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Everette Edgar Sentinan, B.S.


Frances C^avanah. B A. •Martha F. .Simmonds, M.A. Helen .Mitelull. B.A.
R. W. Murphcy, B.A. Assistant Editors Assistant Editors
Assistant Editors Mary Jane Bailey, B.A. Frances Fridslein Bentley
S. Richard First Phoebe C. Vestal, B.S. Kenneth Leslie
Jcanbelle R. Florence M. MacNicholas, B.S.
Ruth Cromer Weir, B.A. Frances Means
Mabel Johnson, B..A., L.S. MAP EDITOR
Eleanor M. Bechtel, B.A., B.L.S. Samuel Thorne, Jr., B.A.
Sainufl M. Steward, Ph.D. ('943- '945'
Assistant Editors Assistant Editors MAKE-UP EDITOR
Da\ id I. ERgcnbcrgcr, B.S. Hclene G. Boeint; Carroll Chouinard, M.A.
Barbara Landfield, B.A. Helen L. McCune, B.A. ('944- '946'
Dorothy E. Pace
Assistant Editors
Bernice S. Warner
Frederick \\ . Breit
SCIENCE EDITOR John W. Dienhart, B.8.S. Maxine F. Shepler
Cii-ort; Mann, B..\.
Charles L. Hopkins, Ph.B.
Frederick L. Seaberg
Assistant Editors PROOF EDITOR
Rose 8. Bernards, B.S. Berta \\ . .Sehadeb<'rg
James S. Crenshaw Assistant Editors
Richard M. Lyons, M.A. .\hnyra Higbie, B.S.
Dorothy Jane Quinn
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Lois Potter, B.A.
Jeanne Seguin, B..\.
Alan GrifTin, Ph.D. Paul H. Ca.ssidy, M.S.
Edward L. Fhrom, B..^. Willard Grayson .Smythe
\'irginia S. Ury, B..\. Marian Moreland
Beatrice Saw\ei- Russell
Assistant Editors 1 940- 944
(Director I

\ elda Q. C;iark, B.A. Assistant Editors Ruth W. Tarbo.x, B..A., B.S. in L.S.
Thomas F. Gorman Mary Abele, B.F..\. (Assistant)
Naomi R. Graham, M.A. Mary N. Coleman, B.,\.
Robert W. Quinn Mary C. Hauge REFERENCE LIBRARIAN
Muriel Wahl, B.S. Gladys E. Manahan. B..\. Marguerite Giezenlanner,
Harry Winkler, B.A. i
David S. Ray, B.F..\. B.A., B.S. in L.S.





PROl KSSOR OF KDIC.VTION formerly, assist .-vnt superintendent in charge
STANFORD UNIVERSITY of instruction, cincinnati public schools
Chairman, Editorial Advisory Board




The person whose initials appear at the end of an article in these
volumes either wrote it as original matter or became responsible
for its accuracy as critical reviewer of the work of another.

A*Ab. Alfred Abrahamton A.C. Ambrose Coliver, Ph.D.

National Stxrc-lary and IVrasiircr, Inter- Scniejr -Specialist for Higher
Education of
national Order of Good Templars. Negroes, U.S. Office of Education, Wash-
Good Tf.mpi.ars, Intern.\tional Order of ington, D.C.
A. Ad. Ansel Adams A.C.Ch. Asa C. Chandler, M.S., Ph.D.
Photographer; Author, Making a Photograph. Professor of Biology, Rice Institute, Houston,
Camera; Photography Tex.
A.A.A. Arthur A. Alien, Ph.D. Worms Articles
Professor of Ornithology, Cornell University. A.C.CI. A. C. Clark, Ed.D.
Perching Birds .\rticles \ice- President, State Teachers College,
Bemidji, Minn.
A.A.S. A. A. Schoolcraft, S. T.B., Ph.D. Minnesota State Teachers College
Dean, West X'irginia Wesleyan College. (Bemidji)
West V'irgi.ma Wesleyan College A.C.Co. Arthur C. Cole, Ph.D.
A.BI. Archibald Black Professor of History and Co-director of
.Author of books and articles on transporta- American Studies, Brooklyn College, New
tion. York; Visiting Professor, 1948-1949, Colum-
Transportation .\rticlcs bia University.
U.S. Presidents Biographies
A.Bu. Allison Butts, B.S., A.B. A.C.Ha. Anno Harr, B..A.
Professor of Electrometallurgy, Lehigh Uni- Formerly, Social Worker in Korea.
versity, Bethlehem, Pa. Korea
NIetal Processing Articles
A.C.Ho. Alfred C. Hottes, M.S.A.
A.B.B. Alfred Beniomin Butts, Ph.D., LL.B. Writer on Garden Subjects.
Formerly, Cliancellor, University of Missis- Flower and Related .Articles
sippi; Technical Civilian Educational .Ad- A.C.I. Andrew Conway Ivy, Ph.D., M.D.
visor, U.S. .Army Field Forces Vice-President, Chicago Professional Col-
Mississippi, University of leges,University of Illinois, Chicago.
A.B.C. Alfred B. Caine, Nf .S.
Physiology Articles
Professor of .Animal Husbandry, Iowa State A. CO. August C. Orthmann
Past President, .American Leather Chemists"
College, Ames, Iowa.
Animal Hijsbandry; Horse Association
A.B.H. A. Brazier Howell A.D. Anne Deskins, B.A.
.\nat()inist: Formerly Associate Professor of Editor of Chapman Review, Chapman College,
Anatomy, Johns Hopkins University. Whittier, Calif.
.Anatomy Articles Chapman College
A.B. Ma. Andrew Martin, Ph.D.. D.D.
A.deL. Agnes de Lima, M.A.
Public ity Director, New School for Social
President, Ottawa University, Ottawa, Kan.
Rescaicii, New York City.
Ottawa University
.\k\s .School for Social Research
A.B.Mo. Albert B. Moore, Ph.D., LL.D. A.D.U Anita D. Loton, Ph.D.
Professor of History-, University of Alabama. .Associate Professor of Health and Hygiene,
Alab.ama San Jose .State College, San Jose, Calif.
A.B.S. Ado Bamett Stough, B..A. Growth
Press .Secretary, League of Women N'oters. A.D.T. A. D. Tuttle, .M.D.
League of Wo.men \oters of the United Medical Director, United .Air Lines, Inc.
States .Air Sickness .Articles

c:(>.\ I kil'.i loKS

A.I.Ad. A. I. Adoml, KM. A.G.S. A. G. Sanders, MA.
I'luli vsoi Minini; F.rminmini;, ;in<l \irc-
<il DireiKjr ol l,il)i"ai"y, Professor of Romance
Prcsidrnt, Montana Stluxjl of Mines, Butte. Languages, Millsaps College, Jackson, .Miss.
MiMN<j Kn(;inkkrin(; Articles .MiLLSAPS 0)II KGK
A. Ho. Asher Hobson, Dr.Pol.Sc.
A.I.Av. Albert E. Avey, Ph. I).
Professor- of .Agricultural Economics, Uni-
Cili.iii l><|)aittn<-nt of I'hilosopliy, Ohio
man, versity of Wi.sconsin, Madison.
Statr L'nivcrsity, Coliinibus.
.Agrici TLRAi. Organizations Articles
Rti.iGioN Articles
A.Hu. Alice Hughes
A.I.D. Alvon I. Duerr, I.I. I).
Di(>< < s.iii Pi< sident. Girls Friendly .Society
I'lcsidcnt. Hoard of i rustces. National Inter-
in the Diocese of Chicago.
fratrrnity Ftjiindation. G1R1.S F'riendi.y .Socif:tv
FRATERNrn'; Sokokity
A.H.McG. A. H. McGreer, D.C.E., EE.D., D.D.
A.E.Dul. Arthur DuBolt E. loniurK, Principal and \'ice Chancellor.
H< r.ii.lic Sprrialist. U..S. Dept. of
.\tilit.iiA Bishop's University, Eennoxville, Quebec.
thf .\rniv. Washington, IJ.C; Designer of Bishop's College, University of
I'rtsi<l(iit\ Fhtu' and .Seal. Fi.AC,
A.H.Me. A. Howard Meneely, Ph.D.
A.LH. A. Eustace Haydon, Pli.D. I) H.. I'll --idirit. \Sh( aton C^olleije, .Norton, Mass.
Fr(jfis.sor Knicritiis of Histoi-y of Rcliijions, Whkaion College
L'nivei-sity of ChicaRO. Religion .\rticle.s A.H.MI. Alden H. Miller, Ph.D.
A.I.L. Anne Edwards Long Dinctor of the .Museum of X'ertebrate Zo-
A(l\(iti--im; I )<sii,'iicr. ology and Profes,sor of Zoology, University
I )i .i\\ ini:^ tor 1 .1 iKRArrRK and Other .\rticles of California, Berkeley.
Extinct and Flightless Bird Articles
A.E.M.,Jr. Albert E. Meder, Jr., M..\.
A.H.P. A. H. Poetker, Ph.D.
I)<an Secretary, Rutgers University, New
Rutgers University
Executive Dean, University of Detroit: Mem-
Bninswirk, N.J.
ber, Socii'ty of Jesus.
A.E.R.B. A. E. R. Boak, Ph.D. Detroit, University of
Richard Hutlson Professor of Ancient His- A.I.G. Arthur I. Goldberg, B..A.
tory, University of Michitjan, Ann .Arbor. Director of Public Relations, Universitv- of
.\ncient Egyptian Biographies Buffalo. New ^'()I•k.

Austin Edward Smith, M.S., M.D., CM.

Buffalo, University' of
Editor of ihc Journal of the American Medi- A.J. Assen JordanofF
cal .\ssociation, Chicago. .Author: .Aircraft Construction Engineer;
Drugs and Medicine Articles President. JordanofT .Aviation Corp., New
\ovk Clitv. AiRPi ANF and Related .Articles
A.E.W. Arthur Evans Wood, Ph.D.
A.J.D. Anthony Joseph Dimond
Professor of .Sociology, University of Michi-
District Judge, United States District Court,
gan, .Ann .\rbor.
Third Division, Territory of .Alaska.
Community Security .Articles
.Alask.\ and Related .Articles
A.P. Arthur Farey, M..\. A.J.G. A. J. Grout, Ph.D.
Director of Public Relations, College of the I'ormeily, Honorary Curator of Mos.ses, New
Pacific. Stcxkton, Calif. \'ork Botanical Garden, New ^'ork Ciity.
Pacific, College of the Mos,s and Related .Articles
A.F.Harl. Alvin F. Harlow, I.itt.D. A.J.K. Arthur J. Klein, Ph.D., EE.D.
.Auiiior of Biographies, Histories, .\i-ticl<"s. Dean, Cioileije of Education, Ohio .State
Waterways .\nd Dt)CKs .\rticles University, Columbus. Ohio
A. F. Harm. A. F. Harman, I.E.D. A.J.LaB. Armand J. LaBerge, B.S., Nt..A.

Picsjdcnt |-.Mieritiis, Alabama College. Mon- Director, Br\aiit C<immunity Center and
t(\;ill(). Ala. Alabama College Instiueior. University of Minnesota. Min-
neapolis. Kite
A.F.S. Arthur F. Scott, Ph.D.
Formerly, .Acting President of Reed C!olletje,
A.J.McC. A. J. Mc Clone
Portlancf, Ore. Rleu C;(iLi.hc;E
Fishing F^ditor, Field and Slrfam, New
>'ork Catv. FiSHiNc;
A.Or. Alan Griffin, Ph.D. A.J.O.A. Arthur J. O. Anderson, Ph.D.
PiDfessor of Education,
.\ssix i.iir Ohio .State
.\ssociate Professor. Department of History
University. Columbus.
Editor of Publications, Museum of New
(ioVERNMFlNT, HlSTORY, antl EdITATION New .Mexico
A.J.R. Anne Richter
A.Gu. Albert Guerard, I.itt.D. Book Editorial Department, R. R. Bowker
Professor Emeritus of (Jeneral and Compar-
Co., New York City.
ative Eilerature, Stanford University, Calif. Cai DEcoTT Medal; Newbery Medal
A.Ke. Alexander Key
A.O.B., Jr. Ansco G. Brulnler, Jr. .\uthor. Willi Daniel Boone on the CaTolin\
li'(hiii<al .Xdvcitising .Manager, DvestnfTs h.i:!. BoONE, D.\NIEL
Division, F^.E duPont de .Nemours & Ck).,
A.Ko. Arthur Koehler, M.S.
Wiimirii;tnn. D<-|. DvKS AND DvEING
Author; CHiicf. Division of Silvicultural Re-
A.G.C. Arthur O. Coons, Ph D. lations, F'orest Products Eaboratory, U..S.
Presid«nt, Occidental Colleije, Eos .\nK<-les, Department of .Agriculture, Madison, Wis.
Calif. OcGIDKNTAL C^OLI.EGE Building .Materials .Articles
A.Lai. Alexander Lalng, HA. A.Po. Arthur Pound, 1..H.1).
Uirrctor, Public AHaii-s Laboratorv', Grrat Historian: .\uthor, Orlroil: Dynamic City.
Issues C)()ui-sf, and Assistant Librarian. Dart- Detroit
mouth Hanover, N.H.
Clollfiic, A.P.K. A. P. Kratz, .M.S.
Briik;e; Canal; Ship; and Related Articles Rtsearch Professor Emeritus, Department
A.Lau. Alex Laurie, B.S.. M.A. of Mechanical Engineering, University of
Frolcssor of Horticulture, Ohio State Uni- Illinois, Urbana.
veisity, C^olunibus. Building Accessories Articles
Horticulture Articles A.P.W. Arthur Preston Whitaker, Ph.D.
A.L.B. Alfred LeRey Burt, MA. Proles.soi' ul Latin-. Vmcrican History, Uni-

Professor of Histor\', University of Minnesota. versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Author, .-1 Shorl History of Canada for Amfri- .•\r(;kn ilna; Bolivia; BRrrisii Honduras;
cans: Ihe Old Provincf oj Quebec; The Romance HiENos .\ires; Ecuador; Peru
oj the Prairie Provinces. A.R. Agnes Rothery, B..^.
Alberta; Canada; Quebec: YuKf)N; North- Author, Washington Round-about.
\NT-ST Territories; and Related Articles Washington, D.C.
A.L.C. A. Crabb, Ph.D.
L. A.R.,Jr. Alfred Rockefeller, Jr., M..\.
Professor of Education, George Peabody Instiiuttjr in History, Northwestern Univer-
College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. sity, Evanston, 111.
Georce Peabody College for Teachers European Historical Biographies
A.L.G.,Jr. A. LeRoy Greason, Jr., B..-\. A.R.BIa. Ann Ripley Blakeslee, M.A.
Dean, Wesleyan University,
.\ssistant to the ForinciK , F.ditois .\.ssistant, Rand McNally
Middletown, Conn. & Company, Publishers, Chicago.
Wesleyan University Protestant Religious Leaders Biographies
A.L.H. A. L. HIgglnbotham, Nf..\. A.R.BIe. Allen R. Blegen, B D.
Head. Department of Journalism, University Dean. Lutheran Bible Institute, Chicago.
of Nevada, Reno.
Jesus Chrlst
Nevada, University of
A.R.C. Allan R. Culllmore, B.S.C.E., S.D.
A.L.N. Anne L. New, B..\.
President, .N'cwaik College of Engineering.
Direi tor. Public Information Division, Girl
Scouts, New ^'ork City.
Girl Scouts A.R.F. Allen R. Foley, MA.
A.M. Andre Mauroii, D.C.L., Litt.D. Professor of History, Dartmouth College,
.Xuthor;McmlK-r of the French .Academy. Hanover, N.H.
I.tRoPEAN Statesmen Biographies New Hampshire and Related .Articles

A.R.M.L. Arthur R. M. Lower, Ph.D.

A.M.Ba. Alfred M. Bailey, B .\.
Director, 1 he Clolorado Museum of Natural
Formerly, Head, Department of History,
History, Denver.
United College, University of Manitoba,
Marsh and Wading Birds .Articles
Manitoba and Related .Articles; British
A.M.Bu. Arthur M. Buswell, Ph.D. Columbia Cities .Articles
Chief, Illinois State Water Survey and Re-
search Professor of Chemistry, University of A.R.We. Abdel Ross Wentz, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D, Th.D.
Illinois, Urbana. Professor of Church History and President,
Sanitary Engineering .Articles Lutheran Fheological .Seminary, Gettys-
burg, Pa. Reform.\tion .Articles
A-M.M. Auguste-M. Moristet, M.L.S., J.C.L.
Librarian and Directorof the Library School, A.R.Wi. A. R. Wildhagen, MA.
Lnivei^sity of Ottawa, Canada. .Assistant to Director, Public Information
Ott.^wa, University of Office, University of Illinois, Urbana.
Illinois, University' of
A.N.J. A. N. Jorgenten, Ph.D., LL.D.
A.Sh. A. Shoemake
President, University of Connecticut, Storrs. Secretary- Treasurer, Brotherhood of Main-
Connecticut, University of tenance of Way Employes.
A.Pab. A. Pabtt, Ph.D. Maintenance of W'av Employes,
Professor of .Mineralogy, University of Cali- Brotherhood of
fornia, Berkeley. A.St. Anthony Standen, M.S.
Mineral and Related Articles .\iith()i\ /;/\'(7 Invaders.
A.Parr. Albert Parry, Ph.D. Ft n(;i(:idl; Insecticide; and Related Articles
.\ss(K-iate Professor of Russian Civilization A.S.R. Alfred S. Romer, Ph.D.
and Language, Colgate University, Hamil- Director. .Museum of Comparative Zoology
ton. N. Y. and .Alexander .Agassiz Professor of Zoology,
.S()\ iFT and Balkan Leaders Biographies
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
A.Part. Ailese Parten, B J., M.S. Zoology
Formerly, Registrar, Mary Hardin-Baylor A.S.W. A. Stanley Walker, M.A., LL.D., D.D.
College, Belton, Tex. President. University of King's College,
Marn HARmN-BA^I or College Halifax, Nova .Scotia.
A.Pe. A. Pertlon King's College, University of
General Secretary-Treasurer, International A.T.G. Allan T. Glfford, M.S.
Hodcarriers', Building, and Common Labor- .\ss(H-iate Professor of Hydraulic Engineer-
ers'Union of .\merica. ing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Hodcarriers', Building and Common La- Cambridge. Mass.
borers' Union of .\merica, International Hydraulic Engineering .Articles

A.V. Al«n Val«ntln«, LL.D., L.H.D., I.ilt.I). B.F.A. Bowman F. Ashe, LL.D., Litt.D.
I'irsiilrnt.L nivcrsityof RfKhcstrr, New York. PresKUni, L ni\crsityof Miami, CoralGables,
RociusiKR, L'mvkrsity of Fla.
A.V.K. AHrvd V. Kidder, Ph. I).. I.I..I).
Miami, University of
( :ii.iii'iii.n). Division of Mistorical Research, B.F.B. Benjamin F. Bills, i'h.D.. J.D.
C'..irii<-k;if Institution of Washington, D.C. Prokssional Lecturer in Salesmanship,
Arc:hak(>hx;y Articles Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.;
A.W. Al«xand«r Watmor*, Ph.D.. S.I). Head, B. Franklin Bills and .Associates, Sales
S<-iictaiv. Institution, Wash-
.Smithsonian Consultants, Chicago.
ington, D.C;.; .\uthoi-. 1 hf Hook oj Birds; I he Salesmanship
Migrattons of Birds. B.F.P. B. F.Pittenger, Ph.D.
Oceanic Birds Articles
Professor of Educational Administration,
A.W.C A. Wlllkim Crandell, M..\. University of Texas, .-Xustin.
I)<-.m 1)1 .ic uhiis,
I i^oyoia University of the Texas
South, New Orleans; NIember of the Society
B.F.S. Benjamin F. Schwartz, S.T.B., D.D.
of Jesus. Loyola U.niversity
I onncily. Chancellor, Nebraska Weslcyan
A.W.Da. AlllnW. Dokin, M.B.A.
.M..\., University, Lincoln.
AilmitiKtiaiivc Dean. .State University of Nebraska Wesleyan University
I>A%,i Iowa, State University- of
B.H.C. Barrett H. Clarfc
A.W.D*. A. W. Dent, H..\.
Writi-r; Editor; Executive Director of Drama-
President. Dillard University, New Orleans,
tists Play .Ser\ice of New York.
La. Dn.i.ARD University European Theater Biographies
A.W.J. Alvin W. Johnson, Ph.D.
loEinerly, Pn-sident. Emmanuel Missionary
B.H.J. Burgess H. Jennings, B.E., NLS.
Professor and Chairman, Department of
(Joilegc, Berrien Springs, Mich.
Emmamei. Missionary College Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Uni-
vei"sit\'. E\anston, III.
A.W.P. Arthur Wallace Peach, Litt.D.
Ofli(<-r and Editor of \'ermont Historical
Society, Head of English Department, Nor- B.J. Bernard Jaffe, B.S.. M..\.
wich Univei-sity, Northfield, \'t. Chairman, Department of Physical Sciences,
N'ermont and Related .\rticles fames Madison High .School, Brooklyn, N.Y.
A.W.T. A. Webfter Tenney, B.S.A.E., M..\. Scientists Biographies
National Executive .Secretary, Future Farm- B.J.B. Bart J. Bok
ers of .\merica, U.S. Office of Education, Professor of .\stronomy and .Associate Direc-
Wasliinijton. D.C. tor, Har\ard Observatory, Cambridge,
i I TIRE Farmers of America Mass.: Editor, Harvard Books on Astronomy.
A.W.W. Alden W. White, B.A. Astrology Horoscope and Related .Articles
: ;

Secretary of the Faculty, University of Wis- B.J.N. Betty J. Nelson, O.T.R.

consin, Madison.
Occupational Fherapy Consultant, Depart-
Wisconsin, University of
ment of Public Welfare, .State of Illinois.
B.A. Barbara Abel, B..\. Occupational Therapy
Editor, Public Relations Dcpt., Community
B.L. Bessie Locke
Chests and Councils, Inc., New York City.
Executive Secretary, National Kindergarten
Co.MMUNiT\' Chest
Association. New York City.
B.B. Baker Brownell, M..-\. Kindergarten .Association, National
Prolessor ol Philosophy, Northwestern Uni-
versity, Evanston, 111. B.L.G. Bror L. Grondal, M.S.F., S.D.
Philosophers Biographies Professor, Forest Products, University of
B.B.B. Burton B. Bayles, M.S., Ph.D. Washington, Seattle.
Pi iiu ipal .\i,'ronomist. Bureau of Plant Indus- Lumber; Match
try, .Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, B.LPa. Burney Lynch Parkinson, Ph.D.
U.S. Department of .Vgriculture. Piisidrnt. Mississippi State College for Wom-
Wheat en, Columbus, Miss.
B.C. Beniomin Cohen, Ph.B., LL.D. Mississippi State College for Women
Asst. Secretary General of the United
B.L.Pi. Bessie Louise Pierce, Ph.D.
Nations for Public Information.
Professor of .American History, L^niversity
United Nations
of Chicago.
B.C.G. B. C. Goodpasture,\.B.
LfUtor. A'inxiiU: .\uthor, Thr Inspira-
tion of the BibU and other religious books.
B.M. Burns Mantle
Church of Christ lormerly, Editor, BrsI /'/aj-j .Annuals: Drama
B.tM. Beniomin E.Mays, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D.
.American and British Theater Biographies
l'r< sideiii. Morehouse CkiUege, Atlanta, Ga.
Morehouse College B.M.C. B. M. Cherrington, Ph D.
B.E.N. Burton I. Nelson, M.S. Director, Social Sei~\'ice Foundation, Univer-
Formcilv. pKsident, The .Stout Institute, sity of Denver, Colorado.
M< iiomoiiir Wis. Stout Institute Denver, University* of
%.f. Beuloh Folmtbee •.N. Beaumont Newholl, M..A.
1 oiliic riy, Mauaijini; E<litor, I hr Horn Book \Nritir; 1 uinii rlv Cairator of Photography,
Magazttu. The Museum of Modern .Art, New ^'ork City.
Chii.orf.n's Authors Biographies Photography Articles
B.P. Bernard Postal C.Bea. Carleton Beols, .M..A.
Dm ( ti)i . 1 )< |),ii tmcnt of Public InfMrinatiun, .\utlior III Books and Articles on Latin
National Jewish VN'c-Jfart- Board. .America; Lecturer.
Bnai B'rith; Jtwisn Wki.kare Board, CHba; DtJMiNicAN Republic; Haiti
C.Ber. Conrad Bergendoff, Ph.D., I h.D.
B.R. Burton Rascoe President. Auuuslana College and 1 heologi-
Ldiim ; loiiiuily, Drama Critic. .\'w }'ork
cal .Seminaiy, Rock Island, III.
IVorld-'I fifgratn; Author, I ilans of Lilrraliirf,
Promflfiriinf. LiiERATiRK Articles
B.R.VonL. Blake Ragtdole VanLeer, S.D., D-Fng.
C.B.B. Charles Brandon Booth
I'usidciu. (i(oii;ia Institute of Technology.
Formerly, .National Secretary, Volunteers of
Georgia iNSTrruTE of Technology America.
B.S.C. Bennett S. Cooper, B.S. \'r)i unteers of America
Assistant to the Prtsiclcnt, Havcrford Col- C.B.He. Charlie Brown Hershey, Ed.D., LL.D.
Icu'c. HaMitord. Pa. Havkrford College Tormerly, .Acting President, Cxjlorado CxjI-
B.S.M. Bernard S. Moton, Ph.D. lege, C'olorado Springs, Colo.
Wilier; Lecturer; Camp Director. Colorado College
CAMi'iNf;;C ame; Hobby; and Related .Articles C.B.Hi. C. B. Hilberry, Ph.D.
B.S.S. Bryan S. Stoffer, Ph.D. Dean of .\dministration, Wayne University,
President. Washburn Municipal University, Detroit, Mich.
Topeka. Kan. Wayne University
\N \niihurn Municipal University C.B.R. Charles B. Righter, B.Mus., B.F..A.
B.T.G. Ben S. Gregory .Associate- Professor of Music, State Univer-
Director, Di\ision of State Information, sity of Iowa. Iowa City.
Nashville, Trnn. Tennessee Band and Related .Articles

B.V.B. Benion V. Beneker C.B.W. Charles Bradford Welles, Ph.D.

Research l.al)()ratories, .Xmerican Telephone Piofessoi of .\ncient History, Yale Univer-
and lelenraph C;ompany. Telephone sity, New Haven, Conn.
B.W.R. B. W. Reed, B.S.C. .Ancient Greece History and Biography
Editor, Hoys oun Times, Boys Town, Neb.
I .Articles
Boys Town C.Ce. Claybrook Cottingham, LL.D.
B.W.W. Benjamin Webb Wheeler, \\..\. Formerly. President, Louisiana Polytechnic
.\vMK Kite Professor of History, University of Institute. Ruston. La.
.Miclii^an, .\nn .\rbor. Lot ISIANA Pol YTECHNIC INSTITUTE
European Cities and Provinces .-\rticles
CCrl. Christopher Crittenden, Ph.D.
B.Y.L. Benson Y. Landit, Ph.D. Director, .North Carolina .State Department
.\ssociate Secretan.-, Department of Research of Archives and History; Editor, 1 hr \orlh
and Education, Federal Council of Churches. Carolina Historical Revirw.
Federal Council of Churches of Christ North C.\roi.ina and Related .Articles
in .America C.Cro. Carey Croneis, Ph.D., LL.D.. S.D.
Bro.A. Brother Austin, Ph.D. President, Beloit College. Beloit, Wis.
President. Si. Marys Collet;e, California.
Bei oiT College
St. .Mary's College
C.C.F. Clifford Cook Furnas, Ph.D.
C.A. Carter Alexander, Ph.D.
Director, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory,
Emeritus Library Professor, Teachers Col- Buffalo, N.Y.
lege, Cx)lumbia University, New York City.
Educational Foundations, Museums, and C.C.Gra. C. C. Gray
.Awards Articles Product .Specialist of Harvesting Machines,
C.A.F.Jr. Charles Anthony Federer, Jr., B.S. Internati(jnal Harvester Company. C'hicago.
l.ditor. .SV. )• and J liiMDfif. and Weathrrwise; Rkapinc. .Mac:hine; Threshing Mac:hine
Member, Harvard Observatory StaflT, Cam- CC.Gre. Clifford C. Gregg, B..S.
bridge, Ma.ss. Director. Chicago Natural History Museum.
.Astronomy Articles CiuicAoo NAn.;RAi History Museuu
C.A.K. Carl A. Kallgren, Pd.D.
D<-an of the College, Colgate University, C.C.N. C. C. Norton, Ph.D.
Hamilton, N.Y. Dean. WoflTord College, .Spartanburg, S.C.
Colgate University WcjFEoRD College
C.A.Mi. Clyde A. Milner, Ph.D. CCS. Charles C
Sherrod, Ph.D.
I'rrsideiit, (iuilford College, North Carolina. Foimerly, President. I'.ast Tennes.scc State
Guilford College College, Johnson Clity, Tenn.
C.A.Mo. C. A. Morey, M.S. East Tenne.ssee State College
Dean, P'indlay College, Findlay, Ohio. CD. Carter Davidson, Ph.D.. LL.D.
Fi.ndi.ay College Formerlv. President, Knox College, Gales-
C.A.P. Cecil A. Poole burg, 111.
.Sujireme Secretary, The Rosicrucian Order. Knox College
Rosicrucian Order C.D.D. Carl D. Duncan, Ph.D.
C.A.R. C. A. Reed, M.H. Professor ol I'.ntomoloijy and Botany, and
Associate Pomologist, Bureau of Plant Indus- Head. Department of Natural Science. .San
trv, .Soils, and .Agricultural Engineering, Jose State College, San Jose, Calif.
BeltsviUe, Md. Conservation and Related .Articles;
Nut-Bearing Trees .Articles Insects .Articles
C.D.P. Char I* » Dan Frecter, Kd.l). C.Ho. Chorless Hahn, B..\.
I'liMilt lit. ( )kl.ili-«iiia C'x)llrgc for Womrn, IiIiioimI Writer, Fhc Cantcrbun. Press,
(Jhk kasha, Okla. Chicago; .\uthority on .Stamp C>>11«< ting.
Oki aiioma On I Kr.E for Whmkn Post Oftice Dkpartment and Related .\rti-
cles; Stamp Collecting
CD.T. Clarcnc* D. Thorp*, Ph.D.
I'mlf vs(ir ol I. Mulish, Lnivc-i-sity «)f Michigan, C.Ho. Clifford Holley, .M.S.
Ann .ViImip. Instructor in Physics, University of Chieagt).
Knci isii I,\Nf.rAr.F. and Related Aiticlcs Dn NAMo; Ei.EciRic Battery; Electric
C.I.OId. Cyril Edward Didlurgit Motor
(Jt.iiiiiufi I lal Arlist. C.H.C. Carl H. Casberg, B.S. in .\LE.
V'arioits Diagrams and Drawings Professor of .Mechanical Engineering, Uni-
PrIUy, M..D.. S.D. versity of Illintiis, Urbana.
C.I.F. Charl«> I.
I'll sici< Ml. Iowa .State CIolleKe, Ames, Iowa. Machines and Tools Articles
Iowa State Coi.iege
C.H.Go. Charles H. Goren
C.E.K. C. E. Kilbourne, C.E. Author, liiilfT Hruine for Belter Players; Con-
Major Cn-ncral, L'.S.,\.; .Siip<-rintcnclrnt tract Bridge Made Easy.
Eineritus, Virginia Mihlary Institute, Lex- BRitXiE (Game)
ington, V'a.
X'iRCIMA Mil ITARV InsTITLTE C.H.L.P. Clarice H. L. Pennock, M..\.
Formerly, Executive
CE.U C. E. Lemmon, D.D. Leagues of America, .Syracuse, N.Y.
I'.istoi. I iist C:hristian Church, CoKimbia,
Mo DiscipiES OF Christ
Junior Leaguf^ of .-\merica

C.E.La. Charles E. Lanning C.H.M. Cecile Hulse Matschot

General .Srcretan - Treasurer, United Rubber, Author. .Irrirrican Buttfrjiies and Moths.
Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of Butterfly; .Moth
America, .\kron, Ohio.
C.H.O. Charles Henry Oldfother, Ph.D., LL.D.
Rubber, Cork, Li.noi.kim and Pi .astic
Work IRS OF .Amfrica. Lnited Professor of .\nri<-nt History, Dean of College
of .Xrts and Sciences, University of Nebraska,
C.E.Wi. Charles Edward Widmayer, B. A. Lincoln.
Director of the News .Service, Dartmouth Poets of Ancient Greece and Rome
College, Hanover, N.H. Biographies
Dartmouth College C.H.Ph. Charles H. Phllpott, Ph.D.
CP. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D.. LL.D. Principal. Harris Teachers College, St.
Honorar\' Curator of .Astronomy, The Hay- Louis, Mo.
den Planetarium. .Xmerican Museum of Nat- H.\RRis Te.achers College
ural History, New V'ork Citv.
C.H.Po. Clifford H. Pope, R.S.
.Xstronomy Articles
C'uratorof .Vmphibiansand Reptiles, Chicago
CPlk Curtis Fuller, B.A., M.S. Natural History Museum.
I oi iiici 1\-. Managing Editor, /•Yy/nj^ Magazine. Reptile Articles
.\irplane: Jet Propulsion
C.F.H. Clara F. Hoover C.H.T. Charles H. Thompson, Ph.D.
Formerly, Secretary, Illinois Department, Dean, Graduate .School, and Editor, The
Grand .Vrmy of the Republic. Journal oj .\egro Education, Howard L'niver-
(ikAM) Arm-* of the Republic sity, Washington, D.C.
Negro Biographies
C.F.K.,Jr. C. Frank Kramer, Jr.
.Secretary, United .Service Organizations, C.H.Wa. C. Hoyt Watson, NL.\.. LL.D.
Inc., New York QVity. Prcsicient. .Seattle Pacific College, Seattle,
I'mted .Service Organizations Wash.
Seattle Pacific College
C.F.Lo. C. Frances Loomis, B..'\.
Formcilv, Dinrtor. Program Department, C.H.We. Charles H. Wesley, Ph.D.
Camp lire (iirls. Inc., New York City. Forineiiy, President, Wilberforce L'niversitv
Camp Fire Girls VVilberforce, Ohio.
Wilberforce University
tF.P. Charles F. Phillips,Ph.D.. LL.D.
I'n sidi nt. B.itcs College. Lewiston, Mc. C.I.J. Clara Ingram Judson
Bates College .Author of .\Iarv Jane seric-s and many other
C»0* Cromwell Gibbons juveniles: Lecturer on Economics. F'amily
.Author. Miiitiiry Drcorations and Campaign Relationships, and Education.
SfTpice Hors oj the Unilrd Stales.
Biography .\rticles
Decorations and Medals
C.J.Con. Charles J. Conniek, .\.F.D.
C.O.K. Clark G. Kuebler, Ph.D., LL.D. 1 Drmci 1\ , M.istiT Craftsman in Stained Glass.
Piesidcnt, Kii>on C:ollege, Rip>on, Wis. Stained Glass
Ripon College
C.J. Cor. Carlton J. Corliss
C.O.S. Clara Gcbhord Snyder, M.S. .Manager, Public Section, .\ssociation ol
DiiKioi, \M,<.ii lour Institute, C^hicago.i .\merican Railroads, Washington, D.C.
Flour Railroad .\rticles
C.J.D. Charles J. Deone, Ph.D. C.Mo. Clarence Manion, J.D., J.U.D.
.SciKiaiy (uncial, Fordham University, Diau. Collcm ol Law, University of Notre
New York City; Mt-mbiT of the Society of Danic, Indiana. CiviL Liberties Articles
C.M.C. C. M. Chaney
C.J.H. Clarence Hylander, Pli.D.
I-.xecutive \'ice- President, .American Cran-
.\s.s(K uitc I'rolrssoi u( Botany, Colgate Uni-
h<rr\ .\ss<x iation, New ^'ork C^ity. C^ranberry
versity, Haiiiiii(jn, N.V.
BoTANV .Articles and Related Biographies CM*. Cornelia Meigs, B.A.
C.J.M. C. J. Mitcho Professor of English, Br\n Mawr College,
Iiitcriiatii)nal Secretary-Treasurer, .Amalga- BiA n .Mawr, Pa.; author of btxjks for
mated .\s.s(xiation of Street, Electric Railway children. .Amkrk:an Authors Biographies
and Motor Coach F.mployees of America. C.M.G. Clemens M. Gronskou, D.D.
Street, F,i.kc;trig Raii.wav and President, St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minn.
Motor C^oach Employees of .\merica, St. Olaf Ccjelege
.\malgamated .VssociArio.N OF
C.M.Ho. Charles M. Harder, B.S.
C.J.MacG. Charles J. MacGowan
Ihati, ])( partriiciit of Industrial Design,
I iitciii.it ional ntc-rnat ional
I'icsidcnt. I

Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship-

New \'ork .State College of Ck:ramics, Alfred,
buildei-s, and Helpers of .\merica.
Internatkjnai. Brotherhood of Boher-
Ckramics .Articles and Related Biographies
MAKERS, Iron Shipbuilders, and Heifers C.M.Hu. Clyde M. Huber, Ph.D.
OF .America .Assistant to the President, James Ormond
C.J.S. Charles J. Smith, D.D., LL.D. Wilson Teachers College, Washington, D.C.
Prtsitit lit. Roanoke College, Salem, Va. W11.SON Teachers College
Roanoke College
C.M.H.,Jr. Charles M. Hudson, Jr., Ph.D.
C.J.W. Charles J. Walsh, S.T.D. .Assistant Professor of English, University of
Formerly, President, University of Santa Missouri, Columbia.
C:lara, Clalif. ; .Member of the Society of Jesus. Missouri, University* of
Santa Clara, University of
C.M.PI. C. M. Ploisted, B.S.
C.L Carl Link
Teacher of Life and Director of Public Relations, Keuka College,
Artist and Designer;
Cxjstume Design, New York Evening School Keuka Park, N.Y. Keuka College
of Industiial Art. Costume Color Plates C.M.Pr. Carrie Mae Probst, B.A.
C.L.A. Charles LeRoy Anspach, Ph.D., LL.D. Reuistrar, CMjucher College, Baltimore.
President, Central Michigan College of Edu- GoucHER College
cation, .Mt. Pleasant. Mich. C.M.Wi. C. Maurice Wieting, Ed.D.
MirmoAN College of Education, Central Author, How to 1 each Consumers'' Cooperation.
C.L.D. C. L. Drum Consumption; Co-operative; Food
Western Sales Manager, Owens-Illinois Glass Adulteration
Ckjmpany, Chicago Bottle C.M.Wr. Carroll M. Wright
C.L.Da. Cyrus Lawrence Day, Ph.D. Formerly, Executive Secretary and Treas-
(Iritit Author, The Art of Knotting and
: urer of the International .Society of Christian
Splicing; Sailor's Knots. Endeavor and of the World's Christian
Knots, Hitches, and Splices Endeavor Union. Christian Endeavor
C.L.F. Carroll Lane Fenton, Ph.D. Calvert N. Ellis, Ph.D.
Writer on Earth Sciences and Biology; President, Juniata College, Huntington, Pa.
Formerly, Consultant. Research Council of Juniata College
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
Evolution; Geology; Heredity; and C.O'B. Catherine O'Brien, B.A.
Related Biographies .Artist.
\'arious Diagrams and Drawings
C.L.Hop. Charles L. Hopldns, Ph.B.
Formerly, Teacher in Puerto Rico .Schools. C.P.H. Caryl P. Haskins, Ph.D.
Puerto Rioo .Author, 0/ .ints and .Men and The Amazon;
C.UHow. Carl L. Howland, Litt.D. Professor, Union College, Schenectady, N.Y.
Editor. 7 he- l'r,e Methodist. Ant
Free Methodist C.P.Rol. Carl Purington Rollins, M..A.
C.UHu. Carl L. Hubbs, Ph.D. Printer t(j \ <i\f L'niversity, New Haven,
Professor of Biology, .Scripps Institution of- Conn.
Oceanography, La jolla, Calif. Book; Bookbinding; Printing
Fish and Related .Articles
C.P.Row. Clifford P. Rowe, M.Ed.
C.L.K. Clem L. King, B.Com., C..A.
Assistant Professor of Journalism, Pacific
Formerly, Executive .Assistant to the Pres-
University, Forest Grove. Oi^.
ident, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Pacific University
-Alberta, University of
C.LL. Charles Lee Lewis, MA. CP.S. Charles Pelot Summerall, LL.D.. D.M.S.
.Author; Professor of English and History, (uncial, Rctirccl. L S. .Army; President,
United States Naval .Academy, .Annapolis, The Citadel, Charleston, S.C.
Md. Naval Leaders Biographies Citadel, The
C.L.M. C. L Mantell, Ch.E.. Ph.D. C.R.D. Clarence R. Decker, Ph.D.
.Author; Consulting Engineer, Manhasset, President, L'niversity of Kansas City, Kansas
N.Y. City, .Mo.
Gums and Resins .Articles Kansas City, Universtt^' of
C.a.We. Cflrl laymond Woodward, PhD., I.itt.D.S.D. D.B.G. Donald B. Gordon, .M..-\.

I'rcsulrnt, Rh>)<l'- hi. ind State Ck)llcj5r, Kings- I<( Mo.

•Mvd.ii, \Sivtininster College, Fulton,
ton. K.I. Westminster College
Rhode Island State Coliegf. D.B.P. Donald B. Prentice, S.D., LL.D.
CSto. Corl Stophonton, Ph.D. President, Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre
PiiiliviMiiu( Hi.stoi">', Clorncll L'nivcrsity. Haute, Ind.
Ithaca. N.V. R(}<h Polytechnic Institute
MKi>iFVAt. Europe Biograi'mv ami Hlstory D.B.T. Donald B. Tresldder, M.D.
.\iti(l«-s lormerK', President, .Stanford University,
C.Str. Clarvnco Strotton, Ph.D. Palo .Mto, Calif. .Stanford University
Foriiu-ilv. DiiTctor of Enf^lish in High D.C. Dale Cox, B..\.
Schoob, Cleveland, Ohio. Pul)lic Relations Director, International
Languagk .\rtirles Harvester Company, Chicago.
C.S.A.W. C Williams, R..\.
S. A. Binder Twine
Pnsidciit, H.itcs Manufacturing Ckimpany, D.C.H. D. C. Harvey, LL.D., F.R.S.C.
Oi.mu'. \ I
NrviBF-RiNc Machine \iehi\ist. Nova .Scotia; Lecturer in Canadian
C.S.H. Carolyn Svrlugo Howlett, R..\. History, Dalhousie L'nivcrsity, Halifa.x, N..S.
Head, IXpaitni<nt of .\rt Education, .School Labrador; Maritime Provinces; New-
of the Art Institute of CUiicaijo. foundland; and Related Articles
R^-^Kl^R^; Hani)Ic:raft D.D.E. D. D. [viring, E.E., Dr.Eng., ME.
C.S.P. Charles Snowden Piggot, Phi). Head. .School of Electrical Engineering, Pur-
Physicist. Research anil Development Board, due L'nivci-sity, Lafayette, Ind.
National .Militaiy Establishment: Formerly Electrical Measurement Articles
of Geophysical Laboratory, Carni-t(i<" Insti- D.D.W. Dale D. Welch, D.D.
tution of Washington, D.C. l*i(-<i(l<iu. University of Dubuque, Dubuque,
Ocean Currents low. I. Dubuque, University' op
C.S.S. Charles S. Sydnor, Ph.D.
D.E.C. Don E. Clark, Ph.D.
Co-author, SliMisstppi History; Formeily. Pro-
Head of Department of History, University
fessor of History, University of Mississippi.
of Oregon, Eugene.
Oregon and Related Articles
C.T.W. Charles White, B.A.
Coinptrijllei", L nion Theological .Seminary,
D.E.L. Dwight Lee, Ph.D.
.\uilior; Professor of Modem European His-
New \'ork City.
tory, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Union Theoiogicai. Seminary
European .St.atesme.n Biographies; Inter-
C.VanH. Conrad Van Hyning, .\.B.
national Relations .Articles
(ieneral Diicctor, Travelers Aid, New York D.E.P.,Jr. David Peugeot, Jr., B.S.
Cit\. Travelers .\iD
Promotion Editor, Buffalo Evening
C.VanR. Charles Van Ravenswoay, Nf..\. .\fws. Buffalo
Director, .Missouri Historical Society, .St. D.E.S. Dorothy Elizabeth Smith, M.S.
Ix)uis; .Author: Editor. Missouri Ciiildren's Librarian. .Mesa Library, Los
C.W.D. Charlotte W. Black, .\.B. .Mamos, N.M.: Formerly, .Superintendent of
Writer, .Xtoinic Energy Commission. Infor- .School Libraries, The Queens Borough Public
mation Division, Los Alamos, N.M. Library, Flushing, N.Y.
Los .\i.amos Literature for C:hii dren: Mother Goose;
CWii. Carolyn Williams, B..\. Nursery Rhyme; Stor^-telling
Formerly, Director of Placement and Pub- D.F.L. Dorothy F. Leet
licity, Georgia State Woman's College, \'al-
Formeily, Executive Secretary, Foreign Pol-
dosta, Ga.
icy Association, Inc., New York City.
Georgia .State Woman's College Foreign Policy .-Vssociation
C.W.M. Carl W. Mitman, R.A., E.Nt. D.G.C. Deane G. Carter, M.S.
FormeiJv. Head Cuiator, Department of i'rofessor of Farm .Structures, University of
Engineering and Industries, Smithsonian Illinois. Uriiana. B.\RN
Institution, Washington, D.C.
D.Ho. Douglas Norton, D.D.. Litt.D.
-Minister of the General Council of the Con-
C.W.T. C.Warren Thornthwaite, Ph.D. gregational Christian Churches of the L'.S.A.,
Cliinatoiogist and Professor of
New York City.
Climatology, Johns Hopkins L'nivcrsity, Brewster, William; Congreg.ational
Baltimore. Air; Climate Christian Churches
C.W.W. Cionton Ware Williams, Ph.D. D.Hu. Don Hurd
Professor of Histoiy, l'nivcrsity of .Mabama, Secretary-Treasurer, International Typo-
Inivei-sity, .Ma. .Alabama graphical Union.
C.W.We. C. W. Werkau Typographical Union, International
Secretary-Treasurer, National Federation of D.H.M. Dale H. Moore, Th.D.. LL.D., S.D. in Ed.
Telephone Workers. I'lcsidcnt, ('edar C'rest College, .-Mlentown,
Tn FPiioNK Workers, Nat'l Federation of i'.i. Cedar Crest College
D.A.L. David A. I^ckmliier, Ph.D., LL.D. D.J.McD. David J. McDonald
President, University of Chattanooga. Chat- Secretary-Treasurer, L^nited Stcelworkers of
tanooga, Tenn. .\merica.
Chattanooga, L^niversity of Sikklworkers of America, United
0.:: D. . Bryan, Ph.D. D.K. Dmitri Kessel
1 )ran. \Vak<- Forest College. Wak<- Forest, N.C. Photographer, Life Magazine.
Wake Forfist College Mineral Color Plates

D.L.H. D. U Harl«y, M.A.. I.itt.B. D.T.U. Donaid T. Urquhart
I)iit( tor of Puhlications, W. K. KcIIokr , Lxei uti\c- Direi tot, George Junif)r R»public,
Foil IK la (ion. Battle Clrcck. Mich. Ireeville. \N. Gl (>R<;E Jl'NIoR RkiTHLIC
Kellogg, W. K., FotrNDATioN D.V.M.,Jr. Douglas V. Martin, Jr., B..A.

