kinetic theory of gases
2. When the gas is heated at constant pressure, the heat supplied
(A) Increases the internal energy of the gas
(B) Increases the temperature of the gas
(C) Does some external work during expansion
(D) Both (B) and (C)

## 3. When a gas is heated at constant volume

(A) Its temperature will increase
(B) Its pressure will increase
(C) Both temperature and pressure will increase
(D) Neither temperature nor pressure will increase

## 4. Which of the following is the correct statement?

(A) For a given compression ratio, both Otto and Diesel cycles have the same
efficiency
(B) For a given compression ratio, Otto cycle is more efficient than Diesel
cycle
(C) For a given compression ratio, Diesel cycle is more efficient than Otto
cycle
(D) The efficiency of Otto or Diesel cycle has nothing to do with compression
ratio

## 5. One kg of hydrogen requires 8 kg of oxygen and produces

(A) 1 kg of water
(B) 7 kg of water
(C) 8 kg of water
(D) 9 kg of water

## 6. Which of the following statement is correct according to Clausis

statement of second law of thermodynamics?
(A) It is possible to transfer heat from a body at a lower temperature to a
body at a higher temperature.
(B) It is impossible to transfer heat from a body at a lower temperature to a
body at a higher temperature, without the aid of an external source.
(C) It is possible to transfer heat from a body at a lower temperature to a body
at a higher temperature by using refrigeration cycle.
(D) None of the above

atom.
(A) 12
(B) 14
(C) 16
(D) 32

## 8. The absolute zero temperature is taken as

(A) -273°C
(B) 73°C
(C) 237°C
(D) -237°C

9. The efficiency and work ratio of a simple gas turbine cycle are
(A) Low
(B) Very low
(C) High
(D) Very high

## 10. The specific heat of water is

(A) 1.817
(B) 2512
(C) 4.187
(D) None of these

## 11. The specific heat at constant volume is

(A) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of gas
through one degree, at constant pressure
(B) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of gas
through one degree, at constant volume
(C) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water
through one degree
(D) Any one of the above

12. For the same compression ratio, the efficiency of dual combustion cycle
is
(A) Greater than Diesel cycle and less than Otto cycle
(B) Less than Diesel cycle and greater than Otto cycle
(C) Greater than Diesel cycle
(D) Less than Diesel cycle

## 13. The main cause for the irreversibility is

(A) Mechanical and fluid friction
(B) Unrestricted expansion
(C) Heat transfer with a finite temperature difference
(D) All of the above

14. The mass of flue gas per kg of fuel is the ratio of the
(A) Mass of oxygen in 1 kg of flue gas to the mass of oxygen in 1 kg of fuel
(B) Mass of oxygen in 1 kg of fuel to the mass of oxygen in 1 kg of flue gas
(C) Mass of carbon in 1 kg of flue gas to the mass of carbon in 1 kg of fuel
(D) Mass of carbon in 1 kg of fuel to the mass of carbon in 1 kg of flue gas

## 15. The heating of a gas at constant pressure is governed by

(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charles' law
(C) Gay-Lussac law

1. In a reversible adiabatic process, the ratio of T1/T2 is equal to
(A) (p2/p1)γ - 1/ γ
(B) (p1/p2)γ - 1/ γ
(C) (v2/v1)γ - 1/ γ
(D) (v1/v2)γ - 1/ γ

## 2. First law of thermodynamics deals with

(A) Conservation of heat
(B) Conservation of momentum
(C) Conservation of mass
(D) Conservation of energy

(A) 1
(B) 1.4
(C) 1.45
(D) 2.3

## 4. The fuel mostly used in cement industry and in metallurgical processes is

(A) Wood charcoal
(B) Bituminous coke
(C) Pulverized coal
(D) Coke

## 5. The absolute zero pressure can be attained at a temperature of

(A) 0°C
(B) 273°C
(C) 273 K
(D) None of these

## 6. Which of the following is a reversible non-flow process?

(A) Isochoric process
(B) Isobaric process
(C) Hyperbolic process
(D) All of these

## 7. Which of the following is the correct statement?

(A) All the reversible engines have the same efficiency.
(B) All the reversible and irreversible engines have the same efficiency.
(C) Irreversible engines have maximum efficiency.
(D) All engines are designed as reversible in order to obtain maximum
efficiency.

