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Structural Steel Design

Flexural & Shear Members

Team Teaching
Team Teaching
Structural Design
Structural Design
Civil Engineering Department FTUI 2013
Civil Engineering Department FTUI 2016
Beam Vs Plate Girder

tw h tw h

Rolled shape and built‐up cross‐sections

h 2550

Beams
tw Fy

h 2550 Plate girder

tw Fy

where Fy  is yield stress, MPa
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#
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Introduction 
Introduction 
•A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to 
transverse loads and negligible axial loads. 

•The transverse loads cause internal shear forces and bending 
moments in the beams 
w P

V(x)

M(x) #
Stress due to flexure
Stress due to flexure

A B

M (a)
RA V

c
y
x tw h x M

(b)
M .c M M
f max   
Ix Ix Sx
c #
The maximum stress
The maximum stress

For maximum stress,


M .c M M
f max   
Ix Ix Sx
c
where c is the perpendicular distance from thr neutral axis to the extreme
fiber,
Sx is the elastic section modulus of the cross section.

The two above equation are valid as long as loads are small enough so
that the material remains within its linear elastic range.

For structural steel if the maximum stress, this means that fmax must not
exceed Fy, and the bending moment must not exceed

M y  Fy .S x
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Longitudinal axial stresses caused by internal bending moment

  dF =  b dy

d y

M(x)
V(x)

 
b
d / 2
d / 2
Curvature =  = /(d/2) F    b dy M    b dy y
d / 2
d / 2

Plane remain plane

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Stress – Strain Curve of Steel
d / 2
M    b dy y
d / 2

u

y

y  u

Curvature =  = /(d/2)

#
Moment ‐ Curvature (M‐) response
for monotonically increasing moment

Mp
B C D E
My A
y y y y y
Section Moment, M

y y y y y

y y y y

y y y y


A B C D E

Curvature, 

A: Extreme fiber reaches y B: Extreme fiber reaches 2y C: Extreme fiber reaches 5y
D: Extreme fiber reaches 10y E: Extreme fiber reaches infinite strain

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Behavior simply supported beam under stages of loading

A B

Bending Moment
f<Fy

A B
(a) f=Fy

A B
(b) f=Fy

A B
(c) f=Fy

A B
(d)

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Collapse mechanism 

A B
Moment
Mp

A B

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Plastic Moment capacity
C T
From equilibrium of forces, Ac .Fy  At .Fy
Ac  At

The plastic moment Mp is the resisting couple formed by the two


equal and opposite forces:
where
A= total cross‐sectional area, mm2
a= distance between the centroids of the half‐areas, mm
Z=(A/2)a= plastic section modulus, mm3

Fy
C=Ac.Fy

a
h
tw Pl ast ic neut r al axis

T=At .Fy
Fy
#
Plastic Moment (Mp) & Section Modulus (Z) 

F   y A1   y A 2  0
• Plastic section modulus 
 A1  A 2  A / 2 Z = ½ A (y1+y2)  
A
 M  y  ( y1  y 2 )
2
Where , y1  centroid of A1 • Plastic Moment 
y 2  centroid of A 2
 Mp = 0.90 Z Fy
Fy
C=Ac.Fy

a
h
tw Pl ast ic neut r al axis

T=At .Fy
Fy
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Plastic centroid
y
A1 y1 y A 1
Plastic centroid.
A2 y2
y A 2

y
a) General cross‐section b) Stress distribution (c) Force distribution

• The plastic centroid :  A1 = A2 = A/2


• The plastic centroid ≠ elas c centroid or center of gravity 
(c.g.) of the cross‐section. 