D.L.M. Daniel L. Marsh, Ph.D., LL.D., 1).C:.I.. Direcioi of Public Relations, Washington
Prfsulnit, Boston Univt-i'sity, Boston. .Mass. University, St. Louis, Mo.
Boston Lnivkrsmy Washington University
D.M. Dave Mink D.V.McC. Douglas V. McClane, B.A.
.Artist anil Illustrator. Din (tor of .Admissions and Registrar, Whit-
Canadian Memorable Events; Firk De- man College.
partment Color Plates Whitman College
D.McM. Donaid McMillan D.Wa. Douglas Waples, Ph.D.
loriiu ily. .N.nional Secretary, Salvation Professor and Chairman, Committee on
.•\rniy. Communication, L'niversity of Chicago.
Salvation .\rmy Reading
D.M.D. Donald Morquand Dozer, Ph.D. D.Wo. Dorothy Woodward, Ph.D.
( :iii< 1. )i\ ision of Research for .-\meri-
1 \s-;(u i.itc- Professor of History, LIniversity of
can Repnhlics, Department of .State, .N< \v .\I< \i( (). .Ni \s .Ml xico Cities Articles
Washington. D.C.; Formerly, Instructor in
D.W.B. David Washburn Bailey, B.A.
Flistorv. l'ni\ei-sity of .\fai-\'land.
.Secretary to the Corporation, Har\artl
AM) and Related
^!Ak^ I .\rticles
University, Cambridge. .Mass.
D.M.G. Delmer Morrison Goode, M.A. Harvard Universit\
Editor of Publications, Oregon State College, D.W.MocB. Dillo Whittemore MocBeon, B.S.L.S.. M.E.
Di ret tor, Di\ ision of Libraries, Chicago
OkinoN .State College Public Schools.
D.M.W. D. M. Wiggins, Ph.D.. LL.D. Library (Fhe .School Library)
President, 1exas Ckjllege of .Mines, El Paso. D.W.P. David W. Peters, Ph.D.
Texas Tkc;hnol<k;i(:al Cloi.i ege Piesideiit. Radford C'ollege, Radford, V'a.
D.O.F. David Otis Fuller, I) D. Radford College
Chairman. .\.ssociation of Regulai" Baptists, D.W.T. Donald W. Taylor, .M.S.
Grand Rapids, Mich. Baptist .As.sociate Professor, .Massachusetts Institut<-
of Fechnology. Cambridge.
D.Pa. Doris Potee, B..\.
•SiKi (11 RAi. FLngineering Articles
C'hiklrens Book Editor, The Macmillan
Companv, Publishers. New York City. E.A.B. Edward A. Boehmer, B..A.

Children's Authors .\rticles .Artist. Designer.

Color Photography (i); Flag Color Plates
D.Pe. Dexter Perkins, Ph.D.
Head, Department of Histoiy, L'niversity E.A.C. Edward A. Chopin, NLS Ph.D. ,

of R<)< hester, N. V. Curator of liKci Is. .National .Museum, Wash-

L'. S. Statesmen Biographies ini;t()ii. I) ( .SpujKRS and LiciKS .Articles

D.P.G. Dudley Gilbert

P. E.A.D. Edward A. Duddy, MA.
Business .Manager, National Health Council, Professor of Marketing, L'niversity of Chicago.
New \'ork C'itv. Investment and Speculation Articles
National Health Council E.A.Fa. E. A. Foth, B.S., Ph.D.

D.P.,Jr. Daniel Peterkin, Jr., B..S. Professor of .Astronomy, Carleton College.

President, -Morton Salt Company, Chicago. .Northfield. Minn. Star
S.\lt E.A.Fe. E. A. Fessenden, .M.E.
D.Q.C. David Q. Cohen, B.S.S.. LL.B. Profes-sor Eineritus of Mechanical Engineer-
Manager, Fidelity and .Surety Dept.. .Associa- ing, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
tion of Casualty and Surety Companies. Troy, N.Y.
Lnsurance .Applied Science and Applied Physics
O.R.D. David R. Dunlgon, Ph.D. .Articles
Chairman, Department of Education. Boston E.A.G. Elizabeth A. Groves, B.A.. B.S.L.S.
College; .Member of the .Society of Jesus. .Assistant Profes.sor. .School of Librarianship.
Boston College L'nivei-sity of Washington; Holder of Certifi-

D.R.K. David R. Kinish, M.A.L.S. cate in Librarv- Work with Children.

.Associate Librarian. St. Benedict's College,
Library (Library .Service to Children)
.Atchison. Kan. Sr. Bknedict's College E.A.K. Edward August Krug, Ed.D.
Doak Sheridan Campbell, Ph.D. Formerly, .\ssociate Professor, School of
President. Florida State University, Talla-
Education, Stanford University. California
hassee, Fla. E.A.R. Earl A. Roadman, D.D.. LL.D.
Florida State- L'niversity President, Morningside College, .Sioux City,
D.T.6. D. T. Gregory, D.D. Iowa. Morningside College
Formerly, Executive .Secretary, L^nited i.A.RI. Edward A. Richards, Ph.D.
Brethren in Christ, Dayton, Ohio. National Diitctoi-. .American Junior Red
I'nitkd Brethren in C^hrisi Cross. Junior Red Cross, .American
D.T.H. Dallas T. Herndon, Ph.D. E.A.S. E. A. Speiser, Ph.D.
.Author, Highlights of Arkansas History; Annals Professor of .Stmitics and Chairman of the
of Arkansas; Secretary, Arkansas History Department of Oriental .Studies. University
Commission. of Pennsylvania, Philad<lphia.
.Arkansas and Related .Articles Babylonia and Related Biographies
lA Iffo trewn E.EI. Edgar BIlit
Arti^i .iiul OmsiiltinK I")prorator; 0)liimntst, l.ilii .11 The .Sunpapers, Baltimore.
J^f>lfn^ /or l.i:in^; CUinlribiitinK Editor, BaI riMORE
H'kal'f Ant in Home Krunoinirs. E.E.B. E. E. Bennett, Ph.D.

Fi KMii Kj; Intkrior Dkcjiration; Pidfcssor of History, Montana State Univer-

antl Rclatfil Articlt-s sity, .Missoula.

•.R. Edmund B. Rogers, K.A. Montana and Related Articles

Supt-riiiU-iitlciit, \'fll()Wstonr National Park. E.E.C. E. E.Cossentine, M..A.
Yei i.t)\vsrtiNE Nation Ai Park I f)rm< rK Pnsicient. L'nion College. Lincoln,

I.i.R*. Idwy B. Raid N' li. Union College

l)ii(iti)r <>l Information and Ext<-nsion. E.E.D. Edward Everett Dale, Ph.D.
Kami Crrdit AdminLstration, L'.S. I)<-pt. of Cx>-author, .1 History of Oklahoma: Research
AKricultiiri-, Washington, D.C. Prf)fessor of History, L'niversity of Okla-
Farm Crkdit homa. Oki aiioma and Related .Articles
I.C«. Ellzab«th Carr, B.S.
E. E. Ed. Everett E. Edwards, .M.A.
I.<lii( 11 .iiiil k(s<-aich<-r.
.Agricultural Historian, U.S. Department o(
Bif>r,RAPin Articles
-Agriculture, Washington, D.C. ..
Elisabeth Chriitman
Sccrrtary- Ircasiircr, National Women's Agriculture
E.E.Ei. Edna E. Eisen, Ph.B., M.S.
Trade L'nion Lrai»ur.
Wdxiisv Tk M)F. L'nion League, National .\ss(K iate Professor of Geography, Kent
-State L'niversity. Kent. Ohio.
Elbridge Colby, Ph.D. Map and .Map Reading: P.acific Islanim;
Clolonrl. Ciinrral Staff Corps, U.S. .^rmy. and Related Articles
Military .\rticlcs
E.E.Ro. Edgar Eugene Robinson, M..A., LL.D.
E.Cen. Elizabeth A. Conley
Margaret Byrne Professor of .American His-
l(.i<li(i of Pitman Shorthand, Bryant & tory. Stanford L'niversity, California.
Sti.itton C;<>llrt;i-, Chicago. 111.
U. S. Statesmen Biographies
E.E.S. Erie Snelgrove
I.C.&ai. Elizabeth Chetley Baity, B.S., M.A.
Secretary for Public Relations and Director
of the N<ws Bureau, The Colleges of the
It K Indi sTRv: Garment Industry: and
Seneca, Geneva, N.Y.
Related .Articles
K.C.»ar. Eugene Barker, Ph.D.
.Seneca, Colleges of the
Professor of American History, University E. E.V. Edwin Edgar Voigt, Ph.D., D.D.
of Texas. .Austin. President. Sim[)son C^ollege. Indianola, la.
American Histor% .Articles Simpson College
E.F.D. Ernst F. Detterer, B..A.
LCD. E. Charles Duval
Formerly, Custodian of the John M. Wing
Public Relations, Ihco. R. Sills & Co.,
Foundation on the History of Printing.
Chicago. Bowling and Lawn Bowling
Chicago. .Alphabet and Related .Articles
E.C.E. Elmer C. Eatton, B.S. in E.E.. M.S.. S.D.
Dran. (:()llci;<- of Enijineerinij. Rutgers Uni- E.F.G. Eric F. Goldman, Ph.D.
Brunswick. N.J.
versity. .\e\v Associate Professor of History. Princeton
Ei lctricitv and Related Subjects L ni\eniitv. Truman, Harry S.

LCJ. Edmund C. Jaeger, B.A. E.F.R. Edgar F. Reibetanz

Head. Department of Zoology, Riverside Director of Public Relations. Wheaton Col-
(:<ill<i"-. kivciside, Calif. lege. Wheaton. III. Wheaton College
Desert Plants .Articles E.F.S. Earl F. Stahl
E.C.McL. E. C. McLeod, D.D., LL.D. Designer and Builder of Wind Timnel Models
Formerly. President, Wiley College. Mar- for U.S. Government Research Facilities.
shall, Tex. Wiley College .Aircraft .Model
E.C.S. E. C. Slipher, S.D. E>6> Edgar GodboM, M.A.. LL.D.
.\sti(inc)mer, Lowell Observators'. Flagstaff. President. Louisiana Cxjllege, Pincville. La.
All/. .A.STRr).NoMY .Articles Louisiana College
LD. Everett Derryberry, M.A. (Oxon.) E.G.D. Edgar G. Doudna, L.H.D.
President. Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, Formerly. .Secretarv. Board of Regents of
Cookeville. Tenn. Normal Schools of Wisconsin. Madison.
1 1 NVFssFE Polytechnic Institute Wisconslv CrriES .Articles
E.D.M. Elmer 0. Mitchell, .M.Ed.. Ph.D. E.G.G. Edgar G. Gammon, D.D.. LL.D.
i'rotessor of Physical Education, L'niversity Presitleiit. Hampden-Sydncy College, Hamfv
of .Michii;an. .Ann .Arbor. den-Sydney, \'a.
Ann ktic and Recreation .Articles Hampden-Sydney College
i.O.T. Elbert D. Thomas, Ph.D.. LL.D., Litt.D. ^•®"- Evelyn G. Haiiiday, M.S.. Ph.D.
.Assoi late Profes.sor Emeritus of Food Chemis-
Uiutrd .States .Senator from Utah; Professor
of Political .Science, University of Utah. Salt trv. L'ni\ersitv of Chicago, Illinois. Food
L;<1" f-itv E.G.K. Edmund G. Kaufman, Ph.D.
.Mormon; Young, Briciiam President. Bethel College. North Newton,
i-O.W. Eldred 0. Wilson, M.S.. Ph.D. Kan. Bethel College
Cieologist. .Arizona Bureau of Mines. Tucson. E.G.O. Ernest G. Osborne, Ph.D.
GEoLO(;^ .Articles Professor of Education. Teachers College,
1.1a. Eleanor Early Coluinbia L'nivei"sity. New York Citv: Chair-
k'jxMtri. Author, And This Is Boston and man, Childcrajt Editorial .Advisory Board.
Other B<K>ks. Boston Adolescence
E.G.St. Ernst Gabor Straus, MA. E.L.M. Enid LoMonte Meadowcroft
I ', (11. .
Mkasurkmknt .\itirl<s .\iiilicit, li't:]tti,ii: /f.;'/^//f/ and OtluT Books.
E.G.Su. Elmer G. Sulzer, H..\. Franklin, Benjamin
Director of Kadio Studios and Head. I)<- E.L.P. E. Laurence Palmer. Ph.D.
partm<-nt cjf Kadio .\i"ts, Lnivt-Pfity of Ken- I'lolrssdt ol Kuial Education, Cx)mell Uni-
tucky, Lcxinf^ton. versity, Ithaca. .N.^'.; Formerly, C'hairman,
Kentucky, Univkrsitv of Wildlife Committee, .National Research
E.G.T. E. G. Trotzig, N(..\. Council.
Head. I)rp<iitim-nt of Journalism, University Bird Stidn : Plant; and .Xmpiiihian .Articles
of South Dakota. N'ermillion. E.L.S.W. Edith Lillian Smith Webster, B..A.
.South Dakota, University ov \iillioi. (iiricial S( iiiK I- I exts.
E.H.G. Eva H. Grant (i(iMMi'Nic:ATioN Articles
Editor. .\'tlional Parfnt-Tearhrr. E.L.Thr. Edward L. Throm, B..\.
I^ARKNTS AND TeACHERS, .NATIONAL 1 oinu'ily. Editorial .Staff, .A.s,soriated Press,
Congress of Indiunapolti Star, Chicngo Duih / imrs.
E.H.K. Edward H. Knust, Nf.S. JoiRNAi ISM and Related .Articles
Chairman, Public Relations Bureau. Univ<-r- E.L.Thu. Ernest L.Thurston, C.E., M..A.
sity of Dayton, Ohio. DA^ roN, L'mv. (jf JoMit .Xiitlior 1 he Iroquois Series of CJeog-

E.H.L. Elizabeth Hubbard Lansing raphies and Workl)ooks.

Author. S,,t'-ii \.,r Yoik and Other Books. X'arious Geography .Articles
Nk.w 'S'ork i'.xw E.Mcl. Edgar Mclnnis, .M..A.
E.H.Se. Elizabeth Hough Sechrist \sNiKi,itc Professor of History, University of
1 oronto. Ontario.
Author, Rfd Ij-tttT l)ii\s and Other Books.
•Speciai. Day .\rticles EuRoPEA.N Biographies and Near Easi
E.H.St. Edward H. Stromberg, MA. History .Articles
Publieitv Dii-ector. Northwestern Univer- E.McN. Everett McNeor
sity, Evanston. III.
Arti.t .Animal Map>s; Diagrams
Northwestern Universitn E.M.C. E. M. Coulter, Ph.D.
Priifcssor ot History. Lniversity of Georgia.
E.H.Wa. Eric H. Wahlttrom, D.D.
.•\ctint; Dean. Auyustana Theological .Seini-
(i>ik(.iA and Related .Articles

narv. Rock Island. 111. BiBi K

E.M.G. Edward M. Gwathmey, Ph.D.. LED.
Presitleiit, Cxjnverse College, .Spartanburg,
E.J. Go. Edgar J. Goodspeed, Ph.D.. D.D., Litt.D.
S.C;. Converse College
.\uthor and Lecturer; Professor Emeritus of
E.M.L.S. Eva May Luse Smith, Ph.D.
Biblical and Patristic Greek, University of
Co-author. /'rohl,rii and Practicf Arithmetic;
Chicago. Bible and Related .\rticles
Fonnerly, Head, Department of Teaching,
E.J.Gr. Elizabeth Janet Gray (Mrs. Morgan Vlning) Iowa .State Teachers C!ollege. C^edar Falls.
.\uthor, l'<nn and Cither Books; 1 utor to FraCIION; MlLTIPLICATION
Akihito, Crown Prince of Japan. 1946.
E.M.N. Eric McCoy North, D.D.. Ph.D.
Pens. William Sctittarv. .\iiierican Bible Society, New
E.J.H. Edward J. Hillock \'ork City. .Americ.a.n Bible Society
Genera! Secretai-y-Treasurer. United .-X.sso-
E.M.O. Ellen M. Olson, Ph.B., M..A.
ciation of Journeymen and .Apprentices of
the Plumbing and Pip<- Fitting Industry of C:hairman, Kindergarten-Primary Depart-
the United .States and C^anada.
ment. C^liicau'o Teachers College.
Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Indi:str^' of Chicago Teachers College
THE United States and Canada, United E.M.O'B. E.M. O'Byrne
Association of Journeymen and .-Vppren- President. .Manhattanville College of the
ncEs OF the .Sacred Heart. New York City.

E.J.L. Edward James Lafferty

Manh.attanaille College of the
Sacred Heart
Farm Color Plates
E.M.S. E. M. Schoffstall
E.J.R. Emmet J. Riley, Rt. Rev. Msgr. J.C.B.. Ph.D. Formerl\. Publicity Director, Textile
President. (:arr()l! C^ollege. Helena, Mont. Workers I'nion of .America.
Carroll Colleok ThXTiiE Workers Union of .America
E.J.W. Edward Whelan, LED., S. E.D.
J. E.N. EIRoy Nelson
President, Loyola University of I^os .\ngeles. Director. Bureau of Economic and Busin<'ss
Loyola University of Los .-\ngeles Rese.irch. L'niversity of Utah, .Salt Lake Citv.
E.K.C. E. K. Cratsley, B..\.. DCS. Utah
C>)mptn)ller. St. Lawrence L'niversity, Can- E.N.S. Edward N. Saveth, B.S.S., Ph.D.
ton. NA St. Lawrence L'niversit^' R<-searcher on .Social Problems; X'isiting
E.LL Emory Lindquist, Ph.D. Professor of Histoiy (1947), New .Mexico
President, Bethany College, Lindslxirg, Kan. Highlands University. Las A'egas.
Betha.ny Ccjllege Immigration and Citizenship .Articles
E.Lu. Emit Ludwig E.O.B. Ernest O. Bower, B.S.. M..A.
Biographer and Lecturer. Assistant Principal, East Technical High
Biography .\rticles .School. C^leveland. Ohio; .Author, Phvsics
E.L.C. Elizabeth L. Crandall, B..\. Textbooks. Fire; He.at; Sound
Textbook r.<iit<.r.
Biography .Articles E.O.M. Ernesto. Melby, Ph.D.
E.L.H. Everett Lee Hunt, M..A.. Litt.D. Formerlv. President. .Montana State Univer-
Dian. Swarthtnore Ckjilege, Swarthmorc, Pa. sitv. .Missoula. .Mont.ana State L'niversity
Swarthmore Collegi E.P. Emily Post
E.L.K. Eamonn Kennedy, M..A.
L. .\uthority on Etiquette; .Author, Etiquette
Irish Legation, Washington, D.C. Eire Books. Etiquette
E.lo. lugcn* Ial«l9»i, K A. E.W.Ka. Elmer W. Kostner, B .A.

I.lllor. ( /;;..;,.. / I.SrUi. \ 11 e I'lisidetii. Ciapital University, Cx)lum-

I iM ikii \i . Rmho amj Mac;hink \V<)RK>r.s I'Mv Ohio. Capital University
OF America, (Jnii>:u
E.W.Kn. Edgar W. Knight, Ph.D.
I.la. Irwin Mndall Kenan Profess<jr of Education, University of
Artist. N'arioiis DiaKrams North Carolina, Chap<l Hill.
I.I. A. Idword 1. Adair, M.A.. i .K.HiM.S. I'.Dt \TfiRS and .Scholars Biographies

I'liilrxsor ol llistoiy. .McCiill University,

E.W.N. Eugene W. Nixon, .M.A.
Amkrican History and Biogrmiiv Articles Professor of Phvsical Education, Pomona
I.R.I. I. loo lorttoy Sportsmen Biographies
1 )in < tillnl N<\vs Bureau. Indiana I'nivcrsity.
Im>!\na Lnivkusitv E.W.T. Edwin Way Teale, MA.
I.I.K. Eugene lolond Kellertberger, M. I)., I). T.
.Author: Formerly, President, NcwYork En-
tomolotriral .Society.
.M.&il. (itiui.d StiKijiA, American Mis-
Insect and Related Articles
sion to Ix*p<TS, New York City. Leprosy
Elmer I. Nelson, M.S.
E.Y. Edna Yost, A.B., Litt.D.
.Author, Modern Amrricaru oj Sciencr and In-
Ciiir.itor ol (itoloiiy, .Milwaukee Public Mu-
s' uiii, Milu .inker. Wis. Earth Vfntwn. Inventors Biographies

i.R.W.,Jr. Emery R. Walker, Jr., B..\.

F.A. Frank Aydelotte, Litt.D., LL.D., L.H.D.
Dean ol .\(iini.s.<!ion. Brown University, Prov- Director Emeritus, The Institute for Ad-
idenr<-. R.I. Brown U.mver.sity' vanced .Study, Princeton, N.J.
Institlte for .Advanced Study
lA Emanuele Stierl, B..S.
.Xutlior. Itdok of Indoor Hobbifs; Editor. F.A.Br. Frederick A. Bradford, Ph.D.
Hobby .\rtirles Head, Department of Finance, Lehigh Uni-
E.S.B. Emory S. Bogardus, Ph.D. versity, Bethlehem. Pa.
Professor of -SocioloRy, University of South- Bankino: Money; and Related Articles
cm California, Ix)s .\ngeles.
F.A.S. Fred A. Shannon, Ph.D.
.Sociology .\rticles
Profes.sor of History, Universir\' of Illinois.
E.S.M., Jr. Edwin S. Mills, Jr., B..\.
Union Military Men Biographies
1ormri 1\ , I.xccutive Producer, National
Broadcasting Company Television, Chicago, F.B. Felix BorowskI, Mus.D.
III. Television Music Editor, The Chicago Sun-Times; Pro-
E.S.R. Edgar S. Robinson, B..\.. B.L.S. fessor Emeritus of Musicolog-\', Northwestern
l.iiii .11 i.in. I'uljlie l.ibrars',\'ancouver, B.C. University.
I.IRRARV (Libraries in Canada) Singers Biographies
E.S.S. Edna S. Stone, Ph.D. F.B.K. Francis Beverly Keiley, B.A.
Research .Vss(KMate in Meteorology, .Massa- Circus Historian; .Author, Circus Holiday.
chus<-tts Institute of Technology: Joint Edi- Circus and Related Biographics
tor, liullftirt of Amrrican Mi'Uorological Society.
F.B.M. Fred B. Millett, Ph.D.
Meteorology .\rticles
Professor of English, Wesleyan University,
E.S.W. Elmo Scott Watson, M.S. Middletown, Conn.
I'orinerlv, Chairman, Chicago Division, Engiish Literature
Mcdill School ofjournalism. Northwestern U.
Journalism .\rticles and Related Biographies F.B.O. Franceiio Bryant Olson, B..A.
F.ditorial Department, Rand McNally & Co.
I.T.B. Eric Temple Bell, Ph.D. Biogr.aphv .Articles
Professor of Mathematics, California Insti-
tute of cehnology, Pasadena.
F.B.Sk. F. B.Skeele, B.A.
.MATMEMAnciANS Biographics News Bureau Director, L'niversity of South-
ern California. Los .Angeles.
E.T.L. Edward T. LeavHt, B.S.
S(jt inKKN California, University of
Exlitor, Tractor Farming, Chicago.
Separator F.B.St. Frank Steele

Edmund Thornton Secretary General, National Society of Sons

E.T.M. Miller, B A., M..\., Ph.D.
ssor of Leonomics, University of of the .American Revolution.
I'l i)l< Te.xas.
Texas Sons of the .American Revolution,
I.T.P. Taylor Porks, Ph.D.
National -Society of
Historical .Adviser, Division of Historical F.B.W. Ford B. Worthing
Policy Research, U.S. Department of State. Direitor. Public Relations Department,
C<)if>MBiA; Panama: Latin-. \merica.n Kiwanis International, Chicago.
Statesmen Biographies KiwANis Intern.ational
LV. Eugene Volta, B.S.
F.C. Frances Covanoh, B..A.
.Xrchiteet. (!hirago: Diplomc I'Exole des
.\nth()r of C'hildren's Books.
B<-aii\ Alls, I'r.inee. Hol'SING
Ciiii dren's .Authors Biographics
I.V.C. E. V. Cowdry, Ph.D.
F.C.B. Franklin C. Bing, Ph.D.
Priifi-s.sor of .\natomy, Washington Univer-
Director, .\merican Institute of Baking. Chi-
sity Medical .School, .St. Louis, Mo.
NATO MY cago. Bread
.\ .Articles
I.W.F. Edward W. France F.C.C. Ford M.A., LL.B.
C. Cronklte,
PiokIiiii, lloy R.ingers of .America. l)e,ui.Collem- of I^w, University of Sas-
Boy Rangers of America katchewan, Saskatoon. Saskatchewan
F.C.O. Frederick C. Grant, Th.D.. D.D., D.S.Litt. F.G.G. Foye G. Gibson, D.D.
Professor of Biblical 1 Ix-ology, Union I hco- I'rrvid. 111. I.inory and Henr>' College,
lugical Srininary, New \'ork City. l.IIIOl \ . \ .1.

New Testament Articles Emory and Henry College

P.D. Frederick Dietz, Ph.D. F.G.H. Fred Garrigus Holloway, D.D., LL.D.
Professor of History, University of Illinois; ForiiK ily, l'r<siileiit, Western Maryland
Author, I he Industrial Revolution. Ckjllege.
Industrial Revolution Western Maryland College
F.D.P. F. D. Patterson, D.\ .M.. Ph.D. F.Ha. Frederick Hard, Ph.D., D.C.L.
President, Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee. .Ma. PresicUnt, Scripps College, CUaremont, Calif.
Ti SKI (;n Normal AND Industrial Institute ScRipps College
F.Ho. Florence Hope, B. A.
F.D.S. Franklin D. Scott, Ph.D.
Research .Wisiant, .Art Institute of Chicago.
Professor of Histor\-, Northwestern Univer- .Authcnticator only, .Sculpture Articles
sity. Evanston. 111.
Elrof'Kan .Middle East Biographies F.H.H. Francis H. Herrick, Ph.D.
History, Mills College,
Profe.s.sor of Oakland,
F.CBo. Frederick E. ftolton, Ph.D. Calif.
Professor of Education and Dean Emeritus, England and Related Articles
College of Education, University of Washing-
ton. F.H.LoG. Fiorello H. LoGuardla
Washington 1orrnerK Director General, United Nations

Reliefand Rehabilitation .Administration.

F.i.C. Frances E. Cretcher, B.S.J.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilita-
.Managing Editor. Hospital Topics and Buyer,
tion Administration
Medical Biographies F.H.N. Frank H. Netter, B.S., M.D.
Free-lance Medical .Artist.
F.E.R. Frank Robbins, Ph.D.
.Assistant to the President, University of
Human Body Color Plates

Michigan, .\nn .Arbor. F.H.P. Frederick H. Poueh, M.S., Ph.D.

Michigan, University of Curator, Physical Geology and .Mineralogy,
.American Museum of Natural History.
F.E.Wa. Florence E.Wall, B.Ed., M.A.
.Author, Principles and Practice of Beauty Cul-
Gem and Related Articles
ture; Cxjnsulting Chemist and Lecturer on F.H.Se. Frederic H. Sexton, S.D., I.L.D., C.B.E.
Cosmetology, New York University, New
President, -Nova .Scotia Technical College
York City. .Nova .Sccjtia Technical College
Cosmetics Articles
F.H.Sp. Frank Hugh Sparks, Ph.D., LL.D., L.H.D.
F.E.Wr. F. E. Wright, Ph.D., S.D. President, Wabash College, Indiana.
Home Secretary, National Academy of Wabash College
.Science, Washington, D.C. F.H.W. Frank H.Wardlaw
National Academy of Science .Adjunct Professor of Journalism, Universit\
F.F.B. Frederick Blochly, Ph.D.
F. of .South Carolina, Columbia.
Senior Staff. Brookings Institution, Washing- South Carolina, University of
ton, D.C: Formerly, Professor of Govern- F.J.A. F. J. Alcock
ment, University of Oklahoma; Author Fed- HonorarN- .Secretai^y, Royal Society of Cana-
eral Regulatory Action and Control.
da, Ottawa, Ontario.
Civics Articles Royal Society of Canada
F.F.F. Foster F. Forreil
Sccretan,-, .National Fraternal Congress of F.J.D. Francis J. Dodd, Ph.D.
America, Chicago. President, Saint Joseph's College, Emits-
Fraternal Society burg, Md.
F.F.R. Frederick F. Rockwell Saint Joseph's College
Horticultural .\uthor and Lecturer; Editor F.J.F. Francis J. Furey, Ph.D., S.T.D.. LL.D.
in Chief, Home Garden; Horticultural Editor, F'ormerly, President, Immaculata College,
McCall's Magazine. Immaculata, Pa.
Gardening; School Garden Immaculata College
F.Ge. Felicia Geflen
F.J.S. Folton J. Sheen, Most Rev. Bishop. Ph.D.,
Assistant to the Pr«ident, .American .Acade-
1)1). 1.1.1) I.itt.D.
mv of Arts and Letters, New ^'ork Caty. .

National Director, .Society for the Propaga-

.Amiricw .\(:\i)F.Nn' OF .Arts and Letters
tion of the Faith, New York City.
F.Gi. Florence Gillmore, B..S. Bible; Cathouc .Articles
Writer for U.S. Naval Reser\e Training
F.K. Foster Kennedy, M.D.
Courses Unit.
.Author; Professor of Neurology, Cornell L^ni-
Signaling; Navy .Articles
versity College of Medicine, New York City.
F.Gr. Frederick Grover, M..A. Brain; Nervous System
Professor Emeritus of Botany, Obcrlin Col-
F.K.L. F. K. Lofgren
lege. Oberlin. Ohio.
Lock Sales .Manager, National Lock Co.,
Botany Rockford, 111.
F.G.C. F. G. Clark, Ph.D. L^j^
President. Southern University and A. and F.L.B. Fredrick U Bergmann, M.A.
M. College, Baton Routje, La. .Associate Prf)fessor of English, DePauw L^ni-
Southern University and Agricultural versity, Greencastle, Ind.
and Mechanical College DePauw Universfty
r.UL Pronh t. Ivvrtull, ['hi).. D.I). F.Th. Frank Thone, B.S.. Ph.D.
IiiiimrK, I'lisidcnI. Niirlli Dakota Ai^ri- I'.ditiM in Biology, Science SeTvicf,\Sssh\nf^Xon,
ruUiiial laii^o, N.D.
( :<)ll<ijr. D.C. f.
Noklll D\KlirA Ai.Hlil IIKAl. ClolIKOE
Floyd THH
F.L.O. Prank U Ound«rton, MS . i'li.D.
Public Relations Director, Rensselaer Poly-
Ris<ai(li ami J'i<m|ih ts IVvrlopmrnt Dc-
technic Institute, I roy, .\. Y.
1)aitm(nt \ ii <-ri<sultnt, I'illshuiv Mills, Rl VSSI MR

lU'.. Minnra|H)lis.
F.T.M. Francis Trevelyon Miller, Litt.D.. LL.D.
FnuR and (Ikkfai. Products Articles Jlisioiiau; .\iiih<)r; President, Historical
r.UK. Forrest L. Knopp, HI).. Ph.D.
Foundations. .\iw \ork City.
(icticral Sciniarv, Woilil C'ounfil ol Chris-
MfiDKKN Miiiiari Leaders Biographies
tian Kiiin atioii. New Wivk C!ity.
F.V.S. Frances Valiant Speek, B..A.
Si'M>\N School
loiini lU. .Secretary to Committee on Eco-
P.L.M. Prank Lwthar Mott, Ph.D.. Litt.D.. I..H.D. nomic and Lei^al .Status of Women, .American
I)<.ui. S(hi)«)l ol louinalism, Univri-sity of
Association of University Women, Washing-
.Missouri. Coliuiibia. »• „ ^
P.L.W. Prcd L. Whipple, Ph.D. .American Association of University
.\s.s<Kiatr Prolcssor anil Mi-mlu-r of StafT of Women
Harvard Observatory, Cambridge. Mass. F.W.T. Frank W. Thomas, Ph.D.. LL.D.
Moon I orinci K Piesiiient, Fri-sno (Calif.) State

F.M.F. Frltiof M. Fryxell, Ph.D. Collcijc. Fresno State College

.^<iiior (Moloijist. l'..S. Gcoloijical Sur\'ey; G.A. German Arciniegas
Head. .Science Division, Augiistana College, Author, I h)- Crtcn Continent and Other Books;
Rcx-k Island. 111. Formerly, .Minister of Education, Colombia;
Glacier; Iceberg; North Americ:a; Phii ip- Visiting Professor of .Spanish, Columbia Uni-
piNE Islands vci-sity,
F.MLt. Franklin M. Reck, B.S. Brazil; South .America
.\iithor. fioriiiiticr of Amrrican Transportation G.A.B. George A. Bowman, M..A.. LL.D.
anil Othci" Hooks. I'resiiiciu. Kent State University, Kent, Ohio.
inMoiui E and Related .\rticles
.\i Kent State University*
F.P.Kil. Francis P. Kilcoyne, Ph.D. G.A.F. G. A. Frecker, B.E., B..A.
A-ssistant Profes.sor of Ene:lish and Director Secretary for Education. Commission of
of Publicity. Brooklvn College, Brooklyn Government, John's, Newfoundland.

N.V. Xfwfoundland Cities Articles

Brooklyn College G.A.H.S. George A. H. Scott
F.P.KIn. Francis P. King, M..\. Coiinsil and .Secretary, Illinois Humane
RcLlistrar, Saint Francis College, Loretto. Pa. Society, Chicago.
Saint Francis College Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
F.P.t. Francis P. Robinson, Ph.D. TO Animals
Prot<-ssor of Psychology, Ohio State Univer- G.A.S. Gordon A. Sisco, M..A., D.D.
sity, Coluinlms. r> Secretary, United Church of Canada,
Toronto. ,, r> r>
F.R. Jr. Felix Riesenberg, Jr. United Church of Canada
Author, (iolden Gatf, the Story of San Fran- G.B. Gladys Burch, B.A.
ciico Iliirhor. „ ,, Formerly, .Manager, G. Schirmer Music
F.R.I. F. R. Eldridge
Book Shop, New York City; .Author of
Biographies of Musicians and Composers.
Chief, Historical United States
I.tropkan Composers Biographies
Coast Guard. Washinijton, D.C^.
G.B.B. Gail Brook Burket, M..A.
Co.^sT GiARU and Related Subjects
1 rce-i ..iiuc Writer. ., „• i-
F.R.M. F. R. Moulton, Ph.D., S.D., LL.D. -Musicians Biographies
.\(itiimistrati\ f .Secretary,', .\inerican .Associ- G.B.Co. George Corwin, B.S.. M..A.
ation for Advancement of Science, Washing- Senior .Secretary, Work with Bovs. National
ton. D.C. Council of Y.M.C.A.'s, New York Citv.
.\merk:an .\.s.sociation for the Hi-Y Club
.\i)\ani:emknt ok Science G.B.Cr. George B. Cressey, Ph.D.
F.S.Hul. Fredric Samuel Hultz, M.S., Ph.D. Chairman, Department of Geography. Syra-
He. 1(1 ol Animal Production, University of cuse Lnivei-sitv, Syracuse, N,A',; Author,
Wvomitit;, l.arainie. „ .^X'j'v I,'i>id\ iinii Peoples.
F.S.Hwt. Francif S. Hutchins, M..\.. I.L.D. I
M \n: llisioRY and Geography .Articles

I'll suii lit, Mitia (DJleije. Berea. Ky. G.B.G. Gladys Guy, B.A.
Director. News Release Bureau. College of
Berea College
P.S.M. Frederic IMarquordt, B..\.
William and Mary. Williamsbui-g. \'a.
l'or<-ii;n .News F.ditor. l hr Chicago Sun-Tirnrs.
MoDtRN Statfsmen and Military Leaders G.B.O. Gertrude B. Olsen
instructor in Gregg Shorthand, Br>ant and
Fredrick Seaton Siebert, J.D. Stratton C'ollege, Chicago.
° «
P.S.S. ^ '
l>iic< toi. Sc hool <il Journalism, University G.C Gudrun Carlson, M.S.
of Illinois, Urbana. Lecturer, Home Economics Consultant.
C^npvRiniiT and Related .Articles I ooD Preserv.\tion .Articles
P.Ta. Florence Taylor, B..\. G.C.B. George C. Beach
.Assistant Secretary, Research and Publicity, .M.ijorCiener.il. L'.S. .Army; Commanding
National Child Lalxtr C^ommittce, New York General. Walter Reed General Hospital.
City. Washington. D.C.
' Cmii i) Labor CkjMMi ftee, Nationai Walter Reed General Hospital
co.MKiiu roK.s
G.C.C. George C. Clorldg* G.Hug. Glenn Hughes, M..\.
Lihr.ii i.ii). Su NuiIktI Collcj^r, West I3c Dinitoi. S( iiool of Drama, University of
Pen-, Wis. Washington, .Seattle.
St. .N'orbkrt College TiiKAiLR and Related .Articles
G.D.G. George D. Grice, B.S., M..\. G.Hum. Grace Humphrey, B.A.
I'nsiilc nt, ( lolU^c of Cliarlcston, Charleston, Aiitlioi. Stuiiii oj Ihe World's Holidays, and
S.C. ( )tli<i Books.
Charleston, College of Months and Days .Articles
G.H.B. George H. Blocfc, Ph.D.
G.daJ.Jr. Gerrit de Jong, Jr., Ph.D.
President Emeritus, University of Newark,
I)< ,11), C:<)ll<iii- of Fine .\rts, and Prof<-s.sor of
Nevvark, .N.J.
Moticin I.ani,niams, Bri^liam Youn(< I'ni-
Newark, University of
vci-sity, Provo, L tah.
G.H.H.T. G. H. H. Tate. S.D.
Bki(;ham Young L'niversliy
Curator of .Mammals, .American Museum «jf
G.E.B. G. E. Bentley, Ph.D. Natural History, New York CJity.
Auilioi Pi nfrssor of Enj^h.sh, Prinrrton L'ni-
Princeton, N.J.
G.H.Sc. George H. Schuler, B..S.
.Smakksi-kark, William; British .\uthor.s DiKcior, lechnical Lalx>ratory, DuPont
Biographies Co., Wilmington, Del.
G.E.E. G. E. Epp, D.D.. I.I..D. Bleaching and Dyeing ,Articl<-s
Bishop, E\ anijcHcal United Brethren Church,
G.H.Sm. G. Herbert Smith, Ed.D., LL.D.
Najxrvillc. 111.
I'Ksident, Willamette University, Salem,
I.\ \n(.kmc;al United Brethren Chirch
G.E.F. Grant E. Finch, S.D. Willamette University
I orinciK , Professor of Geology and Geog- (j^j, Gerald Jenny, B.S.A., .VLS.
raphy, Danbury State Teachers College, Editor. WCst Virginia University.
Daiihury, Conn. West N'irginia University
Connecticut Cities Articles G.J.L. George Lane J.
G.E.M. George E. Mewry, Ph.D. Kaolin Research and Mining, Edgar Plastic
ssor of .\inerican History,
I'rott Univci-sity Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N.J.
of Iowa, Iowa City. Kaolin
United States, Hlstory of, and G.K.C. Gordon K. Chalmers, Ph.D.. LED., Litt.D.,
Related .\rticle-, I.H.I), President, Kenyon College, Gam-
G.F. George Freedley, M.F..-\. bier, Ohio.
CoiTiiiitiint to heater Collection, The New
1 Klny(jn College
^'oi k Pul)li( Drama G.K.R. Glenn K. Rule, B.S.
G.F.D. George F. Deosy, M..\. Executive .Assistant to Chief, Soil Conserva-
Formerly, Geographer, U.S. War D<-part- tion Sei\ice,Washington, D.C'.
ment; .\ssociate Professor of Geography, I'he Drainac;e: Reclamation of Land
Pennsylvania State College. G.Le. Gunnar Leistlkow, D..S..S.
United States of America Writer on International .Affairs.
G.F.H. George F. Howe, \f..\. European Countries Articles
.•\ss(Kiate Professor of Social Science, Teach- G.Lo. Gilbert Love, B.A.
ei-s College of Connecticut, New Britain, Feature Writer, Pittsburgh Press.
Conn.; Co-author, Geography Workbook Pi ^l^B^'R(;H
Series. Connecticut G.L.Br. G. L. Brown, Ph.D.. LED.
G.F.R. George F. Reynolds, Ph.D., Litt.D.
President Emeritus, South Dakota State Cf>l-
Piolcssor Fmcritus of English, University of lege, Brookings.
Colorado. Literature .\rticles .South Dakota State Cf»i. lege of.Agricul-
ture AND Mechanic .Arts
G.F.W. George Frisbie Whicher, Ph.D.
Professfjr of English on the Frank L. Babbott G.L.Bu. George L. Bush, Ed.D.
Ass<K late F^rofessor of C^hemistry, Kent State
Endowment, .Amherst 'Mass.' College.
University, Kent, Ohio; Co-author, Dy-
Literature Articles
Grace G. Denny, M.A. namic Chemistry.
Professor of Home Economics, University of
Chemistry and Related Articles

Washington, Seattle; Author, Fabrics. G.L.B.Jr. Gilbert L. Brown, Jr., M ..A.

Fabrics Articles Director of Public Relaticms, L'niversity of

G.G.Do. G. G. Doddt, B..\. Redlands, Redlands, C:alif.

1Ki -L.uKc Writer. Redlands, University of
U.S. History .Articles G.L.N. Grace Lee Nute, Ph.D.
G.G.K. Georges Gustavo Koltanowski Reseanh .\ssociate, Minnesota Historical
Society, St. Paul, .Minn.
Chess Master.
\'arious .\Iin.\esota CrriEs .Articles
Checkers; Chess
G.McV. George McVicker
G.G.P. Garald Gordon Parker, B..A., M.S. Aitjvt.
I tiitrd States District Geolotjist, .Miami, Fla.
Various Diagrams
1,\ I k(.! ADKs; Everglades National F'ark G.Mai. Gilbert Malcolm, LED.
G.H«. George Heller \ lie-President, Dickinson College, Carlisle,
National Executive Secretary, .American Pa.
Federation of Radio .Artists. Dickinson College
Rm)H) Akiisrs, .American Federation of G.Man. Georg Mann, B.A.
G.HI. Gertrude Hlldreth 1 oiiiK rlv, .\ssociatc Editor, Sctrnce Digfsi;
Consulting Psychologist. Free-Lance Writer.
Handwriting Science .Articl<-s

G.M.H. 0«rtr«Ml« M. Hall, M.A. G.T.R. George T. Renner, Ph.D., LL.D
I)ii((i(ii III i'lililii itv. Illinois State Normal I'lultssor c)l ( reiiL;raphy, Teachers College,
Univcinitv. .Normal, III. Columbia University, New York City.
IiiiNois .SxArh .NnRMAL Univkrsity World
G.M.P. O«org« M. Phannamlller, M.S. G. T.V.I. Gerrit T. Vander Lugt, Ph.D.. LL.D.
( !<imm.iii(iri , \iilc (> till- .SufH-rintrrnlrnt for i luiii'i 1\-. I'lrsitlent, Carroll College, Wau-
Public Information. I'nitrd States Coast k' -hi, Wiv Carroll College
Ctuarci .\<a<lrmv. New London, Ckinn.
G.W. Goodwin Watson, Ph.D.
( .
. \^i ( ,{ \ki) .\c:AnK.MY, United States Professor of Education, Teachers College,
G.M.Sm. G. Morris Smith, D.I)., LL.D. Clohimbia University, New York City.
I'rcsiiUnt, Susqufhana University, Selins- Philosophy Articles
ijrove. Fa.
G.W.Be. G. W. Beadle, M.S., Ph.D., S.D.
Srsni'i HANA University
Professor of Biology, California Institute of
G.M.Su. George Miksch Sutton, I'll. I). Technology. Pasadena.
C.ur.iiDr. Dui-iion of Hinis, Mus<tim of Zo- BkhKDiNG and Genetics Articles
oloif\-. University of .Michigan. /-wy n
Bird Color Plates G-W.Br. George W. Brown, Ph.D.
Professor of History, University of Toronto;
G.N.B. George N. Belknap, M..\.
Editor. L'ni\'. of Toronto Press.
I.iluiii I ni\ (I ^it\ of Oreijon, Eucfne.
()kk.(;(in, University ok Ontario and Related Articles
G.N.Mac. Gordon N. Mackenzie, Kd.D. G.W.C. George W. Crabbe, .M..A., LL.D.
Prol<-s.soi' of Lldueation, Teachers Cfjilcgc, General .Superintendent, .Anti-Saloon League
Columbia University, New York City. of .America.
1,1 IMl \ ^k^• ScHooi
I HicH .Sc:HOOL ; .Anti-.S.^loon League of America
G.N.May. George Noel Mayhew, B.D.. Ph.D. G.W.F. G. W. Fotis
Professor. History of Reliyion, N'anderbilt Directfjr of .Sales Promotion, Typewriter Di\T-
University, Nashville, lenn. sion, Remington Rand, Inc., New York C:ity
Religion Articles Typewriter
G.N.S. George N. Shuster, Ph.D.
G.W.H. Glenn W. Howard, Ph.D.
Pirsidciit. Hiiiucr College, New York City.
.Associate Professor of Physical Education,
Hunter College Queens College, Flushing, N.Y.
O^. Goyle Pickwell, Ph.D.
.\iHi F.Tic Organiz.\tions .Articles
Professor Emeritus of Zoolo^, San Jose
State College, San Jose, Calif. G.W.J. Gerald W. Johnson, Litt.D.. LL.D., D.C.L.
Beetles and Insects .\rticlcs Journalist: .Author, Roosevelt Dictator or —
G.P.G. G. P. Gilmour, M..\ D.D. Democrat? and Other Books.