## 8. In S. I. units, the value of the universal gas constant is

(A) 8.314 J/kg mole-K
(B) 83.14 J/kgmole-K
(C) 831.4 J/kgmole-K
(D) 8314 J/kgmole-K

## 9. When gas is heated at constant pressure, the heat supplied is utilized in

(A) Increasing the internal energy of gas
(B) Doing some external work
(C) Increasing the internal energy of gas and also for doing some external
work
(D) None of the above

## 10. Kerosene is distilled at

(A) 65° to 220°C
(B) 220° to 345°C
(C) 345° to 470°C
(D) 470° to 550°C

## 11. In open cycle gas turbine plants

(A) The indirect heat exchanger and cooler is avoided
(B) Direct combustion system is used
(C) A condenser is used
(D) All of the above

## 12. The volumetric or molar specific heat at constant pressure is the

product of
(A) Molecular mass of the gas and the specific heat at constant volume
(B) Atomic mass of the gas and the gas constant
(C) Molecular mass of the gas and the gas constant
(D) None of the above

## 13. The measurement of a thermodynamic property known as temperature

is based on
(A) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
(B) First law of thermodynamics
(C) Second law of thermodynamics
(D) None of these

## 14. Which is the incorrect statement about Carnot cycle?

(A) It is used as the alternate standard of comparison of all heat engines.
(B) All the heat engines are based on Carnot cycle.
(C) It provides concept of maximizing work output between the two
temperature limits.
(D) All of the above
(A) The product of the gas constant and the molecular mass of an ideal gas is
constant
(B) The sum of partial pressure of the mixture of two gases is sum of the two
(C) Equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain
equal number of molecules
(D) All of the above

## 1. The efficiency of Stirling cycle is __________ Carnot cycle.

(A) Greater than
(B) Less than
(C) Equal to
(D) None of these

(A) 1
(B) 0
(C) -1
(D) 10

## 3. Producer gas is obtained by

(A) Partial combustion of coal, coke, anthracite coal or charcoal in a mixed air
steam blast
(B) Carbonization of bituminous coal
(C) Passing steam over incandescent coke
(D) Passing air and a large amount of steam over waste coal at about 650°C
4. For the same compression ratio, the efficiency of Diesel cycle is
__________ Otto cycle.
(A) Greater than
(B) Less than
(C) Equal to
(D) None of these

## 5. The efficiency of the Carnot cycle may be increased by

(A) Increasing the highest temperature
(B) Decreasing the highest temperature
(C) Increasing the lowest temperature
(D) Keeping the lowest temperature constant

## 6. The atomic mass of nitrogen is __________ oxygen.

(A) Equal to
(B) Less than
(C) More than
(D) None of these

## 7. A definite area or a space where some thermodynamic process takes

place is known as
(A) Thermodynamic system
(B) Thermodynamic cycle
(C) Thermodynamic process
(D) Thermodynamic law

## 8. The absolute zero pressure will be

(A) When molecular momentum of the system becomes zero
(B) At sea level
(C) At the temperature of - 273 K
(D) At the center of the earth

## 9. The work ratio of simple gas turbine cycle depends upon

(A) Maximum cycle temperature
(B) Minimum cycle temperature
(C) Pressure ratio
(D) All of these

## 10. In closed cycle gas turbine, the air is compressed

(A) Isothermally
(B) Isentropically
(C) Polytropically
(D) None of these

11. The thermal efficiency of an ideal gas turbine plant is given by (where r =
Pressure ratio)
(A) rγ - 1
(B) 1 - rγ - 1
(C) 1 - (1/r) γ/γ - 1
(D) 1 - (1/r) γ - 1/ γ

12. A process of heating crude oil to a high temperature under a very high
pressure to increase the yield of lighter distillates, is known as
(A) Cracking
(B) Carbonization
(C) Fractional distillation
(D) Full distillation

## 13. One kg of carbon monoxide requires 4/7 kg of oxygen and produces

(A) 11/3 kg of carbon dioxide gas
(B) 7/3 kg of carbon monoxide gas
(C) 11/7 kg of carbon dioxide gas
(D) 8/3 kg of carbon monoxide gas

