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# DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONIC ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING

## ANTENNA THEORY AND RADAR SYSTEMS

EEE 537: 3 Units
Time: 2 hours 30 minutes Date: January 2017
Instruction to candidates: Maximum Mark: 70
Answer question 1 and any other three.
Question 1

(a) Using relevant sketches and equations where applicable, define each of the following terms
and explain their relevance in antenna design:

## (i) Radiated power [3 marks]

(ii) Directivity [3 marks]
(iii) Minor lobes [3 marks]
(b) Define the following terms (i) Radar Cross Section (ii) Doppler Radar [6 marks]

(c) Show that, operating with a noise bandwidth of 1.67 MHz at peak power of 1.4 MW, a radar
system with the parameters in Table 1 will get a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio on a small UAV
(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) at 60 nmi. Assume the losses to be 8 dB. [10 marks]

Table 1
Parameters Value
UAV cross section 1 𝑚2
System noise temperature 9500 𝐾
Boltzmann’s constant 1.38× 10−23 w/𝐻𝑧 0 𝐾
Frequency 2800 MHz
Antenna dimension 4.29 m by 2.07 m

Question 2

(a) (i) Differentiate between primary radar and secondary radar system [2 marks]

(ii) List and explain any four (4) key functions of a radar system [4 marks]

(b) Using a block diagram explain the operation of primary pulse radar system. [4 marks]

(c) A radar system can perform search at a range of 1000 km, state any five (5) modifications
that can be done in order to increase the system range to 2000 km. [5 marks]
Question 3

(a) Using relevant sketches and equations where applicable, define each of the following terms

and explain their relevance in antenna design: (i) Axial Ratio (ii) Gain (iii) Efficiency [3 marks]

(b) Define the term “isotropic radiator” and explain, using electromagnetic wave properties,

## why an isotropic antenna cannot be constructed in practice. [4 marks]

(c) The electric field intensity 𝑬 of an antenna in the radiating region is given by

𝐸0 sin 𝜃
𝑬= ̂
cos(𝑤𝑡 − 𝛽𝑟) 𝒙
𝑟

Question 4

## (a) Mention any five modern day applications of antennas. [5 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term “polarization” in relation to properties of an antenna. [2 marks]

(ii) With the aid of relevant equations, explain the differences between circular polarization,

## linear polarization and elliptical polarization. [3 marks]

(c) Derive the expression for the total power radiated by a Hertzian dipole. [5 marks]

Question 5

(a) Explain using relevant diagram, the following terms used in describing the region of
space around an antenna

## (b) Explain the application of the properties of the above regions in

(i) RFID [3 marks]

## (ii) NFC [3 marks]

(c) An antenna has a radiation resistance of 73 Ω, a loss resistance of 10 Ω and a power gain
of 20. Calculate its directivity. [5 marks]
Question 6

(a) Describe using applicable sketches and equations, the properties of electromagnetic

waves in terms of the various components of the magnetic and electric fields. [5 marks]

(b) Write short note on the structure, properties and applications of helical antenna. Support

60
(c) The current at the base of an earthed antenna of effective length 𝜋
is 20A at a frequency