Chancellor and Principal of the Faculty, Rf)osE\ flt. Franklin Delano

McMaster University. Hamilton, Ontario. G.W.McC. George William McClelland, Ph.D., L.H.D.,
NfcM.ASTER University LL.D.
G.R.G. George R. Greenbank, Ph.D. Formerly, President. University of Pennsyl-
Research Chemist. \ani.T. PI"^•^•«;^l V ANiA. T^NrvERsm' of

Fats and Wax .\rticles G.W.MacD. Gwendolyn WIggin MacDowell

G.R.H. George R. Harrison, S.D.. Ph.D. .Secretary, .American Legion Auxiliary,
Dc.in ot Seience, Massachusetts Institute of Indianapolis, Indiana.
I(•( hnology, Cambridge, Mass. .Americ.\.n Legion .Auxili.ary
Engineering G.W.Me. Gilbert W. Mead, Litt.D., LL.D.
G.R.M. George M.F.
R. Monell, Formerly. President, Washington College,
Historian, Shakei-s, Concord, N.H. Chestertown, Md. Washington College
G.W.MI. Glenn W. Miller, Ph.D.
G.R.S.,Jr. George R. Stuart, Jr., M..\., LL.D. .Assistant Professor of Economics, Ohio State
President, Fiirmingham-.Southern College,
l'ni\ (Tsitv. PiNSKiN and Related Articles
Birmingham, .\la.
Birmingham-Southern College G.W.R. George Walter Rosenlof, Ph.D.
O.S* George Shealy Professor of -Secondarv- Education, Uni-
.Artist .ind Illustrator. versity of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Various Diagrams Nebraska and Related .Articles

G.S.B. Geneva Booker, H.S.

S. G.W.S. Glenn W. Starfcey, B.A.
I ree-Lancc Writer. .Author, Maine, Its History, Resources, and
BiOGRApin .\rticles Government; Formerly, Deputy Commissioner
O.S.C. Gavin Stodart Casey of Education for Maine.
.\iith(jr: Dill tor. .Australian News and Maine and Related Articles
formation Bureau, New York City. H.Ab. Hallett Abend
.-XusTRALiA and Related .Articles Lecturer: Author, The God from the West and
G.5.K. Guy $. Klett, M.V Other Books.
RcM.iii h Historian. F*resbyterian Church in
Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang Mei-ling
the United .States of .America. H.AI. Haddis Alemayehou
Religious Leaders Biographies liiNt Sccttt.uv. F.thiopian Legation, Wash-
O.T. Genevieve Taggard, B.A. iimicn. n.t;. Ethiopia
Poet .ind l.<litiM; formerly Tracher, Sarah H.Au. Helen Augur, B.A.
I.asMt iKc Colleijf, Bronxville, N.\'. .Author, I he Book of Fairs.
Early .American Poets Biographies Fair and Related .Articles

H.A.Col. Harold Auguttin Calahan, I.L.B , M.A. H.CB. Harry C. Barber, M.Ed.
l.ifiitcn.ini ('.orniiianiicr. L'.S. Na\->'; Author, M.jst< 1 . Boston Si hool Department.
Learnni^ to Sail; Lforntng to Race; Co-author, .Mathematics Articles
Wind and 1 idr in I'achl Racing. H.C.C Harold Coe Coffman, Ph.D.
Saiung; Yachting President, George Williams Ck>llege, Chicago.
H.A.Cor. Howard A. Carter, B.S. in ME. George Williams College
Secretary, Ckjuncil on Physical Medicine, H.C.Cu. Hugh C. Cutler, M.A.. Ph.D.
American Medical .Association. Chicaejo. Curator ol Kronomic Botany, Chicago Nat-
Physical Iherapy Articles ural Histoi-y Museum.
H.A.H. Harry A. Hicks Coffee
\ ice-President, Remington Rand. Inc.
H.C I. Henriette Costex Epstein, M.A.
Busi.Ntss Machines Nil (•-I'lisKieiit. .Ainerican .-Association for
H.A.L. H. A. LewU, B.S. Social .Security.
.Manami Technical Service, Explosives De-
Social Security Articles
partintnt. K. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.
Explosive and Related Articles
H.CJ. Harvey C
Jacobs, B..-A.
Director of Public Relations, Franklin Col-
H.A.Ma. Harry A. Manner, M.S. lege, Franklin, Ind.
.-Xutiior: .\ssistant C^hief. Division of Tides & Franklin College
Currents, L'. .S. Coast and Geodetic Surrey. H.C.L. Horace C. Levlnson, Ph.D.
liDF.s and Ocean Currents Articles .-Author. ) our Chancf to Win: Formerly Treas-
H.A.My. Henry Alonxo IMyers, Ph.D. urer, L. Bamberger & C^o.,Newark, N.J.
Professor of Entjlish. Cornell University. .M MHKM.ATics and Related Articles
I,k:km>vrn and Literary Characters H.C.M. Herbert Carleton Mayer, Ed.D.
Biographies Formerly. President, Parsons College, Fair-
H.A.R. Harrison A. Ruehe, MS., Ph.D. field. Iowa. Parsons College
Professor of Dair\' Manufactures in College H.C.S. Hugh Clark Stuntz, D.D.
of Agriculture, and Chief in Dairy Manu- President. Searriit Ckillege, Nashville, Tenn.
factun-s in .Au'iirultural Experiment Station, .SCARRIIT C(Jl I HGE FOR CHRISTIAN WoRKERS
Universitv of Illinois, Urbana. H.Da. Herbert Davis, M.A., LL.D.
Br I ihR: 1)AIR^ Husbandry; Milk Formerly, President, Smith College, North-
H.A.SC. Harrison Ashley Schmitt, .M.S.. Ph.D. ampton. Mass. Smith College
Consulting Mining Geologist, Silver City, H.Dr. Herbert Drennon, Ph.D.
N.M. Metals .Articles Dean of ( loilrge and Head, Department of
H.A.Sp. H. A. Sprague, Ph.D. English. .Mississippi .State College, State
Presitlent, State Teachers College, Upper College. -Miss.
Montclair, N.J. M1S.SISSIPP1 .State College
New Jersey State Teachers College H.D.C Harold Donaldson Eberlein, B..A.
( Upper Montclair) .Author; Co-author, I he Practical Book oj
H.A.T. H. A. Tape,Ph D. Chinaware.
President, Northern Michigan College of Chin A ware; Pottery
Education. Marquette, Mich. H.D.H. H. D. Hayes
Michigan College of Education, Engineer in Charge, Federal Communica-
Northern tions Commission. Chicago.
H.Re. Hoilard Beard, B.S.. M.D. Federal Communications Commission
Ophthalmologist; Professor of Ophthalmol- H.D.K., Jr. Herbert D. Kynor, Jr.
ogy. University of Illinois, Chicago. Division,
.\(i\( rtisini; Ingersoll-Rand Co.,
Eye .-Articles Phillipsbuiu. N.J. Pneumatic Tool
H.Bo. Helen Boyd Herbert Evison, B..A.
Editor of Children's Books. Chief of Information, National Park Ser\ice,
Illustrators and Cartoo.nists Biographies Washington, D.C.
H.Br. Howard Braucher, B-.-A. National Parks and Monuments .Articles
Prcsitlent, National Recreation Association. H.E.A. Harold Anthony, S.D.
Ri creation .-Association, National Chairman and Curator, Department of
H.B.P. Helen Pryor, M.D.
B. Mammals. .American Museum of Natural
Pediatrician; Formerly, Professor of Hygiene, History, New York Caty.
Stanford University, California. B.\by Flesh-Eating Mammals .Articles
H.C. Harold Copple H.E.G. Harold E. Gibson, Ed.D.
Manager. Washington State Apple Commis- Director of Public Relations. MacMurrav
sion. Wenatchee. Wash. .-Apple College for Women, Jacksonville, 111.
H.Cal. Huntington Calms, LL.B. MacMurray College for Women
Secretary, Treasurer, and General Counsel H.LK. Herbert E. Kohler, M.A.
of National Gallery of .Art, Washington. D.C. .Assistant Chief Historian, National Park
A'arious Law .Articles .Serv ice.
H.Can. Hodley Cantrll, Ph.D. National Parks .Articles
Professor of Psvchology; Director, Office of H.LL. H. E. Lattig, .M.S.
Public Opinion Research. Princeton Univer- Director of Student Affairs and Dean of
sity. Princeton. N.J. Polls of Public Men. L'niversity of Idaho, Moscow.
Opinion; Public Opinion; Propaganda Idaho, University of
H.Ch. Herb Chidley H.B.S. H. E. Simmons, S.D., LL.D.
Free- Lance .Artist. President, University of .Akron. .Akron. Ohio.
Fish Drawings and Color Plates .Akron, University op


H.F.A. H. p. AM«H«r, Ph.D. H.Holl. Horace Holley
I'mlrssoi of Political Science. The Pennsyl- ^e, r.i,ir\. National Spiritual Assembly of
vania State CkjIlcRe, State Cxjlleee, Pa. th< li.iha is of the United States. Baha'1
Chrv and Related .\rticlcs
H.Holm Honyo Holm
H.F.H. H«rb«rt P. Hotchkitt .Modem Dancer, Choreographer; Director,
Siiprrmr Srtrrt.iiA Supreme Council of the
Hanya Holm Studio of Modem Dance, New-
Royal .\rcanuni. York City.
RnVAI. .\RCANfM, SlPREME CoUNCII. OF THE Ballet; Dancing

H.F.MacN. H. F. MocNoir, Ph.D.. Litt.D.

H.Holw. Hope Holwoy, B..A.
BuMiKs.s .Manager, W. R. Holway and .Asso-
1 oiiuciIn. Professor of Far Eastern History
ciates, Cxjnsulting Engineers, Tulsa. Okla.
and Institutions, University of Chirai,'o.
Orikntm History and Biography .Articles .Aqueduct; Water Power
H.H.Be. H. H. Bennett
H.F.P. Hanry F. Perot C:hief, I . .S. .Soil Conservation Service.
l'i<vul<iit. i'l rot .Sfaltini; Oompanv. F\RMiNG and .Soil Use
Mm t .Articles

H.H.Bi. H. Howard Biggor, B.S.

H.F.Prln. H*nry F. Pringle, B..\.
Department of Information. National Live
.\iithor. ThrndoTf Roosfvell; The Lxje and Times
.Stock and Meat Board, Chicago.
oj Uoiiard I aft.
Cattle and Related .Articles
Roosevelt, Theodore; Taft, Wii.i.iam
HoW.ARD H.H.C. Henry Hunt Clark
Formerly, Director, Cleveland School of .Art.
H.Go. Horry Gold, B.A.. M.D.
Cleveland School of .Art
Prof<s,'«)t Pharmacology at Cor-
of Clinical
nell University Medical Cxjllcgc, New York H.H.F. Harold Henry Fisher, L.H.D.
City; In Charge of the Cardiovascular Re- Professor of History; Chairman, Hoover
search I'nit of Beth Israel Hospital. Institute and Library; Director, .School of
He.art .\rticles Naval .Administration, Stanford University,
H.Gr. Herb Groffis California.
F.ditor. Goljdnm Magazine, Chicago. Russian and Polish Leaders Biographies
Golf H.H.H. H. H. Hammer
H.G.B. Henry G. Bennett, Ph.D., LL.D. -National .Secretary-Treasurer, Sons of Union
President, Oklahoma .\gricultural and Me- \'eterans of the Civil War.
chanical College, Stillwater, Okla. Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War
H.H.So. Hugo H. Sommer, M.S.. Ph.D.
Professor of Dairy Industry, University of
H.G.G. Horry G. Good, Ph.D. Wisconsin, Madison.
Professor of Education, Ohio State Univer-
Milk Products Articles
sity, Cxjlumbus.
Education; Government and Social H.H.St. Horry Hutchinson Stage, M.S.
Organizations Articles .Senior Entomologist, U.S. Department of
.Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
H.G.Ha. Henry G. Harmon, Ph.D. Fly; Mosquito
President. Drake University, Des Moines,
H.J. Hannah Josephson
Iowa. Drake University* Research Editor, Larned's History for Ready
H.G.Hul. H. Gordon Hullflth, Ph.D. Rtjerenct; Editorial .Assistant to Publishers.
Professor of Education, Ohio State Univer- Co-author Various U.S. Presidents
sitv. Cohirnbiis. Biographies
Universities and Colleges H.J.E. Hamilton James Eckenrode, Ph.D.
H.G.Moe. H. 0. Moershel, B.S., M.D. Historian, \ irginia C:onser\'ation Commis-
President, .\mana Church Society, Iowa. sion.
.\mana Confederate Generals Biographies
H.G.Mou. Horold G. Mowlton, Ph.D., LL.D.
H.J.F. H. J. Fraser, B..A.
President. The Brookings Institution, Wash-
Registiar and Instructor in English, Nova
inu'toii. DC Economics .\rticles
Scotia .Agricultural Cxjllcge, Truro, N.S.
H.G.W. Horry Grove Wheot, Ph.D. No\.A ScoTi.A .Agricultural College
Professor of Education. West X'irginia Uni- H.J.G.,Jr. H. J. Guinlvon, Jr.
versity; Author, Wheat Practice Books Jot
.\ssistant .National Director, Public Relations
Arithmetic Grades 2-8; The Psychology and Division, The .American Legion.
Teaching 0/ Arithmetic.
.American Legion ;\eterans"Organizations
.Arithmetic .Articles
H.Har. Horry Horringer H.J.L. H. J. Lindquist
Arti-t Cm or and Light Color Plates President, Cieo. B. Carpenter & Co., Chicago.
Rope and Related .Articles
H.Haw. Hlldegorde Howthomo
Author, /he Long Adventure and Other Books. H.J.McG. Howard J. McGinnb, Ph.D.
Churchill, Winston Director of Field .Service. East Carolina
Feachers College, Greenville, N.C.
H.H«. Hubert Herring, M..A.
East Carolina Teachers College
Direttoi. Committee on Cultural Relations
with Latin .America. Inc.; Professor of Latin- H.J.S. Herman J. Shea, M.S.
American Civilization, Clan-mont (C^alif. \ssiHiate Pi^ofessor of Surveying, Massachu-
(iraduate .School and Pomona CoUece. setts Institute of Technology. Cambridge,
Latin .America; Latin-.American Hlstory Mass. .SuRVENiNG .Articles

H.J.W. Harold J. WIens, M.A., Ph. I) H.M.Cr. H. M. Crain, NLA.
CiliiiK-sr I ..iiit;iiat;i- Specialist; Assistant Pro- DinHtiM ol Public Relations antl .Summer
fessor of Ciiography, Yale L'nivri-sity, New .Session, Colorado .Schof)! of .Mines, (iolden.
Haven, Conn. Chinksk Lanc;iagk Colorado .Sciumil ok .Minks
H.K. Han> Kohn, I) |. H.M.Gam. Helena M. GonMr, Ph.D.
S\(ltiih;iin (l.iik Parsons Professor of His- I'hiIcnxim .iiid C:hairnian, IX-partinent of
tor\'. Smith Ck)llem-, Northampton. Mass. Cjermanic Languag«-s and Literatures, L'ni-
Balkan .\r tides versity of Chicago.
H.LI. Hardy Litton, B.S., M.A. Flemish Language and Literature;
I'iisi(l( til. Johnson C. Smith University, German Language; German Literafure
(Jliarloitf. N.C. H.M.H. Harry M. Hubbell, Ph.D.
Johnson C. Smith L'NivERsm- Ial<i)tt Prolessor of Greek, Yale L^nivcrsity.
i'.\ xssic I.AN(;i'.\GES and Literati^re .\rticles
H.Lo. Harmon Lowman, Ph.D.
PirM(i( iH. Siim Houston State Teachers Col- H.M.Kq. H. M. Kallen, Ph.D.
lege, Hunisville, lex. .Authcir; Profes.sor of Philosophy and Psy-
Sau Houston State Teachers Coi.i.ege chology, New .School for .Social Rest-arch.
H.L.B. Howard Londii Bevii, S.J.D.. LL.D. New 'S'ork City. Philosophy .Articles
I'lcsidciu. (3lii<) State L'niversity, Columbus. H.M.Ku. Horry Muir Kurtzworth, A.F.D.
Ohio State L'mversiiy .Author; .Art Director, Woo<lbury College,
H.L.C. Herbert Cushlng, .M..\.. Ed.D.
Los .Ani»eh's. C'alif.
Nebraska State Teachers College,
Dkawinc;: .Mcjiion PicrriRE; and Related
Kearney, Neb.
Nebraska State Teachers Coi.i.ege H.M.S. Herman M. Shipps, M.A.
(Kearney) Director. New Student Pei'sonnel. Ohio Wes-
levan L'ni\-ersity. Delaware, Ohio.
H.L.Co. Hollls L. Caswell, Ph.D.
Ohio Wesley.^n L'niversiiy
Dc.in. leathers College, Columbia Uni-
v(isit\ . .-\cADEMic Freedom H.M.T. Hugh M. Tiner, Ph.D.
Pifsident, (icorgc Pepperdinc College, Los
H.UDL Harry L. Dillin, .MA., LL.D. .\nneles. C^aiif.
President, Linfield College, McMinnville, George Pepperdine College
Ore. LiNFiEi.D Coi.lege
H.N. Hobart Nichols
H.L.Do. Homer L. Dodge, Ph.D., S.D., LL.D. President, National Academy of Design.
I'oiiiicrK . President, Norwich L'niversity, N.\rioNAi. .Academy of Design
.\orthheld, \'t. .Norwich University
H.N.M. Harold Norman Moldenke, Ph.D.
H.L.R. Howard RuMell, B.S.
L. .\ssociate Curator, .New York Botanical
Director, .American Public Welfare Associa- Garden; Graduate Faculty, Columbia L'ni-
tion. versity. Rice; Plant .Articles
Pl Bi ic Welfare .\ssociation, .American
H.N.MocC. H. N. MacCrodcen, Ph.D., LL.D., L.H.D.
H.L.Ta. Henry L. Talkington, M.A., LL.D. lorinerly. President, N'assar Coljege, Pough-
Author, Political History, State Constitution, keepsie, N.Y. \'.\.ssar College
and School Imivs of Idaho; Formerly, Head of
H.O. Hugh Odishow, B.S.. .M.A.
the Department of History and .Social Sci-
ence, Teachers College, Lewiston, Idaho.
.\ssistant Director, National
to the Bureau
of .Standards, Washington, D.C.
Idaho and Related .\rticles
National Bureau of Standards
H.L.Tu. Harvey Turner, Ph.D.

President, Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Mich. H.O.V. Harold O. Voorhis, M.A.. LL.D.
Hillsdale College Foi'iiierK'. \ i( e C'hanct'lior and .Secretary,
New ^'ork L'niversity, New York City.
H.McC. H. McComb Hall of Fame; New York University
C'hi<'f Chemist. Youngstown .Sheet and Tube
C:o.. Chicago District. Iron .\nd .Steel H.P.F. Henry Pratt Foirchild, Ph.D.. LL.D.
Professor Emeritus of .Sociology, New York
H.McP.D. Howard McParlin Davis, B.A.. M.F..\.
.\ssistant Professor of Fine .\rts and .\rchac- Population; Vital Statistics
olot;\ , C'olumbia University, New ^'ork Clity.
•Architecture .Articles H.P.L. Homer P. Little, Ph.D.
H.Man. Harry Moncoster, M.S. Dean of the College; Professor of Geology,
Director of Extension and Public Relations, C:iark L'ni\er-sity, Worcester, .Mass.
New Mexico Highlands University, Las Clark University
Vegas. H.Re. Horace Renegor
New Mexico Highlands University Director of Public Relations, Tulane Uni-
versity of Louisiana. New Orleans.
H.Mar. Helen Marley, B.S. Tulane Universit%- of Louisiana
Instructor in Home Management, Purdue
University, Lafayette, Ind. H. Ro. Hans Rosenwaid, Ph.D.. .Mus.D.
Cooking; Family; Home Life; Shelter; Dean; C^hairman. Musicology Department,
.111(1 Related .Articles
Chicago Musical College.
Chicago Musical College
H.M.Ch. Harriett M. Chase
Chief .Assistant to the txecutivc Secretary, H.Ru. Hoover Rupert, M.A S.T.B. .

N.E..A., Washington, D.C. National Director of Youth Work. General

National Edlcation .Association of the Board of Education. The Methodist "Church.
L'nited States Methodist Youth Fellowship
H.R.B. Howard R. •orttott, B.S.. M.A. H.U.S. H. U. Sverdrup, Ph.D.
He. Ill, I )( of Kniflish and History,
|).ii im< lit li.riiuil\. Director, Scripps Institute of
Ma.vs.i( liiiMtts Institute of rcchn<jli)KV. Clain- Occanograpjhy, I^ Jolla, Calif.; Director,
hridur, Mass. Invkntion Norsk Polarinstitutt. Oslo, Norway.
H.R.F. Hwgh Rwssvll fratmr Oceanography .\rticles

C ill. Ill III. 111. ( on Amrriran History; H.V. Hiram Vrooman
Author, DrnuHrary in l/ir Milking; 7 hr Jncksnn- President. .Swedenborg Philosophical Ontre,
lyirr Era. U.S. I'rksiuknts Bioj;raphifS Inc.. Chicago; .\uthor. Emanufl Suedenborg —
Henry R. Simt, R..\..
7 hroliigmn and Other Books.
H.R.S. 1. 1.. I).

ri.sidi lit. U intlirop Cx)llfi,'c, Rock Hill, .S.C.

Sweden BORciAN
WlNTllROP Cf)I.I.EGE H.V.B.K. Hibberd V. B. Kline, Jr., Ph.D.
H.R.V. Henry R. Viett, B..S..
M.I). Jr. Professor of (ieoL'raphy, Syracuse Univer-
IxTiiircr on .N'curolonv. Harvard .M<-diral sity. .Syracuse, N.V.
School. Boston, .Mass.; .\(iiroloi;ist. .Massa- Union of South Africa and Related .Articles
chusetts (iin. Hospital. .MtuicAi .\rtiiUs
H.V.H. Horry V. Holloway, Ph.D., LL.D.
H.Sc. Henry Schultze, B..\.. B.D. iormerly. State .Superintendent of Public
Fnsiilcnt. Cialvin College, Grand Rapids, Instruction. Dover, Del.
.Mich. Calvin College Delaware and Related Articles
H.SI. Harold Sinclair
H.V.M. Harry V. Masters, Ph.D.. LL.D.
.\iithor, Ihr Port of Aat Orlrans.
I'icsidciit. .Mbriijht College, Reading. Pa.
New Orleans
.Albright College
H.S.B. Harold S.Bender, M..\.. I h.I).
|)<Mii, (ioshcn Colicyc Biblical .Scminaiy, H.W.A.H. Henry W. A. Hanson, .M..\., D.D., LL.D.
Cioshcn, I III I. .MENNfJNITE President, Gettysburg College, C>ettysburg.
H.S.C. Henry Steele Commager, Ph.D. Pa. Gettysburg College
Professor of Histon,-, Columbia University, H.W.B. Hilda W. Boulter
New \'ork City. .\uihor, Books and .Articles on India, .Asia
L'.S. Presidents Biographies Indi.'k and Related Articles
H.S.DeV. Harry S. DeVore, D.D.. LL.D.
I orin<Tly, President, Central College. Fay- H.W.D. Harold Willis Dodds, Ph.D.. Litt.D., LL.D.
ette. Mo. Central College I'l (sident. Princeton University, Princeton,
N.J. Princeton University
H.S.G. Harry S. Cradle, M.D.
Ophthalinoiouist; Formerly, Professor of H.W.J. H. W. James, Ph.D.
Ophthalmology, Lniver^ity of Illinois Medi- President, .New Mexico State Teachers Col-
cal School. Chicago. gyg. .Articles lege, .Silver City. N.M.

H.S.Ro. H. S. Rogers, C.E.. S.D.. LL.D. Ni \s Mexico State Teachers College

I'ii<i<i(nt. Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. H.W.Y. HeberW. Youngken, Ph.D.. S.D.
RkiHiKi ^ N. Polytechnic Institute of Professor of Pharmacognosy and Biologv,
H.S.Ru. Hymon Rubinstein, Ph.G.. M.D.. Ph.D.
S. .Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. Boston
Director of the .\lfred Ullman Lal)orator\' Medical .Articles
for Xeuropsychiatric Research and Head of
Isabel Adams
the Division of Neiiro- Psychiatry, Sinai Hos-
Formerly, National Corrcsfxinding Secre-
pital. Baltimore. Medical .Articles Gold .Star Mothers.
H.T. Harold Taylor, Ph.D. (ioi n .Star Mothers, .American
Presid<-nt. Sarah Lawrence College, Bronx-
villc. .\.\'. Sarah Lawrence College I.A.J. Ivan A. Jacobsen, B..A.
Noi-wegian Embassy, Washington, D C. Edi- :

H.T.H. Henry Heoid, M.S.. Fng. D.. LL.D.

tor, .yoncay Digest, .\'nfs of .Xoncay.
Formerly, President. Illinois Institute of
Illinois Institute of Technology I.A.R. Ivor A. Richards, M.A.. Litt.D.
University Lecturer and Director of Re-
H.T.M. Harry T. Moore, Ph.B., M..\.
search for the Commission on English Lan-
.Major, .\ir Reserve; Department of English,
guage .Studies, Harvard University, Cam-
Babson Institute: Formerly, Editorial iStaflf,
bridge, Mass.; .Author, Basic English and Its
Air Force Mngazinr, \'ork City. New Uses; Philosophy of Rhetoric.
.\viation .\rticles
H.T.McD. H. T. McDermott
Language .Articles

l.ililiu. /i, ami Hifriiirralion, Chicago. ICE I.A.S. Israel A. Smith, LL.B.
President. Reori;anized Church of Jesus
H.T.S. Harlan T. Stetson, M.S., Ph.D.
Formerly, Research .\ssociate, Massachusetts Christ of Latter Day .Saints.
Institute of Ft'chnology, C>ainbridge, Mass., Latter Day Saints, Reorganized
and Dirr<tor, Laboratory for Cosmic Fer-
Church of
rrstrial Research. Astronomy; Sun LL.D.
Ignatius Bjorlee, L.H.D.,
H.T.W. Harry T. Woodfleld Superintendent. Maryland State School for
Hniiiii.iiN I'lisident, National Hoi-seshoc the Deaf, Frederick.
I'lii li' iv' \^-;()( i.ition of .'\merica. H ANUKM'i'i I). TiiK I
Education of the Deaf)
HoKstsHDE Pitching and Related .Articles
H.U.F. Harold Underwood Faulkner, Ph.D., L.H.D. I.H. Irenoeus Herscher, M.A., B.S.T.. B.L.S.
Dwighl \V. .Morrow Profe.s.sor of History, I.itiraiian. .St. Bonaventure College, .St.
.Smith C>)llege, .Northampton, Mass. Bona venture, N.Y.
BisiNF-ss Leaders Biographies St. Bon.wenture College

I.J.C. Isaac Cox, Ph.D.
J. J.A.Kr. John A. Krout, Ph.D., L.H.D.
of History Minrritus, Nortliwrstrrn
I'luli-s-sor Proh ssor (jf History, Qjlumbia Univei-sity,
Univci-sity, Kvanstun, III. New York C;ity.
Pk,„„bition Article
Laiin .Xmkrica .Articles; Panama CIanai
J.A.La. John A. Lapp, Ph B., LL.D.
I.J.R. Irving Rosenbaum, li.A.
J. I ..ihoi .\i l)ilt .itor. , t •• I

Raljlji;DikiUji, Ri-liijioiis Drpartmrnt. I^ABOR Articles

Anti-Uffamation Ix-aguc, Clhicago. J.A.Lo. John Adams Lowe, M.A., Litt.D.
Bible; Jewish Articlts I)iii(ti)i. I'ul)li( Libraiy, RiKhc-ster, .N.^'.

I.L.K. I. Kandel, Ph.D., Litt.D.. LL.D.

Dewey, Mei.vil; Library
Prolissur ol .\mrriran Studies, L'ni\frsity of J.A.R.Jr. John A. Ross, Jr., S.D., LL.D.
Manchester. Kni»lancl: Professor I'.ineritiis of I oiineily, Clarkson College of
Education. leachers C^ollege, Ckihiinhia Uni- 1 echiKjIogy, Potsdam, N.Y.
versity, New \'ork City. Clarkson College of Fechnology
Foreign Schooi5 Articles
J.A.S. James A. Suffridge
I.M.J. Ivan Murray Johnston, IMi.D. President, Retail Clerks International .As-
Botany. Har\'ard Uni-
.•\ssociate I'rotessor ol sociation.
versity, Cambridge, Mass. Retail Clerks International A.s.soc:iArioN
Tropical Trees .\rticles
J.B.C. J. B. Condllffe, S.D.. LL.D.
t.M.M. Ida M. Mellen Proffisoi- of Lconomics, L^niversity of Cali-
/ hf Science and the Mystery of the Cat;
foinia, Bei"kele\ .\uthor. .1 Short History of

Zoologist; Former Chief .\quarist of the New

.\ew ^ealand and .\eif ^ealand in the Sinking.
^'ork .\quarium. Cat Kermadlc Island*:: .New Zealand
I.O.H. iola O. Hessler, H..\.
J.B.D. J. Brovirnlee Davidson, M.E., Eng. D.
Formerly, I'ublicity Secretan.-, League of
Professor of .Aurituliural Engineering, Iowa
Women \'otei-s of the United Slates, Wash- .State College, .\mes.
ington, D.C.
.Ac;ru:li URAL Machinery Articles
League of Women Voters of the
United States J.B.Gi. J. B. Gibbs
.Sales .Specialist on Plows and Fillage Imple-
l.t.K. Irvin R. Kuenzli, MA. ments, International Har\-ester Company,
Secretary- icasurer, .\merican Federation
of ieachei's. C^hicago. p,^^^^.
Teachers, .\merican Federation of J.B.Go. Jean B. Goddu
.Supicinc .Secretary, Foresters of America,
I.R.T. Ivan Roy Tannehill, B.S. Boston, Mass.
Chief. l)i\ isioii ol Synoptic Repoi'tsand Fore- Foresters of .America
casts. U..S. Weather Bureau.
J.B.R. J. Bernard Robb, .M.S.
Weather and Related Articles Chemical I )ir<'ctor, \"irginia .Alcoholic Bever-
J.Ar. Jean Arbo Jean .\1. Fttwein) age Control Board, Ri< hinond, \'a.

Frec-Lance .\rtist.
.Ai.ccjHoi ic Beverages .Articles

Plant Color Plates J.B.Sa. Jennings Sanders, Ph.D.


J.Au. Joseph Auskinder, Litt.D. President. .\I<iiiphis .State College, Memphis,

I'dit: I.ditor and Compiler, The Winded Tenn.
Horse. Formerly, Clonsultant in Poi'try and Memphis State College
Gift Officer, Libran.- of Congress. J. B.S. J. B. Sutton, M.S.Ch.E.,Ph.D,
British Poets Biographies Resc.ircii Division Head, DuPont Company.
J.A.B. James Arthur Beall, M.S.
J.B.Z. John B. Zellers, B.A.
.*\ssociateProfessor of .-Xnimal Hiisbandrs';
(Jeneral Manat;<'r. Duplicator Supplies Divi-
Head of Meats Division, Oklahoma .\ijricul-
sion. Reminuton Rand, Inc.
tural and Mechanical College, .Stillwater.
Hectograph; Multigraph
NfEAT .Articles
J.Cof. Joseph Coffin
J.A.D. John Alpine Dougan, B.A. Author: Formerly, Editor, Numismatic Scrap-
Historian. book Mni^azine.
C^anadian Citif_s Articles MoNETAR^ Units .Articles

J.A.d'l. Joseph A. d'Invilliers, M..\. J.Cot. Joseph Cottier, B.S.

Chairman, Department of Philosophy, Loy- .Author: Counselor, Central High School,
ola College, Baltimore; Member of the .So- Philadelphia, Pa.
ciety of Jesus. F.xii (iRKRs and Innentors Biographies
Loyola College J.Cr. James Creese, M..A.. LL.D.
J.A.Gr. John A. Griffin, M.A. Formerly, \ice-President, Stevens Institute
.Assistant to the President and Associate Pro- of Fechnology, Hobokcn, N.J.
fessor of Journalism, Emory University, Stevens Institute of Technolcxjy
Emor>- University. Ga.
Emory Univer.sity J.C.Ad. John Cranford Adams, Ph.D.
Pi(si<leiii Hof'itia College. Hempstead. L.I.
J.A.Ke. J.A. Keller, B.S., .\I..\., L.H.D., LLD. HoFSTRA College
President, State Teachers College. Florence, J.C.AI. J. Cecil Alter
Ala. Lditoi -Historian. Utah State Historical .So-
..At ABAMA State Te.\chers College cietv. Salt Lake City.
( Florence) Various Utah .Articles

J.C.i. John C. Boker, M.KA., I.I..D. J.E. Jeanette Eaton, .M..\.
1'!' I !• ni < >lii<) University, .\thcns. Ohio. I'oniurK, Editor, Story Parade.
Ohio University Lafayette, .Marquis de; Washington.
J.C.C. John C. Cutting George; Williams, Roger
riil)h< Relations Department, .\merican
Meat Institiilr. Chicago. J.E.A. J. E. Ash, Ml).

MiM PAr:KiNG; Packinc; House

.S(i< ntificDirector, American Registn.- of
Pathology, .\rmy Institute of Pathology,
J.C.K. J«mei C. Kinord, 1. 1. I).. I.itt.D. Washington, D.C.
I'l iMcliiii. NcwIuTi \ (/jllrije, .N'ewl>ern,'.S.C. .\rmv Medical Museum
Newberrn C^iI if.ce J.E.Ba. Julia E. Boxter
J. CM. James C. Masker l)ivisi(jn of Research and Information, Na-
.NuprrMsor of Officials, Western Conference, tional .\ssfK-iation for the .Advancement of
Chicago. Football Colored People, New York City.
National Association for the .Advance-
J.C.N. Jeannette Covert Nolan ment of Colored People
Aullioi. Siiii\ fif Lliini lidTlon of thf Rfd Cross
and Other Biographies. J.E.Br. John E. Briggs, Ph.D., LL.D.

Barion. Ci ara: Dorr.i as. Stf.phf.n A. Piolessor. Political .Science Department,

.State University of Iowa, Iowa City.
J.C.P. J. C. Peel, Ph. I). Iowa and Related .Articles
IX-an, Florida Southern College. Lakeland.
''^- Florida .Southern College J.E.Bu. Julian Edward Butterworth, Ph.D.
Professor of Rural Education, Cornell Uni-
J.C.5. Joseph Coburn Smith, M..\. versity, Ithaca, N.Y. Rural Educaiion
Diicitor of PubUcity, Coll>y College, Water- J.E.C. J. Edward Coffey, Ph.D.. SID.
^'"'•- ^'i"- Colby College I(jiin<Tly, Dean, .St. Peter's College. Jersey
City, N.J. Member of the Society of Jesus.
J.C.We. John C. Weit, Ed.D., LL.D.
St. Peter's College
Presideni, L niversity of North Dakota.
North Dakota, University of J.E.Hi. John Eric HIM, Ph.D.
l"oiinerly, .Associate Curator of Mammals,
J.C.Wo. Joseph Charles Wolf The .American Museum of Natural History.
I.ibiaiian in( Charge of Historical Genealogy,
-A.NiM.AL Life
NewberiA- Libraiy, Chicago.
Genealogy J.E.Ho. John Edgar Hoover, LL.D., D.C.L., LL.M.
J.D«. James Deegan Director. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
1 rcc-l.ancc .\rtist. r^
Doll Color
,-. i m
Washine;ton, D.C.
Federal Bureau of Investigation
J.Do. John Donahue
Ldiicji. Culuriibia (Knights Columbus
of J.E. Mad. Joseph E. Maddy, Mus.D.
Organ). Knights of Columbus President. .National Music Camp, Inter-
lochen, -Mich.
J.D.B. J. D. Buchanan, M..\., D.D. National Music Camp
I oiiiicily. Professor and Religion,
of Bible
.Monmouth College, Monmouth, 111. J.E.Mas. J. E. Masters
Grand Secretary, B.P.O. of Elks, Chicago.
Monmouth College Elks, B.P.O. of
J.D.Hi. John D. HIckt, Ph.D.
Morrison Pi ofessor of History, University of J.E.P James Ernest Pate, Ph.D.
California, Berkeley. I'irginia: Professor of
.\utlior. (loverrimi-nt in
United States History Articles Political College of William and
Mary. Williamsburg, \'a.
J.D.Ho. James D. Hotklns, LI.D., Litt.D. Virginia and Related Articles
I'll suit 111 KiiHritus, University of Tennessee,
Knoxvillf. J.E.S. J. E. Sprlngmeyer
Tennessee, University of
1 .cuisiative C^ounsel, State of Nevada.
J.D.M. James Dysart Magee, Ph.D. Nkvada
oriiurly, Professor of Economics,
I' New York J.E.Wa. James E.Wagner, B..A.. D.D.
University, New York City. Formerly, Dir<-ctor of Public Relations,
Banking Articles Franklin and .Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa.
J.D.McG. J. D. McGhee, MA. Fr.ankli.n and Marshall College
R<t;iMiai Slate Colored Normal, Industrial,

.Agricultural, and NIechanical College, ^^^• Joe Farrar, Ph D.

Orang<-burg, .S.C. I'ormerlv, President, Northwestern State
(lollege, .Natchitoches, La.
•South C\R()Mna State Colored Normal,
Indu.striai .\<;ri(:iii TURAL, AND Mechani-
Louisiana. Northwestern State
cal College colixge of
J.D.R. John D. Robins, Ph D. J.F.C. J. Forbes Campbell, M..A.
Piolt>Mii and Head of the D<'partmc-nt of .Special .Assistant to Chairman, Federal De-
Enulish, \*ictoria University, Toronto, On- posit Insurance Corporation, Washington.
tario, Author, J hf Incomplete Anglen. D.C.
Canadian I-iterature; Fi.shino Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
J.F.E. Josephine F. Eddy, B.S., M.A. J.H.R. J.H. Reld, M.A.
-Vsicx^^iatr I'mlcssor of Home Economics. Ala- Prolcssor of Economics and Marketing,
bama Ck)llti;<-, Montcvallo. Ala. University of Maryland.
I)Kt_ssMAKiNG and RflatttI .\rticlrs Maryland, UNi\KRsrrY ok
J.F.M. J. F. Marsh, M..\.. Pcd.D. J.H.T. John Howard Truesdail, B A.M.. \., Ph.D.
Prt-siciciii .incritus, Cxincord College, Atlun.s.
I Iciliiuial .Sup< riiUriident, DiiPont Cello-
\V.\ a. Concord Coli.kgk phane Division, Old Hickory, Tenn.
J.F.S. J. F.Sontee, I'h I). Cellophane
Professor ol Kdiuation and Social .Science. J.H.Wa. J. Hartt Walsh, Ph.D.
Oregon College of Education. Monmouth. Dcui, ()oll<-t;e of Education, Butler Univer-
Orkoon Coi-i eok of Educ.mion -it\. ln(liatia[)()lis. Elementary .School
J.G.E. J. Gordon Eoker, Ph.D. J.H.WI. James H. Wishart
Formniv, Head. Department of Language Research l)iic<tor. International Union.
and Literature, and Publicity Director, Kan- United .Automobile, .Aircraft, and .Agricul-
sas State Teachers College, Pittsburg, Kan. tural Implem<-nt Workers of .\m«Tica.
Kansas State Teachers Collkge United .Automobile, AiRr:RAFT, and .\(;ri-
(Pittsburg) cuLTi'RAi. Implement Workers of .America
J.G.H. J. Gordon Howard, M..\.. D.D. J. Jo. John Jonecek
PiisulciU. Oiuibein College, Westei-ville. Artist. .Scientific Drawings
C)h;(). Otterbein College J.Jo. Jacques Jolas
J.G.La. J. Gregg Layne Professor of Piano and Dirt-ctor of Music Ex-
Presitient, Historical Society of Southern tension, Cornell College, Mt. X'ernon, Iowa.
California; Researcher, Himtinijton Librai-\'. Piano
Los Angelks J.J.F. John Floherty
J.G.Le. J. G. Lehman, NL.\. .\utlior, Inudf the F.B.I, and Other Books.
Director of Public Relations, Transylvania C^)\i\n ^ll^• Security and Transportatio.n
College, Lexington, Ky. .Articles
Transylvania College J.J.H. Joseph J. Hickey, .M.S.
J.G.M. J. Gilmore Marquis, BE. Assistant Professor, Department of Wildlife
Dirciior. Olliie of Publications, American Management, University of Wisconsin; .Au-
National Red Cross, Washington, D.C. thor, ^-1 Guide to Bird Watchinii.
Red Cross Game Birds .Articles
J.G.N. John G. Neihardt, Litt.D., LL.D. J.J.L. J. J.Levlson, B.A., M.F.
Formerlv, Director of Information, U.S. Consultinii Landscape Forester, New York
Office of Indian .Affairs; .Authority on Plains C:ity. Plants .Articles
Indians; Poet; Critic. Indlan Biographies
J.J.M. John J. Metz, B.S.
J.G.R. J. G. Roy
Editor, Industrial .Arts and Vocational Educa-
National Secretarv-, Modem Woodmen of
Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee.
America, Rock Island, 111.
Industrial .Arts: \ocationai Education;
Modern Woodmen of .America N'ocATioNAL Guidance; and Related .Articles
J.H. Jan Hahn
Public Relations Director, Woods Hole Oceano- J.J.O'N. John J. O'Neill
graphic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. .Science E<iitor. Neiv York Herald Tribune.
Woods HoM OceaNOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION Distinguisheil .Science Writing Medal by the

J.H.C. James H. Carnahan

American .Association for the .Advancement
of Science, 946.
Director. 1 irst .\id, Water Safety, and .Acci- 1

dent F'revention Service, C^hicago C'hapter.