## 14. Petrol is distilled at

(A) 65° to 220°C
(B) 220° to 345°C
(C) 345° to 470°C
(D) 470° to 550°C

## 15. The air standard efficiency of an Otto cycle is given by (where r =

Compression ratio, and γ = Ratio of specific heats)
(A) 1 - rγ - 1
(B) 1 + rγ - 1
(C) 1 - (1/ rγ - 1)
(D) 1 + (1/ rγ - 1)

option A 15. Answer: option C
1. Mond gas is obtained by
(A) Partial combustion of coal, coke, anthracite coal or charcoal in a mixed air
steam blast
(B) Carbonization of bituminous coal
(C) Passing steam over incandescent coke
(D) Passing air and a large amount of steam over waste coal at about 650°C

## 2. Which of the following gas has a minimum molecular mass?

(A) Oxygen
(B) Nitrogen
(C) Hydrogen
(D) Methane
3. The efficiency of Diesel cycle increases with
(A) Decrease in cut-off
(B) Increase in cut-off
(C) Constant cut-off
(D) None of these

## 4. An adiabatic process is one in which

(A) No heat enters or leaves the gas
(B) The temperature of the gas changes
(C) The change in internal energy is equal to the mechanical work-done
(D) All of the above

5. The distillation carried out in such a way that the liquid with the lowest
boiling point is first evaporated and re-condensed, then the liquid with the
next higher boiling point is then evaporated and re-condensed, and so on
until all the available liquid fuels are separately recovered in the sequence
of their boiling points. Such a process is called
(A) Cracking
(B) Carbonization
(C) Fractional distillation
(D) Full distillation

## 6. A process, in which the temperature of the working substance remains

constant during its expansion or compression, is called
(A) Isothermal process
(B) Hyperbolic process
(D) Polytropic process

7. When two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are
also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This statement is called
(A) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
(B) First law of thermodynamics
(C) Second law of thermodynamics
(D) Kelvin Planck's law

## 8. Which of the following has the highest calorific value?

(A) Peat
(B) Lignite
(C) Bituminous coal
(D) Anthracite coal

## 9. Stirling cycle consists of

(A) Two constant volume and two isentropic processes
(B) Two constant volume and two isothermal processes
(C) Two constant pressure and two isothermal processes
(D) One constant volume, one constant pressure and two isentropic processes

## 10. Reversed Joule cycle is known as

(A) Carnot cycle
(B) Bell-Coleman cycle
(C) Rankine cycle
(D) Stirling cycle

## 11. Which of the following statement is correct?

(A) The heat and work are boundary phenomena
(B) The heat and work represent the energy crossing the boundary of the
system
(C) The heat and work are path functions
(D) All of the above

12. The oxygen atom is ________ times heavier than the hydrogen atom.
(A) 2
(B) 8
(C) 16
(D) 32

13. The heat flows from a cold body to a hot body with the aid of an external
source. This statement is given by
(A) Kelvin
(B) Joule
(C) Clausis
(D) Gay-Lussac

## 14. The smallest quantity of a substance, which can exist by itself in a

chemically recognizable form is known as
(A) Element
(B) Compound
(C) Atom
(D) Molecule

## 15. The behavior of super-heated vapour is similar to that of

(A) Perfect gas
(B) Air
(C) Steam
(D) Ordinary gas

1. Relation between cp and cv is given by (where cp = Specific heat at
constant pressure, cv = Specific heat at constant volume, γ = cp/cv, known as
adiabatic index, and R = Gas constant)
(A) cv/ cp =R
(B) cp - cv = R
(C) cv = R/ γ-1
(D) Both (B) and (C)

## 2. A cycle consisting of two constant pressure and two isentropic processes

is known as
(A) Carnot cycle
(B) Stirling cycle
(C) Otto cycle
(D) None of these

(A) 12
(B) 14
(C) 16
(D) 32

## 4. The efficiency of Carnot cycle depends upon

(A) Temperature limits
(B) Pressure ratio
(C) Volume compression ratio
(D) Cut-off ratio and compression ratio

