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Une méthode de corrélation empirique TPC-TPS modifiée pour les sols soudanais

Building and Road Research Institute, University of Khartoum, Sudan, karimzein2000@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Many CPT- SPT correlation relationships have been proposed worldwide to enable estimating either soil parameter

from available data of the other. In Sudan, the first SPT-CPT correlation was reported in 1980 and revised in 2003. This paper aims at

modifying the generalized CPT-SPT correlation for local soils developed in 2003 with the intention to improve the prediction

accuracy and reliability. The soils studied covered a variety of types including clayey, silty, and sandy soil deposits. The CPT

soundings were performed by a mechanical adhesion jacket cone to determine cone resistance qc and friction ratio Rf parameters at the

same depths where the SPT were made in adjacent boreholes. An empirical CPT-SPT relationship of fairly high correlation has been

developed based on statistical regression analysis of data pertaining to three soil types representing sands, silts and clays. The

developed CPT-SPT correlation is a modified version of the 2003 method can readily be used to estimate the corrected SPT Ncorr

parameter for soils of known net cone resistance (qc - σve) and friction ratio Rf values or vice versa for local soils of different types and

characteristics.

Résumé: De nombreuses relations de corrélation TPC-TPS (test de pénétration de cône-Test de pénétration standard) ont été

proposées à travers le monde afin de permettre d'estimer le paramètre du sol à partir des données disponibles de l'autre. Au Soudan, la

première corrélation TPC-TPSa été rapportée en 1980 et révisée en 2003. Ce document vise à modifier la corrélation TPC-TPS

généralisée pour les sols locaux développée en 2003 avec l'intention d'améliorer la précision et la fiabilité des prédictions. Les sols

étudiés couvraient une variété de types, y compris les dépôts argileux, limoneux et sablonneux. Les sondages de TPC ont été

effectués par un cône d'adhérence mécanique pour déterminer les paramètres de résistance de cône qc et de coefficient de friction

Rf aux mêmes profondeurs où les TPS ont été réalisés dans des trous de forage adjacents. Une relation empirique TPC-TPS de

corrélation assez élevée a été développée sur la base d'une analyse de régression statistique de données concernant trois types de sols,

représentant les sables, les limons et les argiles. La corrélation TPC-TPS développée est une version modifiée de la méthode 2003 qui

peut être facilement utilisée afin d’estimer le paramètre corrigé du TPS Ncorr pour les sols de résistance connue au cône net (qc-σve) et

de coefficient de frottement Rf, ou vice versa pour les sols locaux de différents types et caractéristiques.

KEYWORDS: CPT-SPT relationship corrected N value, net cone resistance, friction ratio, overburden pressure.

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PREVIOUS CPT-SPT RELATIONSHIPS

The in-situ testing of soils is being more frequently considered

in conducting geotechnical site investigations for design of The relationship between the CPT and SPT has been discussed

foundations for various civil engineering infrastructures. Of the in many previous studies and several methods have been

different in-situ testing techniques the standard penetration proposed to correlate the data from the two penetration tests.

test, SPT, and the cone penetration test CPT, are the most The usefulness and validity of a certain correlation may be

commonly used geotechnical investigation methods. Methods checked for soils and testing techniques different from those

of design based on the SPT and the CPT data have been used for developing it and if necessary, a new correlation

developed to estimate the bearing capacity and settlements of which gives a good comparison between qc and N may be

soils and to assess their liquefaction potential. proposed in each locality.

The results of the SPT and CPT are influenced by several The CPT cone resistance qc was directly related to the SPT

factors which include the equipment used, test procedure N-value according to the following general linear equation:

followed and the type and condition of the soil tested. The SPT q = n N

N-value is heavily dependent on the magnitude of incident (1)

energy required to drive the SPT tube into the soil. On the

other hand, the static CPT data is largely dependent on the type The values of the constant n ranged between 2 and 18

of equipment and the procedure of pushing the cone into the depending on the soil type and condition as reported in some

soil. previous investigation (Schmertmann1970, Sanglerat1972,

In some countries, the geotechnical engineers are more Clayton et al 1985).

familiar and experienced with the interpretation of the results In several other studies, qc and N were related to each other

of either the SPT or the CPT but may know little about the through one or more soil parameters that are believed to have a

other. In such cases, they cannot apply the design methods significant effect on their values. From a review of published

based on the results of both tests unless a simple and fairly literature, the mean grain size D50, the friction ratio Rf and the

accurate correlation is established to relate the data from the fines content FC were used as the most important variables

two test methods. By establishing such a relationship, the which may be considered in developing the qc-N correlation.

results from either test can be converted to those likely to be For instance, the following relationship was proposed between

obtained from the other. In fact, this has been the subject in the qc/N ratio and the mean grain size D50for alluvial soils with

many investigations carried in several countries since 1956. D50 values in the range of 0.0015 to 0.5mm ([Muromachi and

Kabayashi1982):

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Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul 2017

= 5.48 + 1.36 Log The present study aims at updating and improving the accuracy

(2) and reliability of the generalized qc-N correlation relationship

developed by the author in 2003 for Sudanese soils based on

A more popular graphical relationship between qc/N and Equation and illustrated graphically in Figure 1.