Atomic Bomb; Atomic Energy; and Related
.American Red Cross. First Aid
J.J.S. Joseph J. Schroeder
J.H.DuB. J. H. OuBois, B.S.
Executive .Secretary, Chicago Chapter,
Formerly, Executive Engineer, Shaw Insu-
American Institute of Banking.
lator C^ompany, Scotch Plains, N.J.: Na-
\'arious B.^.^•KlNG .Articles
tional President, Society of Plastics Engi-
J.K. Joseph Konowe
ne( IN, Inc.; .\uthor. Plastics. Pl.^stkis
J.H.E. Joseph Henry Edge, D.D., S.D.
Reimi Whoi . esai e and Department Store
Formerly, President, Dakota Wesleyan Uni-
Tmim onkes of .America, United
versitv. Dakota Wesleyan UNiVERsrr>
J.L.F. Joel Lafayette Fletcher, S.D., LL.D.
J.H.F. John H. Frederick, B.S.. Ph.D.
Professor of Transportation and Foreign
President, Southwestern Louisiana Institute.
Trade, University of -Maryland, College Park. Southwestern Louisiana Instituie of
Commerce .Articles
LiiiFRAi .AND Technical Learning
J.H.G. James H. Grout, O.D., DOS. J.L.H.,Jr. James U Hymes, Jr., .M.A., Ed.D.
Director, Northern Illinois Eye Clinic; Direc- President, National .Association for Nursen,-
tor, Dept. of Optometr\', Northern Illinois Education: Professor of Education, George
College of Opt(;nietr\-. Optometry Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville,
J.H.H. Justina Hamilton Hili, S.D. Tenn.
.Ass<x-iate in Urology, Medical School, Johns Child: Kindergarten; Nursery School
Hopkins L'niversitv. Disease; .Medicine J.L.L. John L. Lavan, M.D., Dr.P.H.
J.H.K. J. Herbert Kelley, M.A., Litt.D. District Health Officer; Formerly, Director
Formerly. Executive Secretary. Pennsyl- of Research. National Foundation for Infan-
vania .State Education .\s.sociation. tile Paralvsis, Inc., New \'ork City.
Pennsylvania Medical .Articles
J.H.O'D. J. Hugh O'Donnell, Ph.D. J.L.M. J. L. Morrill, B.A., LL.D.
Formerly, President, L'niversitv of Notre President, L'nivcrsity of Minnesota, Minne-
Dame. Notre Dame, University of apolis. Minnesota, University' of
J.L.N. John Lloyd Nowcomb, CK.,
SI)., I.I..D. J.R.Hul. James R. Hulbert, Ph.D.
1 111 m< 1\ l'r(M<l(iit. L nivrrsity of Virginia.
1 . Piolrssoi of University of Chicago.

t;ii.irlt)ttr.sviilc. \irginia. University at Linguistics .Articles

J.R.Hut. John R. Hutcheson, S.D.
J.L.R. JunoM L. •ndahl, M.S. in Ed.
C!ont ordia Moor- Chancellor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
\ K c-l'iisidrnt, CIoIIck*',
Blacksburg, Va.
hciil, Millll. (!()I
\iKoiMA Polytechnic Institute
J.M. John Mulholland J.R.J. James R. Joy, L.H.D.
M.ii.;u i.iii. l.dilui". The Sphinx. Librarian, .Methodist Historical Society, New
Magic .\rticlcs York City.
J.M.H. J. M. Hammer .Airk:an -Mithodist; Wesleyan Methodist
(da.vs rcchnoiogist. Glass J.R.K. John R. Koch, M.S., Ph.D.
J.M.M. J. M. Munton Head, Department of Chemistry, Marquette
luriiKi Iv. I'lcsidrnt, .Michigan State Normal University, Milwaukee, Wis.
Ck)ll<i;<-. \'|)siianti, .Mich. Building .Accessories Articles
Michigan State Normal College J.R.M. J. R.Meany, B.S., LL.B., C.P.A.
Head, Department of .Accounting. Bowling
J.M.N.Jr. Jamei M. NabrH, Jr., B..\., J.D.
•Set rctai y. Howaitl Univci-sity, Washington,
Green College of Commerce, Kentucky.
DC. Howard University'
Bookkeeping and Related .Articles
J.R.Mo. Magness
J. R.
J.M.S. J. M. Sayles, IM.D. Head Horticulturist, U.S. Dept. of .Agricul-
President Emrritus, State College for ture, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, .\ld.
IVachffS. .Mbany, N.Y. Fruit and Fruitgrowing
Nk\s- York State College for Teachers
J.R.McC. James Ross McCain, Ph.D., LL.D.
I'lcsidcnt. .\L,'nes Scott College, Decatur, Ga.
J.M.W. Jame> M.Wood, M.A., LL.D. .Agnes Scott College
Formerly, President, Stephens College, Co- J.R.McD. Joe R. McDoniel
liimhia. Mo. Stephens College (low hoy, Superior, .Ariz. Cowboy
J.N.N. J. Nelson Norwood, Ph.D., LL.D. J.R.P. James R. Parker, B..A.
Formerly. President, .Alfred University, Al- Information .Manager, Western Electric
fred, .N'.V. .Alfred University Company, Hawthorne Works, Chicago.
J.N.R.S. J. N. R. Score, Ih.D., D.D., LL.D. Western Electric Comp.\ny
President. .Sontlnvestern University, George- J.R.S. John Richie Schultz, Ph.D., LL.D.
towil, lex. .SoUTHWESTER.N UNrVERSIT^ Formerly, President, .Allegheny College,
J. P. A. Joseph P. Anderson Meadville, Pa. .Allegheny College
Ext-eiitive Secretary, American Association J.S.K. James S. Kearns, B..A.
of .Social Workers. Formerly, Sports Writer for the Chicago Daily
Sor:iAi. Workers, American Association of .Xews and the Chicago Sun.
Baseball; Basketball
J.P.C. J. P. Cole, M.S.
J.S.Me. Jerome S. Meyer
Professor of .Mathematics: Director, Student
.Author of Books on Games.
Life. Louisiana State University.
l.oiTsiANA State Universitn
Games of Chance .Articles
J.S.MI. John Schoff Ph.D., LL.D.
J.P.McC. John McCormiek, S.T.B., Ph.D.
President, L'nivei"sity of \'ermont and State
President, St. Edward's Seminary, Ken- Agricultural College, Burlington.
more, Wash. St. Edward's Seminary V^ERMONT, University of, and State
J.P.O'S. John P. O'Sulllvan, Ph.D. .Agricultural College
Dean, (i.iiiisius C^ollegc, Buffalo, N.Y. J.S.Mo. Jorvis S. Morris, M.A., Th.D.
Canisius College President, Polytechnic Institute of Puerto
J.P.S. John P. Stock Rico.
I'li^idini. Marrabees, Detroit. Maccabees Polytechnic Institute of Puerto Rico
J.R.A. John Richard Alden, Ph.D. J.S.S. J.Solwyn Schopiro, Ph.D.
Department of History, University of Ne- Professor Emeritus of History, City College,
braska, Lincoln. History .Articles New ^'ork City. History .Articles
J.R.Co. J. Roy Coble, Ph.D. J.S.T. James S. Tippett, B.S.
l't<M(l( lU, Mis.souri Valley College, Marshall, .\uthor. Toys and Toy Makers; l^cclurvr in
Mo Mi.ssouRi Valley College Education. University of North Carolina,
Clhapel Hill. TOY
J.R.Cw. J. R.Cunningham, D.D., LL.D.
J.T.A. J. T. Anderson, Ed.D.
President, Davidson College, Davidson, N.C.
President Emeritus, Nebraska State
Davidson College
Teachei-s College, Wayne.
J.R.C.E. John Robert Charles Evans, Ph.D., LL.D. Nebraska State Teachers College
Pi (sidiiit. iirandcjn (;ollct;e, Brandon, .Mani- (Wayne)
ti>ba. Brandon College J.T.B. John Buchholz, M.S., Ph.D.
J.R.P. J. R.Forbes, D.O. Professor of Botany. L'niversity of Illinois.
Director, Division of Public and Professional ('one-Bkaring Trees .Articles
W<-lfarr, .American Osteopathic .Association. J.T.L. John Tote Lanning, Ph.D.
Osteopathy Formerly, .Managing Editor, Hispanic Ameri-
J.R.G. J. R. Grant, Ph.D. can Historical Review; Profes.sor of History,
I (iriiurly. President. Ouachita College, .Vrka- Duke University, Durham, N.C.
delphia. Ark. OiAf;HiTA College .Argentina; Paraguay; Uruguay
J.V.B. J. V. Br«itwies«r, Ph.D. K.H.McG. Kenneth H. McGIII, B..\.
Formerly, Dt-an, Scliool of Kdiication; Din-c- Chiel, keseaiih & .Statistics Division, U.S.
tor. Graduate Division, University of North Sclcctivr Service System.
Dakota. Draft, Miutary; .Militia
North Dakota Cities Artidc-s
K.J.C. Kenneth John Conont, M Arch., Ph.D.. Litt.D.
J.V.F. John Vernor Finch, Nf.A. Professor of .\ri luiei lure. Harvard Univer-
ForiTH-riy, Instructor in Meteorology, L'ni- sity, Cambridge, .Mass.
vcisitv of C!liieaijo Mkteorologv Articles .\rcihtecture Articles
J.W. Jorgen We*t«rstdhl, Ph.D.
K.L.B. Katherine Little Bokeless
Lcciurcr. L nivcrsity of Stockholm.
.Musician; .\uthoi", .Slory- I.iirs of Great Coin-
Swede.n; Stockholm ftnsrrs. CoMPosKRS Biographies
J.W.t. John W. Bartram, B..A.
Bureau of Information, University of
K.L-H. Karl Lark-Horovitz, Ph.D.
Colorado, Boulder. Head, DepartiiKnl of Physics, Purdue Uni-
versity, Lafayette, Ind.
Colorado, University of
Physics Articles
J.W.Ho. Jerome W. Howe, B.S.
K.Me. Kirlce Mechem
13<an ol .\dniissions and Students, Worcester
.Secretary, Kansas State Historical .Society.
Polytechnic Institute. Worcester, Mass.
Worcester Polvtech.nic Instipute
K.M.F. Kathleen M. Foley, B..A.
J.W.P. Julius W. Prott, Ph.D. Cxjllege Editor, .Ma.ssachusetts State College,
Prof<ss<Ji of .\merican History, University of .-Vmherst, Mass.
Buffalo. Buffalo, N.Y.
Massachusetts State College
Me.xica.n War; Spanish-American War;
War of 1812 K.IM.L. Kathleen Margaret Lambert, .M..\.
J.W.S. J.Wendell Sether, A.B. .Assistant Registrar. .St. Joseph's College for
Director of Public Information, National Women, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Board of Fire Underwriters, New \'ork City. .St. Joseph's College for Women

K.M.S. Kenneth M. Smith, B.S.
J.W.Sp. John Webster Sporgo, Ph.D. Director, Seattle .Aviation Training School,
Professor of English. .Northwestern Univer- Seattle, Wash. Navigation Articles
sity. Evanston. 111. Heraldry .\rticles
K.N. Konrad Neuger, Mus.D.
J.W.Sw. Joseph Word Swain, Ph.D.
Formerly, Chorus Director, Chicago Opera
Professor of History, University of Illinois.
Company; Head of Opera Department,
Historians Biographies Chicago Musical C)ollege.
K.A.R. Kenneth A. Reid, Ph.B. Opera and Related Articles
Executive Director, Izaak Walton League of
K.P. Karl Plath
Evanston, 111.
Curator of Birds, Chicago Zoological Park,
IzAAK Walton League Brookfield, 111. Bird Drawings
K.Ba. Kenneth Barnard, LL.B. K.t. Keen Rofferty, B.A.
General .Manager, Chicaijo Better Business Dirert(jr, Dis ision of Journalism, Univer-
BiiicaM, Inr Better Business Bureau sity of .New Mexico, .Albuquerque.
K.BI. Katharine Blunt, Ph.D.. LL.D. New .Mexico, University of
President Emeritus, Connecticut College, K.S.L Kenneth S. Londouer, M.D.
New London, Conn Director of Medical Care, National Founda-
Connecticut College tion for Infantile Paralysis, Inc., New York
City. Infantile Paralnsis
K.B.S. Kathleen Stebbins, B.A., B.S. in L.S.
Executive Secretary, Special Libraries .Asso- K.T. Kenneth Thomas, Nf.A.
ciation, New York, N.S'. Liiitor. Amtrirnri 7 rade Magazine, Chicago.
Si'kcuai. Libraries .-\.<«ociation Dry Cleaning
K.C Kenneth Colegrove, Ph.D., Litt.D. K.T. A. Kathryn Trimmer Abbey, Ph.D.
Professor of Political Science, Northwestern Author, Florida, Land of Chan^r; Lecturer,
University, Evanston, 111. Inter-.American Relations, Rollins College,
Citizenship; Civil Liberties; Communism; Winter Park, Fla.
Government Florida and Related Articles
K.C.A. K. C. Adams
K.T.C Karl T. Compton, S.D.. D.Eng., Ph.D., LL.D.
Editor, //if United Mine U'orkrrs Journal,
Washington, D.C. Chairman, Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology' Corjxiration, Cambridge. Mass.
United Mine Workers of .\merica
MxssAf iRsins Institlite of Tecum. iogy
K.D. Karl Detzer
.\mlior. / hf Afightiesl Army; Editor, The Army LA. Lloyd Ackermon, M.S.. Ph.D.
Reader. Author. Hidlth ami Hygiene. Ear
National Defense L.A.C Lloyd Allen Cook, Ph.D.
K.E. Kendall Emerson, NLD. Professor of Educational .Sociology and Di-
.\Ianat;int; Director, National Tuberculosis rector, National College .Study in Inter-
.Association, New York City. group Relations, Wayne University, Detroit.
Tuberculosis Association, National Social Service; Sociology
L.A.Ho. L»on Aufluttut Houtman, Ph.D. L.O. Louis Dechmonn
l'rii|(S.soi 1)1 /.iii)|iii;\ , New JcM-srv ColU-^*" for .\rtist.
Woinrn: Omsiiltini; Ornithologist, .Statr Ex- Various Diagrams and Illustrations
pcrimrnt Station ol Ruti;frs Univn-sity. New
L.D.,Jr. Loyal Durond, Jr., Ph.D.
Brunswick, N. J.
Birds Articles l'i()l<ss()i of Geography, University of
I ennessee, Knoxvillc.
L.A.He. Laon* Ann H«u«r, B.S. Geography Articles
I(Mile .md Uniiic Fumishings Editor,
Household Finance Corporation, Chicago. L.D.W. Lyman DwIghtWooster, Ph.D.
Fibers Articles Formerly. President, Fort Hays Kansas State
L.A.LI. L*roy A. Lincoln College, Hays, Kan.
Picsidtnt. Metropolitan Life Insurance Com- Fort Hays Kansas State College
|)any, Nrw N'ork Ciity.
L.E.G. Loyd E. Grimes, M..\. Ed. D.
INSURANCE (Life Insurance)
Director of .Student Personnel, Central
L.A.L. Leflerts A. Loetscher, Ph.D.. D.D. Missouri .State College, VVarrensburg, Mo.
AsMM i.it<- I'tofcssor of Church History, Missouri
Princeton 1 heological Seminar^', Princeton,
N.J. L.E.T. Leslie Troeger, B.S.A., M.S.
Knox, John; Presbyterian Editor, .\iiti(tnal ^-H .\eivs, Chicago.
L.A.Sm. Letter A. Smith, M.A. FouR-H Club
I)ii<( tor of .\luinni Relations, George Wash- L.F.C. Lenna F. Cooper, M.A.. M.H.E., S.D.
ington Univei-sity, Washington, D.C. C;hief. Department of .Nutrition, Montefiorc
George Washington University Hospital, New York City.
L.A.So. Lee A. Somert, M.S. Nutrition Articles
.\ssistaiit Prof<ssor in Vegetable Gardening
E.xtension, Univci^sity of Illinois, Urbana. L.F.H. Lewis Haines, Ph.D.

Vegetables Articles Editor, University of Florida Press.

Florida, University of
L.A.Su. Lee A. Sullivan
Picsident, I'M Bridge Co., Jacksonville, III. L.Gr. Leonard Greenburg, C.E., Ph.D., M.D.
Ferris Wheel Executive Director, Division of Industrial
L.B.A. LL.D.
Leslie Bralnerd Arey, Ph.D.,S.D., Hygiene and Safety Standards, New York
Robert Laughlin Rea Professor of Anatomy State Labor Department.
and Chairman, Department of Anatomy, Heating; Ventilation
Northwestern University, Chicago.
L.G.L. Lois G. Lobb, M.D.
Zoology Articles
Staff Physician, Las Encinas Sanitarium,
L.B.B. Lansing B. Bloom, M.A.
Pasadena, Calif.
Formerly, Editor, Aew Mexico Historical Re- Blood
i'/«<;.\ssociate Professor of History, University
of New Mexico, Albuquerque. L.G.M. Lily Grace Motheson
New Mexico Corresponding Secretary, National Woman's
L.B.H. Lincoln B. Hale, Ph.D. Christian Temperance Union, Evanston. 111.
President, Evansville College, Evansville, Woman's Christian Femperance Union
L.G.V.V. Lewis G. Vander Velde, Ph.D.
Evansville College
Professor (jf Histoiy and Director of the
UCa. Leonard Cormichael, Ph.D., S.D., LL.D., .Michigan Historical Collections, University
I.ilt.i). of Michigan, .\nn .Arbor.
President, Tufts College, Medford, Mass. Mic:niGAN and Related .Articles
Tufts College
L.H.H. Louis Herman Hubbard, Ph.D., LL.D.
L.CI. Leo Cluesmann
President, lexas State College for Women,
Secret a ry.. American Federation of Musicians.
Denton, Fex.
Ml sK \Ns. .\merican Federation of

Fexas State College for Women

L.C.M. Leonard C. Mishltin, B.S. •

L.H.T. Lewis Honford TMfany, M.S.. Ph.D.

Rabbi; Educational Director, Associated
William Deerinij Professor of Botany and
'I'almud Torahs, Chicago.
Chairman, Department of Botany, North-
Jew; Ji daism; and Related Articles
western University, Evanston, 111.
L.C.Ma. Lydia Curtis Mason Algae Articles
Children's Librarian, New York Public
Ivibrarv L.H.W. Leon H. Warren, B..A., M.D.
Co-author, Circus .Master of .Metlical Science in Dermatology
and Syphilology, Office of the Surgeon Gen-
L.C.S. Leo C. Sterck, SIB., M.A.
eral, U.S. .Army, Washington, D.C.
Registrar, St. Ambrose College, Davenport,
Medical Articles
St. .Ambrose College LI. Leopold Infold, Ph.D.
L.C.WI. Lowry Charles WImberly, Ph.D. Professor of .\pplied Mathematics, University
Professor of English, L niversity of Nebraska. of Foronto, Ontario.
.American .Authors Biographies Relativity
L.C.Wr. Louis C.Wright, Ph.D.. LL.D. L.J. Llewellyn Jones
loniK riv, Picsident, Baldwin-Wallace Col- .\uthor, Hou to Read Books and Other Books;
Icg, B<-rea, Ohio. Editor.
Baldwin-Wallace College Biography .Articles

L.J.D. Lucy Jennings DIckinton, B.A. L.R.L. Lenox R. Lohr, ME.
Prrsiilciit, C.fiifi.il Ifilcration of Women's PresKleiit, Museum of Science and Industry,
C:iiil)s. Woman's C^lub Chicago.
L.Ka. L*e Kelly Radio
National Secretary, Ancient Order of Hiber- L.R.T. Leo Roy Tehon, Ph.D.
nians in America. liotanist. Head, Section of Applied Btuany
HiHi KM \vs IN America, Ancient Order of and Plant Pathology, Illinois State Natural
L.KI. Lee Kingman, B.A. History .Survey, Urbana.
\Siit<i and Kditor. Bi'RTON, VIRGINIA Lee Fruit Trees Articles
L.T*. Lee Teufel, MA.
L.LC. Lloyd Cheney, Pd.D.
L. Instructor, (Jonzaga L'niversitv, Spokane,
.AssistantCommissioner, State Education Wash.; Memlx-r of the .Society of Jesus.
Dtpartmrnt, Nrw York. New York GoNZAGA L'nIVERSITY
L.L.M. Louis L. Mann, Fii.D.
L.Ty. Levering Tyson, Litt.D., LL.D.
Professor, Oriental Lanf^uages, University of
President. .Muhlenberg College, .Allentown,
Chicago; Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congre- Pa
^ Muhlenberg College
Various Jewish .•\rticles
L.T.C. Lewis T. Corlett, B.A., D.D.
L.M. Louis Morlcfc, E..M., M.S.. Ph.D.
President. .Northwest Nazarene College,
Rcscm li Physicist, Detroit, Mich. Nampa, Ida.
Physics .\rticles
Northwest Nazarene College
L.McK. Lynn McKee, M.S. in Fisheries
Production .Manager of Fishery at Bothell, L.T.F. L. Thomas Flotley, Ph.D.
Wash. Salmon Public .Accounting Executive.
L.M.F. Leon M. Fuquay Investment Articles
.Sei retaiA I eiieral Power Commission, Wash-
, L.T.L. Lawrence T. Lowrey, Ph.D.
ington, D.C. President, Blue Mountain College, Blue
Federal Power Commission Mountain, Miss.
L.M.Fr. L. M. Freeman Blue Mountain College
.Nfanat;er. Woiks Technical Group, B. F. UU. Louis Untermeyer
CJoodrit h Company, .\kron, Ohio. Editor and Compiler of Many .Anthologies of
Rubber; Tire Poetry; Poet, Critic, and Lecturer.
L.M.R. L. M. Raftery Poets Biographies
General .SecretarN'-Treasurer, Brotherhood L.W. Louis WIrth, Ph.D.
of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers
Professor of .Sociology-, L'niversity of Chicago.
of .Vmerica.
Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers L.W.B. Lome W. Barclay, DHL.
IF .\merica. Brotherhood of
National Director of Publications, Boy
L.M.S.M. Leroy M. S. Miner, D.M.D.,M.D.,S.D.,D.P.H. Scouts of .America.
Professor of Oral Surgery, Harvard Univer- Boy Scouts of .America
sity. Cambricle:c, Mass. UW.J. L.Wilson Jarman, .M..A., LL.D.
Dentistry President Emeritus, Mary Baldwin College,
L.N.M. L. N. Morgan, M..\. Staimton, \'a.
Professor of English; Director, University N!.\RY Baldwin College
Publications, University of Oklahoma, Nor- M.A. Mary Abele, B.F.A.
man, r^ I T .Assistant Art Editor, The World Book En-
Oklahom.\, University' of
L.P. Lee Possmere 1,1 ttkring and Related .Articles
Field -Naturalist; Photographer.
Black Widow Spider; Spider M.A.B. Mary A. Benjamin, B.A.
Director, Walter R Benjamin Autographs,
LP.Sc. Leonard P. Schultz, .M.S., Ph.D. New York Citv .
Clurator of Fishes, U.S. National Museum,
Washington, D.C. M.A.C. Morse A. Cartwright, B.S..LL.D.
.S.\LT Water Fish .Articles Professor of Ktlutation and Executive Offi-
cer. Institute of .Adult Education, Teachers
L.R. Lincoln Rothschild, M..\.
College, Columbia University; Director,
.\uthor. Sculpture 7 hrough the Ages; Chairman
.American .Association for .Adult Education.
of .Art Department, .\delphi College, Ciarden
.Adult Educ.\tion and Related .Articles
City, N. Y.
Sculpture M.A.J. Morley A. Juil, B.S. A.. .M.S.. Ph.D.
Head of Poult r\' Department, University of
L.R. Be. Louellen Remmy Beyer Marvland, College Park.
.Secretary. .S(Kict\- for the .Advancement of ^ r
Education, Inc.; Managing Editor, School M.A.M. Miron A. Morrill, M.A.. D.D.
and Society. Foruieriv. Dean, Hamline University, St.
Society for the .Advancement of P. ml. Minn.
Education, Inc. Hamline University'
L.R.C. Leone Rutledge Carroll, B.S. M.A-O. Mehmet Ago-Oglu, Ph.D.. Litt.D.
Home Economics Consultant. Formerly. Director of Evkav Museum. Istan-
Food Articles bul: Curator of Near Eastern D<-partment.

The Detroit Institute of .Arts; Professor of
LeRoy Hafen, Ph.D., Litt.D.
Islamic .Art, University of Michigan. .Ann
Historian, State Historical Society, Denver,
Colorado. >~,
COI.ORAIK) Islamic .Architectl're; Islamic .Art

M.Ar. M*lvln Arnold M.F.G. Milton F. Gregg, D.C.L., LL.D.
DiiiiUii, I )i\ i>ion of Publications, American President. L luversity of New Brunswick.
I'nitari.in Avwx iation. Umiarian Fredericton. .\. B.
M.to. Muriel taldwln Nkw Bru.nswick, University of
I iist K(l> i( net- Assistant, Art Division, New M.F.L. Marion Lansing, M..-\.
^<llk l'ul)lic Library. Drkss .Author and Editor.
M.Bac. Max Bachrach Various Government and History Articles
I ur CAJiisiiltaiit; Ltitunr on Fui-s at New
M.F.S. Martha F. Simmonds, M.A.
York University: Author, l-ur anri Ihr hur
loiiiuiK. .\>sistant Professor of English,
Dn'fU. Flr Industry
Illinois Wesleyan University: .Style Editor,
M.tr. Margaret Breuning, B.A. Ihe World Book Encyclopedia.
(:<iMti ilMitiii,: (mhIi-. An Digrst.
Amkrican I'aimkrs' Biographies
M.GIo. Monson Glover, Nf..'\.
«LC Merle CurtI, I'h.I).
M.iiiul.K tiir<-r: formerly, Textbook Editor.
Professor of History, Univ<"i-sity of Wisconsin. Tide
U.S. HisToRiA.Ns' Biographies M.G.T. M. G. Toepel
M.C.C Martha Candler Cheney C-'hief, Wisconsin Legislative Reference Li-
.\niln)i-. M ••: Art in Arnrrica antl Other brary. Wisconsin
Ii<i<)ks: Clitic. Biography .\rticUs
M.H.B. Margaret H. Buyers, M..\.
M.CL. Mary C. Lyons, B.A. .\isisiantPublications Editor, Pennsylvania
Editor. W'lllfiUy Atugazinf, Wellesley College, State College, State College.
Wellesley, Mass. Wellesley College Pe.nnsylva.ni.a State College
M.D.B. Modene D. Botes, B.S.
K<L;l^^a^. Nrw .Mexico Military Institute,
M.H.T. Milton Halsey Thomas, MA.
Roswcll. .N..M.
Curator olOilumbiana, Columbia Univer-
New Mexico Miutarv Institute sity,
New York City.
,-, T,
Columbia University
M.Ea. Mary Eorhort, Ph.D. M.I. Margaret Ingels, .M.E.
.\-^i-t.mt I'lofessor of Political Science, EnE;ine<i inu Editor, Carrier Corporation,
Northwestern University, Evanston. 111. Syracuse. X.\'. .Air Conditioning
Biography .\rticles
M.Job. Marion Jobson
M.IV. Mary Evans, B.S.. M..\.
Nice-President, The Seeing Eye, Inc.
Professor of lonie Economics, Teachers Col-
Seelng Eye
leije, CoUimhia L niversity. New York City.
Costume .\rticles and Related Biographies M.Jon. Melvin Jones
Secretary General, Lions International.
M.C.B. Marlon Eugenie Bauer, .M..A.
.-\.ss<K-iatc Professor. D<-partment of Music,
Lions Clubs. International Association of
New ^'ork University, New York City; Fac-
ulty Member, Juilliard School of Music. M.Jos. Matthew Josephson, B..\.
Music .\uthor, RnhhfT Barons; The Politicos; The

M. I. Br. M. E. Brotcher, Ph.D., D.D. President Makfrs.

W: Niirn R< |)resentative, American Baptist Co-author, \'arious U.S. Presidents
Home Mission Society, San Francisco, Calif. Biographies
Baptist M.J.M. M. J. Martin, M.A.. LL.D.
M.E.Ch. Merle E. Chopin, Ph.B., M.A. Formerly, President, Loras College of
Professor of English, Carthage College, Dubuque, Iowa. Lor.as College
Carthau'c. 111. Carthage College
M.E.D. Monroe E. Deutsch, Ph.D., LED.
M.J.S. Milton J. Schiogenhauf, B.D.. MA.
Director of .\dinissi(jns. Northeastern Uni-
\ ice-Presiiient and Provost Emeritus, Uni-
versitv. B*iston. Northeastern University
versity of California, Berkeley.
Califor.nia, University of M.J.T. (Mrs.) M. J. Thompson
M.E.E. Mory E. Eaton, .M.A.
Librarian, University of New Brunswick.
.\ I list: loriiurlv. .New York Botanical Gar- New Brunswick Cities .Articles

drii I'lowER Color Plates M.Ke. Mark Kennedy, M..\.. I.ect.Glis.S.S.

M.i.P. Margaret E. Patterson President. .St. Bernardine of Siena College,
Executive Secretary, Science Clubs of Loudonville, N.Y.
America. .Science Clubs ok .\merica St. Bernardine of Siena College
M.E.R. Maurice Esteno Richardson, B.A. M.Ko. Method Korn, M .\.
K( L'lvtr.ir. lillMtvcin (ollege, Waco, Tex. R( ( tor. Mount .\ngel Seminary, St. Benedict,
TiLLOTSoN College ()i( . -Mount .Angel Seminary
M.B.S. M. E. Sodler, Ph.D.. D.D. M.Le. Margaret Lesser
President, 1 exas Christian University, Fort Editor, Junior Books, Doubleday and Com-
Wonh, Tex. pany, Inc.. Publishers, New ^'ork City.
Texas Christian University* .Aui aire, Ingri Mortenson d' and
M.P. Muriel Fuller, B.A. Edgar P.arin d'
.\uthor; Editor, Thomas Nelson & Sons. M.LI. Morris Lieff, M..A., Ph.D.
N'arious .\uthors' Biographies Wooti technologist; author, various studies
M.F.,Jr. Martin Frobisher, Jr., S.D. on wood. Wood
A.«ocialf Prol<ss<ir of Biologv, .School of Hy- M.Lu. Matthew Luckiesh, S.D.. D.E.
giene, Johns Ho{)kins University. Baltimore. Director, Lighting Research Laboratory,
Bacteria; Bacteriology; and Related General Electric Company, East Cleveland,
Articles Ohio. Eye; Light; and Related Articles
M.L.C. Morgan Combs, M.A., Ed.D.
L. M.S.R. Morris S. Rosenthal, B.A.
FicsKirnt. Marv Washineton College, Frcd- PrcM(icm, Stnii. Hall & Co., Inc., New
cricksburi^, \'a. York City.
Mary Washington Ck)i i f.ge Fibers .Articles

M.L.E. Matt L. Ellit, Ph.D., M..D. M.S.S. Mary S. Sims, Ph.D.

I'lcsitlc lU, Hcndrix College, Conway, Ark. Kxci iitive, .N.iiional Board of the Y.W.C.A.'s
Hendrix Collxge of the U.S.A.. .New York City.
Young Women's Christian .Association
M.McM. Mary McMinn, B.S.
SecretaiA' to the President. Agricultural & M.S.T. Maude S. Taylor, M..A.

Mcxhanical College of Icxas. College Station. .Assistant, .Nevada State Historical Society,
Texas, .Agricultural and Mechanical Reno, Ncv.
College of Nevada Cities Articles
M.U. Marguerite Uttley, Ph.D.
M.M.O. Mervin Monroe Deemi, Th.M., Ph.D.
Professor of the Historv' of Early Christian-
Prolcssoi- of Geography, Iowa State
ity and Missions, Federated
Teachers College, Cedar Falls.
Faculty, University of Chicago, Illinois.
Geography .Articles

Various Religion Articles M.V.C. Mitchell V. Charnley, .M ..A.

Professor of Journalism, University of Minne-
M.M.E. Melvin M. Ewen sota, Minncap>olis.
Supreme .Secretai-v', Knights of Pythias. X'arious Biography .Articles
Knights of Pythias
M.V.M. Magnus V. Mognusson
M.N. Martin Nelson, B.S..\., M.S.. LL.D. Counselor, Legation of Iceland, Washington,
Professor Emeritus of .Agronomy, University DC.
of .Arkansas, Fayetieville. Iceland
Cotton M.Wol. Mildred Woltrip
M.O.C. M. O. Cullen .Artist.

Author, How to Carve Meat, Game, and Poul- CloAL. C^oLoM \L Life, and Other Drawings
try;Director. Meat Merchandising, National M.Wil. Margaret Willis, M..A.
Live .Stock and Meat Board. Chicago. .Assistant Professor, Social Science-Educa-
Meat C.\rving Diagrams Ohio State L^niversity, Columbus.

M.O.R. M. O. Rots, Ph.D. Clothing; Communits'; L.abor Org.^niza-

Prcsitlrnt. Butler University, Indianapolis. TioNS .Articles; Sex Education
Butler University M.Wins. Mulford Winsor
Director. .State Department of Library and
M.P. Malcolm Price, Ph.D. .Archives, Phoenix, .Ariz.
Formerly, President, Iowa State Teachers Arizona and Related .Articles
College. Cedar Falls.
M.WInt. Milo Winter
Iowa State Teachers College
Ai ti-t. Pollination Color Plates
M.P.H. Maurice Hunt, M..A.. Ph.D.
.Assistant Professor of Social Studies, Fresno
M.W.F. M. W. Fodor, .M.S.. LL.D.
State College, Fresno, Calif.
Writer on Balkan .Affairs.
Europe: Explor.ation and Di.scovf.ry;
Bm kan Le.\ders Biographies
Income Ia.x; and Other .Articles M.W.N. Madeline W. Nichols, Ph.D.
.Associate Professor of History, Florida State
M.R.B. Mary R. Beard, Ph.B.
University, Tallahassee.
.Autlior, Woman as a Force in History; Co-
author of United States Histories with
Charles .A. Beard. Mthr.D.D. Mother Dorothea Dunlceriey, Ph.D.
Davis, Paulina Kellogg Wright Assistant Dean, College of New Rochelle. N.Y.
New Rochelle, College of
M.R.C. Morris R. Cohen, Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy, University of Chi-
Mthr.L.M. Mother Leonor Mefia, Ph.D.
cago. Philosophy .Articles President. .San Francisco College for Women.
San Francisco. Calit.
M.R.G. Malcolm R. Giles San Francisco College for Women
Supreme Secretary, Loyal Order of Moose.
Mthr.M.C. Mother Mary Cleophas, M..A.
Moose, Loyal Order of
Formerly, President. Rosemont College,
M.Sc. Marcel Schein, Ph.D. Rosemont, Pa.
Professor, Department of Physics and Insti- Rosemont College
tute for Nuclear Studies, University of Mthr.M.U. Mother Mary Ursula, M.S.
Chicago. Physics .Articles Presidint, .Mount .\ngel Women's College,
M.Sp. Matthew Spinka, B.D., Ph.D.. Th.D. Oregon.
Professor of C^hurch Histon-, Hartford Theo- Mount .Angel Women's College
logical Seminary, Hartford, Conn. N.A. Nobia Abbott, Ph.D.
Greek and Russl\n Religion Articles .Assoc iate Professor of Islamic Studies, Uni-
versity of Chicago.
M.S.K. Mohamed Said Kozzaz Islamic .Articles
Ci(i\<i nor of .Mosul, Iraq. Iraq
N.A.M. Norman A. M. IMocKenzie, D.C.L.. LL.D.
M.S.O. Morgan S. Odell, Ph.D.. LL.D. MacK. President, University of British Columbia,
Pn-sident, Lewis and Clark College, Port- Vancouver.
land, Ore. Lewis a.nd Clark College British Columbia, University' of
N.C.H. N.vin C. Ham*r, PhH.. D D.. LI.D. O.J.L. Oliver Justin Lee, M.S., Ph.D.
JiiiriKiK, I'l I >.i(li-iit, Hfi<lflb«TK Cxillrgr, Professor Fmciitus of .Astronomy, North-
Tirtin, Ohio. western University.
Heidkiberc. College Astronomy .\rticles
N.I.McC. Normon Igbert McClur«,Ph.D..r.itt.D..F,I..D. O.J.I. Owen J. Roberts, B.A., LL.B.. LL.D
I'l iMiliiit, L iMiHis C^ullcj^r, Collfi»i"viUc, Ga. I-ornierly, .\ss<Riate Justice, Supreme Court
UrSINUS Ck)LLECE of the United States.
.Annotations, U.nited States Co.nstitutio.n
N.F. Norman Fevritcr, I.itt.D.
Autlioi .itciaiA- Critic; Formerly, Dirrr-
.111(1 I
O.M.P. Olgo M. Peterson, B.S.
tor. St liool of Letters, Stale University of Pormcrly. Chief, Public Relations Division,
Iowa. .American Library .Asscxiation, Chi<-ai;o.
.•\\ii kicAN I.iTERATiRE and Related Articles
.American Library .Association
N.F.D. N. F. Dewar O.P.K. O. P. Kretzmann, S.T.M., Litt.D.
.Sc ( i( t.ii\. I he Gideons, International. President, \ alparaiso University, Valpa-
Gideon raiso, Ind.
N.G.G. Nathan G. Goodman, Ph.D. Valparaiso University
Historian; Children's .\iithor: Journalist. O.S. Otto Struve, Ph.D., S.D.
L .S. .Military Leaders Biographies Honorary Director, ^'erkes Obser\-atory of
N.H. Neil Hotchkist, Nf.A. the University of Chicatjo and McDonald
Obs«-rvatory of the University of le.xas.
Biologi.st. L .S. Fish & Wildlife Scr\ice.
OtiSLK\ ATOKY and Related .Articles
Bird F(kid-Consumptio.v Graphs
O.S.P., Jr. Olin Sewall Pettingill, Jr., Ph.D.
N.H.H. Nicholot Hunter Heck, C.E.. S.D.
.\ssociatc Professor of Zoology, Carleton
rOrnici Iv. .\ssi-itant to the Director, L'.S.
Cxjlleee, Northfield, Minn.
Cxaast an<l Geodetic Sur\'ey, Washinijton, D.C.
Birds of Prey Articles
Geology .\rticles
O.W.F. OtisW. Freeman, M.S., Ph.D.
N.M. Nelf Minne, Ph.D.
.Author, 1 hf Pacific .Vorthufsl; Specialist for
I'k siiicnt. Winona .State Teachers College, Geography Higher Education, Office of
\Ninona, Minn.
Education. Washington, D. C.
-Minne.sota State Teachers College Washington and Related Articles
P.A.B. Peter A. Brannon
N.P.H. Nelson P. Horn, M..\., D.D. .Ar(hi\ist, Historian, Montgomery, .Ala.
Presitlent. Baker University, Baldwin City, .Alabama Cities .Articles
Kan. P.A.G. Pauline A. Galvarro, M.A., Ph.D.
Baker University Dean of .Students, National College of Edu-
N.R.J. Nino R. Jordan cation, Evanston, 111.

Autlior. A'H'-ncan Costume Dolls and Other National College of Education

Books: Illustrator. P.A.W. Phyllis A.Whitney
Doll Author and Reviewer.
N.Sa Noel Sargent Children's .Authors Biographies
Secretary. National Association of Manu- P.B«. Paul Bellamy, Litt.D., LL.D.
f4cturers. Editor. Cleveland Ohio Plain Dealer.

Nmionm Association of Manufactirkrs Cleveland

P. Bo. Paul Bonnot
N.S.D.,III Nathan Smith Davis, III, D., F..\.C.P. M .Vssociate .Marine Biologist, California Divi-
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Northwestern sion of Fish and Game, Stanford Univer-
University Medical .School, Chicago. sity, California.
Anatomy Articles Se.al
P.Bu. Pierce Butler, Ph.D.. Litt.D.
N.T. Norman Thomas, B.A., B.D., Litt.D. Professor of Bibliographical History, Uni-
Soci,ilist Lcaiier; .\uthor. versity of Chicago, Illinois.
Socialism lOicriuNARY and Related .Articles

O.C. Ollinger Crenshaw, Ph.D. P.B.L. Philip B. Lottich, M.A.

Professor of History, Washington and Lee Formerly, .Assistant to the President. Witten-
University, Lexington, Va. berg College, Springfield, Ohio.
W.ashington and Lee Univkr.sit\- Wittenberg College
P.B.S. Paul B. Sears, Ph.D.. S.D.
O.C.C. Oliver C. Carmichael, LL.D., Litt.D., D.C.L. Professor of Cx)nser\ation, Yale L^niversity,
Foniicrlv. ChaiKcilor, N'anderhiit L ni\er- New Haven, Conn.; .Author, Deserts on the
sity, .Nash\ iile, 1 enn.
M :>if:. Bot.\.ny; Conserv.\tion
Vanderbilt Univkrsit^'
P.Col. Padraic Colum
O.I.P. Owen Pence, Pli.D.
E. Road
.Author, Orpheus, Myths of the World, The
Dm (tor. Bui<au of Records, Studies and Round and Other Books; Playwright.
Trends, National Council of Y.MC.Vs. Mythology .Articles and Irish Statesmen
Yof NG Mkn's Christian Association Biographies
P.Con. Phil Conley, Litt.D.
O.H.L. Otto H. Lindsteod Editor in Chief, West Virginia Encyclopedia;
Pliolomapiier. President, West \'irginia Publishing Co.
Insect Color Plates (Photographs) West X'irginia
P.C.N. fhilip C. Na>h, Eng.D., LL.D. P.KI. Paul Kloppor, Ph.D.
Foniici i\ I'rcsidrnt, University of Toledo,
. PicMdi III Emeritus, Queens College of the
0\iu>. Toi^Do, Univfrsitn (JF Caty of .New ^'ork, Flushing, N.\'.
Paul C. Standley, Nt.S.
Queens C<»llege of the City of New ^urk
Curator of tin- Herbarium, Chicago Natural P.Kn. Paul Knoplund, Ph.D.
History Museum. Wild FtowtRs .\rticlcs I'lolis^or .111(1 Chairman, Department of
History, University of Wisconsin, .Madison.
P.O. Philip David»on, Ph.D. British Leaders Biograpliies
Dean. Senior C^ollege and Graduate School,
Vandcrbilt University, Nashville, lenn. P.L Philip Love|oy, M..A.
Revolutionary War in .\merica ( .( IK r.il s<( retary. Rotary International.
Rotary International
P.E.Ga. Paul Edward Garber
C^ui.iior, .Nation. il.Xir .Museum, .Smithsonian P.L.Ga. Paul L. Garrett, M..A.. LL.D.
Institution; Commander, Naval Reserve. Pr<-sident, Western Kentucky .State Teachers
Balloon College, Bowling Cireen, Ky.
P. E.Go. Patrick E. German Kkmuckv State I eachers College
Seei'etary- Treasurer, Meat Cutters and Western)
Butcher Workmen. P.L.Gr. Philip Green

Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of Latin-. \merican .Specialist: OfTice of Foreign

North .\merica, Am.\i gam.ated .Agricultural Relations, U..S. Department of

Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
P.E.H. Philip E. Henderson, .M.B..\.
Latin-.American Culture
President. Western College, Oxford, Ohio.
P.L.S. Philip Seman, Ph.D.
Western College
.Xiithor; loiiorary Chairman, C^hicago Rec-
P.F. Philip Franklin, Ph.D.
reation Commission; .Associate Editor, }'oulh
Professor of .Mathematics, Nfassachusetts In-
stitute of TechnolotiN Clambridge. ,
Lrader Digest. Park
M \ riiFMATic-s .\rticlcs P.L.T. Paul Lamont Thompson, B.D.. LL.D.
P.F.T. Paul F. Tanner, Very Rev. Msgr., .M .\., S. IB. l(um(il\, Pn sidint. Kalamazoo College,
Assistant (Jeneral .Secretary, National .\Iicliii,'.in. Kalamazoo College
Catholic Welfare Conference. P.L.W. Paul L. Wermer, Ph.J., M.D.
Naiionai Catholic Welfare Conference Committee on Research, .American Medical
As,sociation. X'arious Medicine .Articl<-s
P.F.V. P. F. Valentine, Ed. D. •

Dean, .San Francisco State Colleije, Calif. P.McP. Paul MePharlln, Ph.D.
.San Francisco State CIollege .\uthor, 1 he Puppet I healer in America, a
P.H.C. Palmer H. Craig, .M..\., Ph.D.
Research Professor of Electrical Engineer- Puppet; Sarg, Tony
ing, University of -Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. P.M.A. Paul M. Angle, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D., DHL.
Electricity .\rticics Director. Chicago Historical .Society .Author- ;

P.H.E. Paul Hamilton Engle, M .\. ity on .Abraham, Lincoln.

Piofc snoi- of I.iinlish, University of Iowa, Illinois and Related .Articles; Lincoln,
losva C;ity. Novel .Abraham
P.H.F. Paul H. Fall, Ph.D., LL.D. P.M.B. P. M. Baldwin, Ph.D.
President, Hiram College, Hiram. Ohio. Dean Emeritus of .Arts
Professor of Histor\-;
Hiram College and .New .Mexico C'ollege of .Ag-
riculture and .Mechanic .\rts, .State College.
P.H.M. Perry H. Merrill, B.S., M.F.
lOrcsti r of X'ermont, Montpelier.
New Mexico College of .Agriculture
AND Mechanic .Arts
Maim e Sugar
P.H.N. Paul H. Noth, M.S.. M.D. P.M.B., Jr. Philo M. Buck, Jr., .M..\.. Litt.D.
•Xssociate Professor in Medicine, Wayne L'ni- Chairman. D<-partment of Cx)mparative Lit-
vcrsity Cxjllege of Medicine, Detroit, Mich. erature, University of Wisconsin, .Madison.
Heart Old Wori d Poets Biographies
P.J.B. Peter J. Brekhus, D.D.S.
P.N.E. Paul N. Elbin, Ph.D.
Profis,sor Emeritus of Dentistrv-, University
President. West Liberty State College, West
of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Teeth Liberty. W.\a.
P.J.H. Patrick Holloran, Ph.D., S.T.L.
J. West Libert^' .State College
Formerly, Piesidcnt, .St. I^uis L^niversity,
P.O.McG. Paul O.McGrew, Ph.D.
.St. Louis, .Mo. St. Louis University-
Curator of Paleontology, Chicago
P.J.M. P. J.Morrin Natural Histor\- Museum.
President, International .Association of Paleontology .Articles
Bridge, .Structural, and Ornamental Iron
Workers. P.P.P. Pascal P. Pirone, B.S.. Ph.D.
International .Association of Bridge, Plant Pathologist. New York Botanical Gar-
Structural, and Ornamental Iron den. New \'ork City.
Workers Dutch Elm Disease
Peter J. Pollack P.R. Paul Rohloff
Public Relations Counsel, .Art Institute of
Chicago. Chicago, .Art Institute of Presidential .Administrations Drawings
P.R.C. Paul R. Cannon, Ph.D.. M.D.
P.J.S. Phillip J. Sawyer
Professor of Pathology, University of Chi-
Director ot .\ctivitics. National Civic Fed-
cago, Illinois.
eration. ,-. T? ».T
Civic Federation, National Pathology .Articles

P.R.H. Foul R. Honna, Ph. I) R.Bus. Rafaello BusonI
I'lolcvior ol I'.diuation, Stanf«)r(l I'nivrr- .\l list.

ity. llciMK Like in Other Lands Color Plates

Caiikornia and Rrlatnl AitirUs;
Cukricui.um; Spki.i.ing R.B.Co. Roy Bird Cook, LED.
.\iithor; Formerly, Editor, West Virginia
P. SI. Prcfton Slos»on, rii.I)., LI.-D. lltsinry. W K.ST \iRGiNiA CiTiES Articles
Piofcssor 1)1 History, University of MichiRan,
R.B.Cu. Rex B. CunlHfe, Ed.M.
Ann Arl)<>r.
Professor of Education, Rutgers University,
Germany; Switzerland; and Rrlatt-d
New Brunswick, N.J.
Educational Guidance
P. So. Paul Sollenberger, R.S.
A^iionoiiuT Hn charjjr of lime
l'iiiui|i,il R.B.I. Robert B. Irwin, .MA.. LL.D.
S<"r\ite), U.S. Naval Observatorv. Wash- Executi\c Director, .American Foundation
ington, D.C. 1 iMK .\rticlcs for the Blind, .New York Caty.
Braii e; Handic:apped, The
P.S.F. Percy Stanley Fritx, Ph. II
'Education of the Blind J

A.ssistaiit Piolrssor of History, Univ<rsity

of Colorado, Boulder. R.B.L. Rex B. Little, B.S.