5. Otto cycle efficiency is higher than Diesel cycle efficiency for the same
compression ratio and heat input because in Otto cycle
(A) Combustion is at constant volume
(B) Expansion and compression are isentropic
(C) Maximum temperature is higher
(D) Heat rejection is lower

(A) 1.333 N/m2
(B) 13.33 N/m2
(C) 133.3 N/m2
(D) 1333 N/m2

## 7. Carbonization of coal consists of

(A) Drying and crushing the coal to a fine powder
(B) Moulding the finely ground coal under pressure with or without a binding
material
(C) Heating the wood with a limited supply of air to temperature not less than
280°C
(D) None of the above

## 8. The area under the temperature-entropy curve (T - s curve) of any

thermodynamic process represents
(A) Heat absorbed
(B) Heat rejected
(C) Either (A) or (B)
(D) None of these

(A) 1 N-m
(B) 1 kN-m
(C) 10 N-m/s
(D) 10 kN-m/s

## 10. According to First law of thermodynamics,

(A) Total internal energy of a system during a process remains constant
(B) Total energy of a system remains constant
(C) Work-done by a system is equal to the heat transferred by the system
(D) Internal energy, enthalpy and entropy during a process remain constant
11. When wood is heated with a limited supply of air to a temperature not
less than 280°C, the resulting fuel is
(A) Coke
(B) Wood charcoal
(C) Bituminous coal
(D) Briquetted coal

12. The heat energy stored in the gas and used for raising the temperature
of the gas is known as
(A) External energy
(B) Internal energy
(C) Kinetic energy
(D) Molecular energy

## 13. Which of the following statement is wrong?

(A) The closed cycle gas turbine plants are external combustion plants.
(B) In the closed cycle gas turbine, the pressure range depends upon the
atmospheric pressure.
(C) The advantage of efficient internal combustion is eliminated as the closed
cycle has an external surface.
(D) In open cycle gas turbine, atmosphere acts as a sink and no coolant is
required.

14. The temperature at which the volume of a gas becomes zero is called
(A) Absolute scale of temperature
(B) Absolute zero temperature
(C) Absolute temperature
(D) None of these

## 15. One kg of ethylene (C2H4) requires 2 kg of oxygen and produces 22/7 kg

of carbon dioxide and __________ kg of water or steam.
(A) 9/7
(B) 11/7
(C) 7/4
(D) 11/4

1. According to Regnault's law, the specific heat at constant pressure (cp)
and specific heat at constant volume (cv) _________ with the change in
pressure and temperature of the gas.
(A) Change
(B) Do not change
(C) Both (A) and (B)
(D) None of these

## 2. Which of the following is correct?

(A) Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure
(B) Gauge pressure = Absolute pressure + Atmospheric pressure
(C) Atmospheric pressure = Absolute pressure + Gauge pressure
(D) Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure - Atmospheric pressure

## 3. The general gas energy equation is (where Q1 - 2 = Heat supplied, dU =

Change in internal energy, and W1 - 2 = Work done in heat units)
(A) Q1 - 2 = dU + W1 - 2
(B) Q1 - 2 = dU - W1 - 2
(C) Q1 - 2 = dU/W1 - 2
(D) Q1 - 2 = dU × W1 - 2

## 4. The natural solid fuel is

(A) Wood
(B) Coke
(C) Anthracite coal
(D) Pulverized coal

## 5. In an ideal gas turbine plant, it is assumed that the compression and

expansion processes are
(A) Isothermal
(B) Isentropic
(C) Polytropic
(D) None of these

## 6. The natural petroleum may be separated into

(A) Petrol
(B) Kerosene
(C) Fuel oil
(D) Lubricating oil

## 7. According to Kelvin-Planck's statement of second law of

thermodynamics,
(A) It is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose
sole purpose is to convert heat energy into work
(B) It is possible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose
sole purpose is to convert heat energy into work
(C) It is impossible to construct a device which operates in a cyclic process
and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cold body to a hot
body
(D) None of the above

## 8. The pressure exerted by an ideal gas is ________ of the kinetic energy of

all the molecules contained in a unit volume of gas.
(A) One-half
(B) One-third
(C) Two-third
(D) Three-fourth

(A) Pressure
(B) Volume
(C) Temperature
(D) All of these

## 10. The property of a working substance which increases or decreases as the

heat is supplied or removed in a reversible manner, is known as
(A) Enthalpy
(B) Internal energy
(C) Entropy
(D) External energy