y1 A1, y1
c.g. = elastic N.A. A , y About the c.g. A 1 y 1 = A 2 y2
y2
2 2

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Ex : Determine the elastic section modulus (S), plastic section modulus (Z), yield
moment (My) and the plastic moment (Mp) of the cross‐section. Assume 50 ksi
steel.
• Af1 = 9 in2 Af2 = 15.0 in2  Aw =  7.125 in2
12 in.
• Ag = 31.125 in2
F1 0.75 in.
• elastic centroid from bottom = 6.619 in 
W t = 0.5 in.
w
16 in. • Ix = 1430 in4    Sx = Ix / (16‐6.619) = 152.43 in3
F2 1.0 in. • My‐x = Fy Sx = 7621.8 kip‐in. = 635.15 kip‐ft.
• distance of plastic centroid from bottom
15 in.
31.125
Zx = A/2 (y1 + y2)  15.0  1.0  0.5  ( y p  1.0)   15.5625
= 15.5625 (10.5746 + 2
1.5866)  y p  2.125 in.
= 189.26 in3
• y1=centroid of top half‐area about plastic centroid
Mp-x = Zx Fy
9  13.5  6.5625  6.5625
= 189.26 x 50  10.5746
= 9462.93 kip-in. 15.5625
• y2=centroid of bottom half‐area about plas.centroid
 Mp-x = 0.9 x 9462.93
0.5625  0.5625  15.0  1.625
= 0.9 x189.26 x 50  1.5866
#
= 8516.64 kip-in 15.5625
Determine Plastic 
Moment at X & Y direction 
if it uses steel BJ 34. 
#
Determine Plastic 
Moment at X & Y direction 
if it uses steel BJ 34. 

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Stability:

If a beam can be counted on to remain stable up to the fully


plastic conditions, the nominal moment strength can be taken
as the plastic moment capacity; that is,
Mn  M p

Otherwise, Mn will be less than Mp.

As with a compression member, instability can be overall sense


or it can be local.

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Development of a plastic stress distribution

The development of a plastic stress distribution over the cross‐
section can be hindered by two different length effects: 
(1) Local buckling of the individual plates (flanges and webs) of 
the cross‐section before they develop the compressive yield 
stress sy. 
(2) Lateral‐torsional buckling of the unsupported length of the 
beam / member before the cross‐section develops the plastic 
moment Mp

Fy
C=Ac.Fy

a
h
tw Pl ast ic neut r al axis

T=At .Fy
Fy
#
Local buckling of beam section
1. Buckling of compression 
M flange (flange local 
buckling ‐ FLB)
2. Buckling of compression 
part of the web (web local 
buckling ‐WLB). 

M
The buckling strength 
Local buckling of flange depend on the width‐
due to compressive thickness ratio 
(slenderness ratio) of the 
compression elements of 
..\hasil download the cross section.
purdue univ\local
buckling.mpg #
#
Steel sections Classification
• Steel sections are classified as compact, non‐
compact, or slender depending upon the slenderness 
ratio of the individual plates of the cross‐section

Compact shape tdk   p


terjadi local buckling

Noncompact shape p    r
terjadi local buckling

Slender shape   r
Terjadi local buckling

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Slenderness Ratio

Width-Thickness Parameters(*)

Element  p r

bf E E
0.38 1. 0
Flange 2t f Fy Fy
h E E
tw 3.76 5.70
Web Fy Fy
__________________________________________________________
___________
•For hot-rolled I- and H-shapes

#
Slenderness Ratio

Section Plate element  p r

Wide-flange Flange bf/2tf 0.38 E / Fy 0.38 E / FL

Web h/tw 3.76 E / Fy 5.70 E / Fy

Channel Flange bf/tf 0.38 E / Fy 0.38 E / FL

Web h/tw 3.76 E / Fy 5.70 E / Fy

Square or Rect. Flange (b-3t)/t 1.12 E / Fy 1.40 E / Fy


Box
Web (b-3t)/t 3.76 E / Fy 5.70 E / Fy

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Stress‐strain response of plates subjected 
to axial compression and local buckling

1. Slender sections 
Compact
cannot develop Mp
Co mpressive axial stress, 

y
due to elastic local 
Non-Compact buckling. 
2. Non‐compact 
Slender
sections can develop 
My but not Mp before 
local buckling occurs. 
3. Only compact 
sections can develop 
Effective axial strain,  the plastic moment 
Mp. 
#
Lateral Tortional Buckling (LTB) M
(a)

The laterally unsupported length of (b)

a beam-member can undergo


lateral-torsional buckling due to the
M

applied flexural loading (bending


M

moment).