Colorado Cities .Articles Commander, U.S. Navy.

P.S.H. Paul Swoln Havens, I.itt.B. (Oxon.). I.L.D. R.B.M. R. B.Montgomery, B.D., Ph.D.
PrcsKltiit. Wilson CoiUije, Chambersburtj, Fornurly, President, Lynchburg College,
Pa. Wilson College Lynchburg, Va. Lynchburg College
P.S.W., Jr. Pay»on S. Wild, Jr., Ph.D. R.B.W. Robert B. Weaver, M.A.
\ 11 ( I'lcsidciU and Dean of Faculty, North- Formerly, Laijoratory Schools, University
western Univei-sity, Evanston, III. of Chicago.
Various Government Articles Pioneer Life; Westward Movement
P.T. Phillips Talbot, B.A., B..S.J. R.CI. Roberta Clay, B.J.. M.S., M.A.
Institute of CAirrent World AflTairs;
,\ss<)( iate. .Asso( iate Pi (jfessor of English and Journal-
A.ssistant Professor of Political .Science, Uni- ism, .Arkansas State leachers College,
vei-sity of Chicacro; Newspaper Correspond- Conway.
ent; Author of rite Independence oj India. Arkansas State Teachers College
India and Related Subjects R.Cof. Ramon Coffman, B.A.
.Author. C;hildren's Books and Natural His-
P.V.B.J. Paul Van Brunt Jones, Ph.D.
tory Articles: Founder, L'ncle Ray's Corner.
Professor ot European History, University
of Illinois, Urbana.
R.Col. Robert Colborn, C.E.
British Leaders Biographies
.Vutlior of Na\y Training Manuals.
R.A. Roger Altman, B.A. .N.AVAL and Military .Articles
Ireasurer, General Conference of
R.Cu. Robert Cummins, D.D., S.T.D.
Seventh-Day Adventists, Washington, D.C. General .Superintendent, The Universalist
Adventist Church of America, Boston, Mass.
R.A.Hav. Richard A. Havens Universalist
Diicc torcjl .Superior Laboratories 'food proc-
essing control), Indianapolis, Ind. R.C.A. Roy Chapman Andrews, M..A.. S.D.
Food Preservation; Various Food .Articles I.xplorcr: /oolo^ist: Honorary
American Museum
of Natural History.
R.A.Hay. Ralph A. Hayne Author, Meet Tour Ancestors and Other Books.
larm Prattites Research Expert, Interna- Whale
tional Harvester Company, Chicago.
R.C.DI. Robert Disque, S.D.
Farm Machinery .Articles
loi iiici ly, .\cting President. Drexel Institute
R.A.McL. R. A. McLemore, Ph.D. of lechnology, Philadelphia, Pa.
.Author, Miwiisippi Through Four Centuries: Drkxei Institute of Technolcxjy
D<-an and Professor of History, Mississippi R.C.Dy. Robert C. Dyrenforth
Southern College, Hattiesburg. Dtpuiy, Ortier of De Molay.
Mississippi Cities Articles De Molay, Order of
R.A.O. Ruth A. Outland, B.A. R.C.KI. R. C. Klussendorf, B.S. in .Ag., D.V.M.
Director of Puijlic Information, Denison .\ssistant F.xccutive Secretary, American
I "iii\ (Tsiiv, (Jrainille, Ohio. X'eterinary Medical Association.
Denison University Veterinary Medicine; Yeli ows
R.A.P.D. Rebeka A. P. Diets, B.A. R.C.Kn. R. C.Knickerbocker, B.A.
Editor, The Principia, Elsah, III. Director of Infoiination and Publications,
Principia, The Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex.
R.Ro. Rudyerd Boulton, B.S. Southern Methodist University*
K< scan h .Vssociate, Birds, Chicago Museum R.C.L. Richard C. Lee
of Natural History. Illinois. Bird New Haven,
I)iT<(t<)i, \ale News Bureau,
R.Buc. Ralph Buchsboum, B Ph.D.
Clou 11. Yale University
.Assistant Professor of Zoology, Lmivei-sitv R.C.Wo. Robert C. Wallace, Ph.D.. S.D., LL.D.. D.C.L.
of Chii ai;o. Illinois. President, Queen's University. Kingston,
Zooi nr,Y .Articles Ontario. Queen's University

R.C.Wil. Robley C. Willkimi, Fh.D R.E.Mars. Roy E. Marshall, .M.S., Ph.D.
Assotiaic I'rolrssor of Physics, University of I'rolivsor of Horticulture, Michigan State
Michigan, Ann Arbor. College-, East Lansing.
Electron Microscope H<jRTlcui-TURE Articles
.D, Raymond Dooley, M.A. R.E.Mart. R. Earl Martin, M.S., Ph.D.
I'oinu-i ly. Diicitur of Student Pei-sonnel, I'ldlevsor of Physics, Hanover College, Han-
Illinois VVcsleyan University, Bloomini;t()n. over, Ind. Color
Illinois Weslevan Univkrsiiy
R.FI. Roy Flannagan
R.D.BI. Rots D. Blood AiitliDi, //.v \\'ii\ of Lije in Tobacco.
Secretary- reasurer, I Marine and Ship- I oHACc:o and Related Articles
buildini; Workers of America.
Marine and SmFBUiiuiNn Workers ok R.Fr. Ralph Frederlcic
Ami kicA, Inoistrial Union ok .Artist and lllu.strator.
Latin-America Drawings
R.D.Bo. Rufus D. Bowman, D.D.. Ph.D.
Presitleiit, Bethany Biblical .Seminai"y. Oak R.F.B. Robert F. Bingham, B.A., LL.B.
Park, 111. Brkthrkn, Cihrch ok the I ()i 111! riy, .\noi luy at Law, Cleveland, Ohio.

R.D.C. Russell D. G>ie, M.A.. D.D. \'arious Law Articles

Prcsiiieiit, CAjrnell College, Mount \'ernon, R.F.G. Robert Ferguson Gaibreath, D.D., LL.D.,
loua. Cornell College L.H.D.
R.D.P. Robert D. Patton, Ph.D. Formerly, President, Westminster College,
Professor of Economics, Ohio State Uni- New Wilmington, Pa.
versity, Cohimbus, Westminster College
I.nsirance; Labor and Economics .Articles R.F.M. Russell F. Meyer
R.D.R. Rogers D. Rusk, B.S., Ph.D. Sccictaiy- 1 rea-surer. Optimist International.
Professor of Physics, Mt. Holyoke College. Optimist International
Physics: Science and the Sciences in part i i

R.F.N. Roy F. Nichols, Ph.D.

Technoloo'; and Related Biographies Author, l-'ranklni Pierce and Other Books;
R.E. Roy Ellis, Ph.D. Profes.sor of History, University of Pennsyl-
President, Southwest Mi.ssouri State College, vania, Philadelphia.
Springfield. U.S. Presidents Biographies
.MissoiRi .State College (Southwest)
R.F.O. Raymond F. Otis
R.E.AI. Robert E. Allen, B.S. Director, (icntral Bureau of Information and
Director ot Information, .American Petro- Statistics, Marquette University, Milwaukee,
leum Institute, New York City. Wis. Marquette University
R.E.An. R. E.Anderson, B..\. R.F.P. Robert Paton, .M.S., Ph.D.

Director ot Public Relations, Gustavus .\ssociatc Professor of Physics, University of

Adolphus College, St. Peter, .Minn. Illinois, Urbana.
Gustavus .-\dolphus College Physics Articles
R.E.B. Richard Byrd, LL.D., D.E., D.S.
E. R.F.T. R. Franlclin Thompson, B.D.. Ph.D., LL.D.
Rear .Xdiniral, U.S.N. (Rtd.); Explorer. I'rcsidciit, C^ollcuc of Puget .Sound, Tacoma,
.\ntarctic; Antarctic Ocean Wash. Puget Sound, College of
R.E.C. Rufus E. Clement, Ph.D. R. F.Y. Raymond F. Yates
President, .Atlanta Universitv. .Atlanta, Ga. .\ulhor, lii)\ and a Battery and Other Tech-
•Atlanta University nical Books for Younger Boys; Inventor.
R.E.Ch. Reginald E. Chapman r,i ECTRiciTY and Related .Articles

Ownci. (ihapinaii Chinchilla Farms, Ingle- R.G. Ralph Green, B.S. in C.E.
uood. Calif. CniNf hilla Contracting F,ngin<'er, Chicago Bridge &
R.E.DO. Robert E. Doherty, M.S., LL.D. Iron Co.; .Authority and Writer on History
Formerly, President, Carnegie Institute of of the Printint; Press. Printing Press
Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa. R.G.A. Randolph G. Adams, Ph.D., LL.D.
(!\rnk;ie Institute of Technology Director, William L. Clements Library,
R.E.Du. R. Ernest Dupuy L'niversity of Michican, Ann .Arbor.
Colonel, U.S. .A.; Formerly, Bureau of Public .A.VIERICAN History Articles
Relations, .Army Department. .Army R.G.H. Roswell G. Ham, Ph.D., LL.D.
R.E.Go. Ralph Edgar Gouid, B.S. President. .Mount Holyoke College, South
Chid. line .Section, National Bureau of
Hadley, Mass.
Standards, Washington, D.C!.: Executiv<- .Sec- -Mount Holyoke College
retary', Horoloijical Institute of .\merica. R.G.L. R.G. Langston
IiMi. Measuring Machink„s .Articles President. EasternOregon College of Edu-
R.E.Gr. R. E.Gregg, B.S. cation.La Grande.
Deput\- Regional Scout Executive, Chicago. F.ASTIRN OrI (;nN Coi.I EGE OF EdITCATION
Canoeing R.G.M. Ronald G. Macdonald, SB.. M.B..A.
R.E.Ha. Richard Edes Harrison, B.F..A., F.R.G.S. .Secretary- i reasurer. Technical Association,
Lecturer in Caitoijiaphy, Syracuse Uni- Pulp and Paper Industry.
versitv, S viae use, N.V. Paper
U.S.A. Reiikk Map R.G.O. Ralph G. Owens, B.E.E., M.S., Ph.D.
R.E.Hi. Ralph E. Hill, MA. Profes.sor of .Mechanical Engineering, Illinois
Ret;istrar, University of Louisville, Louis- Institute of Fechnology, Chicago.
ntUc, Ky. Louisville, University of Thermodynamics Articles

I.G.W. Roy G.Wigsont, M.S.. Ph.D. R.Lor. Ru»Mll Lord, B..S.
l*n)tr>*«)i <>l I'iant Brrctlinu. Collrjjc of .\i;ri- Edilor. the Land.
cuinirc, Cornell University, Ithaca. .N.N'. Conservation .Articles
Plants .\niclcs
».LA. Roy Abbott, M.S., Ph.D.
R.H.H. Richard H. Hungerford Professor of Biology, Iowa State Teachers
iJirniur nt linn ail for Childrrn with Re- C<jllegc, Cedar Falls.
tardrd Mental DcvrUipmcnt. .New N'ork Citv- Camel; Elephant; Pet
H\M)irMM'H). I HE rr«-atm<nt of the I

t.LD. Robert U Denig

Mentally Handicapped I

Brigadier (ieneral: Formerly. Director. Divi-

R.H.Lo. Ralph H. Long, U.D. sion of Public Relations, U.S. .Vlarine Corps.
1 ornuilv. Kxeciitive Director, National M.ARiNE Corps
I.utln i.in Clouncil, New York City. R.L.H. Ralph L
Henry, M..A.
Lt'THERAN, Luther League Editor, Carleton College, Northfield. Minn.
R.H.Lu. Ralph H. Lutz, Ph.D., LL.D. C.ARLETo.N College
Piofj-ssor of History, .Stanford University. R.L.J. Kobert L B..A., LL.D.
Wtiiou^ r.i kdiLA.N CoLNTRiE5 and Related President, Icmplc University. Philadelphia.
Biographies Temple University
R.H.P. Rob«rt H, Pfeiffer, S.T.M., Ph.D. R.L.K. Robert L Kincaid, B.A.. LL.D.
on Semitic Languaees and History
l.«-ctiirer President. Lincoln Memorial University,
and Curator of .Semitic Museum. Harvard Harrogate, Tenn.
University, Cambridge. Llncoln Memori.al U.viversity
.Sfmitih I, wclaces and Liter.mtre
R.L,Me. Robert L. Meriwether, Ph.D.. Litt.D.
-Author, I ht Expansion of South Carolina:
R.H.Whe. Raymond H. Wheeler, Ph.D. Professor of History. University of South
Cihairman, Department of Psychology, Carolina, Columbia.
Erskinc Cloliece, Due \V<-st, S. C. South Carolina and Related Articles
Psychology Articles
R.L.Mo. Robert Mossholder, B..A.
R.H.Whi. Robert H. White, Ph.D. Director. Cieneial Printing and Information.
.Author, I fnnfssee: lis Grnwth and ProQTfss. University of Omaha, Nebraska.
Tennessee and Related .\riiclcs Om.\h.a, University of
R.J.D. Roy Deferrorl, Ph.D.. I,L D.
J. R.L.My. Robert L Myers
Secretaiy Cicn<-ral of the Catholic University txccuuvc Secretary, Centre College of
of America, Washington. D.C. Kentucky. Danville.
Catholic University of .\meric.a Centre College of Kentucky
R.J.R. R. J. Rountree, B..\. R.L.W. Roscoe West, Ed.M.
.Advertising and Sales Promotion Manager, President, State Feachers College, Trenton,
A. B. Dick & Company, Chicago. xNJ.
Mimeograph New Jersey St.ate Teachers College
R.J.S. Robert J. Scollord, M.A.L.S. (Trenton '

I.it)rarian. .St. Michael's College, Toronto, R.ML Rudolf Modley, LL.D.

Ontario. Founder and Consultant, Pictograph Cor-
St. Mich.ael's College poration, New N'ork City.
R.Kel. Remington Kellogg, Ph.D. Graph: Pictogr.aphs Drawings
Cuiatoi-. l)i\isii)n of Mammals, L'nited R.MLB. Robert Merrill Bartlett, D.D.
States National Museum, Washington, D.C. .Author, 7 hry Darfd to Liif: ClergyTnan. Plvm-
Sea M.\mmai^ .Articles outh Congregational Church. Lansing. Mich.
R.Ken. Raymond Kendall, Ph.D.. Hum.\nit.ari.a.vs and Social WOrkers
Professor c>f .MiisicologA,-, University of Nfichi- Biographies
gan. .Ann .Arbor; Executive Director, Rach- R.M.deS. Rodoiphe Meyer deSchauensee
maninolT Fund, New York Citv. Curator of Birds and \ ice- President of the
Music .Articles and Related Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia.
Biographies Tropic.\l Birds .Articles
R.K.M. Roy K. IMarshall, Ph.D. R.M.U. Ruth M. Underhill, Ph.D.
Dim tor. 1 ( Is Planetarium, Franklin Insti- Director of Indian Education, L'..S. Indian
tiit»-. Philadelphia. Office. IX-nver, C«lo.
Physicists and .Astronomers I.NDi.\N, .American and Related
Biographies .Articles

R.K.S. Ralph K. Strong, B..\.. B.S., Ph.D. R.N. Ray Nichols, M..A.
i'roi(«^sor of Chemistry, Rose Polytechnic E.\tx-uti\e .Secixtary, University of Kansas,
Institute, Ferrc Haute, Ind. Lawrence.
.Alcohol K.ANS.\s, L'niversit\' of
R.K.W. Ralph K.Wotkint, Ph.D. R.N.D. R. N. Daniel, .M..A.. Ph.M., LL.D.
Professor ot l.tlucation. University of Mis- Dean Emeritus, Furman Universitv. Green-
souri, Columbia. viUe, S. C.
KMKsrARY Science; .Nature Study
El Furman University
R.Loe. Raymond Loowy, F.R.S.A. R.O.H. Ray O. Hughes, .M.A., L.H.D.
Head. k.i\inond Loewy Associates, New Formerlv, Director of Citizenship and Social
York C:ity. •Studies, Pittsburgh (Pa.) Public .Schools.
Industrial Design Pennsvlv.ania and Related .Articles

R.Pea. Roderick Peotti*, Ph.D. R.T.Hu. Rudolph T. Hubbard, K..-\.

FrokbMM (jt (ico^raphy, Ohio State L'nivrr- .SecKiaiy, Cui.uan International; Editor,
sity, Ckjiiimbus; Author of Exploring Grof;- Thf Cinlan.
raphy. Look to thr FronUrrs, and Other Books: Civita.n I.nternationai
Editor, the .-\merican Mountain Series.
GEooR.^PHY; \arious Contine.nts, Coln- R.V.H. Ralph V. Hunklns, M .\., Litt.D.
TRiKS, CiriES, and Islands Articles .Author, .\ijuth Dal.ola, Its Past, and
Future; .Superintendent of .Schools, Lead, .S.D.
R.Pep. Raymond Peplnsky, Ph.D. SoiTM Dakota and Related Articles
Research Professor Phvsics, .Mabama
Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. R.V.K. Raymond V. Kirk, Ph.D.
.\r(jM Articles; Radioactivity: Ray X Formerly, President, Duquesne University,
Pittsburgh, Pa.
R.PI. Rutherford Plott, B.A.
Duquesne University*
Naturalist; This Green World anci
Other Books: X'ice-President, Platt-Forbes. R.V.MocK. R. V. MacKenzie, B..\., Litt.D.
Inc. Leaf; Mushroom Color Plates President, .Saint Dunstan's College, Char-
R.Red. Robert Redfleld, Ph.D. lottetown. Prince Edward Island.
Chairman, Department of .•\nthropologn>-. Saujt Dunstan's College
University of Chicaijo. NIexicij
R.W. Raymond WoHert, M..A., Litt.D., LL.D.
R.Rei. Ruttell Reid President. Univei-sity of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Superintendent, State Historical Society of C Cincinnati, University' of
North Dakota. North Dakota
R.Ru. Ruth Ruhman R.W.Ham. Roy William Hamilton, M.A., LL.D.
.-Vrtist and Illustrator. Professor of English Language and Litera-
ture, .Alma College, Alma, Mich.
Circus Color Plates
.Alma College
R.R.Bi. Raymond D.\'.M.. Ph.D.
R. Birch,
Rescarcli Professor, Veterinarv- Medicine, R.W.Han. Robert W. Hansen, LL.B.
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Editor, Eagle Publications.
.\mmal Husbandry Articles Eagles, Fraternal Order of
R.Sa. Ruth Sawyer, B..-\. R.W. Hat. Roy Winthrop Hatch, M..A.
.Author, Roller Skates and Other Books; 1 orincri\. Head, Department of .Social .Stud-
Lecturer. ies, State Teachers College, Montclair, N.J.
Childre.n's Literature .\rticles New Jersey and Related .Articles
R.Sc. Roy Scantlin, M..\.
R.W.Ho. Robert Wlllard Hodgson, M.S.
Formerly, State Superintendent of Public
Professor of Subtropical Horticulture and
Schools, Jefferson City, Mo.
.Assistant Dean. College of .Agriculture, Uni-
Missouri Cities Articles
versity of California, Los .Angeles.
R.Sh. Robert Shofer, Ph.D. Citrus Fruits .Articles
Pnjfi-ssdr of Literature, University of Cin-
cinnati. Ohio. L.vngu.^ce; Literature
R.W.Hu. Rita W. Hughes
R. St. Roiph Stoody Information Division, National Labor Rela-
tionsBoard, Washington, D.C.
Director, Commission on Public Information
National L.abor Relations Board
of the .Methodist Church, New York, N. Y.
Methodist R.W.L. Ralph Waldo Lloyd, D.D., LL.D.
R.S.C. R. S. Craighill
Presitient. Mai"\ \ille Collet;e, Maryville, Tenn.
Commander, Na\y; Formerly, Secre-
Maryville College
tary, .Academic Board, L'nited States Naval
Academy, .\nnapolis, Md. R.W.Me. Robert W. Merry, B.A., M.B..A., DCS.
United States Naval Academy .Ass(xiate Professor of Business .Administra-
tion, Hai"%ard University, Cambridge, Mass.
R.S.H. Raymond S. Haupert, B.D., Ph.D.
President. Moravian College and Theologi-
Credit and Debt .Articles

cal Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa. R.W. Ml. Roy WoMo Miner, Ph.D., S.D.
Moravian College and Theological Curator Emeritus of Living Invertebrates,
Seminary .American Museum of Natural Histoi^', New
R.S.S. Robert See, M.B.A.
S. York C:ity.
Head, Department of Commerce, Centenary JEII^Fl•;M. Sponges, and Starfish .Articles
College, Shrevcport, La.
Centenary College R.W.Mu. Robert W. Murphey, B.A.
R.T.DeV. R. T. DeVauK, B.S., M.E. (.\.E.) Formerly, Instructor, Lingnan University,
Director, Na\-y Research Project, College of Canton, China, and Correspondent for
Engineering, University of Southern Cali- L'nited Press in Far East.
X'arious Far East Biographies
fornia. Jet Propulsion
R.T.Ha. Robert Hott, M.S., Ph.D.
T. R.W.Sh. R. Worth Shumoker, M..A.
Director. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Assistant National Americanism
Bloomfield Hills. Mich. Commission, .American Legion, Indianapolis.
Cranbrook Institute: \arious Mammals Br)\s State; Giri^ .State
R.T.Hi. Russell T. Hht, .M.S. in J. R.Z.K. Regino Z. Kelly, B.A.
Formerly, Director of Promotion, Moody Teacher of History, .Austin High School,
Bible Institute, Chicago. Chicago; Free- Lance Writer.
VIoodv Bible Institltte Clay, Henry
S.A.J. Somuvl A. Johnson, Ph.D. S.F.P. Stephen F. Parent, B.A.
I'mtosoi ol iiistorv, Harris Teachers Col- Registrar, Saint .Anselm's College, Man-
Iritr; I.rrtiirrr in HLsiory, St. I^)uis L'ni- '
.Saint Anselm's C<ji lege
vriNitv, St. I.oiiis. .Mo. Saint I.oiis
S.H.Co. Sydney H. Coleman, Ph.B.
S.A.MacC. Stwon A. MocCoricIo, I'll I).
L\<( iiti\e \ ice-President, .American Societv
rioU-vsoi ul' Ci»»\<Tnnn-nt ami I)ir«-ftor of
for the Prevention of Cruelty to .\nimals.
Bureau of Municipal Research, L'niversity
Texas Crnts .\rticles Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
of 1 V\a.s. .\ustin.
TO Animals
S.A.N. S. A. Nock, IMi.I).
S.H.Cr. Somuel H. Cross, Ph.D.
i uinnrly, Uiivctor of .Xdmissions, Kansas
Professor of .Slavic Languages and Litera-
State CkjlleRe, Manhattan.
ture. Har\ard University, Cambridge. Mass.
Kassvs Statk Coliege of .Agriculture
NND .\PPLIED .SciE.NCt Ri vsiAN Language: Rl'ssian Literature

S.A.W. S. A. Watson, Ph.D. S.H.T. S. Harrison Thomson, Ph.D., Litt.D.

Former! V. President, Wilmington CollcRf, Prpfessor of History, University of Colorado.
\\'ilmini;ton, Ohio. Wii.MiNcnoN College Boulder; Editor, Journal oj Central European
S.Ba. Stringfellow Barr, .M..\. Afairs.
loniKilv. I'nsident, .St. John's College, Czechoslovakia; Montenegro; Yugoslavia
Annapolis, Md.: .\uthor, M/izzmi Portrait —
S.J. Sylvester Jones, B.A.. B.D.
oj an Extlf. St. Joh.n's College
.Author, 1 he Frieiuls; \ot by Might.
S.Bu. Strutheri Bort, B..\., LL.D. Friends, Society- of
.XutliDi. I'hiladrlphia. Holy Exprrimfni, and
Other Books. Philadelphia S.J.S. S. James Shand, S.D., Ph.D.
Newberry Professor of Geology, Columbia
S.B.F. Sidnoy B. Fay, Ph.D. Univei-sity. Geogr.aphy .Articles
Profes-sor of History, Har\-ard University,
C^imhricJL'c, Mass. S.L. Stuart Little, B.S., C.E.
World War I; World War II .Account Executive, Selvage & Lee, New
York City. Paper Bag
S.B.H. Stowart B. Hamblen, B.S., M..\.
C<Hauthor, An Introduction to Consumer Fxo- S.L.S. S. L. Stealey, Ph.D.. D.D.
nnniirs: Consultant in .\pplied Economics, Profi-ssor of Church History, .Southern Theo-
.\merican .As-sociation of Colleges for Teacher logical Seminary, Louisville, Ky. Baptist
E<luration, New York City.
S.L.W. Sara Lockwood Williams, BJ. M..A.
Co.NSUMER Education
Lecturer in Journalism: Director of Public
S.B.N. Stanley B. Nllei, .\I..\., Th.D., LL.D. Relations, Rockford College. Rockford, III.
I (irmerly. President, Iowa Wesleyan College, RocKFORD College
Mt. Pleasant. Iowa.
Io\v.\ Wesley.\n College S.M.G. Sidonle Motsner Gruenberg
Author, MV, the Parents: Director, Child
S.C Sheldon Cheney, B..-\. Study .Association of .America, Inc., New-
.! World History oj Art. York City.
Dramathts and Painters Biographies Child Study .Association of .America
S.C.W. Stephen Culver Williamt, B.S., Ph.D. S.M.S. Samuel M. Steward, Ph.D.
Proft-ssor of .\natomy, L'niversity
.Assistant .Assistant Professor of English Literature.
of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Phila- Loyola University, Chicago.
delphia. Embrnolog^' .Articles Various -Arts, Educ.\tion. and Religion
S.D.S. Shemton Dana Scruggs, Ph.D.
President, Lincoln University, Jefferson City, S.O. Stanley Ome,
Mo. Ll.NCOl N U.\IVERSir\- Editor, L'nisersity of Hawaii. Honolulu.
Haw.aii, L'niversit\' of
S.E.B.,Jr. Samuel Engle'Burr, Jr., M..A., Ed.D.
( :h.iii man. 1 )ej)ai-tment of Education, The S.P.D. Samuel P. Duke, M..A., LL.D.
.American Universitv, Washington, D.C. 1ormerly. President, Madison College, Har-
Blennerh.\ssett, Harm an; Birr, .\aron: risonburg. \'a. M.ADisoN College
W.\RD, .Vrtemas
S.P.Y. Stanley P. Young, B.S.
S.E.Mo. Samuel E. Martin, Ph.D.
Senior Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Ser\'icc,
.\»isiant Prof<-ssor of Japanese and Korean
U.S. Department of the Interior.
Lanijuaijes, Yale L'nivei-sity; .Author, Lan-
.Anim.als Articles
i;uiit;i Study I fchniqurs and Other Books.

Japanese Language S.R.B. Sidney R. Bernstein

r.ditor, Adrerliun^ .^ge. ADVERTISING
S. E.Mo. Samuel lllot Merison, Ph.D., Litt.D., L.H.D.,
1. 1. I) S.S.S. S. S.Shearer, M.S.
.\uthor. Admiral oj the Ocean Sea; Professor of Teacher ol Biology, State Teachers College.
American History, Harvard University, Shipfjensburg. Pa.
Cambridge, .Mass.; Historian of Naval Of>cr- Pennsylvania State Teachers College
ations, U.S. Navy, for World War II. (Shippensburg t


S.T.K. Sarah T. Knox, B..\..LL.B.
S.I.M.,Jr. S. Edwin MegorgM, Jr. .Author, I he Family and the Laii: .Social
.\rtist S|x< lali/iiig in Dogs and Oth<i Do- Worker, I'he Florence Crittenton Home,
mestic Animals. Manchester, N.H.
Dtxj Articles; Doo Color Plates QviL Law Articles

S.T.U S. T. Ludwis, DD. Sr.M.Di. Sister M. DIgna, Ph.D.
General Ciliiirch Secretary, Church of the Professoi- ot Lducational Psychology, C^)l-
Nazarcnc, Kansas Citv, Mo. «, Icge of St. Scholastica, Duluth, Minn.
Nazarene .St. .Scholastica, Oji.i kge of
S.W.H. Stanley William Hoyffar, B.S.
Artist; ound
I and Director, Atelier 17
i Sr.M.Do. Sister M. Dolorosa, Ph.D.
^Schotjl ol Modern ILnnraving and Etching ). H< ad, Lalin Department, Mount St. Marys
Paris and New York Clitv. College, Los .Angeles.
Engraving Articles NI(H-NT ,St. Mary's College
S.W.P. Stephen W. Paine, Ph.D. Sr.M.D.A. Sister M. Dorothy Ann, M..\.
I'icsidi nt. I !()m;lit()nC".()llegc, Houghton, .\.\'. I «>rnu I ly, Presid»nt, .Mai-\lhurst Normal
Houghton College Schcjl, Marylhurst, Ore.
Sr.A. Sister Antonius, Ph.D. .Marylhurst Normal Schooi
Formerlv, Piesid<nt, College of St. Cather-
Sr.M.E. Sister M. Euchorio, M.A.
ine, St. P.iul. .Minn.
President, Immaculate Heart College, Los
Si. Catherlne, College of
ngt es.
Sr.A.M. Sister Angela Margraf, M.A.
Immaculate Heart College
Pubhcity Director, Ursuline College, Cleve- Sr.M.E.B. Sister Mary Euphrasia
Borth, B..'\.
land, Ohio. , T /-> Publicity Director, .Maryniount College, Sa-
Ursuline College
lina, Kan.
Sr.k.M. Sister Benedicta Marie, M..\.. M.Ed.
Marymount College
Dean, Siena Heights Ckjilege, .\drian. Mich. Sr.M.E.C. Sister M. Elizabeth Clare, M..A.
Siena Heights College Formerly, President, Holy Names College,
Sr.CD. Sister Catherine Dorothea, Ph.D. Spokane. Wash. ^.
j^^, ^^^^^ College
President, 1 rinity C^olleye, Washington, D.C.
Trinity College Sr.M.F.E. Sister Mary Frederick Eggleston, Ph.D.
President, Dunbarton Cioiii ue. Washington,
Sr.CMU Sister Catharine Marie, M.A.
Dean, Cxillege of Mount St. Vincent, New ,^
Dunbarton r-
York City.
.Mount Sr. \'incent. College of Sr.M.F.R. SisterM. Francis Raphael, M.A.
Formerlv, Dean, College of the Holy Names,
Sr.C.M.M. Sister Charles Mary Morrison, Ph.D. Oakland, Calif.
Dean, Nazareth College. Louisville, Ky. Holy Names, College of the
Naz.areth College
Sr.M.Ho. Sister M. Honora, Ph.D.
Sr.E.U Sister Eugenia Logan, M.A.
President, Marygrove College, Detroit.
Dean, Saint .Mary-of-the-Woods College, In-
Marygrove College
Saint Marv-of-the-Woods College Sr.M.Hu. Sister Mary Huberta, MS.
Sr.G.U Sister Genevieve Louise, M..\. President, Saint Xavier College, Chicago.
Head, C^onimerce Department, College of Saint Xavier College for Woxien
St. Rose, .\lbany, N.Y.
Sr.M.J.B. Sister Marie Jose Byrne, Ph.D.
St. Rose, College of
President, College of Saint Elizabeth, Con-
Sr.H.M. Sister Helen Madeleine, M.A.. LL.D. vent Station, N.J.
Dean. I-rninaimcl College, Boston. Saint Elizabeth, College of
Emmanuel College
Sr.M.J. Sister M. Jerome McKaie, Ph.D.
Sr.J.K. Sister Jerome Keeler, Ph.D. McH. Head, Engli.sh Department, .Mount Mercy
Dean. .Mount St. Scholastica College, Atchi- College, Pittsburgh. Pa.
son, Ran. .Mount Mercy College
.Mot NT St. Scholastica College
Sr.M.J.P. Sister M. Joan Patricia, M.A.
Sr.M. Sister Maryanna, M.A. Librarian, Regis College, Weston, Mass.
Head of English Department. Saint Mary Regis College
of the Springs College, Columbus, Ohio.
S\i\r M AR^ OF the Springs College Sr.M.K. Sister Maria Kostka, Ph.D.
President, Chestnut Hill College, Phila-
Mary Ambrose, Ph.D.
Chkstnut u
Sr.M.A. Sister delphia. ,,
Formerly, President, Clarke College, Du-
Hill /-.
buque, Iowa. Cl.arke College Sr.M. Sister M. Madeleva, Ph.D., Litt.D.
Sr.M.C. Sister M. Columkille, Ph.D. Modelev. President, .Saint Mary's College, Holy Cross,
President, Incarnate Word College, .San .\n- Saint .Mary's College
tonio, lex. Incarnate Word College
Sr.M.Se. Sister M. Seraphim, M.A.
Sr.M.Do. Sister Mary David, .M..-\.. B.S. in L.S. .\ssistant Profess<jr of English and Journalism,
.\ssistant Librarian, CkjUege of Notre Dame Ckillcge of St. Francis, Joli<-t. III.
of .Mar\ land, Baltimore. College of
St. Francis,
.\oTRt D.\ME of Maryland, College of
Sr.M.Sy. Sister M. Sylvia, S.D.
Sr.M.De. Sister M. Denis
Dean, Notre Dame College, Cleveland, Ohio. Formerly, President. .Marywood College.
Notre Dame College Scranton, Pa. .Marywood Coli eok
Sr.M.DeP. Sister M. DePaul, M.A. Sr.M.T. Sister Mary Teresita, Ph.D.
Director of Public Relations, Nazareth Col- Director of Public Relations. Ctjllege Miseri-
lege, Nazareth, Mich. cordia,' ^'"""'
Dallas, *Pa.
" ,-, ..
n^^^^„„ College College Misericordia
T.A.L. T. A. Lar»on, i'h.I). T.P.S. Theodore P. Stephens, Ph.D.
lie. III. |)<(iiof History, Lniv. of Wyornini;. I'll -;:- III A iM.i.i (x>llege, .Aurora, 111.

I..ii.iiiiic. UMiMiNC. and Related Articlc-s .Aurora College

T.A.M. Thalt A. Merrill, I'h.I). T.K.H. Thomas Robsen Hay, B.S., E.E.
I'rofrssor and C-liairman, Drpartmrnt of .Associate Editor, Dictionary' of .American
Horticiilturr, Washington State Clollegr, Hi-ston.-; .Author.
I'uMm.in. Wa.sh. ApPLf I' \ I kioi>; and AGITATORS Biographies
T.C Thomat Craven, B.A. T.H.J. T. R.Johnston
.\iithor, Mrn of Art and Treasury of Art Purdue
Director of Public Information,
University, Lafayette, Ind.
IiiiMkAiiiKs am! Cartoonists Biographies Purdue Univer-sit^
T.C.ft. Thaodor* C. BIcgan, Ph.D., L.H.D. T.R.Y. T, R. Yborra, B.A.
Author. Building .Mmnnota; Grass Roots His- .\uthor, America Faces South and Other
tory: Dean, Graduate School, University of Books; Lecturer.
Minnesota, Minneap>olis. Minnesota Chile; Venezuela; and Latin-.American
T.C.H. T. C. Holy, Ph.D. Biographies
Director. Bureau of Educational Research, T.S.B. Thomas S. Bowdem, Ph.D.
Ohio State University, Columbus. 1 ormeriy. President, Creighton University,
Research, Educational Omaha, Neb.; .Member of the Society of
T.C.L. Theo C. Liddell, B..\. Jesus.
limlish Editor, Row, Peterson Publishing Co., Creighton University
Evanston, 111. Various Langcage Articles T.S.L. T. S. Levering, EM., Ph.D.
Staff Research Geologist, U. S. Geological
T.O. Tyler Dennett, Ph.D., Litt.D., L.H.D., LL.D.
.Author. HiozTiiphy of John Hay Pulitzer i
Survey, W'ashincton. D.C. Minlng
Prize and Other Books. T.S.P. Theophilus Ph.D., S.D.
S. Painter,
\arious U.S. Presidents Biographies President, University of Texas, .Austin.
Tex.as, U.niversits- of
T.D.C. Thomas D. Clarlc, Ph.D.
T.S.W. Thalia S. Woods
Professor and Head. Department of Histor\-,
r.xecutive .Secretarv", General Federation of
L'nivci-sity of Kentucky, Lexington.
Kentlckv and Related Articles Women's Clubs, Washington. D.C.
Women's Clubs, General Federation of
T.LF. Thomas E. Ferguson, Ph.D.
Dean. .St<-phen F. .Austin State College, T.T. Terry Townsend
Naroydrx-hes. Tex. .Artist and Illustrator.
Stephen F. Austin St.ate College Pioneer Life Drawings; .St.ate
Memorable Events
T.F.H. Talbot F. Homlin, B.A.. B.Arch.
T.W. Theresa Wolfson, Ph.D.
Professor of .Architecture. CVilumbia U.. New .\ssociatc Professor of Economics, Brooklyn
^ork C:ity. .Architecture .Articles
I.N.V.I Coliee;e. Woman
T.H.H. T. H. Hildebrondt, M.S.. Ph.D.
T.W.J. T. Walter Johnson, .M..A.
C^hairman, Department of Mathematics,
.Assistant Professor of Historv', University of
University of Michigan. .Ann .Arbor.
Mathematics .Articles
Colonial Life in .America
T.J. Theodor Just, Ph.D.
Chitf Curator, Department of Botany, T.W.R. T.W. Reed, LL.B. M..A.,
Chicago Natural Historv" Museum. Registrar Emeritus, University of Georgia,
Wild Flower .Athens. Georgia, University' of
T.L.B. Thomas U Bewick, Ph.M. T.Z. Theodore Zhivkovitch, Ph.D.
Professor of .Agricultural Education, Uni- .\iitlior; Formerly, .\ssociate Professor of So-
versity of Wisconsin; .State 4-H Club Leader. cial Sciences, University of N'ienna. .Austria.
.Agricultural Education .Articles Europe.\.n Countries and Related .Articles
T.M. Thomas Munro, Ph.D. U.M. Ugo Mochi
Cairatii- of Education, Cleveland Museum of S( ulptor. Designer, Illustrator.
.Art; Professor of .Art. Western Reserve .\lls^RK^vSKs OF THE White House Illustrations
University, Cleveland. Ohio.
U.P.H. U. P. Hedrick, S.D.
Painting and Related .Articles
Director Emeritus, New York .Agricultural
T.M.McC. T. M. McCormick Experiment Station, Geneva, N. V.
.Secretary- Treasurer, OiJ Workers Inter- Gr.afting; Grape
national L'nion.
V.A.A. Virgil A.Anderson, NL.A., Ph.D.
On. Workers International Union
Professor of .Speech and Drama. Director of
T.^. Thomas Parran, .M.D., Ph.D., S.D LL.D. Speech Re-education. Stanford Universitv.
loiiiii il\. l"..S. .Siirijeon General. Stammerlng a.\d Stuttering
f NiMMt NiTV Health .Articles V.A.S. V. A. Seward
T.P.A. Thomas P. Abemethy, Ph.D., Litt. D. .\i list.
Chairman, Coixoran .School of History, Uni- A ihmk; F.NERGYand Other Drawings
versity of \injinia, Charlottesville. Virginia Carrier, B..A.
Coi.cjNisTS Biographies Metropolitan Program Director of Tecn-.Age
T.P.C Tom Peete Cross, Ph.D., Litt.D. Work, V.W.C.A., Chicago.
.Author, Annfrtt Irish Talfi; Professor Emer- Girl Reservf.s
itus of Eni^lish and Comparative Literature, V.Co. Veita Condon, B.L.
Universitv of C^hirago, Illinois. Author.
V'arious Language and LrrtRAriRE .Articles Latin-.Amfrican and Other Biographies
V.H.C. Victor H. Coholane, B.S., Nf.F. W.B.P. Walter Patterson
Biolotjist : AdMsor on Wildlife Management Dinctoi- ol Advertising .\geneies, M«-rgen-
and Fish Cliilture, U.S. National Park thaler Linotype Ck)., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Serviee, Washington, D.C. Linotype
\'ai"ious Mammals Articles W.C.A. William C. Ackermon, B .\.
V.J. Victor Johnson, Ph.D., M.D. Director of Ciohjiiiliia Broadcasting System
Director, Mayo Foundation for Nfedical Ed- Reference Department.
ucation and Research, and Professor of Monitor Station
Physiology, University of Minnesota. W.C.Bea. William C. Beaver, M.S., Ph.D.
Phvsiology Professor (jl Biology and H»'ad of th<" Biology
1 )e()a rt men t, Wittenberg C-ollege, .Springfield.
V.J.F. Vincent Flynn, S. F.B., Ph.D.
Picsiiient, Clollege of St. Ihomas, St. Paul,
Biology Articli"s
St. Thomas, College of W.C.Ben. Wendell Clark Bennett, Ph.D.
Piulis,sor oi .\mlirupology, Yale University,
V.K.Z. Vladimir Kotma Zworykin, E.E.. Ph.D.. D.Sc.
I)ir<( tor of Klcitronic Research; \'ice-
New Haven, Conn.
President and Technical Consultant, Radio .Vnthropolocy Articles
Corporation of .\inerica. W.C.H. Whitney Clark Huntington, .M.S., C:.E., S.D.
Tukvision; Electronics Articles Head, C.'i\il Lnuinttrinn Department, Uni-
V.Q. Vernon Quinn versity of Illinois, Urbana.
.\uthor ol Books and Articles on Plants, Building Con.struction and
Seeds, Leaves, and Roots. Related Articles
.Seed; Free
W.C.J. William C. Jones, -MB .\.. Ph.D.. L.H.D.
V.t. Victor Robinson, Ph.C, M.D.
President. Whittier College, Whittier, Calif.
Forinerl\ Professor of History of Medicine,

Temple L niversity School of Medicine,

WmrriER CIoli.ege
Philadelphia. W.C.Ke. Weir C. Ketler, .M..\., LL.D., Litt.D.
PinsiriANs and Surgeons Biographies President, Grove City College, Grove Citv,
V.St. Vilhjolmur Stefansson, LED.. Ph.D. Pa.
I-xplorer; .\iitlior. Friendly .Arctic, and Other Grove City College
Books; .\dvisor on Northern Operations to W.C.Kr. Wilbur C. Kriebel
Branches of U.S. .\rmy and Navy and to General .Secretary, General Conference of
Pan American World Airways. the Schwenkfelder Church.
Polar Exploration Schwenkfelder
W.A.D. W. A. Dwiggint
Ivpc Designer. Offset; Type W.C.M. Walter Muenscher, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of B<Jtany. Cornell University,
W.A.G. Walter A. Glass, B.S., B.D.
Ithaca, N.Y.
Assistant to the Reyistrar, Drew University,
Weeds .\rticles
.Madison, N.J.
Drew University W.C.N. William Coleman Nevils, Ph.D.. LL.D.. Litt.D.
W.A.H. W. A. Hamor, S.D., LL.D. I'oiiiierly. President, University of .Scranton,
.AssistantDirector, Mellon Institute, Pitts- Scranton, Pa. Scranton, University of
burnh. Pa. W.C.R. William C. Rapp
.Mn ON Institute of Industrial Research
Past CJiand Hiyh Priest, Royal .\rch Masons
W.A.I. William A. Irwin, Ph.D.. D.B. in Illinois.
Professor of Old Testament Language and Masonry, or Freemasonry
Literature. Univei^sity of C^hicago.
W.D. Watson Davis, C.E.
Oi D Testament .\rticles
Director. Sciencf SfTvicf, Washington, D.C.
W.A.McD. William A. McDonald, Ph.D. SciFNTiFir Organizations .\rticles
Professor of Cla.ssical Languages, Moravian
Colletje, Bethlehem, Pa. W.D.Bo. William Dov«r Boutwell, B.S.

Hii R()(;i Ni'iiic and Related Articles Instructor, English Department, Feachers
W.A.S. William Allison Shimer, Ph.D.. LL.D.
College, Columbia
LIniversity; Former
Chief, Division of Publications, Radio, and
Formerly, President, Marietta College, Mari-
Exhibits, U.S. Office of Education.
etta. Ohio.
Marietta College
Com mun ication
W.A.W. Walter A. Weber, B.S. W.D.Br. Willard Dayton Brown, B .\., D.D.
Leading .\nimal .\rtist. CJencral .SecretarA-, Board of Education.
Animal Color Plates Reformed Church in .-\merica.

W.Be. William kethke, M..\. Reformed Church

.Secretarv and General Educational Direc- W.D.C. William Duncan Copeland,M..\., LL.D, Litt.D.
tor. Stenotype Corporation. Chicago. Formerly, Nice-President. Lake Forest Col-
Stenotype lege, Illinois. Lake Forest College
W.Br. William Bridges, B..\.
Curator of Publications, New York Zoologi- W.D.H. WilfridDyson Hambly, S.D.
cal Park. Curator of .\frican Ethnology, Chicago
Salmon Natural History Museum.
W.B.H. William B. HesseHlne, Ph.D.
\'arious Social Science .\rticles
Professor of History, University of Wisconsin,
Madison. W.D.K. William D. Kiipotrick, LL.B.
Various U.S. Statesmen's and Political .\Ianager, Christian .Science Committees on
Leaders' Biographies; War between the Publication, Boston.
States Christian Science; Eddy, Mary Baker
W.O.McC. William D. McCain, MA., Ph. I). W.F.Ro. William Franklin Rosenblum, B..\., LL.B.
1)11' I of Archivf-s
Int. Mississippi l)<-p.irtm«-nt kal)bi, cmpli- Israel, .New ^'ork City; Presi-

ami History; .\iitlior, I ht I'nttfd StaUs and dent, Synagogue Council of /America (1946-
I hf Hf public of I'litiiinm; Editor, Jmttnal of 1948). Jew; Judaism
\liiM>uf<fit lliittiry. .\IlSSI.vslPFI
W.F.Z. W. F. Zimmerman, Ph.D.
W.D.W. WliMn D. Wallls, H.S.. Ph.D. Pi<>iil<nt, 1 liK-l C>)llegc, Greenville, Pa.
I'rofcssor of .Xnthropoloijy, L'nivcrsity of 1 HiEL College
.Minnrsota, .Minneapolis; ,\utlior, HfliQion in W.G.B. Wiley G. Brooks, Ph.D.
frimiliff Socifty. President, Nebraska .State Teachers College,
Si;pKR NATURALISM and Primitive Bkmkfs Chadron.
.\rticlfs Nebraska State Feachers College
W.E.E. W. Elmer Ekblaw, Ph.D. 'Chadron )

Professor of Cirography, Clark University, W.G.r. Wllbert G. Fritz, MBA.