## 11. The fuel mostly used in steam boilers is

(A) Brown coal
(B) Peat
(C) Coking bituminous coal
(D) Non-coking bituminous coal

## 12. The heat absorbed or rejected by the working substance is given by

(where ds = Increase or decrease of entropy, T = Absolute temperature,
and dQ = Heat absorbed or rejected)
(A) δQ = T.ds
(B) δQ = T/ds
(C) dQ = ds/T
(D) None of these

## 13. The gas constant (R) is equal to the

(A) Sum of two specific heats
(B) Difference of two specific heats
(C) Product of two specific heats
(D) Ratio of two specific heats

14. A process, in which the gas is heated or expanded in such a way that the
product of its pressure and volume remains constant, is called
(A) Isothermal process
(B) Hyperbolic process
(D) Polytropic process

15. The efficiency of the dual combustion cycle for the same compression
ratio is __________ Diesel cycle.
(A) Greater than
(B) Less than
(C) Equal to
(D) None of these

1. Those substances which have so far not been resolved by any means into
other substances of simpler form are called
(A) Elements
(B) Compounds
(C) Atoms
(D) Molecules

## 2. The most probable velocity of the gas molecules is given by

(A) √(KT/m)
(B) √(2KT/m)
(C) √(3KT/m)
(D) √(5KT/m)

3. The sum of internal energy (U) and the product of pressure and volume
(p.v) is known as
(A) Work-done
(B) Entropy
(C) Enthalpy
(D) None of these

## 4. The state of a substance whose evaporation from its liquid state is

complete, is known as
(A) Vapour
(B) Perfect gas
(C) Air
(D) Steam

5. The root mean square velocity of the gas molecules is given by (where k =
Boltzmann's constant, T = Absolute temperature, and m = Mass of one
molecule of a gas)
(A) √(KT/m)
(B) √(2KT/m)
(C) √(3KT/m)
(D) √(5KT/m)

## 6. When a perfect gas is expanded through an aperture of minute

dimensions, the process is known as
(A) Isothermal process
(C) Free expansion process
(D) Throttling process

7. A process, in which the working substance neither receives nor gives out
heat to its surroundings during its expansion or compression, is called
(A) Isothermal process
(B) Hyperbolic process
(D) Polytropic process

8. The ratio of specific heat at constant pressure (cp) and specific heat at
constant volume (cv) is always __________ one.
(A) Equal to
(B) Less than
(C) Greater than
(D) None of these

## 9. Select the correct statement as per Charles' law

(A) p.v = constant, if T is kept constant
(B) v/T = constant, if p is kept constant
(C) p/T = constant, if v is kept constant
(D) T/p = constant, if v is kept constant

## 10. A close cycle gas turbine gives __________ efficiency as compared to

an open cycle gas turbine.
(A) Same
(B) Lower
(C) Higher
(D) None of these

## 11. According to Avogadro's law, the density of any two gases is

__________ their molecular masses, if the gases are at the same
temperature and pressure.
(A) Equal to
(B) Directly proportional to
(C) Inversely proportional to
(D) None of these
12. During which of the following process does heat rejection takes place in
Carnot cycle?
(A) Isothermal expansion
(B) Isentropic expansion
(C) Isothermal compression
(D) Isentropic compression

(A) One
(B) Two
(C) Three
(D) Four

(A) Oxygen
(B) Sulphur
(C) Nitrogen
(D) Carbon

## 15. The mass of carbon per kg of flue gas is given by

(A) (11/3) CO2 + (3/7) CO
(B) (3/7) CO2 + (11/3) CO
(C) (7/3) CO2 + (3/11) CO
(D) (3/11) CO2 + (7/3) CO

1. When a system changes its state from one equilibrium state to another
equilibrium state, then the path of successive states through which the
system has passed, is known as
(A) Thermodynamic law
(B) Thermodynamic process
(C) Thermodynamic cycle
(D) None of these

## 2. When the gas is cooled at constant pressure,

(A) Its temperature increases but volume decreases
(B) Its volume increases but temperature decreases
(C) Both temperature and volume increases
(D) Both temperature and volume decreases

