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Management, Leadership and

SMART English Learning Center

Bruce 10/16/17 BRILLIANT CO. LTD

MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 2

LEADERSHIP ................................................................................................................................ 5

MOTIVATION ............................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................. 10

Management have a wide definition; each management thinker has his own definition about this.
Some say it is about controlling, some say it is about managing or leading. According to Van Fleet,
Megginson, Kreitner and F.W. Taylor to have a clear definition of management: Management is
an art, it is working with human, financial and physical resources, it is a set of efficient activities
to pursuit one or more goal; in management, it is important to know what to do, when to do and
see that it is done in the best and cheapest way (Management Study HQ, 2017).

When a person mentions about the word “Manager”, many will think as a man/ a woman who
always blame employees and sometimes praise them. So, what does “Manager” actually mean?
Manager is the one who motivate people and bring out the best of his employees to get the job
done. They manage and monitors the activities and work of employees related to the company.
They also have to pay attention and control other resources of the company to avoid error while
working to achieve company objectives.

The Directive The main goal of this type of management is employee compliance.
(Coercive) style This is the type of manager who manages employees by giving
orders and telling them what to do. This type of manager control and
watch the staff closely.

Effective when:

 There is a crisis

 When deviations are risky

Ineffective when:

 Employees are underdeveloped because this style provide less


 Employees are highly skilled because they will be


The Authoritative The main goal of this type of management is to show employees the
(Visionary) style vision and long-term goals of the company. This type of manager

will be tough with the staff but still fair. They will have clear
instructions for their employees, then explain and convince
employees to follow.

Effective when:

 Clear directions and standards needed

 The leader is credible

Ineffective when:

 Employees are underdeveloped because they need guidance

on what to do

 The leader is not credible because people won’t follow your

vision if they don’t believe in it

The Affiliative style The main goal of this type of management is to create a harmonious
relationship between employees as well as between leaders and
employees, always putting the "human" factor before the task. They
motivate employees by making them happy.

Effective when:

 Should be used in conjunction with other styles

 With advice and help.
 When there is management of contradictions among

Ineffective when:

 Inappropriate performance – affiliation does not emphasize

 There are crisis situations that need guidance from the

The Participative The main goal is to build commitment and consensus among
(Democratic) style employees. This type of manager always expects everyone to have
input in making decisions so this manager will always encourage
employees to do so.

Effective when:

 Employees work together

 Experienced staff
 Stable working environment

Ineffective when:

 Employees must cooperate.

 If there is a problem, there is no time for the meeting
 Lack of capacity - requires close monitoring

The Pacesetting style The main goal of this type of management is to achieve high
standards in completing the task. This type of manager will always
do most of the work himself and hope staff will follow. If you want
this style to be effective, your employees must have motivation and
self-consciousness to pursue higher standards set by the leader.

Effective when:

 When everyone is motivated

 There is no need for many guidance
 When managing specialists

Ineffective when:

 When the workload requires the assistance from others

 When development, training and coordination are required

The Coaching style This type of management will focus on the long-term development of
employees, help and encourage employees to promote their strengths

and improve performance. Manager motivates employees by creating
opportunities for career development

Effective when:

 Skills need to be developed

 Employees have the motivation and desire to grow

Ineffective when:

 Leaders lack expertise

 In a crisis

(Source: Cardinal, 2015)

Leadership is very important to every company. Leadership is the art of motivating a group of
people to achieve a common goal. Technically, leadership is setting a new direction or vision for
a group that they follow, it provides an inspiring vision of the future, motivates and inspires
employees to engage in that vision, manages the allocation of common vision into smaller
functional goals and coach staffs to achieve greater goals.

 Delegation: Delegating tasks to appropriate departments is one of the most important skills
a leader can develop to grow a business. Trusting your team is important, it's a strength,
not a weakness.
 Direction: Having a vision beyond norms and toward great things is an essential trait of
good leadership. By seeing what can be and managing goals on how to achieve that, a good
leader can make a big difference to the company.
 Communication: If a leader cannot make the team understand what the team's overall goal
is, the team leader will not be able to work effectively to achieve the goal.
 Commitment: There is no greater motivation than seeing the boss work with everyone
else in the place where they are working, showing that hard work is being done at every

 Approach: Not all human beings are the same. Everyone has their own cultural
perspective, language barriers, different educational backgrounds, different personalities
and a variety of things, all of these will affect the cognitive and behavioral abilities of each
person. So, for a leader, understanding his or her employees is important so that they can
approach an employee in the most effectively way and make them understand and motivate
them to work.
 Accountability: Act ethical and responsible, always keep the promise, never promise what
you cannot do and be honest with others. These will help a leader gain the trust of the
employees, from which they will listen and believe more in the leader's words.