Worcester, Mas.s. Geographv .\rticles .Assistant Professor; .Specialist, Cxial Industry
W.E.G. Wlllord Givent, M.A., LL.D., Ed.D.
Research, University of Pittsburgh. Coal
l.\<iiitive .Se( retaiA', National Education W.G.R. Wiiiiam Greene Roelker, M..A.
.\ssociation, Washington, D.C. Director, Rhode Islanti Historical Society,
NArioNAi Education /Vssociation of the Providence.
United States Rhode Island and Related .Articles

W.E.Ga. Winifred Garrison, Ph.D.. I.itt.D.

W.H.Bo. William H. Barnes, B..A., Mus.D.
i'rofes.'sor F'.nieritus of ('hurch History, Uni-
Organ .Ai'chitect; .Author, The Contemporary
versity of Ciiicago; Literary Editor, The
Ainirican Organ. Organ
Christian Century. Religion Articles
W.H.Bu. Walter H. Bucher, Ph.D.
W.E.H. Winifred E. Howe, B..A.
Professor of .Structural Geology, Columbia
Forin<-ily, Editorial Consultant and His-
University, New York. Geology .Articles
torian, Nletropolitan Museum of Art, New
^'ork City. Metropolitan Museum of Art W.H.Cho. William Henry Chamberiln
Formerly, Moscow
.Autlior, Russian Revolution;
W.E.M.,Jr. W. Morris, Jr., MA.
Correspondent, Christian Science .Monitor.
Director of .\thletics, University of Tulsa,
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
lulsa. Okla. Tulsa, University of
W.H.CI1U. Walter H. Cliute
W.E.Y. William E. Young, Ph.D. Director,JohnG.Shedd .Aquarium, Chicago.
Director of Elementary Education, State Aquarium
Education Department, Albany, N.Y.
New York and Related Articles W.H.Cole Warren H. Cole, B.S., M.D.
Professor of Surgery, L'niversity of Illinois
W.F.D. Walter F. Downey, Ed.M., L.H.D. College of Medicine, Chicago.
Head .Master, English Hitfh School, Boston; Various NIedicine Articles
Formerly, C^ommissioner of Education of the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. W.H.Colem. William Harold Coleman, M.A.. Litt.D.
.Ma.ssaciiusetts and Related Articles Dean of the Clollege. Bucknell University,
Lcwisburg, Pa. Bucknell University
W.F.F. William F. Furlong, MA.
\ ice- President, .Seton Hall University, South W.H.Cr. W. H. Cramblet, Ph.D., LL.D.
Orange, N.J. Seton Hall University President, Bethany College, Bethany, W. \'a.
Bethany College
W.F.H. Wilfiam F. Hanna, M.S., Ph.D.
Oflic<i-iii-C!hart;e, Dominion Laboratory W.H.D. William H. Dooley, Ph.D.
of Plant Pathology, Winnipeg, Man. .Author, History oj Costume, and Other Books;
Fungi .Articles; Mushroom Formerly, Principal, Staubenmullcr Fe.xtile
High School, New York City.
W.F.L. William F. Logan, MA. Costume Articles
Directoi ()l A(lmi.s.sions, Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity, Baltimore. W.H.G.,Jr. William H. Groy, Jr., M.S., Ph.D.
Johns Hopkins University 1 oiineilv. President, Florida .Agricultural
and Mechanical College, Tallaha.ssee.
W.F.La. W. F. Lontermon, B.S.E.E. Florida .Agricultural and Mechanical
St.itioii l.iit'iiieei , .National Broadcasting Co., College
(:hi<ago. 111. Television
W.F.McD. William F. McDonald, Ph.D. W.H.R. Walter H. Ryle, Ph.D.
Professor of Ancient History, Ohio President, Northeast Missouri State Teach-
l'nivcrsity, Columbus. ers College, Kirksville.
\arious History and Government .Articles Missouri State Teachers College
W.F.OD. W. P. O'Donnell, M.A., LL.D. W.H.Ra. William H. Radford, M.S.
I'Ksident. l.asiein Kentucky State College, .Associate Professor of Electrical Communi-
Richmonii, Ky. cations, Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
Kentucky .State College nology, Cambridge. Radar
W.F.t. William F. Russell, Ph D., LL.D., Ed.D. W.H.S. Walter H. Stowe, B.A.. S.T.D.
loi iiici K , 1 )i-. in of I'eachei-s College, Coluni- Pii'sident, I'.pi.scopal Church Historical .So-
l>ia L niveisity, New York C^ity. ciety, New Brunswick, N.J.
Teachers College, Columbia UNivERsin- Episcopalian and Related .Articles

W.H.Y. W. Hayes Yeogar, M.A. W.N.S. Walter Noble Sage, Ph.D.
C;iiaii iii.iii, l)(|)ai tinriit of Spct-ch, Ohio l'i()l( ssoi .iiui H(.i<l. Department of History,

State L'ni\ii-sity, Cxjlumbus. University of British Cxjlumbia, N'ancouver.

PiBi.ic Spkakino Artidi-s Bkitlsh Columbia
William H. Zelgel, Ph W.O.L. William O. Lynch, M..A.
W.H.Z. 1)
l)ii<( tor Aiimissions ami Pn-sonnd, East-
\ 11 1 h ( )
I . lli\l<)Ty of Indiana State Teachers Col-
irgr and Historical .\rticles: Formerly, Edi-
ern Illinois State I'eachei-s C^jlleije.
Il.I.INOIS Sta IF. 1 KACHKRS CIoLLEGK (Eastcm) tor, Indiana Magazine of Ilislory; Pr<)f<-s.sor
Emeritus of Histoiy, Indiana University,
W.Jo. Willard Johnson, M.A., B.D.
\ i( <- I'ltsidciu, National Conference of
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Christians and Jews.
National Conference of Christians and W.O.T. William O. Trapp, Ph.D.
Jews Professor, Graduate School of Journalism,
W.Ju. Will Judy, B.A., LL.B. Columbia University, New ^'ork Chty.
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pedia and Other Books on Dogs. W.Po. Wilson Popenoe, S.D.
Various Doc Articles DiKitor. I'.MUtla Agricola Panamericana, Hon-
W.J.C William J. Clench, M.S. duras, Central America.
CaiiaiDi- of .Molliisks, Museum of Compara- Tropical Plants Articles
tive Zoology, Har\ard University, Cam- W.Pr. Walter Prichard, M.A.
bridge. Moi-LUSKS .\rticles Editor, Louisiana Historical Quarterly; Francjois
W.J.F. Wiliard Fleming
J. Xavier Martin Professor of Louisiana His-
Illustiator. Pol icK and Safety Color Plates tory, Louisiana State L'niversity, University.
Louisiana and Related Articles
W.J.Mo. WJIiiam J. Morton, B.S.
Lieutenant Colonel: Librarian, United States W.P.C. Warren P. Clement, M.A.
Military .\cademy. West Point, N.Y. Registrar and Director of .Admissions, Te.xas
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W.L.H. Waiter Hopkins, LL.B.
Adjutant-in-Chief, Sons of Confederate Vet- W.P.W. Walter Prescott Webb, Ph.D.
erans. Professor of Histoi^y, University of Texas,
Confederate Veterans Articles .Austin. Texas
W.L.S. William Schaaf, Ph.D.
L. W.R. William Reiche
.-Kssistant Professor of Education, Brooklyn R.G..\. Laboratories Division, Radio Corpo-
College, Brooklyn, N. Y. ration of .America, Princeton, N.J.
Vocational Education .\rticles .Antenna (Radio and Television)
W.M.F. William Marshall French, Ph.D. W.Red. Waiter Redford, Ph.D.
Picsidcnt, Hastings Ciollege, Hastings, Neb. Formerly, President, Southern Oregon Col-
Hastings College lege of Education, Ashland.
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Director of Program and Personnel, Boys'
W.Rel. Winold Reiss
Clubs of America, New York City.
Artist and Illustrator.
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Indian, American, Color Plates
W.M.Har. William M. Harlow, M.S., Ph.D.
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Director of Public Information, Cornell Uni-
York State College of Forestry, Syracuse.
Deciduous Trees Articles versity, Ithaca, N.Y.
Cornell University
W.M.J. W. M. Jardine, B.S., LL.D.
W.R.Ba. W. R. Banks, M.A.
Lonncrly, President, Municipal University
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of Wichita, Kansas.
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Wichita, Municipal University of
W.R.Br. Walter R. Brown
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Piesicient,Delta State Teachers College, \'a. H.AMPTON Institute
Cleveland, Miss.
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President, .San Diego State College, San
W.M.Kr. Wilton Marion Krogman, M.A., Ph.D.
Professorof Physical .\nthropology. Graduate
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School of Medicine, University of Pennsyl- W.R.I^P. William Ralph LaPorte, M..A.
vania. Anthropology .Articles .Author, }'our Hriilth and Safety, and Other
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.Author, Mr-it thf Scirncrs. and Other Books; and Physical Education, L'niversity of South-
Professor of Biochemistry, Polytechnic In- ern California, Los .Angeles.
stitute of Brooklyn, New S'ork. Various Health Articles
Science and the Sciences Cm part) W.R.M. William R. Maxon, S.D.
W.M.Man. W. M. Mann, S.D. Formerly, C'urator, L'.S. National Herbar-
Director, National Zoological Park, Wash- ium, .Smithsonian Institution, Washington,
ington, D.C. D.C. Ferns .Articles
Ape and Related Articles W.R.McC. W. R. McConneli, Ph.D.
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Director. C^leveland Museum of Art, Cleve- Oxford. Ohio.
land, Ohio. Various Geography .Articles: Ohio and
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WM.P, W. I. Pot., Nf.A. W.S.S. William Sadler, M.D. F..A.P
S. .A.

lurmrrlv. Pn-sidrnt, Peru (Neb.) State loiiiiciK, Diiector, Chicago Institute of

leat hei-s CU)llrne. Research and Diagnosis.
NuiRAsKA Statk Teachers Coixeoe 'Peru) Psychology .Articles

W.R.P.a. W. t. P. Brldgar, MA. W.S.W. W. Wallace, M..A.


.\i«lu\ist anil Librarian. Royal Military- Librarian, University of Foronto. Ontario

Ck»lleKe. Kim;ston. Ontario. CANADIAN .Authors Biographies
R()^ Ai Military College of Canada W.T.B. Walter T. Brown, Ph.D., LL.D.
W.t.t. William R. Raad, B..\. President, \'ictoria University, Toronto,
liuint ilv, Mxccutive
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Collegiate .\thletic Association. X'lriDRiA I'niversity
Nafional Colleciate Athletic W.T.R.F. William Thomas Ross Flemington, .M..A., D D.
.vssociation President. .Mount .Allison University, Sack-
W.R.VonD. William R. Von
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Kcijioiial Cliitluf Operations, Pacific Region. Mount .Allison L'niversit^'
Soil Conservation .Serv'ice, Portland, Ore.
W.V.M. W. V. Morgenstern
Cokn; (Jrass and Farming .Science .Articles
Director of Public Relations, L'niversity of
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Research Director, Hotel and Restaurant Chicago, Uni\ ersity of
Ennployces' International Alliance.
W.W.B. W. W. Bauer, B.S., .M.D.
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N MioNAi. I.ea(;le of .\merica Chicago.
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Professor of Education, University of Flor- W.W.D. William W. Dunlop
ida. Ciainesvillc. Editor. I he Independent Forester.
Metal Products .Articles Foresters, Independent Order of
W.Se. William Seagle, B..\., LI..B. W.W.Ha. W. W. Haggard, Ph.D., Ed.D.
.Assistant .Solicitor, Department of the In- President, Western Washington Ckillege of
terior. Washington, D.C. Education, Bcllineham.
i . \\\ ^ ers and Jurists Biographies Washington College of Education
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Oberlin. Ohio. President, Livingston State Teachers Col-
I.iRnpEAN P.MNTERS Biographies lege, Livingston, .Ala.
Alab.am.a .State Teachers College
W.S.A. William Sims Allen, Ph.D.. LED.. L.H.D.
I Livingston
Formerly, President, John B. Stetson Uni-
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Books; Illustrator. President. Eastern Washington College of

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President. Southeast State Teachers College,
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Pioneers and Explorers Biographies Missouri St.ate Teachers College
W.S.r. William Scott Ferguson, Ph.D., LL.D.Litt.D. 'Southeast)
Professor Emeritus of .Ancient and Modern
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Mass. Professor Emeritus of the History of .Ameri-
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Chairman of the Faculty, Perkins .School of
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Articles .Asburv College


Atwood, Wallace W., Ph.D. Leary, Bernlce E., Ph.D.

I'rcsiilciit. CM. Ilk I'nivt'i-sity, Worcester, Mass. Cm ill uluiu Consultant, Madison (Wis.) Public Schools.

CONSLI.TANT ON MaPS IN Coi.OR Reading Consultant

Beany, W. W., Ed.D. Mitchell, Albert
" Ihe .\nswer -Man" Radio Program
Director of Education, U.S. Office of Indian .Xffairs,
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Chapman, Bruce Designer of Book Covers: Winner, Grand Prize of the
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Consultant on Races of Man Color Plates Consultant on Indian Color Plates



or less familiar words. Pronunciation guides are also furnished with articles
provides pronunciation for unusual

w hich contain unusual words, as in the case of Mexico and the state articles.
Pronunciation is given in italics. The words are spelled phonetically. For example:
ABDICATION, ab dih KAY shun
The syllabic bearing the primar)' accent is printed in capital letters (KAY). The
syllable on which the secondary- accent is placed is shown in small capitals (,ab).

Various combinations of letters and silent letters, such as h or e, are used where
necessary to make the pronunciation clear. For example:
APIARY, A pih AIR ih

In the italicized word, a vowel is long when standing alone in an accented sylla-
ble. A vowel is short when followed by a consonant in the same syllable, unless
the syllable ends in silent e, as in DYNE, dine, or the consonant is preceded by A,
as in APOCRYPHA, ah PAHA' rih fah. When the syllable ends in silent e, the
vowel is long, as in the last syllable of ARGENTITE, AHR jen tile.
The following key shows the usual phonetic equivalents of the Nowel S9unds.

a, a=A, ay, as in APHID, A fthd: ADE, ia=ih ah. or ya. as in AGIAIA, ah GLA
ayd. yah; GARDENIA, gahr DEE mh ah.
a=ai. as in CASCARA, kas KAIR ah, 5, o =0, oh, as in ACROPOLIS, aA CROP
SAGRADA, w;/; GRA)' dah. oh lis.

a=a, as in ABDOMEN, ab DO men. o=aw, as in ALBATROSS, .AL bah traws.

a, a = ah, as in ABACUS, AB ah kus. 6=0, ah, as in CHIFFON, .S7//F ahn.
e, e =E, ee, as in ACETYLENE, a SET ih 00, 66=00, as in ACOUSTICS, ah KOOS
leen. tiks.

c =c, eh, ai, as in ACETONE, AS eh tone. ou =ou, ow, as in GOUT, gout.

e =r, n. iih. as in CHAFER, CHAYF er; ou =00, as in AGOUTI, ah GOO tih.
CHARLEROI, shar luh ROY. oi =oi, oy. as in ADENOIDS, AD eh noydz-
1 =1, y, eye (rarely), as in ALBINO, al BY u, u, u = U, yu, yoo, as AHASUERUS, ah
noh. H.iZyu E rtis.
r(Frcnch) =ce. as in FATIGUE, /aA TEEG. u =u, uh, as in CEREUS, SE ree us.
r = i, ih, as in ADIGE, .1// dihjay. u =u, uh, as in CASSIUS, CASH ih us.

^^^\ ^"^ IS the first letter of our alphabet. Belgian and Dutch frontiers. It is famous for its wann
/ % ^^^ It also was the first letter in the sulphur springs, which are believed to have healing
-^ JL. V^-^ first known alphabet, which dates values. It is also an important manufacturing center.
from about 1830 B.C. It was used by a people called Many products are made from the iron, zinc, and lead
the Seirites, who lived on the Sinai Peninsula north of mines near the city. .Aachen has a technical college
the Red Sea. They took
this letter from Egyptian which was founded in 1870.
drawings of the head of an o.\. The Phoenicians, who .Aachen first became an important town during the
lived in the eastern Mediterranean area, also made .-\ days of die ancient Romans. They built baths at the
the first letter in their alpliabet. They named it aleph, sulphur springs and called the town .Aquisgranum after
which means ox. The Phoenician A looked less like .\pollo Granus, the god of hot springs. In the Middle
.\ges the Frankish kings were crowned there. Charle-
FROM PICTURE TO LETTER magne was especially fond of the city. He made it his
nortliem capital, and built a palace and a cathedral.

t/^ A A
Sinai Phoenician Greelt Roman
The German kings who followed Charlemagne were
crowned in .Aachen until the 1500's.Then the city began
to lose importance. It fell into the hands of the French
during the Napoleonic wars, and was given to Prussia
3000 B.C. 1850 B.C. 1200 B.C. 600 B.C. A.D. 114 in 81 5. During World War II, .Aachen surrendered to

an ox head, and more like the A of ilie present-day October, 1944, after a battle of nineteen
.Allied forces in

alphabet. The Greeks took the letter into their alpha- days. It first great German city to be occupied
was die
bet and called it alpha. They made slight changes in by .American troops. The cathedral was damaged and
its shap)c. The shape of the letter was changed again part of the city was destroyed. r.Pf.a.

when passed into the Roman alphabet.

it AALBORG. Denmark (Cities).
In the Scirite and Phoenician alphabets, A stood for AARDVARK, .AHRD v.ahrk. is an .African animal

a light breathing sound. This sound was not used in which ground and eats only ants and ter-
lives in the
pronouncing the letter in the later alphabets. A stands mites. Seventeenth-century Dutch settlers in .Africa gave
for si.\ main sounds in the English alphabet. E.xamples the aardvark its name, which means earth pig. The aard-
of these sounds arc found in the words name, bare, man. vark has a long, piglike snout, but is not like a pig in
father, water, and want. f.f.d. any other way.
See also Alph.\bet; Promnciation. The aardvark is from four to six feet long from the
A-1 is a term which is used to describe anything that
is ver\- satisfactory' or ver\' good. It is used today in a

slang sense most of the time.

The expression was first used at the offices of Lloyd's
of London, a great British insurance organization. .Ships
were graded on books at Lloyd's according to the risk
in insuring them. .\ ship which was .\-\ meant ver\- little
risk, and the insurance rates on such a ship were lover

than on other ships.

The credit ratings of American business firms arc
shown on a graded list like that of Lloyd's. The sym-
bol A-i after a firm's name means that its standing is

\er\' high.
A.A.A. See American Automobile Associatio.n.
A.A.A.S. See .American .\s.soci.\tion for the .Ad-
vancement of Science.
AACHEN, .AH ken (p)op. about 130,000). is a city in
\\ esicrn Germany. The French, who once held the city,

call it .\ix-la-Chaf)clle. .Aachen is located forty-four S>«- Vnrk Znolozlml Sorl«y

miles southwest of Cologne and a few miles east of the Aardvark, One of th* Antaatars
end of its snout to thr tip of its tail. Thr skin is thick, and The story about him is found mainly in the Biblical
is covcrrd by a thin ccvit of hair.Tlu* larRc cars Icxjk like Ixxjks of Exodus and Numlx'rs. It relates that .\aron
those of a jack rahhit. Its front Irps arc short, and have assisted Mos<"s when he was demanding that the King
four stronp claws. I lir hind legs are lotiger. and have of Eg^pt free the Hebre\NS from slaver)-. Moses often
live claws. With its claws the aard\ark rips open the directed Aaron to call down plagues upon Egvpt. .After
nests of ants and t<"nnites. Ihen it catciies these the people escaped, .\aron was made their priest. His
insects with its long, sticky tongue. Some aardvarks sons were his a.ssistanLs. But on one occasion he angered
have H)ngues a foot long. Mos<'s and brought punishment on the nation by mak-
This animal al.so us<*s its claws to dig its home. Ilierc ing a golden calf for them to worship. He never reached
it sleeps during the day. and comes out for fo<xl only the land of Palestine, but died during the wandering in
after dark. Few animals can dig as fast. In a few min- the wilderness. He was buried on Mount Hor. which is
ut«n5 it can dig a deep hole and escajjc quickly from its belie\ed to be one of the mountains near Petra in the
enemies. ancient land of Edom. The priesthood remained in his
Men and lions often kill the aardvark for food. Wart family. The later high priests claimed that they were
hogs and large snakes called pythons sometimes take descendants of Aaron. See also Moses. w.a.i.
its home for their own use. r.t.Ha. A.A.U. See Amateur Athletic Union of the
.See also .\ntkater; Mammal. I'm in .States.

Classification. .Xaidvarks are mammals. They arc the A.A.U.W. .See American Association of Univer-
only nirnihcrs of the order I ubulidenlala.'Vhv two species sity WOMFN.
of aardvarks are both in the genus Oryctfropus. ABACA, AH bah KAH, is a plant whose tough light
AARDWOLF, AURD woolf. is an animal found in tan fibers are used primarily for making Manila rope.
th<' in los p.irts of .South and East Africa. Its name
The abaca plant belongs to the banana family. The
comes from the Dutcli language, and means earth wolf.
The aarduoif Icxjks somewhat like the hyena, for its
back slo[H\s down from its shoulders to its tail. Its coat of
reddish fur is striped with black. The have five
toes. The hind feet have only four. The fur on its
shoulders is stiff and bristly, forming a mane like that
of the hyena. But instead of the hyena's great bone-
crushing teeth, the aardwolf has only small, weak, cone-
shaped teeth. For this reason it can prey on only the

Whlllrx-k Cnnlace Co.

Strips of Abacd Fiber ore pulled from stalks of the plant

on a large abaca plantation in the Philippine Islands.

crop cut about every eight months, between the flow-


ering and fmiting periods. New stalks gro\s- from the

cut-o\er parts. The fibers have been used for ropemak-
ing since the sailing-ship days of the early nineteenth
centurv'.Abaca also is used in making mats, hat braids,
and shoes. Until the outbreak of World War II. almost
all abaca was grown in the Philippine Islands. Now the
plant is also grown in Latin-.American countries, includ-
ing Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras.
See also Hemp. h.j.l.

Classification. The scientific name of Abaca is Musa

S. « V..rk 7,....l..i,'l.nl S.K-icly
It is a member of the Musaceae family.
Aardwolf, a Rara and Shy Animal
ABACUS. See .Vrchitecture (Terms).
smallest animals. It eats chiefly termites and other in- ABACUS, AB ah kus, is a device used for adding and
sects. Its flesh is not gcxxl to eat. Aardwol\es are seldom subtracting. Numbers are represented by beads or balls
s<-en in capti\ ity. h.e.a. stnmg on wires in a frame. The abacus in the illustra-
Si'c also Hvkna; Mammal; Mongoose. tion is made up of a number of parallel wires, with two
Clostificalien. Ihr aardwulf is a carnivorous mammal beads strvmg on each wire above the crossbar, and five
in a fiiimlv hv itself, tfie /'roulititir. It is related to the beads on each wire below the bar. Each wire strung
tiyena and
to the mongoose. Its scientific name is w ith beads on an abacus corresponds to one column of
l*Totflfi cnslatus.
figures in written numerals.
AARHUS. .Se«- Dknmark (Clities). The abacus, or counting frame, was used by the
AARON, AIR un, was the elder brother of Moses. ancient Greeks and Romans and is still seen in shops in
the Orit-nt. The Chinese abacus is called swan pan or iscanned and shipped to other parts of the country.
suan pan, names which mean reckoning board. The See also Moi.i.i:sK. w.j.c.
abacus was once used in j)riniar\- schools for teaching Clotsificaiion. The abalone is a moUusk and a member
addition and subtraction. of the laiiuly llaliotidar ami the ^cnus Haliotts.
Method of Counting. The beads shown on the wire ABANA, or AMANA, RIVER is the Biblical name of
on llie cMrcnic right arc used to represent numbers from a stream in Syria, now known as the Barada. This river
and the nearby river Pharpar are said to be "'better than
all the waters of Israel" in II Kings 4:40. The river
flows eastward from the Anti-Lebanon Mountains and
through a gorge to the city of Uama.scus. It is impor-
tant as a source of water for that city and for Uie crops
in the surrounding oasis. G.B.Cit.
ABANDONMENT, in law, is the giving up of property
without the intention of using it again. If a valuable
ring is thrown away purposely, tlie owner loses all rights
to it. a person leaves a home or other property that
he owns without the intention of returning, he also
The Beads on the Abacus Indicate the Number 91,500 loses his property rights.
Abandonment also means desertion of a family or
I to 9. The beads in this row above the horizontal bar other dependent persons without the intention of sup>-
count five each, and those below the bar count one each. porting them again. It is a crime to abandon a child. If
Beads in the next row represent tens (10 to 99), those be- death results because of the abandonment, Uie parent
low the bar ten each, and tliose above it, fifty. The third or guardian of the child may be charged with murder.
row from die right represents hundreds and the ne.xt Cause for divorce is established if either a husband or
row, thousands, and so on. To add on the abacus, beads a wife abandons the family for a certain length of time.
are moved toward the horizontal bar. To subtract, beads The time which establishes abandonment varies in
are moved away from the crossbar. The size of the num- different states. s. t.k.
bers which can be shown on an abacus depends upon ABATEMENT, ah BAl'T mehnt,
a legal term which is
the number of rows of beads. The highest number means putting an end to a lawsuit. A plea in abate-
possible on the one illustrated is 999,999,999. p.f.
ment may be brought when a suit has been started
ABALONE, .-IB ah LO tu, is a large shellfish found in the wrong place, or started too soon, or for other
on the coasts of western North America, China, and causes. It does not destroy the right to bring another
Japan. It is also called the "ear shell." The abalone has suit.
only one shell, unlike oysters and clams. The abalone's Abatement of freehold Uie unlawful entry upon and
shell looks like an oval dish lined with mother-of-
possession of an estateby a stranger before the heir or
pearl. The animal lives under water near the shore. other person to whom the property has been trans-
ferred takes possession. The stranger is called an
abator. S.T.K.
For discussion of Abatement of a Nuisarue, see Nui-
ABBE, ERNST (i 840-1 905), was a Gennan physicist
and manufacturer of optical glass (see Lens). He was a
pioneer in tlie development of new glasses for optical
instruments such as microscopes, cameras, and tele-
scopes. In 1866 Abbe took over research work for the
optical business of Carl Zeiss. Later, as a partner of
Zeiss, he developed his business into a famous optical
firm. He also established the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung founda-
tion for scientific research and social improvement.
.Abbe was born at Eisenach in the province of Thurin-
gia. For many years he ser\ed at the L^niversity of
Jena as professor of physics and director of its obsersa-
tories. -See also Zeis.s, b.j.

ABBESS. See Abbot.

ABBEY, .AB bee, was originally a monastery or a con-
I,>-nwood M. Chiirr
vent governed by an abbot or abbess. It included no
The Shell of the Red Abalone used for making gay-
fewer than t\velve persons. Later the term was applied
colored buttons and various decorotions. The flesh is eaten. to a church which was or had been connected with a
monastery, such as Westminster Abbey. Tlie term is
It clings tightly to a rock with its muscular foot. The also used in England for certain private residences.
soft parts of its body are protected by the shell. Diving These once belonged to religious groups but were taken
for abalones is a popular West Coast sport. The flesh, from them by Henn.' VIII during the Reformation.
especially the foot, is eaten. In California, abalone meat Newstead Abbey, which was Lord B)Ton's home, is such
miles southeast of Edinburgh. .Sroii Iwjught a small farm
called Cllarty Hole in 181 i, and later added more land
to the estate. He completed Ablxjtsford in 1824. Scott
died at Abbotsford and was buried near the estate.
.Abbotsford still Ix-longs to his descendants. Tourists
may visit the estateand see his library with its car\ed
oak ceiling. The study contains the desk at which Scott
wrote. .See also .Scon, Sir Walter. r.pka.
ABBOTT, GRACE (1878-1939), was an American
.MK i.ij worker. She was chief of the United States Chil-
dren's Bureau from 1921 to 1934. She was considered an
international authority on child welfare, labor legislation,
and aid to immigrants. From 1923 to 1939 she served on
Th« luin* of Fountain* Abbey, in Yorkshire, England.
the League of Nations' Advisory Committee on Traffic
The abbey was founded in 1132 by monks of St. Mary's Abbey
ot York. U lies on the bonks of the Skell River. in Women and Children. In 1934 she became professor
of Public Welfare Administration at the University of
Chicago. Grace Abbott was born in Grand Island, Neb.
a buildintj. See also Abbot; Monasticbm; Reforma-
Her books include a two-volume study. The Child and the
tion; \\i -^iminsiir .\HH1 N'.
State; The Immigrant and the Community; and The Immigrant
ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN (1852-1911), an American
in .Massachusetts. See also Children's Bureau, r.m.b.
painter, is best known for his series of mural paintings
ABBOTT, JACOB (i 803-1 879), was an American
called Ihf Qiifst of the Holy Grail. (See Holy Grail.)
author of more than two hundred books for children.
The original paintings of this series are in the Boston
He wrote twenty-eight Rollo Books of travel and adven-
Public Library-. His historical murals in the Pennsyl-
ture. .Abbott was born in Maine, was graduated from
vania state house are generally considered his greatest
Bowdoin College, and became a Congregational minis-
ter. His works of historical fiction include the Franconia
Abbey was born in Philadelphia, and became known
Stories in ten volumes. L.j.
as an illustrator before he moved to London in 1883.
ABBOTT, LYMAN (i 835-1 922), was a famous Ameri-
There his illustrations for editions of Shakespeare were
can Congregational minister and editor. He helped
famous. In 1902 he was commissioned to paint the
young people combine the
coronation of Edward VH. m.Br.
theories of Dar\vin widi new
ABBOT is the title given to a monk who is the head
views of the Bible to strength-
of an ablx"y or monastery. The term comes from the
en their Christian faith.
Aramaic language and mcans/alher. A form of the word
Abbott was born in a suburb
b the New Testament expression, "Abba, father" (Mark of Boston. He was graduated
14:36). Usually an abbot is chosen by the monks of the
from New York University,
monastery in which he is to ser\e. His bishop or the Pope
and practiced law for a time.
approves the choice. An abbot holds office for life.
He became a pastor in Terre
Monasteries gained wealth and importance during
Haute, Ind., and then at the
the Middle Ages, and abbots held positions of great
New England Church in
authority. Many of them took commands directly from
New York City. After the
the Pope rather than from their bishops. Some of them
death of Henr>' Ward Beech-
became pxjwerful in politics. Edward I of England sum-
er, Abbott succeeded him as t«.u
moned sixty-seven abbots to the Parliament of 1295.
editor of the Christian Union Lyman Abbott, editor and
The head of a community of nuns is called an abbess.
magazine and as pastor of Congregational minister.
See also Mon.vsticism. m.m.d.
Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, N. Y Later he scr\ed
ABBOTSFORD is the residence built in Scotland by as editor of 7 he Outlook. w.w.s.
llic ntjvriisi Sir Walter Scott. It is located twenty-eight
ABBREVIATION is a form to which a word or a phrase
isshortened. Usually, only the initial letters, those form-
Abbotsford, home of Walter Scott on the River Tweed.
Sir ing the first syllable of the word, are used. Sometimes
Many of Scott's novels were written here.
most of the vowels are left out. Most abbreviations are
Ewlnic Gallowiiy
made of letters which are actually part of the word for
which they stand. Abbre\iations are used to save space
in tables. They are also used in groups of statistics, in
technical and scientific material, and in indexes, foot-
notes, and bibliographies. Signs and symbols are not
•Abbreviations have been found on the earliest known
tombs, monuments, and coins. Before the printing press
was invented, manuscripts were written by hand. Many
abbreviations were used to save time and space. Hun-
dreds of Latin abbreviations are still used. .Among the
abbreviations used most often are the following:
Abbreviations in Common Use
a. acre. arith. arittuiu-tic. C.B.M. Cihicf Boatswain's Dol. Delaware.
A. A. A. American Automo- Ariz. .Arizona. .Male. Don. Denmark.
hilr .\^cx:iation. Arlc. .Arkansas. CBS Columbia Broadcast- D.Eng. Doctor of Engineer^
A.A.A.L. American Aca- art. article. ing System. ing.
titiny of Arts and Lettri-s. A.S.C.A.P. American So- c.c. cubic centimeter. dopl. department.
A.A.A.S. American Asso- ciety of Composers, C.E. Cavil Engineer. D.F. Di.strito Federal (Fed-
ciation for the Advance- Authoi-s, and Publishei-s. c«nl. century. eral District (Mexico)).
ment of Science. ossn. association. cf. conjer, compare. D.F.C. Distinguished Fly-
A.A.F. Army .Vir Forces. ol.no. atomic number. eg. centigram. ing Caoss.
A.A.U. .\mateur Atliletic aMy. attorney. C.G.S., e.g.*. centimeter- diet, dictionary.
Union. at. vol. atomic volume. gram-second. dim. ditninurndo, diminish-
A.A.U.W. .American .A.ssocia- ol.wi. atomic weight. ch., ctiap. chapter. ing in sound.
tion of UniveiTiity Women. Aug. August. Ch.E., Cti*m.E. Chemical D.L.O. Dead Letter Ofiice.
A.B., B.A. Bachelor of Arts. Aus. Austria. Engineer. do. ditto, the same.
ABC (Powers). Argentina, Austral. Australia. C.I.O. Congress of Indus- D.O. Doctor of Oratory;
Brazil, Chile; .American A.V. .Authorized \'ci-sion trialOrganizations. Doctor of Osteopathy.
Broadcasting Company. (Bible). C.J. Chief Justice. doz. dozen.
Abp. .Archbishop. av». avenue. cm. centimeter. dr. debtor.
a.e. alternating current. avoir, avoirdupois. C.M.T.C. Citizens' Military Dr. doctor.
a, c, ace, acct. account. Training Camp. D.Sc. Doctor of Science.
acctl. accelfrando, more b. born. CO. company; county. D.S.C. Distinguished Sei-v-
quickly. Bart., Bl. Baronet. CO. Commanding Officer. ice Cross.
A.C.E. .Association for B.B.C. British Broadcasting CO. care of. D.S.M. Distinguished Serv-
Childhood Education. Corporation. c.o.d. cash on delivery, ice Medal.
A.D. anno Domini, in the bbl. barrel. collect on delivery. D.S.O. Distinguished Serv-
year of our Lord. B.C. Before Christ; Col. Colonel. ice Order.
ad., adv. advertisement. British Columbia. colloq. colloquial. D.S.S. Doctor of Holy
odag. adagio, slowly. B.D. Bachelor of Di\ inity. Colo. Colorado. Scripture.
A.O.C. .Aide-de-camp. B.Ed. Bachelor of Educa- Comdt.Commandant. D.S.T. Daylight Saving
adj. adjective. tion. Comm. Commander. lime; Doctor of Sacred
Adjt. .Adjutant. B.I.S. Bank for Inter- eonj. conjunction; conjuga- Theology.
ad lib. ad libttum, as one national Settlement. tion. dup. duplicate.
bibliog. bibliography.
pleases. con. contra, against. D.V. Deo volente, God will-
Adm. .Admiral. B.L. bill of lading. Conn. Connecticut. ing.
odv. adverb. bieg. biography. eont. continued. D.V.M. Doctor of Veterin-
ad biol. biology. contr. contraction. ary Medicine.
val. ad valorem, accord-
ing to value. B.J. Bachelor ofJournalism. Corp. Corporal. dwt. pennyweight.
A.C.F. .American Expedi- bidg. building. corp. corporation. •a. each.
tionary Forces. B.litt. Bachelor of Litera- C.P.A. Certified Public od. edition.
ael. aftatis, of age. ture. .Accountant. Ed.D. Doctorof Education.
A.F. & A.M. .Ancient Free B.L.S. Bachelor of Library C.P.O. Chief Petty Officer. E.E. Electrical Engineer.
and .Accepted Ma.sons. Science. er. creditor.
E.E. and M.P. Envoy Ex-
A.F. of L. .American Fed- blvd. boulevard. cros. crescendo, increasingly traordinary and Minis-
eration of Labor. B.M. Bachelor of Medicine. loud. ter Plenipotentiai-y.
agr. agriculture. b.m. board measure. C.S.T. Central Standard e.g. exempli gratia, for
A.L. .American Legion. B.M.E. Bachelor of Mining Time. example.
A.L.A. .American Library Engineering. C.T. Central Time. E.I.East Indies.
.Association. B.Mteti.E. Bachelor of Me- CTC. Citizens Training E.M.F. electromotive force.
Ala. Alabama. chanical Engineering. Camps. •nc. enclosure.
alg. algebra. B.Mus. Bachelor of Music. ct$. cents. •ncy., oncyc, oncycl. en-
Alta. .Alberta. bot. botany.
cu. cubic. cyclopedia.
A.M. Bp. Bishop.
ante meridiem, before cwl. hundredweight. •nt. entomology.
noon. B.P.O.E. Benevolent and C.Y.O. Catholic Youth
Protective Order of Elks.
o.e. ex officio, by virtue
A.M. A. .American Medical Organization. of office.
Brig. Brigade; Brigadier.
.Association. C.Z. Canal Zone. •q. equal; equation.
Am*r. .America, .American. bros. brothers.
D. five hundred. Esq. Esquire.
omp. ampere. B.S. Bachelor of Science.
died: denarius, a penny. Est. Estonia.
ami. amount. B.S.A. Boy Scouts of d.
D.A.R. Daughters of the E.S.T. Eastern Standard
and. andante, slowly. .America.
.American Revolution, Time.
anon, anonymous. B.T.U. British Thermal
Unit. d.c. direct current. •t al. et alibi, and else-
ant. answer. where;^/ alii, and others.
bu. bushel. D.C. District of Columbia.
onl. antonym. •tc. et cetera, and so forth.
D.C.L. Doctorof Civil Law.
Anzac. .Australian and New Eih. Ethiopia.
C. Centigrade. D.Cn.L. Doctor of Canon
Zealand Corps. erhnol. ethnology.
c. circa, about; centum, one Law.
A.P., AP, /P. Associated ol saq. et sequens, et sequen-
hundred. D.D. Doctor of Divinity.
Press. tis, et sequentia, and what
C.A. Central America. D.D.S. Doctor of Dental
Apr. .April. follows.
cal. calories. Surgery.
ARC. .American Red Cross. Calif. California. doc. deceased. olym. etymology.
areh. archbishop; archi- Can. Canada. Doc. December, Eur. Europe.
tecture. Cantab, of Cambridge dof. definition. oxp. exp>ense; express.
archoaol. archaeology. (University, England). dog. degree. F. Fahrenheit.
Archd. .Archdeacon; .Arch- cap. capital. D.O. Dei Gratia, by the f. loud and with force;
duke. Copt. Captain. grace of God. franc; following (page).
; -

F.A. lirl.l Aifillrrv. id. idftn, the same. LCD. lowest (least) M.S.T. Mountain Standard
f. and A.M. I irc and \( i.o. id fit, that is. common denominator. lime.
crptrii Niasun.s. I.H.S. hius Hommnm Salva- L.C.F. lowest (least) Mus.B. Bachelor of .Music.
tar. fartlung. loT, Jesus the Savior of common factor. Mus.D. Doctor of .Music.
F«b. Frhruarv". .Men: In Hix Signo, in L.C.M. lowest least) M.W.A. .Mcxiern Wcxxlmen
H. lortimmo, very loud: this sign. common multiple. of .-Vliieru a.

folios (pai(r niiml>ri-« • III. IlHnuis. Igth. length. n. noun.

followini; ipa^rs . illu*. illustration. L.I. Long Island. N.A. North America.
F.F.V. Fii-st Families c»f I.L.O. International La- lib. librarian; library. N.B. New Brunswick.
\ iri;inia. bour Organization. Liout., Ll. Lieutenant. n.b. notij bene, note well.
fig. liisuri*. in. inch. Lim., Lid. Limited. NBC. National Broadcast-
Flo. Florida. inc. incorporated, Liti.B.Bachelor of Letters. ing Company.
F.M. Field Mai-shal. incog, incognito Litl.D.DfKtor of Letters. N.C. North Carolina.
F.O.B. Free on B<jaril (de- (unknown i. LL.B. Bachelor of Laws. N.D. North Dakota.
livered free of charge to Ind. Indiana: Indians. LL.D. Doctor of Laws. N.E. New England.
the means of eon v«-yan«'e i. I.N.D. In noniinr Dei, in the LL.M. Master of Laws, N.E.A. National Exlucation
F.O.E. Fraternal Order «)f nameof God. the
loc.cit. loco citato, in
F.ai;U-s. Inf. Infantry. place cited. Nob. Nebraska.
h. franc. I.N. R.I. Ifsus \azaTenui, Rex log. logarithm. Nelh. Netherlands.
F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Roy- judaeorum, Jesus of Naz- Ion., long, longitude. Nev. Nevada.
al (Je<n;raphifal Society. areth. King of the Jews. L.O.O.M. Loyal Order of N.F. Newfoundland.
Frl. Fndav. I.N.S. International News .Moose. N.G. National (Juard.
F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Service. Lt.j.g. Lieutenant (junior N.H. New Hampshire.
Society. inst. instant, this (month). grade J. N.J. New Jersey.
ft. feet; f<x)t. inf. interest.
M. meridi<rs, noon; -Mon- N.M. New Mexico.
Oa. Georgia. interj. interjection. no. numero, number.
sieur: thousand.
gal. gallon. intro. introduction. non seq. non sequitur, it docs
m. mark: meter: mile.
G.A.R. Grand .\rmy of the I.O.B.B. Independent Or- not follow.
M.A. .Master of .\rts.
Republic. der of B'nai B'rith. Nor. Norway.
Moj. .Major.
O.B. Great Britain. I.O.O.F. Independent Or- Nov. November.
Man. Manitoba. .

O.C.D. grcati-st common der of Odd Fellows. n.p. notary public.