D50was proposed in 1983using data collected from sixteen The same database utilized for developing the 2003 qc-N

sources for a variety of soil types (Robertson et al 1983)]. The correlation method for Sudanese soils was used for the purpose

SPT N-values were corrected to about 55-60 % of the of this study. Several sites mainly located in Khartoum State

theoretical maximum SPT energy (475 J). were covered in the study. The soils comprised a variety of

A relationship was proposed for saturated cohesionless types including the clayey, silty and sandy deposits located

soils from Taiwan between the qc/N ratio and FC as follows above and below the ground water table. The CPT was carried

(Chin et al 1988): out by a static machine equipped with a mechanical adhesion

jacket cone. The CPT and SPT were measured at the same

= 4.7 - 0.05* depths with a lateral distance of about 3 to 5m between their

(3) locations.

The N values were corrected to a 55% of the standard

maximum energy. This equation indicates that the qc /N is

linearly and inversely related to the FC of the soil tested.

The friction ratio Rf, defined as the ratio of the side friction

to the cone resistance (fs/qc) measured in a mechanical or

electrical cone penetration test. The Rf was used by some

authors (Robertson 1986, Schmertmann1971, Ismail and Zein

1987) as a parameter in relating the qc and N data as expressed

by Equation 4 below in which A and B are constants

(Schmertmann 1971):

N = (A + B ∗ R ) ∗ q

(4)

It appears from the above review that there is no general

rule which should be followed for developing a reliable qc-N

correlation because none of the assumed relationships proved

to be satisfactory for all soil types and conditions.

Nevertheless, the need for establishing such relationships has

been emphasized by researchers in several countries. It is Figure 1 Generalized qc-Rf-N correlation method for Sudanese soils

generally recommended to develop such relationships [Zein 2003]

whenever and wherever the required data are made available.

In Sudan, the first study was carried out in 1980 (Zein 4. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

1980) to develop a qc-N correlation using data collected for

various local soil. Two regions, each comprising a number of As stated in section 2, the friction ratio Rf may be considered

sites, were chosen for the study, namely Khartoum State and as the best soil parameter compared to D50 and FC which

the Jonglie State in Southern Sudan. An evaluation study was accounts for soil type variability and was therefore adopted

also carried out to compare between the indirect CPT-CPT herein for the development of a modified CPT-SPT correlation.

correlation relationships based on the three soil parameters Two main aspects were considered in the analysis of the CPT

considered by previous authors as expressed by Equations 2, 3 and SPT data to meet the objective of this study. Firstly; the

and 4 (Zein 2003).The study results revealed that the CPT 2003 method was based on data pertaining to soils of different

friction ratio Rf seems to be superior to the mean grain size D50 types and a nonlinear equation (Equation 5) was used to

and the fines content FC in developing correlation equations develop the CPT-SPT correlation chart depicted in Figure 1.

with the qc/N ratio. A nonlinear CPT-SPT relationship has Due to its generalized nature, the method is not expected to be

been established from analysis of data for fine and coarse as accurate as any other method developed a soil or soil group

grained soils based on the Rf values based on statistical of given type and characteristics. Therefore, it was intended in

analysis of data as expressed in the following polynomial this study to establish separate SPT-CPT correlation equations

equation: for different soil subgroups. Secondly, the SPT N and CPT

cone resistance qc data used in analysis for developing the

= - 0.0038( ) + 1.5975( ) + 10.292 correlation chart in Figure 1 were those actually measured

(5) during field explorations and have not been corrected for

overburden pressure effects. As the values of N and qc are

The qc and N in Equation 5 were measured in kg/cm2 and known to be affected by the effective overburden pressure σv it

the blow count/305mm respectively. A graphical solution was deemed important to consider such effects. This has been

based on the above equation was produced as shown in Figure accounted for by correcting the measured SPT N values to

1 to enable estimating N directly from known qc values ,or vice values of σv corresponding to samples depths and using the

versa, for arbitrarily assumed values of Rf from 1.0 to 8.0%. CPT net cone resistance (qc-σve) in analysis instead of the total