(Source: Prive, 2012)

Each type of company will fit in a different leadership style. So, a good leader is someone who
knows which is the right leadership style for you and your company. Here are six leadership styles
that a leader can choose for his company:

 Tells (autocratic): The manager makes all the decisions, and issue instructions which must
be obeyed without question (Business Essentials, 2010). Based on this approach that the
decisions on the job will be made more quickly, but the communication between managers
and staff will be limited and will not motivate employees to develop.

 Sells (persuasive): The manager still makes all the decisions, but explains them to
subordinates, and attempts to motivate subordinates to carry them out willingly (Business
Essentials, 2010). This style will help employees understand what they are doing and
understand the desire of the manager. But employees will not be responsible for the
decisions that they are not related, and in the employee's perspective, this style is not much
different from Tell.

 Consults (participative): The manager confers with subordinates and takes their views
and feelings into account, but retains the right to make the final decision (Business
Essentials, 2010). This style fits the company which was put into operation for a long time
because this approach need much time to make decisions and to guide the staff to carry out
their work. However, this style helps motivate employees and many more ideas will be
given out.

 Joins (democratic): Leader and followers make the decision together, on the basis of
consensus, or compromise and agreement (Business Essentials, 2010). This style suits
small organizations. It helps employees to have more responsibility in the decisions are
made and those decisions will be more quality and flexibility.

When mentioned about a happy employee and a motivated employee, many people probably think
the two are the same, actually the two meanings are somewhat similar but in fact different.
Employees who are motivated to do the job will be more productive, more engaged, and they will
feel they need to invest more in their work. When employees feel these things, it helps them, and
therefore their management, more successful (Study.com, 2017).

Content theories:

Content theories are also called needs theories, because they are generally associated with a view
that concentrates on the importance of determining 'what' motivates us. In other words, they try to
identify what our 'needs' are and relate motivation to the fulfilling of these needs (SIE Learning,
2016). Different individual has his or her particular motivation, and each individual has different
motivation at different times, so an organization should have a flexible reward system to offer
employees a choice of rewards.

Following are the 4 content theories:

Maslow’s Alderfer’s Herzberg’s McClelland’s

Need Hierarchy ERG Theory Theory Learned Needs

Self-actualization Growth Motivators Need for

Esteem Relatedness Hygiene
Need for power
Belongingness Existence
Need for affiliation


Maslow’s Need Hierarchy:

Needs affect the behavior of an individual. As needs has been met, the individual will not be
motivated anymore. Needs are in a hierarchy that an individual moves up as they satisfy levels of

Alderfer’s ERG Theory:

Consolidates Maslow’s hierarchy into 3 categories

 Existence-physiological and security

 Relatedness-affiliation

 Growth-esteem and self-actualization

When the needs are not met, people tend to satisfy the needs at lower levels.

Herzberg’s Theory:

There are factors that help reduce dissatisfaction. Those are hygiene factors like light, facilities,
temperature, pay, and parking. And there are factors that make up the motivation like interesting
work, advancement, and growth.

McClelland’s Learned Needs:

Needs are given by influences from the external environment. Not a hierarchy, but degrees of each
type of need or motive

There are 3 types of needs of an individual:

 N Ach-motive to meet some standard of excellence or to compete

 N Aff-motive to develop and maintain close and meaningful relationships

 N Pow-desire to influence and control others and the environment

Process Theories:

The content theories focus on physical and mental needs of an individual, process theories focus
on how an individual needs effect his behavior. Process theories has 4 types:

 Reinforcement Theory: Behaviors are functions of consequences that they produce. In

order to change behaviors, the consequences must be changed
 Expectancy: It is a combination of goal setting and reinforcement theories. Three questions
drive motivation: With effort can I perform? With performance, will I be rewarded? Do I
value the rewards?
 Equity: Individuals try to find a balance between their inputs and outputs.
 Goal Setting: It is taking the results and rewards for motivation.

Business Essentials. (2010). BPP Learning Media.

Management Study HQ. (2017). What is Management. Retrieved from Management Study HQ:

Prive, T. (2012). Top 10 Qualities That Make A Great Leader. Retrieved from Forbes:

SIE Learning. (2016). Retrieved from SIE Learning:


Study.com. (2017). What Is Motivation In Management? - Definition, Process & Types. Retrieved
from Study.com: http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-motivation-in-management-

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