Mar. March.
divisor. I.O.R.M. Improved Order N.S. New Style (calendar);
Mass. Massachusetts.
O.C.F. greatest common of Red .\ien. Nova .Scotia.
math, mathematics.
factor. I.O.U. I owe you. N S, N.S.F. .Not Sufficient
M.B.C. .Mutual Broadcast-
G«n. General. I.Q. intelligence quotient. Funds.
ing Clompany.
g«eg. geography. Ire. Ireland. N.S.W. .New South Wales.
M.C. Member of Congress.
g«oin. geometry. itoi. italic (type).
M.D. Doctor of Medicine. N.T. New Testament.
Of. Germany. I.W.W. Industrial Workers N.W.T. North West Terri-
Md. .Maiyland.
O.H.Q. General Head- of the World. tories.
mdse. merchandise.
quarters. Jon. January. Me. Maine. N.Y. New York.
O.O.P. Grand Old Party Jap. Japan, Japanese. M.E. Mechanical, Military, N.Z. New Zealand.
(Republican ). i.CO.JUTis Cirilis Doctor, or Mining Engineer. ob. obiit, died.
Oov. Governor. Doctor of Civil Law. mech. mechanics. obs. obsolete.
govt, government. J.D. Juris Doctor, Doctor of med. medicine. Ocl. October.
O.P. Graduate in Pharmacy. Law; Doctor of Laws. memo, memorandum. O.D. Officer of the Day;
gr.grain; gram. J. P. Justice of the Peace. Mex. .Mexico, Mexicans. Ordnance Department.
h. hundred. Jr. Junior. mfd. manufactured. O.E.S. Order of the East-
H.E. His Excellency; jov. juvenile. mfr. manufacturer. em Star.
His Eminence. k. carat: kilo: knot. mg. milligram. O.H.M.S. On His (Her)
H.H. His (Her) Highness: Kan., Kans. Kansas. Mgr. Manager. Majesty's Ser\-icc.
His Holiness. K.C., K. of C. Knights of mi. mile: mill: minute. Olcla. Oklahoma.
Iihd. hogshead. Golumbus. Mich. Michigan. Ont. Ontario.
H.I. Hawaiian Islands. K.C.B. Knight Commander min. minute. o.p. out of print.
H.I.H. His (Hen Imperial (of the Order) of the Minn. Minnesota. op.cil. opus citatum, the
Highness. Bath. misc. miscellaneous. work cited.
H.I.M. His (Hen Imperial K.G. Knight of the Garter. Miss. Mississippi. ORC. Officers Reserve
Maj«-stv. kg. kilogram. Mile. Mademoiselle. Corps.
H.M. Hi<: (Hen Majestv. kilo, kilogram. MM., Messrs. Messieurs. Or*. Oregon.
H.M.S. His (Her Majestv's I
km. kilometer. mm. millimeter. O.S. Old Style (calendar).
Ship. K. of P. Knights of Pythias. Mme. Madame. O.T. Old Testament.
Hon. Honorable. K.T. Knights I emplar. Mo. .Missouri. Oxon. Oxonia. Oxoniensis.
H.P., h.p. horsepower, k.w. kilowatt. m.o.money order. of Oxford University.
hr. hf)ur. K.W.H. kilowatt-hour. Mon. Monday: Montana. oz. ounce.
H.R.E. Holv Roman Empire. Ky. Kentucky. Mont. Montana.
p. page: part: piano
H.R.H. His (Hen Royal pound (English money). m.p. melting point.
£. (music), soft.
Highness. M.P. Member of Parliament.
I. lira: liter. Pa. Pennsylvania.
h». height: heat. MP. Military Police.
La. Louisiana. Pan. Panama.
Hon. Himijary. mph. miles per hour.
lot.latitude. par. paragraph.
hund. hundred. Lofv. Latvia. Mr. Mister. pat. patent.
I., i., iti. island. lb. lihra,pound. Mrs. Mistress (Missus). P.O. Police Department;
I. ImpfralOT or Imprratrix, L.C. Library of Congress. m$., mss. manuscript, Postal District,
Emperor or F.mprrss. I.e. lower case, small manuscripts. pd. paid.
ibid, ibidem, in the same letters 'type). Msgr. .Monsignor. Pd.D. Doctor of Pedagog>-.
place. l/C, I, e. letter of credit. Ml., ml. Mount; mountain. P.LL Prince Edward Island.
P.E.N. (International Rum. Riunania. U.S. Uncle Sam; United w. watt.
.Vssociation ofi Poets, Rus. Russia. .States. Wash. Washington.
Playwrights, Editoi-s, R.V. Revised X'ersion U.S.A. United States of W.C.T.U. Woman's C:hris-
Essayists, and Novelists. (Bible). .\merica; Union of South Temperance Union.
p«r e«nt. per centum, by the Ry. railway. .\fru a. Wed. Wednesday.
hundred. s. shilling.
U.S.M. United States .Mail. W.I. West Indies.
Pfc. Private first class. S.A. South America. U.S.M.A. United States Wis. Wisconsin.
Phar.D. Doctor ot Pharmacy. S.A.R. Sons of the .\meri- Military .\cademv. wk. u<-ek.
Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy. can Revolution. U.S.N.A. United States W.O.W. Woodmen of the
phyt. |)hysics. Sask. Saskatchewan. .\cademy.
.\.i\al World.
physiol. physiology. Sot. Saturday. U.S.S. United States Ship. wl. weight.
P.I. Philippine Islands.
s.c. Miiallcapitals (type). U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet W.Vo. West \irginia.
pic. peck.
S.C. .South Carolina.
.S(H ialist Republics. Wyo. Wyoming.
pkg. package. Scot. Scotland. U.S.V. United States Xmas. Christmas.
pi. plural. S.D. South Dakota. \ ulunteers. .
yd. yard.
P.M. post mnidifm, after sec. second.
V. verb; volt. Y.M.C.A. Voimg Men's
noon; Postmaster. Sept. .September.
V vid. vide see Christian .X.ssociation.
P.O. Postoffice. Sergeant.
Serg., Sergt., Sgl.
v!! ^%. versus, against. Y.M.Coth.A. Young .Men's
Pol. Poland. sing, siiitiulai".
Vo. \'ireinia. t^atholic .Association.
pop. f>opulation. S.J. S<x-iety of Jesus.
V.C. \ ictoria Cross. Y.M.H.A. Young Mens
Port. Portugal. SP. Sliore Patrol.
V.F.W.Xeterans of Foreign Hebrew .Association.
pp. pianissimo, ver)" soft; Sp. -Spain.
Wars ofthe United States. Y.P.S.C.E. \oung peoples
pages. S.P.C.A. Society for Pre-
V.I. \irgin Islands; \an- Society of Christian
P.R. Puerto Rico. vention of Cruelty to
couver Island. Endeavor.
prep, preposition. .\niinals.
Pros. President. vix. videlicet, namelv. Y'" V^^"-
S.P.C.C. Society for Pre- '
Y.W.C.A. ^ oung Women's
prin. principal. vol. volume.
vention of Cruelty to Christian .Association.
Prof. Professor. V.P. Nice-President
Children. Y.W.H.A. Young Women's
pron. pronoun. vi. \ ermont.
sp. gr. specific gravity. Hebrew .Association
pro tem. pro tempore, for the v.v. ice versa
sp. hi. specific heat.
time being. Vulg. N'ulcate (Bible). xool. zoology. c.stk.
sq. square.
prox. proximo, next (month L Sr.Senior. Related Subjects. The reader is also referred to: Ele-
f.S.post scriplurn, postscript. S.R.O. standing room only.
MKNi, MicAi CmTelegr.aph (The Codes I;
: Deal; Nkw
psych., psychol. psychology. SS. Saints. and List of Terms in each of the following:
pi. pint.
S.S., S S. steamship. .Arabic Numerals Roman Numerals .Symbols
P.S.T. Pacific Standard Time. Si. .Saint; strait; street. Music Signaling
P.T.A. Parent- leachers' S.T.B. Bachelor of Sacred A. B.C. See .American Bowllng Co.ngress; .Aldit
.\ssociation. Theology.
Pvt. Private. Bi RK.\u OF Circulations.
S.T.D. Doctor of Sacred
ABC POWERS. Sec Latin .America.
Q., Qy. query; question.
Sun. Sunday. ABD-EL-KRIM (1880?- ). See Morocco; Rif.
Q.E.D. quod erat demonstran-
dum, which was to be Supl. Superintendent. ABDICATION, ab dih KAT shun, is the resignation of
shown (proved i.
s.v. sub voce, imder the a ruler, such as a king or queen, or of the Pope. A ruler
Q.M. Quartermaster. word (heading). who abdicates may leave the throne of his ow n accord,
Que. Quebec. syn. synonym.
or he may be forced to do so by his subjects or his
q.v. quod vide, which see. I. ton.
advisers. Kings of England cannot abdicate without
qt. quart. tab. ial)les.
first obtaining the consent of Parliament.
temp, temperature
R. Rex., king; Regina, queen. The most impKjrtant aixiications in history include:
Tenn. Tennessee.
r. rod.
ler., lerr. Diocletian, Roman William II of Ger-
R.A. Rear .Admiral. Empire many, and Ger-
Tex. Texas. 305 all
R.A.F. Royal .\ir Force. Richard II of England 1399 mankings and
T.H. Territory of Hawaii.
reed, received. Thurs. Thursday. Charles I\' of Spain 1808 . . princes 1918
ref. reference; refer. TNT. trinitrotoluene, r 181 4 .Alfonso of Spain 1931
V- I?
Rev. Reverend.
*^ of

r ranee. „ cj j \iii re
trinitrotoluol. .'815 Edward \ III of Eng-
R.F.C. Roval Flying Corps. Ir.transpose, translation. Charles X
of France 1830 . land '93^
R.F.D. Rural Free Deliver\-. Trees. Treasurer. Isabella II of Spain .1870 Carol II of Rumania 1940 .

R.I. Rex Imperator, King trig, trigonometry. Hsuan-Tung of China 191 2 Michael of Rumania 1947 .

Emperor; Retina Impera- Tues. Tuesday. Nicholas II of Russia 1917 Leop>old III of
Queen Empress;
trix. twp. township. Belgium '9')'
Rhode Island. Turk. Turkey. ABDOMEN, DO
a large cavity of the body
ab men, is
R.I. P. requiescat in pace,
U.C. upper case, capital just below the chest, or thora.\. A strong wall of muscle
rest in peace.
letters (type). called the diaphragm separates the organs of the chest
R.N. Royal Navy;
U.C.V. United Confederate
Registered Nurse. from those of the abdomen Ix-low. The abdominal or-
R.O.T.C. Reserve Officers' U.D.C. United Daughters gans include the stomach, liver, pancreas, intestines,
Training Corps. of Confederacv. kidneys, and bladder. Directly below the abdomen are
r.p.m. revolutions per U.K. United Kingdom. the bones of the pelvis.
minute. (month
R.R. railroad.
ult. ultimo, last I.
A thin layer of membrane called the peritoneum lines
univ. universitv.
the entire abdomen. The front wall of the abdomen con-
R.S.V.P. Respondez, s'il vous UNRRA. United Nations
plait, .\nswer, if you Relief and Rehabilita- sists of layers of long muscles connected to the ribs above
please. tion .Administration. and the pelvic bones Ijelow. The front p>ortion of the
Rl.Rev. Right Reverend. U.P. United Press. abdomen is also called the bellv. The backbone and the
luusclrs of ihc back fonn the rear wall of the abdomen. ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN, hoos Sl'.W EMIR (1882-
Among insects, cnistaccans, and certain other kinds 1951J ua.s lulcr olJ ran.s-Jcjrdan. He was named Kmir

of animals without backlxines, the abdomen is the part when Trans-Jordan was made an indepK-ndenl state
»)f the ImkIv l(Kati"d U-hind the tliorax. A.c.l. under British protection after World War I. .\bdullah
R«lat«d Swb|«clt. I'hc reader is also referred to: urged unity among .\rab states, but he also wanted
Appendix Intestine Pancreas Solar Plexus them to make jx-ace with Israel. .Some of his country-
Bladder Kidney Pelvis Spleen men said he betrayed their cause, and .Mxlullah was
Diaphrat;ii) I.i\<r P< i itoiuum Stomach assa.ssiiiated. St-c Tr Jordan.
A BECKET, THOMAS. See Becket, Thom.\s a.
ABEL, the second son of .Adam and Eve, was a
shepherd (Genesis 4). He ofTered some of the first born
of his flocks as a sacrifice to the Lord. His sacrifice was
Stomach accepted, but when his older brother, Cain, who was a
farmer, ofTered fruits, his sacrifice was refused. This made
Cain angrv and he killed Abel. See also Caln. w.a.i.

ABELARD, AB eh lard. PIERRE, pe AIR (lo-g-i 142).
was a French philosopher and churchman. He w<is bom
and went to Paris as a student in
at Pallet in Brittany,
099. He began on philosophy in
to lecture 13. 1 1

Abelard was a bold and original thinker. .Students

came to him from ever\-where in Europe. Abelard fell
in love with Hclolse, who was the niece of Canon
Fulbert of Xotre Dame. News of their lo\e at last
reached Fulbert. Helolse denied their marriage, since
she did not want to stand in the way of .\belard"s ad-
vance in the Church.
Bladder Heloise became a nun, and Abelard a monk. The
Church later condemned him as a heretic. He went to
live at Xogent-sur-Seine. and his smdents followed him.
Heloise and .\bclard wrote letters to each other until
A<la|>t«<l from Ma <rn, rrit7 Kahn. by permission
i v| ,,ih Alfr«l A. Knopf. Inc.

Diagram Showing the Organs of the Abdomen

ABDUCTION, ab DL'Ch ^Imn, in law, is the carr\jng

away of a woman by force in order to obtain money or
to make her or other p>ersons comply with certain de-
mands. .Alxiuclion is a criminal ofTcnse. English laws
set a penalty of from three to fourteen years in prjson.
In Clanada, the longest prison sentence that may be
given for abduction is fourteen years. In the United
.States, the punishment for abduction varies from a fine
to imprisonnn-nt for one to five years. Many states regard
the alxiiicting of a child as a separate crime. See also
Kn)N\iiN(.. h.Cai.
ABDUL-HAMID II, aub dool-hah MEED (1842-1918),
was thirty-fourth sultan of the Turkish Empire. Under
his rule the Empire lost more than half its European
possessions.His cruelty toward the Christians made
William Gladstone, the British Prime Minister, refer to
him as the 'U nsp^^-akable Turk."
Abdul-Hamid sent his elder brother to prison and
succeeded to the throne in 1876. The Turkish
of the C^hristian |x'a.siuits of Bulgaria in 1877 helped to
bring about the Ru.s-so- Turkish War. As a result of this
war, Turkey lost control of Bulgaria, Bosnia, and Herze-
govina. Indep<-ndence was granted to Montenegro, Ru-
mania, and .Serbia. There was much unrest in Turkev
during the next thirty years. The Sultan pledged re-
forms, but usually broke his promises. In iqo8 the partv
of Young Turks revolted and forced him to grant a con-
stitution. The ne.xt year, Abdul-Hamid II was forced to
give up his throne. His younger brother came to power Pierre Abelard installs his former wife, Heloise, as prioress, or
as Mehmet V. Sec also Ri-sso-Turkish War.s. e.Mci. superior, of the convent which is located at Poraclete, Fronce.

he died. Her Lftters arc among the most moving expres- There is a similar cur\e formed by spherical aberra-
sions of love c\cr written. She li\cd twenty-two years tion when the light pa ses through a spherical convex
longer than Abelard. Their bodies were buried in the lens (Fiij. 2). In order to less<*n this aljerration, it is

same tomb, and were moved to Paris in 1817. See also

Innocent (II). F.j.s.

ABERDEEN See ScoTi and (Cities).

r • 1
ABERDEEN, S. D. (population 21.051). is a railroad
shipping center,
Dakota. It is
and the
located in the
third largest city in
James River Valley
in the
M '

northeastern part of the state, about 250 miles west of

Minneapxjlis, Minn. From .\berdccn, goods arc dis-
tributed to the towns and fanns of a large surrounding I— Cauauc
area. The principal farm products of the region include
cattle, dair\- products, grain, alfalfa, potatoes, and soy-
beans. Aberdeen was incorporated in 1882. The pleas-
ant streets are lined with thousands of trees, all planted
Figure 1. Spherical Aber- Figure 1. Spherical Aber-
1)\ settlers on the treeless |)rairie. k \ 11
ration in a Concave Mirror. ration in a Lent. Because
ABERDEEN AND TEMAIR, JOHN CAMPBELL GOR- The light rays do not focus the light rays must travel dif-
DON, First Marquis of, and Earl of .Mx-rdeen (1847- in a single point but along ferent distances through the
was a prominent British p)olitical leader. He was line F, end thus form the caus- lens, they do not meet at o
tic curve. single point.
Governor-General of Canada from 1893 to 1898. Lord
Aberdeen entered politics as a member of the Conser\ a- possible to cut off some of the light rays that pass

tive party. Later he became a Liberal and supported through the lens near the edge. In cameras, this is done
William E. Gladstone. He was twice Lord-Lieutenant by means of changeable op)enings called stops. The
of Ireland. e.r.a. smaller the opening through which the light passes on
its way to the lens, the sharper is the image formed on
ABERDEEN ANGUS. See Cattle (Kinds of Beef
Cattle). the camera film.


Spherical aberration can also be controlled in a lens
for war materials. It is located alx)ut four miles from by making the lens so it is no longer spherical. Such a
Aberdeen, Md., and extends along the shore of Chesa- lens is called an aplanatic lens. Spherical aberration

peake Bay for about thirty-five miles. The Ordnance does not occur in lenses that are correctly made. A para-
Department of the L'nited States Army here tests the bolic mirror has no spherical aberration.

quality of guns, tanks, bombs, shells, vehicles, and other Chromatic Aberration is the failure of the different
war equipiTient. colors contained in white light to meet in a common

A working model, called a pilot, is made before any focal point after they pass through a con\e.x lens. \\ hen

new weapon is manufactured in large quantities. These light passes through a double convex lens (Fig. 3). the

pilots are tried out under conditions that are as much

as possible like those under which the weapons might
be used. Anny supplies and materials that are manu-
factured under government contracts are also tested to
see whether they meet the standards called for in the
contracts. Weapons captured from an enemy are studied
there in wartime.
Aberdeen Proving Grounds was established in 191 7.
It isthe largest and oldest testing grounds of the United
States Army. R.c<.t
ABERRATION is a term used in physical science. The
word conies from the Latin language and means to Figure 3. Chromatic Aberration in a Lent. The shorter
rays of violet light are not focused at the some place as the
wander from a given path. There are three im(X>rtant
longer roys of red light. The other colors are focused in be-
kinds of aberration in physical science.
tween these two points.
Spherical Aberration is the failure of light rays to
meet at a f)oint when they are reflected by a concave lens ser\es as a double prism. Red light is bent the
mirror or bent when passing through a convex lens. least when it D, and violet light is
strikes the lens at
When parallel light rays strike a spherical concave mir- bent the most. The red rays will meet at R, tlie violet
ror, the light rays that strike the center of the mirror rays at V. The rays of light containing other colors will
come to a focus at a point farther from the mirror than focus in between these two {xtints. Chromatic aberra-
those that are reflected from f>oints near the outer edge tion is found in all single lenses. But by combining two
of the mirror (Fig. Instead of meeting at a common
i). or more lenses made of different kinds of glass, the
focal point, these rays meet along a focal curve. This various colors in light can be made to meet at practi-
curve is called the caustic cur\e. If a glass is almost cally a single focal point. .\ lens made of such a com-
filled with milk, and the light falls on the wall of the bination is called an achromatic lens.
glass from an angle, a caustic curve will be seen on the Astronomy, aberration causes heavenly bodies to
surface of the milk. apf)ear to be at pxjsitions which arc different from their
acnial positions in space. If the earth were at rest, a ground railroad" through which they helped slaves to
star could be ol)Mrvcd by |>t)intin^ a telescope directly escape across the northern states to Canada. j.d.Hi.

at the star. But Ix-cause the earth is nu)vini; rapidly, the RaioUd Subjects. The reader is also referred tu:
eyepiece of tlie tel<'scop<" is travelinR while tlie light is .\dams, John Quincy Liberty Parly
passing through the telescojx- from the upper end to (His Last Fight against Lovejoy, Elijah Parish
the cye|)iece. For this reason, the observer must slant .Slavery) Lowt-ll, James Russell
his telescope slightly, so that the eyepiece will be in Beecher, Lyman and Phillips,Wendell
Henry Ward .Stowc, Harriet Beecher
the proper position to receive the light ray when it
Brown, John L'nderground Railnjad
The angle between the actual and the apparent
arri\ es. Gairisoii, William Lloyd Whittier, John Greenleaf
jjoMtion of the star is called the angle oj abrrratton.
ABORIGINE, AB oh RIJ ih nee, is a member of the
See also Lkns; Mirror; Relativity; Spectrum and
earliest-kntnxn group of jaeople to inhabit any coun-
SpEcriRi M .\sALvsis; Star. k.l-h.
try'. The term is commonly used to distinguish the na-
ABERYSTWYTH. See Walks (Cities).
tives of a counlr\- from those who conquer<"d or colo-
ABIDE WITH ME ihymn). See Hymn.
nized the region. In North and South .America the term
ABIDJAN, apital city. Sec Ivory Coast.

is used for any nati\es that lived before the white

ABILENE, Ran. (p<jpulation 5,775). is a railroad ship>-
man came. Thus, the Mound Builders of the Middle
ping center for fann crops raised in east-central Kansas.
\\ est, the Cliff Dwellers of New Mexico, the .Aztecs of
The town is located about 150 miles west of Kansas
Mexico, and the Incas of Peru are ail aborigines. The
City, Mo. It is the seat of Dickinson County. During
term comes from the latin ab origine, which means/rom
the i88o's, cowboys drove long-horned cattle over the
the beginning. See also .Aztec; Cliff Duxllxrs; Inca;
famous Chisholm Trail to Abilene, where the stock was
Mound Builders; Races of Man (color plate, .Australia,
loaded into railway cars and shipped to eastern mar-
Hickok became famous as a
New Zealand. Borneo, and Pacific Islands). w.m.Kr.
kets. James (Wild Bill)
ABRAHAM was the ancestor of the Israelite jx'ople.
"^two-gun marshal" of Abilene when it was a roaring
His name was originally .Abram. But Genesis 17 relates
cattle town. .-Mjilene was the boyhood home of General
that God later changed it to .Abraham, which means
Eisenhower. Today .Xbilcne is the home of the Central
father of many nations. .According to the Bible, he was
Kansas Free Fair and the Wild Bill Hickock Rodeo. k.Me.
born at Lr He left his homeland
in ancient Babylonia.
ABIOGENESIS, ab ih oh JE.\ eh sis. See Spontaneous
at the command God, and setUed in Mesopotamia.
Later, Abraham li\ed in Palestine and in Eg>pt. He
ABITIBI CANYON DAM. See Dam (Dams of Other
returned to Palestine and there Sf)ent his last days.
.Abraham had two sons. Ishmael became the founder
ABO, ill Finnish, Turku. .Sec Finland (Cities).
of some -Arab tribes. But Isaac, the other son, was his
ABOLITIONIST, ab LISH un isl. was a name taken
true heir and the ancestor of the Israelite people.
in the 1830's by persons in the United States who
The stories about .Abraham are some of die treasures
wanted to end, or abolish, Negro slavery. Many men.
Ixjth in the North and in the South, had been against
slavery" long before that time. The Quakers and others
sp>okc out against it in colonial days. The North had
virtually abolished slavery before the word ''abolitionist"
came into use. Few peoplecared to defend slavery until
slave labor was made by the invention of the
cotton gin, in 793. After that, slaveowners stopped

apologizing for slavery and began to claim that it was

a positive g(xxl. To oppose this claiin, the .American
.\ntislaver>' .Scxriety was organized in 1833. .Among the
sf)eakers and writers who appealed to the public for an
«-nd to slavery were Wendell Phillips, Henry Ward
Beecher, Theodore Parker, Elijah P. Lovejoy, and
James Russell Lowell. Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet
Beecher .Stowc, was the most famous aboliticjnist work.
Abolitionists had many different ideas alx)ut how to
get rid of slavery. William Lloyd Garrison insisted that
the slaves should Ik- fr<-ed immediately without pay-
ment to their owners. John Brown organized an armed
group to free slaves by force. James G. Birney and John
Grccnl<-af Whittier sought to free the slaves by an
amendment to the Constitution. .\ moderate group of
atx)litionists formed the Lilx-rty party. Bimey ran for
President on the Lib<'rty party ticket in 1840 and 1844.
In 1848 it l>ecame the Free-Soil party. This was suc-
ceeded in 1854 by the Republican party, through which '.
;; ( ' .iir.n i,v III

the hofjes of the alxilitionists finally were realized. The ^.r.'.ly. l:. irmt p.rin ls,i,,ii !> IV»|.I. Mo.tI .nml Co., Inc.

abolitionists are remembered esp<-cially for the "under- Abraham Takst Hit Son Isaac to Offor Him as a Sacrifice


of Biblical literature, and show what great writers there He was the first to climb Mount Saint Elias in Alaska,
were among tlic Hebrews. Abraham's defeat of four in 1897. In 1909, he led a mountain<linibing expedi-
great kings who captured his nephew is told in Cienesis tion to theHimalayas. There he set a new record when
14. His pleading with God for the safety of ilie cities he nearly reached the top of .Mi. Godwin .Austen, going
where his nephew had goneto li\e is found in Genesis as far as 24,6<h» feet alxive sea le\el. •
18. The miraculous deliverance of Isaac from death by The Duke commanded the Italian
of the .Abruzzi
sacrifice is related in Genesis 22, and tlie journey of fleet for two years during World War I. He was a first
Abraham's chief ser\ant to Mesopotamia to hnd a suit- cousin ol \ tor Emmanuel III, King of Italy.
ii j.Ct.
able wife for Isaac is told in Genesis 24. The author of ABSALOM was tlie third s<jn of King David of Israel.
has pictured Abraham as a "prince of God
tliese stories He was a handsome and clever young man, but he was
a man of great dignity, high honor, and unselfishness. But jealous of tlie great p>ower of his father.
most of all. Abraham appears as one who lived a noble
life in faith in God. w.A.i.
See also Isaac; Ishmaf.i..
ABRAHAM, PLAINS OF. See Plains of Abraha.m.
ABRASIVE In a substance used for grinding, smooth-
ing. shariK-ning. and polishing various materials. The
Greeks and Eg\'ptians used such natural abrasives as
emer.'. pumice, tripoli, and quartz in polishing metals,
marbles, and geins. Manufactured abrasi\es were intro-
duced in the nineteenth centur\". These include alu-
mina and silicon carbide. Alumina came into use in 1889.
when it was first extracted from bauxite by tlie Gennan
chemist, Karl Josef Bayer. Edward G. Acheson, an
American chemist, developed silicon carbide a year later,
in 1890.
The most common abrasive tools are the grinding
wheel and the p>olishing wheel. The grinding abrasi\es
used in these wheels are diamond dust, grains of silicon
carbide, and particles of alumina. Polishing abrasives
include emer\', corundum, and silicon carbide. The Death of Absalom, Favorite Son of David, King of Israel
abrasive particles are fused by heat or held together by
shellac, synthetic resin, or rubber. The sliarpening abra- Absalom stirred up a rebellion against King David.
such as diamond dust, are used mainly for sharp)-
sives, The followers of the youth were for the forces no match
ening the carbide tools used to cut steel, aluminum of the king. They were defeated in battle, and .Absalom
alloys, and other metals. Sandpaper and emery cloth are fled up)on the back of a mule. His head caught in the
abrasi\cs which arc gener- low-hanging branches of a tree, and he was pulled
ally used for smoothing pur- from the mule. King David had given orders that he
poses. These are made by should not be harmed. But as he hung there he was
gluing the abrasive substance by Joab, the king's commanding general.
(quartz, sand, or emers) to The
stop.- of the grief of King David is told in the Old

a backing of paper or cloth Testament in II Samuel 18. It is one of the most deeply
Abrasives are used chiefly moving passages in the Bible. w\a.i.
in the glass, leather, flour, See also D.a\td.
lumber, steel, and building ABSCESS, AB sfs, is a mass of pus which collects
industries. C.H.C. u ithin an infected part of the body. It often app)ears as
See also .Aiimina; Cor- a red and swollen lump, which may op)en and drain.
fNorM; Diamond; Emery; Abscesses may occur in any tissue which is infected by
Pt Mirv: bacteria.
ABRUZZI, ah BROO Tsrr. When an abscess forms,
LUIGI AMADEO, DUKE OF the blood ves-sels in the area
THE 11873-1933). and Prin( expand and blood collects oTtocth'"

of .Savoy-.\osta. was an Ital- in the injured tissue. Serum

ian naval officer, mountain and white blood cells help
climber, and .Arctic explorer. to destroy the invading bac-
In 1900 he discovered that teria and their poisons.
there was no large mass of .Abscesses swell because the
land under the frozen wastes blood vessels expand and
between Europ)e and the the amount of blood in the from a sm.nd Body, ciurtcis,
Duke of the Abruzzi, ex- . ,. Smllr>- »n<l SlrailE: NUrmllUn

North Pole. He was unsuc- ,

infected area mcreases. An ..

plorer and mountain dimber •'** Abscess at the root of a

, r L
cessful in attempt to
his abscess is painful
" because »„„,i.

^ . u- u •
tooth contains pus which
reach the Pole. But he traveled farther north than any the pus presses on the ner\e presses on the nerves ond
one before him, going as far as 86° 34' N. latitude endings. causes toothaches.
An alwccas is trratrd by opening and draining it. 'I'hr |)ressure, a liquid will absorb more gas. Soda water is

whole arra should al\va\-8 Ix- krpt (Iran. It should not water charged with carlx)n dioxide under pressure.
Ix- stjurrzcd. for Iwu trria may rntrr the blcxxi stream. When a soda-water Ixjttle is opened, the pressure in
Toprevent ahsces.ses. bacteria should be kept from the bottle is released and some of the gas bubbles out
lodgint; in th* ti-vsues of the Ixxly. Skin absce.sses such in a foam.
as IhiII.s. pimples, and carbuncles can be avoided by Charcoal is a good absorbent of gases, and is u.sed
keeping the skin clean and free from cuts. Alxscesscs widely as a decxlorizer. Calcium chloride and zinc chlo-
air not usually dangerous. Sec also Boii.; CIarbiinclf;
Pi-i p.R.r
ABSINTHE, 1/^ uiiifi. See Alcoholic Drink.
ABSOLUTE ZERO the temperature 273 degrees be-

low z«ro on the ( entigradc scale or 460 degrees Ijelow

zero on the Fahrenheit scale. These numbers are based
on the which gases get smaller in volume as the
rate at
temjx'rature is lowered. At 0° centigrade when the
tem|x'rature of a gas is lowered one degree, and the EXAMPLES OF ABSORPTION
pressure is unchanged, a gas will lose 1/273 '^^ '^ <^'''S"
inal volume. In theory the gas would vanish at the
aljsolute zero, or -273° C. The molecules would be
absolutely at rest and the substance would possess no
jy^ ^^Qs
/' Sponge \ Cy porticle ^50
heat whatsoever. All gases, however, change to liquids
before the temperature reaches absolute zero. The abso- ol<^) a powdered py iX>
lute scale of temfX-'rature, based
used in studNing gases.
on absolute zero, is
Temperatures on this scale arc
V 0^0 \P) ^ Q< chorcoal i

called "degrees Absolute" (°A.). The absolute scale in ^b>^__<<T

centigrade units is often called the Kelvin scale, and Water soaks entirely Q Molecules of gas or Q
the temperatures are called "degrees Kelvin" (°K.). On through sponge liquid form film
the Fahrenheit scale, absolute temjjeratures are often around particle
called "degrees Rankine" (°R.). In making a reading
on the al)solute scale it is necessar\' to add 273° to the
centigrade reading or 460° to the Fahrenheit reading. ride absorb water vapxjr from the air. In damp weather
0° C. is 273° A.; 20° C. is 293° A.; -50° C. is 223° A.; common table salt (sodium chloride) absorbs enough
32° F. is 492° R.; and 212° F. is 672° R. A temper- water from the air to cake in a salt-shaker. Woolen cloth
ature of one degree above absolute zero has Ijeen also absorbs moisture from the air.
reached by compressing and expanding gases. But Certain solids absorb dis.solved substances from solu-
scientists expect to obtain a temperature of only one tions. Boneblack absorbs coloring matter from sugar
millionth of a degree above absolute zero by using the solutions. (Sec Bo.neblack.) Clay absorbs compounds
magnetic proix-rtics of atomic nuclei. See also Gas; of potassium,ammonia, and phosphorus from the soil.
Temi'kram Ri:. e.a.Fe. Mineral foods in the soil are absorbed by the roots and
ABSOLUTISM. See Govt-rnment. root hairs of plants.
ABSORPTION, ah SORP shun, is the process in which Energy as well as matter can be absorbed. Colored
one .>iub.staiue is taken up by another. Some solids can glass absorbs some of the colors of white light and
absorb liquids or gases. Some liquids can absorb gases. allows others to pass. A mirror or other smooth surface
A sponge absorbs water, a lampwick absorbs oil. and does not reflect all the light which falls on it. Part is
water absorbs ammonia gas. Sometimes the absorbed absorbed, and changes into heat. If the surface is dull
substance is not changed, but tlie physical properties and dark, less light is reflected and more is absorbed.
of the absorbing substance may change. Sometimes a In physiologs', absorption is the process by which
chemical change takes place. A wet sponge difTers digested food, medicines, or even poisons pass from the
from a dry one, and ammonia water difTers from pure intestine to the blood stream. It also includes the proc-
water. The properties of the mixture of the two sul> which waste passes from the tissues into the blood
ess in
stances are often more like those of the substance which stream.When an abscess disapjjears. the blood cells
takes up than the one which is taken up. which have collected on the injured spxjt are absorlx'd
Water al>sorbs var\ing amounts of difFerent gases. into the blood stream. Blood in the lungs absorbs air
.\t freezing tem[X'iature (32° F.) and under standard through tiny blood vessels, or capillaries. l.m.
pressure. 100 gallons of water will absorb 2.1 gallons of See also .\dsorption.
hydrogen; 2.3 gallons of nitrogen; 4.9 gallons of oxygen; ABSTRACT, in law, is a brief statement which con-
170 gallons of carlxin dioxide; 50.000 gallons of hydro- tains the most important points of a long legal docu-
chloric acid; or 18.000 gallons of ammonia.
1 ment or of several related legal papers.
and other animals which live under water
Fish Abstract of title, u.sed in real estate transactions, is
breathe oxygen aljsorb«*d in the water. Air di.s.solved in the most common form of abstract. .An abstract of
wat«-r contains more oxygen than the usual air Ix-cause title lists the various owners of a piece of land, a house,
oxygen is more .s«)luble in water than is nitrogen. Under or a building Ix'fore it came into the possession of tiie
present owner. The abstract also records all deeds, wills, produces tannin, used in making leather. Others, in
mortgages, and other documents which would afTect a source of the u.s<'ful gum called gum arabic.
-Africa, are

the ownership of the property. A good abstract descrilx'S .\cacia trees in India yield a ."!ul)Stanre u.sed in dyeing
a chain of transfers from owner to owner. It also de- cloth, named cilnhu JJ-'
scrilx"S any agreements by former owners which art- Ciottiflcation. Ihc aca-

binding ujxjn later owners. The projx-rlN has a clrar cias form the Kcniis Acacia
in the family Lyguminosac.
title if such obligations arc clearly set forth in the deed
Some KxHist trees arc also
to the projx-rty. and if there are no breaks in the chain called acacicis.
of legal ownership. Aljstracts are usually drawn up by Related Subjects: The
lawyers or by title companies. After the records of the leader also referred to:

projx-rty have been traced and the title is found clear, C-atceliu Locust
it isusually guaranteed, or insured. A f)erson who sells
Gum .Arabic Mimosa
Leuiiminous Tannic
projx-rty to another usually delivers an abstract of title
Plant \< ici

to the buver along with the deed or certificate of owner-

ship. Sec also Rl \I. EST.VFE. R.F.B.
has to do with the work of
ABU-ABDULLAH. See Bo.\bdil.
teachers in colleges and
universities. According to
ABUTILON, ah BU tih Ion. See Floweri.ng Maple.
professional education
ABYDOS. Sre E(;vit (Cities). Seeds of the Acacia grow in
associations in the United
ABYDOS, (ih BI dohs, was an ancient city of .\sia long pods like those of beans.
Minor. It was located on the southern shore at the
(a) The teacher is entitled to full freedom in research
narrowest part of the Hellcsjxint. now called the Darda- and in the publication of the results, subject to the ade-
nelles. The city is famous in legend for the story of the quate performance of his other academic duties. . . .

lo\ers Hero and Leander. From Abydos, Xerxes crossed (b) Ihe teacher is entitled to freedom in the classroom
to Europe with his army in 480 B.C. See also Hero a.nd in discussine; his subject, but he should be careful not to

Leander: Xerxes (I). p.Col. introduce into his teaching controvei^sial matter which
has no relation to his subject.
ABYLA, .15 ih lah. See Pillars of Hercl'les.
ABYSSINIA, AB ih SIX ih ah. See Ethiopia.
This statement contained in "Principles of Aca-

ACACIA, n/t KA r shah, is the name of a large

group demic Freedom and Tenure" which is endorsed by the

of plants related to peas and l:)eans. They are sometimes following professional groups: .Association of .American
called mimosas, .\cacias are found in most warm coun- Colleges. .American .Association of L ni\ersity Professt^rs,

tries. In hot. dr\' places they seldom grow larger than

.American Libran.- .Association. .A.ssociation of .American
shrubs. Where there is plenty of water they may become Law Schools, .American Political Science .Association,
large trees. They grow quickly but do not li\e long. .American .AsstKiation of Colleges for Teacher Exlucation.
Some acacias are grown in gardens for their beauty. In and Department of Higher Education of the National
.\ustralia, the wattU. one of the acacias, is the national Education .Association.
flower. The Theory of academic freedom is generally con-
Many of the acacias have bright yellow flowers with sidered of great importance by those aissociated with
a sweet odor. Others have white flowers. The flowers universities. .A university seeks new truths through re-
are tiny, but in some plants they cluster together to search. These new discoveries sometimes do not agree
form fluflTy balls. Some acacias have femlike Iea\es. with accepted ideas. In the past there have been many
Others have wide, flat leaf stems which look like leaves instances in which men who made outstanding dis-
and do the same work. coveries have been persecuted because their conclusions
Some acacias have sharp conflicted with established beliefs.
thorns, and in the South- Most scholars do not believe they can do sound re-

west are named cal's-clau: search if the results of their study have to agree with
.\ Mexican acacia has what other jx-ople already Ix'lievc. .Academic freedom
thorns in pairs like the is the means de\ iscxl to protect their right to study all

horns of cattle. It is called |X)ints of view and to present them freely. It is generally

hull-horn acacia. See Flo\%- agreed that the teacher should not force any one
ER (color plates, Unusual opinion on students or deal with controversial matters
Flowers). outside his subject. The teacher has the same responsi-
There are about 450 bility toward the truth in the classroom that the judge

kinds of acacias. Ten to has toward justice in the courtroom. But he must often
twcKe kinds grow in the adapt his teaching to the needs of youthful students.
United States. They are Denominational institutions sometimes limit the char-
most common from Texas acter and extent of the instructionwhich they offer.
to California. In such cases it is generallv held that the nature of the
The wood of the acacia Ix' clearly staled and agreed upon
limitation should
is hea\y and strong. The by \xnh teacher and school.
flowers arc a source of per- l^^^^^kiLV Development. The concept of academic freedom dc-
fume. The bark of some \elof)ed in Gennany in the 700's under a t^vofold

trees found in Australia Acacia Sprig in Mettem emphasis on freedom of teaching and freedom of learn-
inu;. The univrrsitirs Halle and Gottingcn were ol alx)ut twenty expeditions a year to collect new s[X"ci-

ainoni; the first

it. The I'niversity of Berlin,
to prartice inens and material. It has a lecture program for adults,
founded in liUn), reflet ted in its ino^rani a full inUTpre- and in 1936 set up its own department of education
t.ilion of thi.s dual (oneeption. in the natural .stiences. It publishes scientific pa|x'rs
CJernian universities ijreatlv influenced universiti<-s in by stafl^ meml>crs in The Proceedings. It also publishes a
Anierita. The conception of fre<"dom of teacliini» and ni;i'4;i/in<- of popular natural histon.'. Frontirrs.
leaniinR was eniphasi/ed strongly by those who led in ACADIA,
ah A.1 ) di ah, is a name first used in 1604
developing our nicxlern universities during the last for a region that included what are now ilie Canadian
quarter of the iHtx/s. It has continued down to the [provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunsw ick, and Prince
present time as a major influence in the conduct of Edward Island. Acadia also included parts of Quelx-c
college and uni\-ersity programs. province and of the state of Maine. Acadia is best known
L'|xin the rise of Adolf Hitler to |x)wer in Ciermany as the poetic name of Nova .Scotia, the famous setting
during the i93o"s, academic freedom was denied in for Longfellow's romantic poem "Evangeline."

German universities, and teachers and research workers

were required to conform to Nazi ideology. Today the
U.S.S.R. do«'S not |j<-nnit academic freedom. Those in
power in the Son iet Government dictate what shall be
considered tnith even in certain fields of science. Most
scholars Ix-lievc that, in the long run, following such a
jxilicy will so retard the disco\er%' and spread of
knowlege as to caust- a nation to drop Ix-hind those in
which academic freedom is [x-rmitted. h.l.c.
ACADEMY in its modern meaning refers usually to
a group ()( people who promote literature, science, or
the arts. It is also a name used for schools similar to
high sch(X)ls. that prepare young jx-ople for college.
Academies were first known in Greece nearly 2,300

years ago. The

philosopher Plato had an academy in a
grove near Athens at that time. The grove had belonged
to Academus, a hero of the Trojan War, and from him
Avpr C<illc.-ti..ii. Nc«l>.Tr>' ilTnr\
Plato's academy took its name. It was an association

Acadians Driven into Exile. The British accused them of help-

of Noung men caycr to learn from a great teacher.
ing the enemy during the French and Indian Wars.
Foreign Academies. .Any modern association of jieo-
plc who take part in learned, scientific, or artistic pur- Acadia w as a French settlement \\ hen the French and
suits may \)c an academy. The most famous of
called English began their long struggle for possession of die
such associations is the French Academy. It was founded North American continent. During Queen .Anne's War
by Cardinal Richelieu in 1635 for the improvement of ( 702-1 713). Port Royal, the seat of the .Acadian govern-

the French language and literature. Another famous ment, surrendered to the English. .At the end of the war,
academy is the Royal Academy of Arts in London. The .\cadia was given to England in the Treaty of L'trecht.
British Academy, also in London, includes many kinds But the .Acadians became a source of trouble to England
of scholars. The German Academy of .Sciences in Berlin Ix-cause of their sympathy for the French. They encour-
is mu( h like the Biitish .\cademy. aged the Indians to attack English settlements.
American Academies. Benjamin Franklin helped to In 1755, during the French and Indian War. the
found the first learn<-d .American academy in 743. the i British took steps to compel the Acadians to live up to
.American Philosophical .Society. The .American .Acad- the terms of the treaty of 1713. Acadians who refused
emy of Arts and .Sciences was chartered by Massachu- to take an oath of allegiance to the British king were
setts in 780, and the Academy of Natural .Sciences of
I ordered to leave tlie country. .As a result of the order,
Philadelphia was founded in 181 2. The .American about si.\ thousand men, women, and children were
.Academy of .Arts and Letters was established in 1904. sent away to colonies from Mai^sachu.setts 10 Georgia.
S.M.S. After enduring much hardship, a numlx^ of tliese
.AcADKMY OF Natural .Sciencfs of Phil.v
.Sec also exiles made their way back to .Acadia and lived there in
dkli'Mia; .Arts and Letters, .American Academy of; peace after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
Arts and .Sciences, .American Academy of; French Others wandered westward to Louisiana, which had
Academy; .National .Academy of Design; National been a French colony. The descendants of these .Aca-
.Af:\i)i M^ I
pi Si II \( : : R(l^ \i Ac \i)i \n or Ak is. dians are known as Cajuns. Many of them still speak a
PHIA is an institution for the cultivation and study of See also Evangeline; French and Indian Wars;
the natural sciences. It is privately supported by mem- Monts. Pierre dv Gi'ast. Sietr de; Nova Scotia.
bers and gift.s, and was founded in 1812. The .Academy ACADIA NATIONAL PARK was the first national
has more tlian seven million specimens of birds, fish, park to be founded in the Lnited States east of die
mammals, insects, and plants. Its library- contains over Maine, covering 41,963.51
Mi.ssissippi River. It lies in
130,000 IxKjks. There are also large collections of acreson Mount Desert Island and on a section of the
minerals, gems, and insiects. The .Academv sends out mainland known as the .ScluMxlic Peninsula.
Acadia National Park apF>eals to tourists because of half of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains.
its r(xrk-lx)und coast. The park contains several pi'aks, In architecture the name is gi\en to a leafy decora-
tlie tallest of which is Mount Cladillac (1.532 feet), the tion in Greek and Roman times and
which was [xjpular
highest of die granite mountains along the eastern coast. is still The
design at the top of the Corinthian
Forests and many lakes and p<jnds make Acadia Park column is an example of this type of decoration. a.c.Uo.
an excellent wildlife sanctuary. A marine biological Sec also Con MN.
lalxjratory is maintained in the park grounds. Classificalion. Tlic t;< luis Acanthus belongs to the fain-
I he park was established on land donated by resi-

dents of the island in 191 6. At first the area was calletl

Sieur de Monts National Monument. The name was
changed to Lafayette National Park when Congress
made the monument a park in 191 9. The present name
of Acadia was adopted in 1929. This was the name
Henry IV of France gave to a grant of land to the
Sieur de Monts in 1603. h.e.k.
See also Mou.nt Desert.
ACADIA UNIVERSITY is a coeducational liberal arts
school at \\()U\ille, Nova Scotia. It was founded in
1838 by the Baptists, but is nonsectarian. The univer-
sity offers the degrees of A.B. and B.S. Graduates from
the scientific course are eligible for the Applied Science
Schcx)! of McGill University at Montreal. Design of Acanthus Leaf, as Acanthus Leaf Design forms
ACAJUTLA. See Salvador, El (Cities). it is used in architecture part of a Corinthian column.