Several other empirical SPT-CPT relationships have also qc values. The tendency to correct the measured SPT and CPT

been proposed in some recent studies for various soil types values for overburden pressure effects conforms to the trend

tested by electrical and mechanical cone types (Akca 2003, followed for data analysis in current research works. Following

Bashar 2014, Fauzi et al 2015). this approach anew analysis was made using the same data of

the previous study to search a sound and reliable relationship

3. STUDY OBJECTIVESAND METHODOLOGY between (qc-σve) and Ncor that is applicable to different soil

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Technical Committee 102 / Comité technique 102

types. It is important to consider each soil subgroup separately Figure 4 Relationship between CPT net cone resistance

in establishing such relationships because the qc/N ratio varies (qc- σve) and SPT corrected Ncor for clay soil subgroup

considerably for different soil types. Normally it is difficult to

determine the type of soil without testing but for convenience The following linear relationships have been obtained from

three main soil groups were considered in establishing direct regression analysis between the net cone resistance (qc - σve)

(qc-σve)-Ncor correlation equations as presented below. expressed in kPa and the corrected SPT Ncorr values in blows

The soil database was divided into three main subgroups per 305mm soil penetration for the Rf ranges assumed to

on the basis of assigned friction ratio ranges of Rf= 0.5 to 2.5% represent the three main soil types considered:

for sandy soils, Rf = 2.6 to 4.5% for mixed clay-silt-sand soils ( - )=390.0* +2656.7 for = 0.5–2.5%

and Rf = 4.5 to 7.5% for clay soils. The values of (qc-σve) and (5)

Ncorr were determined for the samples in each soil subgroup

and plotted against each other as shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4 ( - )=236.3* +248.4 for =2.5–4.5%

for the sand, sand-silt-clay mixtures and claysoil types (6)

respectively.

( - )=117.7* +557.5 for =4.5–7.5%

Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the

(7)

relation between (qc- σve) and Ncor and determine the

correlation strength using the same data set for each soil The coefficient of determination, R2 measures the strength

subgroup. of the correlation between two variables and tells whether or

25000

not a sound relationship exists between them. The R2 values for

Net CPT cone resistance (kPa)

20000 which indicate reliable linear correlation relationships between

(qc- σve) and Ncor for the different soil subgroups.

15000 As stated earlier, the friction ratio Rf may be considered as

a useful index which accounts for soil variability in the CPT-

10000 SPT relationship for local soils and it was therefore adopted as

an indicative of the soil type. The mean values of the friction

5000 ratio Rf calculated from CPT data at the depths of soil samples

were 1.6% for the clay soils, 3.7% for mixed soils and 6.2%

0 for sand soil groups. The best fit lines corresponding to

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 equations 5, 6 and 7 were combined as shown in Figure 5.

Corrected SPT N value (blows/305mm)

30000

Figure 2 Relationship between CPT net cone resistance Mean Rf = 1.6%

Net cone resistance (qc - σv) kPa

(qc- σve) and SPT corrected Ncor for sandy soil subgroup 25000

Mean Rf = 3.7%

20000

20000

Net CPT cone resistance (kPa)

Rf = 2.5-4.5%

15000

15000 Mean Rf = 6.2%

10000

10000 5000

5000 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Figure 5 CPT-SPT best fit regression lines of (qc- σve) versus corrected

Corrected SPT N value (blows/305mm) Ncor relationships for sand, mixed and clay soil subgroups

(qc- σve) and SPT corrected Ncor for mixed soil subgroup It seems reasonable to assume that the regression lines in

Fig. 5 represent the data pertaining to sand, mixed and clay soil

10000 subgroups having mean Rf values i.e. 1.6, 3.7 and 6.2%

respectively. These lines were used to establish new (qc-σve)

kPa

Rf =4.5-8.5%

8000 versus Ncor lines corresponding to assumed Rf values of 1% to

7% with 1% intervals and produce the chart illustrated in Fig.

Net cone resistance

the three lines in Fig. 5 of estimated mean Rf values and Ncor

4000 values computed from Equations 5, 6 and 7 for assumed (qc-

σve). In this manner it is possible to obtain new sets of (qc-σve)

2000 and Ncorr values which can be used to draw new lines

corresponding to the above specified Rf values.

0 The chart in Fig. 6 can readily be used to estimate the

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 corrected SPT’s Ncorr values for soils of known (qc - σve) and Rf

Corrected SPT N value (blows/305mm)

values. The latter CPT soil parameters should be determined

from field testy data using a mechanical friction jacket cone.

