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 !"#! $c% Respiratory system of mammal

&'(!"#)(% 1).To train students to dissect fish, insect and small mammal.

2). To train students how to use dissecting instruments

3) .To increase students¶ skill in displaying, drawing and labeling

respiratory organs.

4).To enable students to examine the structures of the main organs

involved in respiration (lung, trachea, diaphragm, rib cage and intercostals

5).To increase students understanding of the process of gas exchange in



The respiratory system includes all those structures involved in inspiration of air, gas
exchange, and expiration of CO2. In this exercise we'll examine the histological features
of the nose, the epiglottis and the larynx, the trachea, bronchi, and the lungs. It is
includes the anatomic and histological structures associated with the chemoreceptor
sense of smell.

Most of us know the function of the lungs. It is function as the center for gas exchange
in mammals, but accessory structures such as the nasal cavity, surrounded by the
sinuses, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and the bronchus and its divisions, are also
included when studying the respiratory system of mammal.c

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Rats/guinea pig/white mice


Bony fish
Dissecting instruments
Dissecting board
Dissecting microscope
Hand lens
Transparent plastic ruler
Killing jar

Hot water
Spray bottle with distilled water


Dissection of the mammalian respiratory system

1. The rat was pin to the dissecting board with the ventral surface uppermost.

2. A mid-ventral incision was make through the skin and was cut forward as far as the
lower jaw and then backwards to the anus.
3.The skin was holding with forceps, the connective tissues between the skin and the
body was cut away as far as possible around the animals, body and was pin back the
4. The ventral and lateral thoracic wall was cut to expose the thoracic cavity.

5. The thymus gland was removed.

6. Muscle and tissues of the neck was cut to expose the trachea and larynx.
7. Above the larynx was cut. The connective tissues attached to the trachea was cut off.
8. The heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus and larynx were removed together.
9. The esophagus from the heart was carefully separate. The larynx, trachea and lungs
were pin to the board. The length of the trachea was measure (from the larynx to the
point where it branches into bronchus).
10. A large labeled drawing of the structures was make.
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The rat before experiment

The structure of the main organs involved in respiration


All the cells in animals and human body require oxygen. Without it, they couldn't move,
build, reproduce, and turn food into energy. Respiratory system is very important to us
as a human, and to all other living thing. In fact, without oxygen, we will be die!

All structure that involve in respiratory system such as lung, nose, trachea, and bronchi
have it own job. Without one another, respiration can¶t occur. So, we must appreciate
what we have. We must take care of it.

After doing this experiment, all the students can understand of the process of gas
exchange in mammal. We also know the structure of the main organs involved in
respiration such as lung, trachea, diaphragm, rib cage and intercostals muscle.

Beside that¶s, we also can drawing and labeling respiratory organs. Respiratory organs
are the most important organ in our body. Without it we will be die«..


1. a) How many pairs of ribs does this animal have?

13 pairs which consists of 7 pair "true" ribs and 6 pair "false" ribs.
b).How does the rib cage function during gas exchange in this animal

2 a).Describe the appearance and characteristic of a diaphragm

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b).What is the importance of this characteristic of the diaphragm in relation to

its function during gas exchange?

The diaphragm is the primary muscle of inspiration. It is a thin, dome-shaped sheet of musclethat
inserts into the lower ribs. When it contracts, it pushes downward and spreads out,increasing the
vertical dimension of the chest cavity and driving up abdominal pressure. Thisincrease in
pressure drives the abdominal contents down and out, which in turn increases thetransverse size
of the chest cavity.

Because the diaphragm is covered by the inferior surface of the parietal pleura, when itcontracts
it pulls the pleura with it. This lowers thepleural pressure, which causes thealveolar pressure to
drop, which, in turn, causes air to flow into the lungs. During quietexpiration, the diaphragm
passively relaxes and returns to its equilibrium position. However,during exercise, expiration
becomes an active process-- the abdominal muscles contract to raiseabdominal pressure, which
pushes the diaphragm upward and forces air out of the lungs.Duringquiet breathing, the
diaphragm moves a centimeter or two up and down, but during exercise, itcan move more than
10 cm.
The diaphragm is crucial for breathing and respiration. During inhalation, the diaphragm
contracts, thus enlarging the thoracic cavity (the external intercostal muscles also participate in
this enlargement). This reduces intra-thoracic pressure: In other words, enlarging the cavity
creates suction that draws air into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by
elastic recoil of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity in conjunction with the
abdominal muscles, which act as an antagonist paired with the diaphragm's contraction.

It is not responsible for all the breathing related to voice, a common misconception espoused by
many teachers but few great singers. One has more control over the abdominals and intercostals
than the actual diaphragm, which has relatively few proprioceptive nerve endings. By training
proper posture and balance in the rest of the body, the diaphragm naturally strengthens and
works in concert with surrounding structures rather than in isolation.

The diaphragm is also involved in non-respiratory functions, helping to expel vomit, feces, and
urine from the body by increasing intra-abdominal pressure, and preventing acid reflux by
exerting pressure on the esophagus as it passes through the esophageal hiatus.

In veterinary anatomy, the diaphragm is not necessarily crucial; a cow, for instance, can survive
fairly asymptomatically with diaphragmatic paralysis as long as no massive aerobic metabolic
demands are made of her.

3 Describe the appearance of the left and right lungs. Squeeze the lungs and
note its texture. Place it in hot water. Observe what happen. The air within the
lung expands causing it to float.

It colour was pale pink The lung of the birds has the similarity with human lungs but it is
hundred times smaller than human lungs. There is a lot of blood capillary on it. The
texture is like a sponge and when we compressed it become flat. But when the lung
placed in hot water, it expanded double the normal size
Mike Boyle,(2002),Collins Advanced Science

Betsy The Lay Hong,(2005),Siri Teks Referens Biologi,Petaling Jaya,Longman

Autor, Y. M. (2000). This is the title of a Web Page. 22232#4#.(,# 3!+5. Accessed on
16 February 2009.