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Job # 4

Determination of fineness modulus of coarse and fine


aggregates from different sources.
[ASTM C316-05 & ASTM 117-05]
Scope and significance:
1) This test method is use to determine the fineness modulus of fine grained
particles.
2) Determine the particles size distribution of aggregates:
Apparatus:
Standard sets of sieve given by E 111, Sieve shaker, weighing balance.

Related theory:
Fineness modulus:
The fineness modulus (FM) is an empirical figure obtained by adding the total
percentage of the sample of an aggregate on each of a specified series of
sieves, and dividing the sum by 100. The sieve sizes are 150μm, 300μm,
600μm, 1.18mm, 2.36mm, 4.75mm, 9.5mm, 19mm, and 38.1mm. fine
aggregates range from a FM of 2.0 to 3.3.
Aggregates:
Aggregates is a granular material such as sand, gravel, crush, rock, blast
furnace and lights weights aggregates that usually occupy approximately
60—75% of the volume of concrete.
Aggregates may be broadly classify as natural or artificial. Aggregates may be
produce from igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. A specification
for coarse and fine aggregates is ASTM C 33.
Types of aggregates:
 Fine aggregates:
The portion of an aggregates passing the 4.75mm (sieve # 4) and retained on
75µm (sieve # 200) is called fine aggregates. It have surface moistures
content 0-2% and absorption capacity 0.5-4.0%. Bulk specific gravity is 2.3-
2.90.
 Coarse aggregates:
Aggregates that are Larger than fine aggregates are called coarse
aggregates. Coarse aggregates may be available in different size and groups
such as
19-4.75mm (3/4”-sieve # 4)
37.5-4.75mm (1 ½”- #4)
25-12.5mm (1”- 1/2”)
It have surface moistures content 0-10% and absorption capacity 0.5-4.0%.
Bulk specific gravity is 2.3-2.90.
Grading:
Grading’s refers to particles size distribution present in the aggregates. This
is determine by ASTM C 136.
 Grading chart:
Grading charts are used to show the result of sieve analysis graphically. The
percentage passing is usually plotted on vertical axis while the sieve size are
plotted on the horizontal axis. Upper and lower limit is specified ASTM C33
may also be shown on the grading chart.
 Significance of grading:
Aggregates having a smooth grading curve and neither a deficiency nor
excess of any one particle size generally produce mixture with fewer voids
between particles because cement cost is more than aggregate and cement
paste requirement of concrete increases with increasing voids content.
It is desirable to keep the voids content as low as possible. If there is not
enough of fine aggregate to fill the voids between coarse aggregates the
space must be filled with cement paste. Such sand deficiency mixture also
tends to be hard difficult to finish on the other hand excessive amount of fine
aggregates or excessively fine may produce uneconomical concrete because
of the larger surface area of finer particles which required additional cement.

Procedure:
1) Take the dry sample of 500g of fine aggregates.
2) The sample is sieved by using a set of standard sieves.
3) On completion of sieving, the material on each sieve is weighed.
4) Find out the %age retained and cumulative %age retained on each
sieve.
5) Fineness modulus is obtained by adding cumulative %age of fine
aggregates on each sieve and dividing the sum by 100.
Observation and calculation:
1. Type of sand = lawrencepur
Weight of sample = Time of shaking =
Sieve # Sieve size Mass % retained Cumulative % passing
retained(g) % retained
#4 4.76mm
#8 2.36mm
#16 1.18mm
#30 600µm
#50 300µm
#100 150µm
Pan Pan
∑= ∑=

F.M= Type equation here.


Particle Size Distribution of sand
ASTM Limits- C33
100

90

80
Series1
70
Series2
60 Series3
% Passing

50

40

30

20

10

0
0.01 0.001 0.0001
size (m)

2. Type of sand = CHENAB SAND


Weight of sample = Time of shaking = 3min

Sieve # Sieve size Mass % retained Cumulative % passing


retained(g) % retained

∑= ∑=
F.M=

Particle Size Distribution of chenab sand


100
ASTM Limits- C33
90

80

70

60
% passing

50

40

30

20

10

0
0.01 0.001 0.0001

size (m)

experimental data ASTM C33 Max limit ASTM C33 Min limit

3. Coarse aggregate:
Weight of sample = Time of shaking =

Sieve size Mass % retained Cumulative % passing


(mm) retained (kg) % retained

∑= ∑=
Particle Size Distribution of coarse aggregate
ASTM Limits- C33
100

90

80

70
% passing

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0.1 0.01 0.001

size (m)
experimental data ASTM C33 Max limit ASTM C33 Min. limit

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