Lateral-torsional buckling of a wide-


flange beam subjected to constant
moment
..\hasil download purdue
univ\beam buckling.mpg
#
Lateral‐Torsional Buckling:

A B

Bending Moment

A B

(a)

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=b_6xcnR_osM
(b)
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Design Strength of beam (Mn)

A beam can fail by reaching Mp and becoming fully plastic, or it can be


fail by buckling in one of the following ways:

1. Lateral torsional buckling (LTB), either elastically or inelastically;


2. Flange local buckling (FLB), elastically or inelastically;
3. Web local buckling (WLB) elastically or inelastically.

If the maximum bending stress is less than the proportional limit when
buckling occurs, the failure said to be elastic. Otherwise, it is inelastic.

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Design strength of Compact Beam
Mn = Mp
  L  L p 
M n   M p  ( M p  M r ) b 
Zx Fy = Mp
   
L
 r L p 

Sx (Fy – 10) = Mr  2 EI y   2 ECw 


Mn = GJ  
L2b  L2b 
Moment Capacity, M n

No instability
No LTB

Inelastic Elastic LTB


LTB

Lp Lr
Unbraced length, Lb

The moment strength of compact shape is a function of the


unbraced length Lb, defined as distance between points of
lateral support, or bracing
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Design strength of Compact Beam

Lb  L p M n  0.9 M p No instability

Lb  L p Inelastic LTB
L p  Lb  Lr M n  0.9Cb [ M p  ( M p  M r )( )]
Lr  L p

  .E
Lb  Lr M n  0.9Cb E.I y .G.J  ( ) 2 .I y .Cw Elastic LTB
Lb Lb

where Mr  Fr.Sx  0.7Fy.Sx


Lb= unbraced length (mm)
G= shear modulus = 80,000 MPa for structural steel
J= torsional constant (mm4)
Cw= warping constant (mm6).

#
The boundary between elastic and inelastic buckling:
ry.X1
Lr  1  1  X 2 (Fy  Fr )2
(Fy  Fr )


4Cw S x 2
X1 
E.G.J .A X2  ( )
Sx 2 I y G.J

The boundary inelastic stability:

12.5M max
Bending coefficient Cb: Cb 
2.5M max  3M A  4M B  3M C

Mmax = absolute value of the maximum moment within the unbraced length
(including the end point points), N-mm
MA = absolute value of the moment at the quarter point of the unbraced length, N –mm
MB = absolute value of the moment at the midpoint of the unbraced length, N-mm
MC = absolute value of the moment at the three-quarter point of the unbraced length, N-mm

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Cb value for several common cases of loading 
and lateral support:

The lateral torsional buckling


moment for non-uniform bending
Lb=L Lb=L/2 moment case = Cb x lateral
Cb=1.14 Cb=1.30 torsional buckling moment for
(a) (b)
uniform moment case.

L/2 B Cb is always greater than 1.0


Lb=L/2 for non-uniform bending
Lb=L Cb=1.67
Cb=1.32 moment.
(c) (d)
M1 M2=M1 B C Cb is equal to 1.0 for uniform
Lb=L a a
bending moment.
Cb=2.27
AB and CD: Cb=1.67
(e) Bc: Cb=1.00 Sometimes, if you cannot calculate
Lat er al r est r aint (f ) or figure out Cb, then it can be
conservatively assumed as 1.0.

#
Moment capacity Vs Lb

Mp

Mr
Moment Capacity, Mn

Cb = 1.5
Cb = 1.2
Cb = 1.0

Lp Lr
Unbraced length, Lb

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Compact Beams

For compact beams, laterally supported, AISC F1.1 gives the nominal
strength as

Mn  M p (AISC Equation F1-1)

where

M p  Fy .Z  1.5M y

The limit of 1.5My for Mp is to prevent excessive load deformations and


is satisfied when

or Z
Fy .Z  1.5 Fy .S  1 .5
S

#
Design strength of non‐compact beams
If ,  p    r for the flange is non compact, buckling will be inelastic,
and:
  p
M n  M p  (M p  M r )( )
r   p
bf 170
  p  r 
370
2t f Fy Fy  Fr

M r  Fr.Sx  0.7Fy S x

Fr  residual stress 70%Fy MPa for rolled shapes.