## 3. Otto cycle consists of

(A) Two constant volume and two isentropic processes
(B) Two constant pressure and two isentropic processes
(C) Two constant volume and two isothermal processes
(D) One constant pressure, one constant volume and two isentropic processes

## 4. The efficiency of a gas turbine is given by

(A) (Net work output)/(Work-done by the turbine)
(B) (Net work output)/(Heat supplied)
(C) (Actual temperature drop)/(Isentropic temperature drop)
(D) (Isentropic increase in temperature)/(Actual increase in temperature)

## 5. An open cycle gas turbine works on

(A) Carnot cycle
(B) Otto cycle
(C) Joule's cycle
(D) Stirling cycle
6. If the value of n = 0 in the equation pvn = C, then the process is called
(A) Constant volume process
(C) Constant pressure process
(D) Isothermal process

## 7. The efficiency of Ericsson cycle is __________ Carnot cycle.

(A) Greater than
(B) Less than
(C) Equal to
(D) None of these

## 8. The mass of excess air supplied is equal to

(A) (23/100) × Mass of excess carbon
(B) (23/100) × Mass of excess oxygen
(C) (100/23) × Mass of excess carbon
(D) (100/23) × Mass of excess oxygen

9. The universal gas constant (or molar constant) of a gas is the product of
(A) Molecular mass of the gas and the gas constant
(B) Atomic mass of the gas and the gas constant
(C) Molecular mass of the gas and the specific heat at constant pressure
(D) Molecular mass of the gas and the specific heat at constant volume

10. The molecular mass expressed in gram (i.e. 1 g - mole) of all gases, at N.
T. P., occupies a volume of
(A) 0.224 liters
(B) 2.24 liters
(C) 22.4 liters
(D) 224 liters
11. The standard value of atmospheric pressure taken at sea level is
(A) 1.013 bar
(B) 760 mm of Hg
(C) 1013 × 102 N/m2
(D) All of these

(A) Zero
(B) One
(C) γ
(D) ∝

## 13. The polytropic index (n) is given by

(A) log (p1p2)/log (v1v2)
(B) log (p2/ p1)/log (v1/ v2)
(C) log (v1/ v2)/ log (p1/p2)
(D) log [(p1v1)/(p2v2)]

14. Which of the following gas is mostly used in town for street and
domestic lighting and heating?
(A) Producer gas
(B) Coal gas
(C) Mond gas
(D) Coke oven gas

## 15. In an irreversible process, there is a

(A) Loss of heat
(B) No loss of heat
(C) Gain of heat
(D) No gain of heat
1. The general law for the expansion or compression of gases, is
(A) pv = C
(B) pv = m R T
(C) pvn = C
(D) pvγ = C

## 2. The principal constituents of a fuel are

(A) Carbon and hydrogen
(B) Oxygen and hydrogen
(C) Sulphur and oxygen
(D) Sulphur and hydrogen

## 3. The reading of the pressure gauge fitted on a vessel is 25 bar. The

atmospheric pressure is 1.03 bar and the value of 'g' is 9.81 m/s2. The
absolute pressure in the vessel is
(A) 23.97 bar
(B) 25 bar
(C) 26.03 bar
(D) 34.81 bar

## 4. High air-fuel ratio in gas turbines

(A) Increases power output
(B) Improves thermal efficiency
(C) Reduces exhaust temperature
(D) Do not damage turbine blades

## 5. The ratio of root mean square velocity to average velocity of gas

molecules at a particular temperature is
(A) 0.086
(B) 1.086
(C) 1.086
(D) 4.086

(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 8
(D) 16

## 7. A series of operations, which takes place in a certain order and restore

the initial conditions at the end, is known as
(A) Reversible cycle
(B) Irreversible cycle
(C) Thermodynamic cycle
(D) None of these

(A) 3 to 6
(B) 5 to 8
(C) 15 to 20
(D) 20 to 30

## 9. The hyperbolic process is governed by

(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charles' law
(C) Gay-Lussac law
10. According to kinetic theory of gases, the velocity of molecules
__________ with the increase in temperature.
(A) Remains constant
(B) Increases
(C) Decreases
(D) None of these