The same chart can also be used to predict (qc-σve) values from

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Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul 2017

corrected N values but the Rf of the soil type under cone resistance (qc- σve) and SPT N values corrected for

consideration must be assumed. In a previous study [11] on overburden pressure effect.

similar soil types, it was concluded that the Rf may be used to

predict the main soil types as given in Table 1 below. A new empirical CPT-SPT relationship has been developed

based on regression analysis of data pertaining to three soil

types representing sands, silts and clays. The developed CPT-

Table 1 Soil classification based on CPT friction ratio values SPT correlation is a modified version of the 2003 method and

is presented by the chart shown in Fig. 6.

Soil type Friction ratio (R ) % The proposed method can readily be used to estimate the

Clays of high plasticity 5.8 corrected SPT Ncorr parameter for soils of known net cone

Silty and sandy clays 4.5 resistance and friction ratio Rf values or vice versa for local

Clayey sands and silts 3.5 soils of different types and characteristics. The accuracy of the

proposed method can be further improved by considering

Clean sands 1.7

additional CPT-SPT data as it become available in the future.

The engineer should use his experience to identify the type

6. REFERENCES

of soil penetrated from the inspection of the soil sampled

inside the SPT tube. Accordingly, appropriate Rf value may be Akca, N. 2003. Correlation of SPT-CPT data from the United Arab

assumed for the different soil types from the above table and Emirates. Eng. Geology, Volume 67,: 219-231.

used in conjunction with the proposed qc-N correlation chart. Bashar T. 2014, Correlation of Standard and Cone Penetration Tests

for Sandy and Silty Sand to Sandy Silt Soil. EJGE,Vol. 19 pp.

6717-6727.

Clayton C.R.I.Hababa M.S. and Simons 1985. Dynamic penetration

resistance of a fine grained sand, a laboratory study. Geotechnique

Vol. 35 No. 1, pp 19-31.6. Meyerhof G.G. 1956. Penetration

testing and bearing capacity of cohesionless soils. J. of SMFE,

ASCE, Vol. 82:SM1, pp 1-19.

Chin C.T., Duan S.W. and Kao T.C. 1988. SPT-CPT correlations for

granular soils. Proc. ISOPT-1 Rotterdam pp 35-339.

Fauzi J., AlKaabim S. and Paul C 2015.A New Correlation between

SPT and CPT for various soils. Int. J. of Environmental, Chemical,

Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering Vol. 9, No. 2.

Ismail H. E. and Zein A.K.M. 1987. Prediction of the undrained shear

strength and standard penetration test using the static cone

penetration test data. Proc. 9th Reg. Conf. for Africa on SMFE,

Lagos, pp 185-192.

Muromachi T. and Kabayashi S. 1982. Comparative study of static and

dynamic penetration tests currently in use in Japan. Proc.2nd ESOP

Amsterdam, p 279.

Robertson P.K., Campanella R.G. and Wightman A. 1983.SPT-CPT

correlations.J. Geotech. Eng, ASCE, Vol. 109:No. 11, pp 1449-

1459.

Figure 6 Modified CPT-SPT correlation chart for Sudanese soils

Robertson P.K. 1986. In-situ testing and its application to foundation

engineering.Canadian Geotech. J., Vol. 23, No. 4, pp 573-594.

Sanglerat G. 1972. The penetrometer and soil exploration. Elsevier

5. CONCLUSIONS

Publ. Co., New York.

Schmertmann, J.H. 1970. Static cone to compute static settlement on

This study was conducted to modify a previously developed

sands.J. ofSMFE, ASCE, Vol. 96:SM3, pp 1011-1043.

CPT-SPT correlation relationship for various Sudanese soils. Schmertmann, J.H. 1971. Guidelines for cone penetration test,

Such relationships are needed for the application of some performance and design. Report No. TS 78-209 of the FHWA,

theoretical and empirical solutions of geotechnical engineering Washington DC, 145 p.

problems based on the CPT and SPT results in the absence of Zein A.K.M. 1980. Correlation between static cone penetration and

the data from either test. recognized standard test results for some local soil types. M.Sc.

The following conclusions may be drawn from the analysis Thesis, Univ. of Khartoum

and discussion of study results: Zein A.K.M. 2003. Development and evaluation of some empirical

There is no theoretically sound method which can be used methods of correlation between the cone penetration test CPT and

to describe accurately the CPT-SPT relationship and any the standard penetration test SPT. Building and Road Research

Journal BRRI, Vol. 4.

relationship of this type has to be of empirical nature. Many qc-

N correlation methods have been developed in various

countries but their world-wide application is limited due to the

inherent variability of the test techniques and the nature and

condition of the soils tested.

The analysis of study results revealed that linear

relationships of fairly high correlation can be established for

the Sudanese soil subgroups considered between the CPT net

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