#
Load Resistance Factor Design for beams

For beams, the basic relationship between load effects and strength
can be written as

Mu  b .Mn
where

Mu= controlling combination of factored load moments


b= resistance factor for beams =0.90
Mn= nominal moment strength

The design strength b. Mn is sometimes called the design moment.

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Deflections
Deflections
 To being safe, a structure must be serviceable.
 A serviceable structure : performs in a satisfactory manner,
not causing any discomfort or perceptions of unsafety
for the occupants or users of the structure.
 For a beam ‐‐‐ > vertical deformation or deflection
must be limited.
 Excessive deflection indicate that the beam is very flexible
which this can lead to vibration problem
 The deflection itself can cause problems if elements attached
to the beam can damaged by small distortions.
 In addition, users of structure may view large deflections
negatively and wrongly assume that the structure is unsafe.

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Deflections
Deflections
For the common case of simply supported, uniformly loaded
beam the maximum vertical deflection is given by

5 w.L4

384 EI
w

A B 4
5 wL
=
384 EI
L
Deflection simply supported beam

Since deflection is a serviceability limit state, not one of strength,


deflection should always be computed with service loads.

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Deflections
Deflections
The appropriate limit for the maximum deflection depends on the 
function of the beam and the likelihood of damage resulting from the 
deflection. The following values are typical maximum allowable total 
(service dead load plus live load) deflection:

Plastered construction:                        L
300
L
Unplatered floor construction:             
240
L
Unplastered roof construction:             
180
where L is the span length.

#
tf
Shear strength
Shear strength y f v=VQ/It
d h
tw

V/Aw fv

Design Concept : Vu  v .Vn


where :
Vu = maximum shear based on the controlling combination of factored
loads, N
v = resistance factor for shear = 0.90
Vn = Nominal shear strength, N

V .Q
The shearing stress : fv 
I .t
where fv = vertical and horizontal shearing stress at the point of interest
V = Vertical shear force at the section under consideration
Q = first moment, about neutral axis
I = moment of inertia about neutral axis
t = width of the cross section at the point of interest.
#
Shear strength
Shear strength tf

y f v=VQ/It
d h
tw

V/Aw fv

• The web will completely yield long before the flanges begin to 
yield. Because of this, yielding of the web represents one of the 
shear limit states. 
• Taking the shear yield stress as 60% of the tensile yield stress. 
Vn
fv   0 .6 F y
Aw
 V n  0 .6 F y A w

#
The nominal shear strength

The nominal strength corresponding to this limit state is

Vn  0.6 Fy Aw Aw= area of the web = d.tw,


d = overall depth of the beam, mm

This will be the nominal strength in shear provided there is no shear


buckling of the web. Shear buckling of the web depends on its h/tw ratio.

If : h / t w  1100 Fy  There is no web shear buckling

If the ratio is too large, then then web can buckle in shear
elastically or inelastically.

#
Shear strength & width‐thickness ratio
(W. Segui 3rd edition) AISC 2003

Vn
1100 Fy
0.60Fy.Aw 0.60Fy.Aw - - - - - - - - - - -
h/t w
shear
yielding
inelastic
904000Aw
shear (h/t w)2
Elastic
buckling shear
buckling

1100 Fy 1370 Fy 260 h/t w

Unit : Fy (Mpa)
Aw (mm2)
E=2. 105 Mpa #
The nominal shear strength of unstiffened webs in SI Units:

• No web instability if h / t w  1100 Fy


Vn  0.60 Fy . Aw

• Inelastic web buckling if 1100 Fy  h t w  1370 Fy

1100 Fy
Vn  0,60 Fy . Aw
h tw

• Elastic web buckling if : 1370 Fy  h t w  260

904,000 Aw
Vn 
(h t w ) 2
where
Fy = Yield Stress = Mpa
Aw = area of the web =d.tw, mm2
d = overall depth of the beam, mm
#
The nominal shear strength of unstiffened webs:

E
• No web instability if h / t w  2.45
Fy
Vn  0.60 Fy . Aw

E E
• Inelastic web buckling if 2.45  h t w  3.07
Fy Fy
E
2.45
Fy
Vn  0,60 Fy . Aw
h tw
E
• Elastic web buckling if : 3.07  h t w  260
Fy  
 4.52 E 
Vn  Aw  
 h  
2

where   t w  
Fy = Yield Stress = Mpa or Ksi
Aw = area of the web =d.tw, mm2 or inc2
d = overall depth of the beam, mm or inch
E=2.105 Mpa or 29.000 Ksi #
Shear Strength (AISC 2005) : Segui 4th ed

Vn  0.60 Fy . Aw .Cv

Shear
yielding Elastic shear
buckling

Unit : Fy (Mpa, Ksi)


Aw (mm2, inch2 )
E=2. 105 Mpa #
E = 29.000 Ksi
Web plate buckling coefficient Kv
h
• Unstiffened web : kv  5 with  260
tw

• Stiffened web :  5
kv  5 
( a / h) 2
2
a a  260 
kv  5 when  3 or when   
h h  h / tw 

Where :
a= clear distance between transverse stiffener (inch or mm)
h = clear distance between flanges or web length for W sections
and overall depth for tee sections (inch or mm)

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Transverse stiffeners

h E
• Transverse stiffeners are not required where  2.46  
tw  Fy 

or when the required shear strength is less then or equal to the 
available shear strength provided (kv = 5)

• Transverse stiffener used to develop available web shear strength

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#
#
#
Block Shear Failure of Beam 

• To facilitate the connections of beams to other beams so that 
the top flanges are at the same elevation, a short length of 
the top flange of one of the beams may be cut away, or 
coped. 
• If a coped beam is connected with bolts as shown, segment 
ABC will tend to tear out. 

h d
C B tw

#
Block shear failure of beam ends

• The applied load in the case of the beam will be the 
vertical reaction, so shear will occur along line AB 
and there will be tension along BC. Thus, the block 
shear strength will be a limiting value of the reaction.
• Failure is assumed to occurred by rupture (fracture) 
on the tension area and rupture or yielding on the 
shear area.
Rn = 0.6 Fu Anv + Fu Ant  0.6 Fy Agv + Ubs Fu Ant
phi =0.75

#
Block Shear
AISC J4.3, “Block Shear Rupture Strength”, gives two equations for the
block shear design strength:

Rn   [0.60 Fy . Agv  Fu . Ant ] (AISC Equation J4-3a)


(AISC Equation J4-3b)
Rn   [0.60 Fu . Anv  Fy . Agt ]
where
  0.75
Agv = gross area in shear (in Figure 6.18, length AB times
the web thickness), mm2
Anv = net area in shear, mm2
Agt =gross area in tension (in Figure 6.18, length BC times
the web thickness), mm
Ant = net area in tension, mm2

#
Example
• Determine the maximum reaction, based on block shear, that 
can be resisted by the beam shown below. Treat the bolt end 
distance of 1.25 in. as standard. 

• The effective hole diameter is 3/4 + 1/8 = 7/8 in. 
• The shear areas are: 
Agv = tw (2+3+3+3) = 0.30 (11) = 3.3 in2
Anv = 0.300 [11 ‐3.5 (7/8)] = 2.381 in2
#
• The net tension area is:
Ant = 0.300 [1.25 ‐ 1/2 (7/8) ] = 0.2348 in2
• Rn = 0.6 Fu Anv + Fu Ant = 108.7 kips
– With an upper limit of
– Rn = 0.6 Fy Agv + Fu Ant = 144.5 kips

• Therefore,  nominal block shear strength = 108.7 kips
• Factored block shear strength for design = 0.75 x 108.7 = 81.5 
kips.

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