## 11. The ultimate analysis of coal consists of the determination of the

percentage of
(A) Carbon
(B) Hydrogen and nitrogen
(C) Sulphur and ash
(D) All of these

## 12. The heating of gas at constant volume is governed by

(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charles' law
(C) Gay-Lussac law

## 13. In a steady flow process, the ratio of

(A) Heat transfer is constant
(B) Work transfer is constant
(C) Mass flow at inlet and outlet is same
(D) All of these

## 14. The entropy may be expressed as a function of

(A) Pressure and temperature
(B) Temperature and volume
(C) Heat and work
(D) All of these
15. The gas constant (R) is equal to the __________ of two specific heats.
(A) Sum
(B) Difference
(C) Product
(D) Ratio

(A) Zero
(B) Minimum
(C) Maximum
(D) Positive

## 2. Kelvin-Planck's law deals with

(A) Conservation of work
(B) Conservation of heat
(C) Conversion of heat into work
(D) Conversion of work into heat

## 3. Second law of thermodynamics defines

(A) Heat
(B) Work
(C) Internal energy
(D) Entropy

## 4. Which of the following gas has the highest calorific value?

(A) Coal gas
(B) Producer gas
(C) Mond gas
(D) Blast furnace gas

## 5. One reversible heat engine operates between 1600 K and T2 K and

another reversible heat engine operates between T2 K and 400 K. If both the
engines have the same heat input and output, then temperature T2 is equal
to
(A) 800 K
(B) 1000 K
(C) 1200 K
(D) 1400 K

## 6. According to Kelvin-Planck's statement, a perpetual motion of the

__________ is impossible.
(A) First kind
(B) Second kind
(C) Third kind
(D) None of these

(A) 1 × 102 N/m2
(B) 1 × 103 N/m2
(C) 1 × 104 N/m2
(D) 1 × 105 N/m2

(A) 0.287 J/kgK
(B) 2.87 J/kgK
(C) 28.7 J/kgK
(D) 287 J/kgK

(A) 3 to 6
(B) 5 to 8
(C) 15 to 20
(D) 20 to 30

(A) 1
(B) 1.4
(C) 1.67
(D) 1.87

## 11. Steam coal is a

(A) Pulverized coal
(B) Brown coal
(C) Coking bituminous coal
(D) Non-coking bituminous coal

## 12. When a gas is heated at constant pressure

(A) Its temperature will increase
(B) Its volume will increase
(C) Both temperature and volume will increase
(D) Neither temperature not volume will increase

## 13. Diesel cycle consists of __________ processes.

(A) Two constant volume and two isentropic
(B) Two constant pressure and two isentropic
(C) Two constant volume and two isothermal
(D) One constant pressure, one constant volume and two isentropic
14. Select the wrong statement
(A) A Joule cycle consists of two constant volume and two isentropic
processes.
(B) An Otto cycle consists of two constant volume and two isentropic
processes.
(C) An Ericsson cycle consists of two constant pressure and two isothermal
processes.
(D) All of the above

## 15. The compression ratio is the ratio of

(A) Swept volume to total volume
(B) Total volume to swept volume
(C) Swept volume to clearance volume
(D) Total volume to clearance volume

1. One kg of carbon requires 4/3 kg of oxygen and produces __________ kg
of carbon monoxide gas.
(A) 8/3
(B) 11/3
(C) 11/7
(D) 7/3

## 2. The efficiency of Diesel cycle approaches to Otto cycle efficiency when

(A) Cut-off is increased
(B) Cut-off is decreased
(C) Cut-off is zero
(D) Cut-off is constant
3. The behavior of a perfect gas, undergoing any change in the variables
which control physical properties, is governed by
(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charles' law
(C) Gay-Lussac law
(D) All of these

## 4. The __________ is obtained when carbonization of coal is carried out at

500° to 700° C.
(A) Soft coal
(B) Hard coal
(C) Pulverized coal
(D) Bituminous coal

(A) Mono-atomic
(B) Di-atomic
(C) Tri-atomic
(D) Poly-atomic

## 6. The unit of energy is S. I. units is

(A) Joule (J)
(B) Joule meter (Jm)
(C) Watt (W)
(D) Joule/meter (J/m)

## 7. The amount of heat generated per kg of fuel is known as

(A) Calorific value
(B) Heat energy
(C) Lower calorific value
(D) Higher calorific value
8. The entropy __________ in an irreversible cyclic process.
(A) Remains constant
(B) Decreases
(C) Increases
(D) None of these

## 9. For a perfect gas, according to Boyle's law (where p = Absolute

pressure, v = Volume, and T = Absolute temperature)
(A) p v = constant, if T is kept constant
(B) v/T = constant, if p is kept constant
(C) p/T = constant, if v is kept constant
(D) T/p = constant, if v is kept constant

system?
(A) Pressure
(B) Volume
(C) Temperature
(D) Density

## 11. The increase in entropy of a system represents

(A) Increase in availability of energy
(B) Increase in temperature
(C) Decrease in pressure

## 12. A cycle consisting of two isothermal and two isentropic processes, is

known as
(A) Carnot cycle
(B) Stirling cycle
(C) Ericsson cycle
(D) Joule cycle

## 13. When coal is strongly heated continuously for 42 to 48 hours in the

absence of air in a closed vessel, the process is known as __________ of
fuel.
(A) Atomization
(B) Carbonization
(C) Combustion
(D) None of these

system?
(A) Volume
(B) Temperature
(C) Mass
(D) Energy

## 15. In an extensive property of a thermodynamic system

(A) Extensive heat is transferred
(B) Extensive work is done
(C) Extensive energy is utilized
(D) None of these

1. All perfect gases change in volume by 1/273th of its original volume at 0°C
for every 1°C change in temperature, when the pressure remains constant.
This statement is called
(A) Boyle's law
(B) Charles' law
(C) Gay-Lussac law
(D) Joule's law

## 2. When cut-off ratio is __________ the efficiency of Diesel cycle

approaches to Otto cycle efficiency.
(A) Zero
(B) 1/5
(C) 4/5
(D) 1

(A) 8
(B) 18
(C) 16
(D) 32

## 4. The gas turbine cycle with regenerator improves

(A) Thermal efficiency
(B) Work ratio
(C) Avoids pollution
(D) None of these

5. Which of the following process can be made reversible with the help of a
regenerator?
(A) Constant pressure process
(B) Constant volume process
(C) Constant pvn process
(D) All of these

(A) 3/7
(B) 7/3
(C) 11/3
(D) 3/11

## 7. The kinetic energy per kg molecule of any gas at absolute

temperature T is equal to (where Ru = Universal gas constant)
(A) Ru × T
(B) 1.5 Ru × T
(C) 2 Ru × T
(D) 3 Ru × T

## 8. If in the equation pvn = C, the value of n = ∝, then the process is called

(A) Constant volume process
(C) Constant pressure process
(D) Isothermal process

## 9. The value of specific heat at constant pressure (cp) is __________ that

of at constant volume (cv).
(A) Less than
(B) Equal to
(C) More than
(D) None of these

## 10. One kg of carbon monoxide requires __________ kg of oxygen to

produce 11/7 kg of carbon dioxide gas.
(A) 4/7
(B) 11/4
(C) 9/7
(D) All of these
11. The efficiency of Diesel cycle depends upon
(A) Temperature limits
(B) Pressure ratio
(C) Compression ratio
(D) Cut-off ratio and compression ratio

12. The efficiency of the Carnot cycle is (where T1 and T2 = Highest and
lowest temperature during the cycle)
(A) (T1/T2) - 1
(B) 1 - (T1/T2)
(C) 1 - (T2/T1)
(D) 1 + (T2/T1)

13. The gas in cooling chamber of a closed cycle gas turbine is cooled at
(A) Constant volume
(B) Constant temperature
(C) Constant pressure
(D) None of these

14. When coal is first dried and then crushed to a fine powder by
pulverizing machine, the resulting fuel is called
(A) Wood charcoal
(B) Bituminous coal
(C) Briquetted coal
(D) None of these

## 15. The thermodynamic difference between a Rankine cycle working with

saturated steam and the Carnot cycle is that
(A) Carnot cycle can't work with saturated steam
(B) Heat is supplied to water at temperature below the maximum
temperature of the cycle
(C) A Rankine cycle receives heat at two places
(D) Rankine cycle is hypothetical