ACANTHUS, ah A. I.V thus, is the name of a group of A

CAPPELLA, ah cahp PEL lah, is an Italian expres-
small shrubs or herbs which found in southern Europe,
sion meaning "in church style." Religious music in the
Asia, and Africa. There are about twenty different early days of the church was made up almost entirely of
kinds. The flowers vary in color from white to purple, singing. Many choruses today sing a capptlla, or with-
and grow in clusters on spikes. The beautiful leaves have out the accompaniment of musical instruments. r.Ken.
many narrow and sharp lobes, and are sometimes armed ACAPULCO. See Mexico (Cities).
with spines. These plants resemble rhubarb and need ACCAD, a different spelling of Akkad. See Baby-
a rich soil, much sunshine, and a small amount of water. lonia listors').
1 1

The acanthus can grow in the colder regions of the ACCELERATION, ak sel rr A shun, is the increase of
United States only if it is carefully protected. speed in a moving body in a gi\ en period of time. For
The hairy ruellia is a member of the acanthus family example, a man who is driving a car may increase its
that has beautiful blue flowers. It grows in the southern speed from 20 miles per hour to 25 miles per hour in
one minute. The acceleration in this case is 5 miles per
hour per minute. Acceleration equals change in speed
(5 miles per hour) per unit of time (one minute). Accel-
eration increases with the amount of force which mo\es
the object, and for a given force decreases with the
mass of the object. Gain in speed is called acceleration.
Loss of speed is called negative acceleration, or decelera-
tion. See also Falling Bodies, L.\\v of; Motion, e.a.fk.
ACCELERATOR. See Automobile (Parts).
ACCENT, Ah s,nt, in language, is an emphasis placed
on a certain syllable in a word. Dictionaries usually
indicate an accented syllable by the mark, ', placed
after the syllable. A secondary accent can be indicated
by two marks, ', or by a light single accent mark.
Accents can also be shown by capital letters or by
italics. Where pronunciations are given in The World
Book Encyclopedia, capital letters are used for the
primary accent and small capital letters for the secon-
dar^' accent.
The tendency in English is to shift the accent toward
the beginning of the word. accent in the word The
re I'Oh'E, shifts toward the beginning in the form
ir REV ocable. This tendency often causes a consider-

able change in the language. The word BAL cony was

once pronounced bal COX y. Corwentrate once was ac-
MrFarUnd cented on the second syllable instead of the first.
The Acanthus Plant Is a Beautiful Weed Words that are spelled in the same way are sometimes
acrrntrd on dilTrrrnt syllables. This usually means they tization by selecting and breeding the particular plants
have ditlcrrnt inc-auiiips or difrrrt'iil usages. The verb or animals which can best endure the new climate. But
of a pair of identical words may have the accent on there are limits to the powers of acclimatization. Bana-
the second .syll.ible. althoui^h the noun or adjective has nas cannot be grown outdoors in Minnesota. There are
it on the lirst. Ah SK.VJ for example, is the verb, while
, many breeds of domestic cattle, but few of them thrive
AB sftit is the adj<-ctive. in the tropics.
Accent important in sentences as well as in words.
is Human beings are \cry adaptable to changes, but
The accent of a sentence they too must become
can change its meaning acclimatized. They some-
completely, "^'ou walked times become when they

down the avenue" express- go from the temperate zones

es four dilTerent to the tropics or from low
when the accent is put on regions to high ones where
youy walked, down, or avf- the air is thin. Man, how-
nue. c.Str. ever, hassuccessfullyleanied
For accent in music, see to adapt himself to many
the artide Mi sic:. climates, ranging from the
ACCEPTANCE. S, , Biil frozen North to the tropical
OF I,\( II WCK. jungles. g.w.be.
ACCESSORY, ak SESS See also Adaptation.
oh rih, in law, is a person ACCOLADE, ^a: oh
who takes part in a crime, LAID. See Knkuits and
before or after it is com- KMf.HTIIOOI).
mitted, but is not present ACCOMMODATION in
when crime occurs.
die physiology. See Evf..
One who helps plan or pre- ACCORDION is a musi-

pare for a crime is an acces- cal instrument in which

sory bejore the/act. An acces- metal reeds are caused to
sory a/ler thejact is one who vibrate by pressure or suc-
in any way shields a crimi- tion of air controlled by a
nal from the law after the C. G. Conn
bellows. A keyboard inuch
crime has been committed. Accordion Is a Portable Inftrument of the Organ Family like that of a piano oper-
Near relatives who aid a ates valves in the instru-
criminal are not regarded as accessories after the fact ment. These valves are connected w ith the metal reeds.
under many state laws. In most courts, an accessory The player presses the keys with his right hand. His
may be punished as se\ erely as the person who actually left hand works the bellows and presses other valve
commits the crime. keys. These other keys control the accompanying
In physiology, accessory muscles arc those which con- chords, and vary the volume. The accordion is used
trol the smaller movements of the body, such as the chiefly as a solo instrument, for personal use. and in the
action of the fingers. H.Cat. field of popular entertainment. Its invention has been
ACCIDENT. See .Antidote; Automobile (Importance credited to both Friedrich Buschmann (Berlin, 1822) and
of the .Automobile); .'\utomobiix Drivlng; First Aid. Damian (Vienna, 1829). See also Concerting, c.b.r.
ACCIDENTAL. See Misic (List of Terms). ACCOUNTING deals with systems of accounts and
ACCIDENTAL PRESIDENT. See Arthur, Chester reports for business firms. The profession in which ac-
.\ia.n; CuoLiutJE, Caiatn; Fillmore, Millard; John- counting is used is called accountancy. Accountants must
son, Andrew; Roosevelt, Theodore; Truman, know the principles of bookkeeping and be able to in-
Harry S.: Tvifr, John; Vice-President. stall accounting systems. They must also be able to audit,
ACCIDENT INSURANCE. See Insurance (Kinds). analyze, and investigate transactions of a business. .Ac-
ACCIDENT PREVENTION. See Safety. counting may be divided into four main classes con- —
ACCLIMATIZATION is the way in which a plant or stnictive, recording, analytical, and interpretive.
an animal adapts iuself to a particular climate. It is Constructive accounting is the development of book-
one of the many changes in living things called adapta- keeping systems to fit the needs of individual business
tion. Many plaiiLs, such as wheat, barley, potatoes, and firms or groups. A bookkeeping system is a plan for the
the common fruits, grew originally in warm places. recording of the transactions of almost ever\' kind of
Man has carried these plants into different climates. To busing. These transactions are taken from business
live under the new conditions, these plants have had papers^\^uch as checks, invoices, notes, drafts, and con-
to change their form or their ways of living. Certain tracts. TWy
are recorded in books of accounts. These
plants which are transplanted to dry climates acclima- records are then classified and summarized to show die
tize themselves by sending their rcxjts far underground financial record of the business.
in search of water. Sheep raised in cold damp climates Recording accounting is usually called bookkeeping.
keep themselves warm and dry by growing exception- The bookkeeper keeps the system of accounts and rec-
ally thick coats of wool. ords which were first made up by the professional
Human beings can speed up the process of acclima- accountants. See Bookkeeping.
Analytical accounting is usually called auditing. It is course. Good colleges in litis field have added many
tin- tlu-ckiiig over or verifying of entries already made other courses since 1900, in order to give the student
in the books of account. The auditor e.xaniines particu- of accounting a well-rounded education. Executives too
lar itenuj of the business, and checks to make sure that often do not realize that their lxx)ks tell the story of
values have Ix-en correctly figured. .See .AfoiioR. right and wrong jxjlicies of their business. The execu-
Interpretive accounting is imjxjrtant Ix-cause it ti\e who can read his Ixjoks clearly is in a [xjsition to
studies. anaUses, and presents a conclusion alx)ut bo*)k- dictate busi^iess policies. He can back up those policies
keeping data and the reports made from it. The facts with facts when the board of directors questions him.
learned form the basis for deciding future policies of The individual who is able to handle figures with un-
the businiss. derstanding and enjoyment will like to be an accountant.
Cost Accounting. .Ml indirect expense, such as ma- Both private and public accountants have many ex-
chinery' supplies, janitor and rent cost, and salesmen's cellent business opportunities. A private accountant
expense, must be charged against the article manufac- works full time in the accounting department of a firm.
tured. Direct expense, such as the cost of materials, He may begin as bookkeeper and go on to become chief
also must be included. Total cost is figured in this accountant or comptroller. A public accountant usually
way. Retail and wholesale dealers have many problems has his own office, like a lawyer. He offers his services
in cost accounting. A business may continue for years to the public, generally on a fee basis. His work is to
to lose money on articles it has thought profitable. install accounting systems or to conduct audits. The
Cost accounting helps to unco\er hidden losses. The position of public accountant is one of trust and re-
studies made by the United States Department of Agri- sponsibility.
culture are proving this especially true in the case of State governments and Canadian province govern-
farming. Their investigations have saved farmers many ments have difficult examinations for accountants, so
dollars. that the public ma\' I^e ser\ ed by those with the greatest
Farm Accounting. The following is a brief outline of ability. Persons who pass Ix'come Certified Public .Xc-
one method of finding the exact cost of any crop. It also countants (C.P..\.'s) in the United Slates, or chartered
shows the rules of cost accounting for any business. This accountants in Canada. Either of these titles is a great
outline is based on go\ernment findings. help to the accountant who wants to succeed. A typical
Each crop must be charged with: C.P..A. examination covers the subjects of auditing,
Items which enter directly into its cost, such as seed, practical accounting problems, theor\' of accounting,
chemicals, and fertilizer, even if they are protiucts of and commercial law. The successful public accountant
the farm. should also know a great deal about economics, finance,
Labor of men. The number of hours spent on each task law. statistics, and mathematics. j.r.m.
should be marked down every day. Ihe total cost of
labor should also include a reasonable salary for the Related Subjects. The reader is referred to the article
farmer, rhis total cost is divided at the end of the year Certified Pl blic .\ccocnt.\nt, and to the section on vo-
by the number of hours which have been spent. The cational opportunities in each of the following articles:
result is the cost per hour. Two men working one hour Advertising Banks and Banking Journalism
must be counted as if one man had been working for two Air Conditioning Insurance
hours. ACCRA, AK rah (pop. alx)ut 136.000), a seaport on
Labor of horses. I lie expenses of the horse account in- the Gulf of Guinea, on the coast of West .-\frica.
clude feed, a reasonable charge for space in the barn,
It is the capital and largest city of the Gold Coast col-
and man-labor for their care. The horses may be worth
less at the end of the year than at the beginning. Anv
ony. Accra was founded in 1876. The city is a terminal
ditference is charged to the account. A year's interest of the main railroad line of the colony. r.Pkv.
on their value is added to the insurance and the taxes ACCUMULATOR. See Stor.\ce B.\ttery.
on them, if any. The account is also credited for manure ACE. See \V.\r Aces.
produced. The total cost of the horses for the year is ACETALDEHYDE. Sec ALDEmTJE.
then divided by the number of hours they worked. The
result is the cost per hour.
ih lid, (chemical formula,
CHjtiONHCeHs), a white powder, made up of cr\s-
Use of machinery end equipment. The cost of this ac-
count for tlu- year is founti by charging materials, labor, tals. It was widely used in the past to deaden pain and

interest, rent, insurance, wear and tear, and taxes. It is lower fever, .'\cetanilid was first used in 1866. It has been
important to chari^e enough dfpreciation, or decrease in prescrilx'd for headache, neuralgia, and the aches and
value. The number of hours used to divide the total pains of fever. It may destroy red and white blood cells,
should not include hours in which equipment was used
weaken heart muscle, and even cause death after long
for the benefit of other equipment, as a truck might be
used for bringing new machinery to the farm. use. It should be used only under a physician's direc-
tion. It is sometimes called antifrbrin. a.e.s.
Rent, hail insurance, depreciation, and taxes on the
land used, in proportion to its fertility. .X share of like ACETATE, .-15" e tayt. is a salt of acetic acid, .-\cetates
costs for buildings and fences on the farm must also are formed \\ hen acetic acid reacts with metals, oxides,
be included. and hydroxides. Calcium, sodium, magnesium, lead,
Vocational Opportunities. .\ knowledge of account- zinc, manganese, and ferric acetate are common ex-
ing is one of the handiest tools an executive can have. amples. Acetic acid reacts with alcohols to form acetates
For this reason every student of business should make a called esters. Cellulose acetate plastics have outstanding
point of learning its basic principles. Accounting may properties and uses. See also Acetic Acid; Ester; Plas-
be studied in inany high schools, and in almost all col- tk:s; Sail c.I-.Bi.
leges. Business colleges usually make it a required ACETATE RAYON See R.won; Textile.

ACETIC, a SEE tik, ACID vclicmical formula. CH3- Without acetone, the safe and practical use of acety-
COOH), a colorless liquid which is slightly heavier
is lene gas in industry would be impossible. By itself,
than water. Acetic acid is named from the Latin word compressed acetylene gas often explodes. Acetylene,
acfliim, which means vinegar. The sourness of vinegar is however, may safely be compressed and stored in con-
due to acetic acid. Vinegar used in the home contains tainers full of asbestos soaked with acetone The ace-
only 4 to 9 per cent of acetic acid. The boiling point of tone dissolves large volumes of the gas under pressure,
acetic acid is 118° C. It has a sharp odor, and irritates and releases it as needed when the container is opened.
the nose and eyes. It is a caustic substance and can cause The principal sources of acetone are com and other
severe burns on the skin. Pure acetic acid solidifies into grains, which are allowed to ferment and are then dis-
crystals at 62° F. (the temperature of a cool room). For tilled. About 30 per cent of the distilled liquid is ace-
this reason it is called glacial acetic acid. Dilute acetic tone. It may also be obtained from wood, from coal,
acid which is mi.xed with water is used in industn.'. and from acetic acid. g.l.Bu.
Acetic acid has probably been known longer than See also Acetic Acid; Acet^xene; Chloroform;
any other acid. It was first obtained from vinegar in Cordite.
the year 1 700 by the German chemist Stahl. Today it ACETYLENE, a SET ih leen (chemical formula, C2H2),
is made commercially from hardwood by distillation. is a colorless gas which bums with a brilliant light. .\cet\'-

It isa by-product of the manufacture of charcoal and lene is not poisonous and does not cause suffocation. It
wood alcohol. To separate the acid and wood alcohol, is only slighdy soluble in water and alcohol. Commercial

lime (CaO) is added to the mi.\ture. This changes im- acetylene gas has an odor which resembles garlic be-
pure acetic acid to calcium acetate. The acid is purified cause of impurities. This gas is made by bringing cal-
by addition of hydrochloric acid followed by distilla- cium carbide into contact with water.
tion. Acetic acid can also be made synthetically. Acetvlene mi.xed with oxygen and ignited yields an
Acetic acid is used widely in the manufacture of w hite extremely hot flame which reaches a temperature of
lead, acetone, and acetates. .Some important acetates 6000° F. This flame melts steel and other metals in
are formed with lead, calcium, sodium, copper, alumi- welding and cutting processes. In welding, the edges of
num, and iron. Lead acetate is called sugar of lead. the metals are melted in the flame of the oxy-acetylene
Verdigris is a copper acetate used in the manufacture blowpipe and then fused. A new metal is often added
of Paris green. G.L.Br. to make the joint secure. If a weld is well made, it is
.S<-c akn \cet.\te; Acid; Vi.neg.\r. as strong as the pieces joined. 0.xy-acet>lene welding
ACETONE, .^.S" eh tone (chemical formula, CH3CO- is used in the building of bridges, ships, automobiles,

C^H.t). i.s a c()inp)ound of carbon, hydrogen, and o.xygen airplanes, and pipelines. It is used in blast furnaces,
which has important industrial uses. .Acetone is closely foundries, repair shops, aluminum, brass, bronze, and
related to acetic acid and to the alcohols. It is a colorless, other metal industries where welding methods are
inflammable liquid w ith a fruity odor. It dissolves many essential.
substances, including resins, gums, oils, and cellulose. The oxy-acetylene flame is used in a difTerent way
Like ether and alcohol, acetone e\ap)orates rapidly. on the edge of the metal to be
to cut metals. .X sp>ot
Most of the uses of acetone result from its action as cut is heated, but not melted, by an oxy-acetylene
a soKent. For tliis reason it is employed in paint re- flame. Then a fine stream of oxygen is sprayed on the
movers and varnish remo\ers, and as the solvent in hot metal. The metal touched by the jet of oxygen
certain quick-drsing poli.shes and lacquers. Its ability burns through, leaving a straight, clean-cut edge. Oxy-
to dis.solve c«-llulose miikes it useful in the manufacture acetylene cutting is used to make scrap out of old ships,
of certain kinds of rayon. Chloroform and some kinds of airplanes, and buildings. It is used to cut out parts of
synthetic niblx-r are aLso made w ith the aid of acetone. a steel plate in making machiner\'. and also to take
During World War I great quantities of acetone were machinery' apart.
used by the warring countries in the manufacture of Commercial acetylene in cylinders is dissolved in
cordite, a powerful explosive. acetone. Before this use of acetone, dangerous explosions

(Kcurrcd because of the chemical breakdown of acety- Achilles did not return to war until his friend and
lene. kinsman, Patroclus, was killed in acticjn against the
Acetylene is widely used as fuel for the lamps of Trojans. His sorrow made him forget his grievance, and
miners' caps, and for floodlighting. Acetylene-lighted he rejoined his counttyinen to gain resenge. He killed
buoys are used to mark inland and ocean watcnvays. Hector, the hra\»-st of the Trojans, and nirrt'-d ftte
These buoys are turned on and off automatically by course of the rd victoty.
the 'sunlight vaKe" invented by the Swedish scientist,
Nils Gustaf Dalen. This invention won the Nobel prize
in 1912.
Acetylene is also used to make many chemicals such
as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, rubber substitutes,and
which are used in making plastics.
the vinyl resins
Acetylene was known as a scientific curiosity in the
eighteenth centuty. Credit for discovering it is usually
given to Exlmund Da\-y (a cousin of Sir Humphty
Davy) who called it bicarburft of hydrogen (1836). The
French chemist, Pierre Berthelot, anal^^ed the gas and
ga\e it the name acetylene in i860. .See also Ackto.ne;
AcKTic .Xcid; Caiciim Carbide; Pl.^stics. 0.1 .nv.
ACETYL-SALICYLIC, .^.S ^h uI-sal ih SIL ik. ACID.
See .Xsi'ikiN.
an, was the name of the first of
the four tribes to invade ancient Greece. The Achaeans Achilles and Hector. The victorious Greek worrior, Achilles,
drags the dead Trojan hero, Hector, around the walls of Troy.
entered Greece from the north about 2000 B.C. They
defeated the native Aegeans and intermarried with The legend says that .Achilles had been dipp)cd by
them. Later the Achaeans conquered Boeotia and the his mother into the river St\-x to make him safe from
Peloponnesus in the south. The Achaean civilization wounds in battle. But the heel by which she held him
was strengthened by the culture of the Cretans, who was not protected by the waters of the St>'x. It was in
also were conquered about 1450 B.C. The victor)- of the this heel that .Achilles received his death-wound from
.\chaeans o\er the Trojans was immortalized by Homer an arrow shot by Paris, a son of Priam. p.Col.
in the Iliad. This probably was the last great militaty See also .\jax; Ii iad; Paris; Pri.\m.
achievement of the Achaeans. After that the Aeolians ACHILLES' TENDON is

and Dorians seized most of the Achaean lands. The the strong tendon at the
Achaeans then setded in Achaia, on the northern part back of the ankle. It at-
of the Pelopxjnnesian peninsula. They formed the Achae- taches the calf muscle to
an League, about 280 b.c. This league opposed Mace- the bone of the heel. When
donian rule and the growing power of Rome. The the tendon is cut, an indivi-
league lasted until the Roman conquest in 46 B.C. See
dual cannot run and has
also .\eolian; Dorian; Ili.ad. c.b.w. difficulty in walking. The
ACHATES, ah KA tefz^ was a Trojan warrior and footcan no longer be bent.
companion of Aeneas through the hardships of the hur- See also .Ar.nii t.s; Foot;

ried flight from Troy. He was with Aeneas when that Tendon. e.v.c.
hero went to Carthage to accept the hospitality of ACHROMATIC, ak roh-
Queen Dido. His devotion to Aeneas was so great that MAT ik. LENS, Iniz. See
he was called fidus (faithful). The expression fidus .Aberration.
AchaUs has come to mean "faithful friend." p.Col. ACID, .45 id, is the name
ACHERON, .^A" ehrwas the name applied to
on, of one of a group of chemi-
several ri\ers of ancient Greece and Italy. The most cal compounds with com-
important was a river in Epirus (northwestern Greece). mon characteristics. They
In mythology', Acheron was "'the river of woe" across contain hydrogen and a nonmetallic element such as
which Charon carried the souls of the dead to Pluto's chlorine. They have a tart and sour taste somewhat
realm. Sec also Ch.aron; Plito. c.b.w. like that of vinegar, a dilute acid. .Acids dissolve metals
ACHIEVEMENT QUOTIENT. See Tests and Nf easi re- and neutralize bases.
MiMN, F.ntCATioNAi, i.\rhievcment Quotient). The most active acids contain hydrogen, but only a
ACHILLES, ah KIL eez, was one of the great heroic few of the many hydrogen compKJunds are acids. For
leaders in the Trojan War. He was the son of Peleus example, water (H:0) is a hydrogen compound which
and the sea goddess Thetis, according to Greek mythol- is not an acid. The hydrogen in an acid can be replaced

ogy'. Achilles joined the Greek army at the beginning by a metal. Then the compound is called a salt. Hydro-
of the Trojan War, and gready helped the Greek cause. gen and chlorine combine to form hydrochloric acid.
But he quarreled with Agamemnon over a captive When the hydrogen of this acid is replaced by a metal,
maiden, Briseis, with whom Achilles was in love. When sodium, the substance fonned is common table salt, or
.\gamemnon. the leader of the exf>edition, took Briseis, sodium chloride.
Achilles refused to fight any more. Many acids are harmless and may be taken into the
How Man Uses Acids COMMON ACIDS
Acid» or. omoog the mo»t u»eful chemlcoli
known to man Many people think thot odd* ore harsh,
burning tub»tance» found only in poiioov Yet w.thout oc.d* man » heolth would suffer, h.s industries
automobile would not operate
would be unoble lo produce mony imporfonl goods, and even his

Used in Candles Used in Baking

body. Some of ihcst- arc citric acid in oranges and and common elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
lemons, tartaric acid in grapes, malic acid in apples, Acids afTect certain chemicals called indicators. These
and acetic acid in vinegar. Other acids arc deadly indicators are usedto detect the presence of acids.

p<«M)ns. although they may he made up of hannless Blue litmus is a common indicator. It is made from
sul>stances. Oxalic acid and carlx)lic acid are deadly a lichen which grows on the scacoasts of Europe.
poisons, although they are made up of the harmless Litmus changes from blue to red when treated with an

acid. This is probably ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
caused by a change in the .S, < |)n I).
position of the atoms in ACLINIC, a ALIA iK.

one of the chemicals of LINE, or .Magnetic Equator.

litmus. is an imaginary' line which
Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, circles the earth close to
and hydrochloric acid arc the equator. This line
manufactured by thou- marks the place on the
sands of tons since they earth's surface where the
are widely used in produc- magnetic attraction of the
ing metals, plastics, explo- north and south magnetic
sives, textiles, and \arious poles is equal. .At all points
dye^. GIB. along the aclinic line a
Related Subjacts. II magnetic needle will bal-
reader is also referred to: ance, with no dip to one
.\cetic Acid Hydro-
side or the other. See also
Base fluoric .\cid
Boric .\cid Nitric Acid Dipping Nef.dle; Mag-
Aclinic Line, or Magnetic Equator. The lighter, straight line
Carbolic .\cid Oxalic .\cid isthe geographical equator, midway between the poles.
.NET AND Magnetism, p.h.c.
Citric .Acid pH ACNE, .^A nee, is a dis-
Gallic Acid Phosphoric Prussic .Acid .Sulfuric .Acid ease of the face, neck, and back which is marked by
Hydro- Acid Salicylic .Acid Tartaric Acid many tiny raised areas on the skin which contain pus.
chloric .Acid Picric .\cid Salt
Acne is a disease of the glands of the skin. It starts
ACIDOSIS, as ih DO sis, is a condition caused by the as a blackhead, whichcaused by an accumulation of

accumulation of an excess of acid in the body or by dirt in the oil glands. Bacteria may infect the blackhead
loss of too much alkali. It may occur in diabetes and in and cause a pimple. These pimples may grow into
advanced kidney and heart disease. It also may result abscesses, and often leave scars.
from star\aiion or from being under an anaesthetic for .Acne is common among boys and girls of high school
a long time. .Acidosis is a s\Tnptom of a serious disease, age. Blackheads consisting of dried grease in the oil
and does not occur in healthy persons. It may be glands may develop at any age. Acne, or infection of
marked by an increase in the rate of breathing, and. in the oil glands, does not occur as frequendy in jieople
more advanced stages, by coma. Children suflTering over t\venr\'-five.
from it app>ear drowsy. .Acne can be prevented by keeping the skin clean and
The term acidosis sometimes is used \\rongly to mean oil glands less actise. Applying drugs to the infected area

an acid condition of the body. Under nonnal conditions will slow down the secretion of the oil glands. Work
the tissues of the healthy body are always mildly alka- and exercise also drain the glands of their oil. l.h.w.
line rather than acid. The body must be kept in a See also .Abscess.
slightly alkaline state to remain alive. ACONCAGUA, ah kon KAH gwah, is the highest
.Acidosis has also been confused with stomach acid- mountain in the Western Hemisphere. Its height is

ity. The stomach is normally acid. There may be ab- 22,834 feet. .Aconcagua stands in west central .Argentina,
normal overproduction of acid in the stomach, but that near the border of Chile. In the distant past. .Aconcagua
is not acidosis. p.r.c. was probably more than one thousand feet higher than
See also .Aucalosis. it is now. But its upper part has crumbled away, and

Mount Aconcagua, An Extinct Volcano in the Southern Andes Mountains, Is Snow-Covered the Entire Year
no trace of the volcanic crater remains. Uspallata Pass,
an iin|M)rtant railroad crossing of the Andes between
Argentina and a few miles south of Aconca-
Cliile, lies
gua. The Ri'o Aconcagua is a river which Ix-gins in the
mountains west of the volcano and flows two hundred
miles west to the Pacific. Sec also Andes Mountains;
MofNTAiN (illustration). M.u.
ACONITE, AC o rule, is the name of a group of attrac-
tive pLiiitswhich belong to the buttercup family. There
arc about one hundred species, but only a small num-
ber grow wild in the United States. The Howers vary in
color from purple-blues to yellow and white. The color-
ful parts of the flower are of unecjual size and shape.
The roots, leaves, and seeds are poisonous.
One species produces a drug called aconite. It con-
tains a powerful chemical, aconitin, which is used as a

Bod Acoustics Occur when the sound waves interfere with eoch
other because of the reflecting surfaces of the auditorium.

In common use acoustics usually refers to those quali-

ties of a room which reflect and absorb sound. In this
is very important in designing buildings.
sense, acoustics
Acoustics deals with many diff^erent problems. Some
buildings such as hospitals and libraries must be de-
signed so that there is as little noise as possible. Walls
and ceilings are covered with sound-absorbing ma-
terials. These include special types of wallboard or
drapes. Walls are designed to prevent the carrying of
sounds along halls or up stair wells. Certain kinds of
flooring such as linoleum absorb more sound than do
stone or wood. Carpets also reduce sound.
Acoustics plays an important part in the design of
auditoriums, theaters, churches, and broadcasting stu-
dios. It is necessary that the spoken word be heard
clearly in all parts of churches and theaters. Cur\ed
interior surfaces in such buildings will focus sound, con-
J. Horace McFarland centrating it in some areas and lessening it in others.
Aconite i$sometimes called monkshood, because the upper Many auditoriums because they are lined with
port of the flower looks a little like the hood of o monk.
hard, smooth surfaces which reflect sound. Sounds may
liniment and is taken internally. As a liniment it dead- be reflected between these surfaces zmd become mingled
ens pain in cases of neuralgia and rheumatism. It is and indistinct.

given internally to lower body temperature in fevers

and produce a slowing efl'ect on the heart and breath-
ing centers. Because of its powerful and poisonous
nature, it should never be taken nor handled witliout
prescription by a physician. About 35.000 pounds of
aconite roots are imported every year by the United
States from Europe. h.n.m.
Classification. Aconites arc members of the family
Ranunculncnif. The sptcics which produces the drug is
Acomtum nnpfUus.
ACORN, A T kortu is the nut produced by any of the
various kinds of oak trees. In Europe, and to a lesser
extent in the United States, acorns are used as food for
hogs. .Many kinds of acorns are too bitter for human
food. The .\m<-rican Indians gathered acorns and pre-
pared them for their use by crushing and soaking them
to remove the bitterness. Pioneers in the United States
also ate acornswhen food was scarce. Sec also Oak. J.J.l.
ACOUSTICS, ah KOOS tiks, is the science of the pro- Good Acoustics Are Provided when the ceilings and bal-
du( tion and behavior of sound. It is a branch of physics. cony of an auditorium reflect sound waves toward the audience.


The Acropolis at Athens could be entered only from the

west. A flight of sixty marble steps led op to the magnificent
ODEUM, OR Entrance Building, which was made of white marble trimmed
CONCERT HALL with black. The great statue of the city's patron and defender,
the goddess Athena, stood just beyond. To the left was a
beautiful temple, the Erechtheum, with the lovely Porch of

Each sound u a\ c speaking can be heard for about

in Maidens attached. Across, the greet temple of the Parthenon
set its white columns against the blue sky. On the west side, the
one tenth of a second. Halls for speaking should be de-
little temple of Nike Apteros held the inspiring statue of the
signed so that echoes or reverberations will last one Wingless Victory. Outside the Acropolis, the Theater of Dio-
second or less. In auditoriums where music is played, if nysos lay on the southeast slope of the hill. The Odeum, where
the sound reverberations last t\\o or three seconds the music festivals were held, rose to the west.
musical effect is usually helfjed rather than hindered.
Acoustical engineers can predict the way sound will not needed for defense. It became the custom to build
behave in an auditorium before it is built. Knowing the temples there.
size of the hall, its proposed shape, and the character- Acropolis at Athens. The Greeks erected some of the
istics of the sound-reflecting surfaces, they can tell most beautiful buildings in the world on this acrof>olis.
whether sound will echo unpleasantly in it. The pres- Among them are the Parthenon, Erechtheum, Temple of
ence or absence of an audience also affects the way .\ike Apteros, and the entrance gate, called the Pro-
sound behaves in an auditorium. People absorb sound. pylaea.
That is why speech in an empty hall sounds differently Erechtheum, air ek THE um. This temple takes its
from spxrech when an audience is present. name from King Erechtheus of .Athens who w^s wor-
There are other acoustical problems in building. shipped in one of the inner rooms, .\nother room was
Sound will travel along ventilating or air-conditioning dedicated to the goddess Athena as guardian of .\thens.
ducts. The frames of some buildings transmit sound The temple also contained altars to other gods and
vibrations. Even cracks around windows and flaws in heroes, and a rock with the mark of Poseidon's trident.
walls affect acoustics. e.a.Fe. The olive tree which .-\thena gave to the city was near
S«'c also Sound. by. The Erechtheum was built during 420-393 B.C. The
ACRE, a city of Palestine. See P.m.estine (Cities).
ACRE, A km, is a measure of land. It is equal to
43,560 square feet, or 4.840 scjuare yards, or 160 square
rods. An acre whichsquare in shape has about 208.7

feet on each metric system an acre is equal

side. In the
to 4.047 square meters and one hectare is equal to 2.471
acres. See also Weights a.nd Measures. e.g.st.
ah lih. See Giant.
ACROPOLIS, ah CROP oh lis, is the high fortress or
religious center of an ancient Greek city. The word
acropolis combines the Greek words akros, meaning high'
est, and polls, meaning city. The early Greeks chose as
a refuge some place easy to defend, such as a high hill.
Then they usually fortified the place. The chief of the 3TRZET
tribe lived there, and small setUements grew up around. How Big Is an Acre? This diagram of a typical city block
Cities appeared later at the foot of the acropolis. People shows that an ocre olmost equals the land infourteen lots, each
soon began to fortify their cities, and an acropxjlis was of which is 25x125 feet.

nuiin building mcasurrs about 67 by 37 frrt. It has two .Sec also Gland; Hormone; PnxrrrARY Gland.
porrlics which pnjjt-ct beyond it. One of these is the ACTINIC, ak TI\ ic. RAYS are light rays which pro-
famous Porch of the Maidens, or Carvalids. The build- duce chemical change on sensitive photographic film.
ing is the Ix^t example of the Ionic order. .\11 light rays might be considered actinic, since some

Tkmple of Nike Apteros, .N7 kee AP Uh rahs, is the chemicals now used in films arc sensitive to all such
smalU-st temple on the acrof>olis. It is famous for its rays. The term actinic, however, has come to applv
relief sculptures. A statue of Athena once stood in the to the light rays at the ultraviolet end of the sp>ectrum.
one room of the temple. Athena was always shown The actinic strength of daylight based on the strength

without wings. But Nike, goddess of victory, was alwa>-s of the blue-violet and ultraviolet rays, .\ctinic rays from
shown with them. This temple was dedicated to the the sun reach their ma.\imum strength at noon. They
.\thena of victor>-. It was called the "'temple of the are at a minimum at dusk, and are aflfected by seasonal
victor>'-without-wings," or .\ike Aptrros. It was built in changes. See also Photcxjraphy; Spectrltm. e.a.Fe.
the fifth centun.' B.C., and stood almost untouched until ACTINIUM (chemical s>mbol, Ac) is a metallic,
about 1687. Then the Turks used its stones to build a tin-colored element which gives ofT energ\' in the form
fort. It was restored in 1835 and 1940. h.McP.d. of rays, as radium and uranium do. Like these elements,
See also Colltun; Neptl'ne; Parthenon. it is found in the ore pitchblende. As the element actinium

ACROSTIC is a word formed by the first letter of each gi\es off energ\\ it passes through various stages and
line of a comp)osition. usually a short f)oem. These ends as a form of lead. See also Element, CHEMia\L;
letters spell out some common word or phrase, if they PiTCHBi kndf; R.ADio.\crnvrrv. e.a.Fe.
are taken in order down the page. ACTINOMETER. See Light Meter.
The acrostic hcis greater chann if the subject matter ACTINOMYCOSIS, ak tih noh mi KOH
sis. See Lumpy

and the acrostic are the same. Here is a simple acrostic: JA^^•.

When air is cold and full of snow

ACTIUM, AK sht urn, BATTLE OF, was fought in 31
Into his house man likes to go. B.C. beuveen the Roman fleet and the combined fleets
Night soon falls with howling gale of Cleopatra, Queen of Eg\-pt, and Mark .Antony. TTie
To freeze the water in the pail. batde took place off a point of land which separates
Each man before the crackling log the Gulf of Atxa. from the Ionian Sea on the western
Rests with slippers, pipe, and dog.
shore of Greece. Octavianus (later Emperor .Augustus)
Most acrostics are much more difficult than this. led the Roman fleet to \-ictor\'. When .Antony's fleet was
Some are double acrostics, which form words with the defeated. Cleopatia withdrew her shif>s. .Antony de-
last letters first. Others are
of the lines as well as the serted his ships to follow her. .After .Actium. the
These have some word also 'Vunning
triple acrostics. Mediterranean was for many centuries a Roman sea.
down like a seam through the middle." .Actium marked the end of the Roman Republic and
The name acrostic is given to Hebrew poems in which the beginning of the Roman Empire. See also .Aucus-
the first letters of beginning lines of sections are letters tls; Cleopatra. \v.s.f.

of the Hebrew alphabet in prof>er order. The most noted ACT OF CHAPULTEPEC. See Ch.\pultepec. .Act of.
of such fxjems is Psalm 1 19. b.r. ACT OF SUPREMACY. See Henry (\III, England).
made from which has been in-
the blood of a rabbit ACT OF UNION. See Union, .Act of.
jected with guinea-pig spleen and rib marrow. This ACTOR AND ACTRESS. See \'ocational Opportuni-
serum affects the growth of liver, spleen, bone marrow, ties section of Motion Pictl're; Radio; Telemsion;
and lymphatic tissues. In small quantities it increases The.\ter; also list in Biography section of Re.\ding
the activity and growth of these tissues. In large .\nd Sn dv Guide.
amounts it has a poisonous effect. See also Serum, a.e.s. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES is the fifth book of the New
ACTAEON, ak TE on, was a mighty hunter in Greek Testament. Most scholars believe that it was written
myiliologv. He .vas a worship>er of the goddess .•Xrtemis by Luke. It is the only account of the earliest period
(called Diana in Roman mytholog\). By chance he saw of the Christian Church. It is also the fullest record
the virgin as she was bathing, and she changed him of the beginning and spread of any early religion.
into a sug for his boldness. He was set ufxjn by his own The book tells of the founding of the church in Judea
dogs and torn to pieces. p.Col. after the death of Christ. It traces the growth of the
ACTH an imp)ortant hormone, or chemical sub-
is church through the lifetime of Paul, the first great
stance, which influences certain organs of the bodv. missionary, who founded churches in .Asia Minor,
The letters .\CTH stand for adrcnocorlicotropic hormone, Greece, and Rome. The book describes the persecution
but the official name of the substance is corticotropin. of the church members as they grew in numbers, until
.XCrrH is produced in the pituitarv- gland. It is the they fled from Judea into Samaria and S\Tia, where
hormone which stimulates the outer cover of the adrenal they spread the new faith. Later the church at .Antioch
glands to produce Cortisone and other similar hormones. became Paul's headquarters. F.C.G.
Both .AC' TH and have shown great success in
Corti.sone ACTUARY. See lNSURANCE(Vocational Opportunities).
relie\ing the SNTnptoms of many serious diseases. See ACUTE DISEASE. See Dise.^se (Kinds).
CIORTISONE. A.D. See .Abbrevi.'Vtion; Chronology.
ITie chief sources for .\CTH are the pituitary glands ADAGIO, oh D.IH jo. See D.\ncing (Stage Dancing);
of common meat-gi\ing animals, esjx'cially the hog. Mink: (List of IVnns).
Sheep and whale pituitaries are aLso used. p.L.w. ADAM AND EVE were the parents of the human race.
according to the ImmjIc of Genesis in the Bible. God cre- sidered for the presidency by the Lilx*ral Krpublican
ated Adam, whose name means rnnn, in His own image. party. .Adams edited and works of his grand-
He then made E\ e from one of Adam's ribs. 1 hey Hvcd pan-nis. President John .Adams and .Abigail .Adanis, and
in the beautiful Garden of Eden. But a serpent tempted his failier's p.ipf-rs Sfv- .iko At ab.\.m.\ (ship). w.b.h.
Eve to cat the fniit of the forbidden tree of the knowl- ADAMS, FRANK DAWSON was a Cana-
edge of good and and Eve fx-rsuaded Adam to eat
e\il, dian geologist and auihcjr. He wrote many pajx-rs and
also. After God drove them out of the
they had eaten, re[X)rts on the geology of Canada, and a lx)ok tracing
garden. They were forced to work for their lis ing and the early liistor\' of geolog>'. He was lx)rn in Montreal,
were punished by hardships and evils which mankind and studied at .Mc(iill. \'ale. and Heidellx-rg universi-
has sulFered ever since. .\dam and E\e had three sons. ti<'s. He Ix'came profes.sor at Mc<Jill in 1894 and dean

.Abel. Cain, and Seth. It is recorded that .\dam diixl of the faculty of applied science in 1908. C.I..F.

at the a^e of 930. w.A.l. ADAMS, HENRY BROOKS ( 1 838-1 9 1 8), w as an Amer-
ADAMIC, AD amik, LOUIS 899-1 95 1), w as an Amer-
( 1 ican liisturiaii. He is bot known for I fie Education of
ican authorwho wrote about immigrants in the United Henry Adams, one of the most thoughtful of .American
.States. He. too, was an im- autobiographies. His History oj the Uinted States is a stan-
migrant, and knew how dard account of the administrations of Thomas Jefferson
difficult it was for many of and James Madison, written in nine volumes. .Among his
these people to begin life in other w ritings is .\tont-Saint-.\tichel and Chartres, a classic
a new
book, Dynamite, pul>
V^ ^ in medieval hisior\'.
Henry .Adams was born in Boston. He was educated
lished in 930, was follow ed
1 \( at Har\ard University and in Berlin. For a time he
by Laughing in the Jungle. ^ ser\txl as secretary to his father. Charles Francis
The Xative Returns w as \n rit- .Adams. In 1870 he became a.ssistant professor of his-
ten after he visited for a 7 tor\' at Har\ard, and was editor of the .\orlh American

year in his native country. lievinv. .After 1877 he gave his time to writing and
His other bcwks include .\/v trasel. m.c.
America;A .\ation of .\atiotu; ADAMS, HERBERT 858-1 945), was an .American
.in>cr am m,.
and Dinner at theWkite House. sculptor kiiou n for his excellent classical style. His works
„„ I Louit Adamic,' promoter of
born :„
_,..,, was
I •
in . include busts of William Ellen,^ Channing, John .Mar-
, race unity in America
Blato. Austria (later part 01 shall, William Cullen Br\ant, and Joseph Story for the
Yugoslavia). He
entered the United States in 1913 and Hall of Fame in \cw York City (see H.all of F.ame).
became a were spent as a
citizen in 191 8. His early years He also made the bronze doors of the Library of Con-
reporter, factory hand, and dock worker. He also served gress in Washington, D.C. .Adams was born in Concord.
three vears in the I'nited States Army (191 7-1920). L.j. \'t., and attended the Mas.sachusetts Institute of Tech-

ADAMS, ABIGAIL SMITH (i 744-1818), President's nology. Later he studied in Paris. f.h.>.

wife. Sec .Xdxms. John. ADAMS, JAMES TRUSLOW (1878-1949), made his-
ADAMS, CHARLES FRANCIS (1807-1886). was the tory so imeresting that his book. The Epic oJ America, be-
son of John Quincy Adams. He is considered second came a best seller in 1931.
only to Benjamin Franklin as an American diplomat. This work was called "the
Adams gained this repiuation as United States Minister best single volume of .AiTier-
to Great Britain from 1861 ican histon,' in existence"
to 1868. It was largely Ix*- by the historian. .Allan
cause of his efTorts during N'evins. .Another book by
the War betw een the States .Adams, The Eounding of
that Great Britain and .\ew England, was awarded
Irancc refused to recognize the Pulitzer prize in 1921.
the Confederate States. -Adams also edited, with
Adams was bom in Bos- R. V. Coleman, the Dic-
ton. He .spent his boyhood tionary of American History.
and England,
in Rus,sia During World IWar
where his father w as United ser\ed with Military
James Truslow Adams, who
.States Minister. He was Intelligence Division of the
Chorlet Francis Adams, Amer made history interesting
graduated from Har\ard in arniy's General .StafT. He
icon diplomat statesman and
1825. Then he practiced was a memlx'r of Colonel House's Committee (see
law and managed his father's affairs while the elder HoLTSF.. Ed\v.\rd M.wdeli,). and prepared sfxrcial data
.\dams ser\ed in Congress. After 1837 he took part in for thePeace Conference in 191 9.
the slaver\' controversy, and became one of the leaders .Adains was born in Brooklyn. N.Y. He was educated
of the "Conscience" Whigs. He ran for \'ice-President at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and Yale L'niversity.
on the Free Soil ticket with Martin Van Buren in 1848. He was a stockbroker in New York City before he
He entered the U..S. House of Representatives in 1858. began writing. m.c.
and in 1861 was appointed minister to Great Britain.
Hit Werlit include The Adams Family: The March of
In 1 87 he represented the United States in the settle-
Democracy (two volumes); The Living Jefferson: Dictionary
ment of the .-\labama Claims. The next year he was con- of American History; and America's Tragedy.
2nd President of the

United States, 1797-1801

ADAMS, JOHN (i 735-1826), was the second Prrsi-

derit of llieUnited States. He was also the first Vice-

President, scr\ing two terms in that office under George Harris and Kwinf;
Washington. As President, Adams had the task of guid-
The eldest of their five children, John Quincy Adams,
ing the young republic through some of its most serious
became the sixth President of the United States.

John Adams played a leading part in the fight for Life in Public Service
.\merican independence and in the founding of the Re-
public. He spoke out fearlessly for separation from The Fight Against the Stamp Act. The year 1765
Britain at a time when most colonial leaders still hoped
was a turning point in the life of John Adams. In that
to patch things up.
year the British Parliament passed the famous Stamp
In appearance, Adams was short, stout, and of ruddy Act, which placed a tax on newspapers and on legal
complexion. He was not popular, for he lacked the warm, papers of all sorts. As a lawyer, Adams was hit hard by
human quality which won men's hearts to his second the tax. He wrote, "This tax was set on foot for my ruin
cousin, Samuel Adams. People admired John Adams as as well as that of Americans in general." .Adams pre-

a profound lawyer and as a statesman of high courage, sented resolutions against the tax which were adopted by
but few loved him. He was a nervous man who often the Braintree town meeting. The same resolutions were
acted too hastily. He was vain, and would not listen to adopted without change by more than forty other Massa-
ideas that did not agree with his own opinions. How- chusetts towns. The Boston town meeting appointed a
ever, both his friends and his enemies recognized in committee to present a petition against the tax to the
Adams the many merits which outweighed his faults. British governor, and Adams was named as one of the
three members. Adams boldly argued that the tax was
Early Life
illegal because the people had never consented to it.
John Adams was born in Hraintree (now Quincy), This was the same as saying that the British Parliament
Mass., on Oct. 19, 1735. His father, also named John could not ta.\ the colonies at all. The Stamp Act was
Adams, was a farmer. His mother was Susanna Boyls- quickly repealed, but Adams had already won his fame
ton, the daughter of a leading Boston family. The as a patriot. This fame increased when he finnly re-
Adams family lived on a forty-acre farm which had fused a very profitable app>ointment to the British Court
come down to them from Henry Adams, young John's of Admiralty.
great-grandfather and one of the early Puritan settlers. Adams and the Boston Massacre. Adams rejoiced
Henry Adams had come to America from Devonshire, at every expression of popular opposition to the preten-
England, in 1636. sions of the Crown, but he was deeply distressed by the
Young John Adams attended Harvard College, as "Boston Massacre." His sense of justice led him to act
his father liad done before him. He was graduated in as defense coimsel for Captain Preston and the British
I 7'-)5, and ranked fourteenth in a class of twenty-four. soldiers charged with manslaughter. It was a bold act,
.\dams taught school for a short time. Then he studied and one which he feared would cost him both popular-
law in die oHice of James Putnam at Worcester, Mass. ity and business. But in this he proved to be mistaken.
.After he completed his studies in 1758, he began to The patriots kept their faith in him, and in 1771 he
practice law in Braintree, his home town. Later he was chosen to represent Boston in the General .Assem-
moved to Boston, where he became one of the leading bly. With the help of his cousin, Samuel .\dains. John
law vers of the Mas.vuhusctts colony. In 764 he married
i Adams led the fight in the .Assembly against tlie policies
Abigail Smitii, the daughter of a Puritan minister. of Governor Hutchinson.

Adams and the Boston Tea Party. John Adams was treaty had already been signed. On his return to the
ciiragrd by ihc Bruish tax un tea, as wrrc most of the United States, Adams
helped to frame the Massachu-
patriots. But many colonists were shocked when a band setts constitution of 7H0. He wrote most of the famous

of patriotsdumpKxl large cjuantities of tea into Boston .Massachusetts Bill of Rights, which was later copied by
Harljor on Decemlx'r 7, 773. Adams, however, called
i i many other states.
it most maniiifiiciu in()\ eiMciit ol all
"'the .Adams was then sent as American minister to Hol-
As a Delegate to theContinentalCongress. In 774, i land. He {KTsuaded the Dutch (iovernment to recfjg-
the British Government decided to be iinn with the ni/e .American independence. He even obtained a loan
colonies, and passed se\eral f(»r the colonies.
laws known as the 'intoler- .After the Battle of Vork-
able Acts." The Virginia tow n, the British were ready
.•\ssembly at once called a for peace. Adams, John
congress of all tlie colo- Jay, and Benjamin Frank-
nies. This congress, held at lin were sent to Paris, to
Philadelphia, was later arrange a peace treaty.
called the First Continental Sharp differences of opin-
Congress.John Adams was ion soon developed among
one of the five delegates the three American com-
sent from Massachusetts. missioners —
Adams, Jay,
He was one of the few men and Franklin —
as to tlie
who were ready to seek in- extent to which diplomatic
depK-ndencc from Britain. association with France
He wrote a Declaration of should be carried. .Adams
Resolves which clearly and Jay deeply distrusted
stated what he thought the the Count de Vergennes,
position of the colonies Birthplace of John Adams, Quincy, Mass who represented France in
ought to be. By the time thediscus-sions. They feared
of the Second Continental Congress, which met in that the French government was prepared to sacri-
'775' Adams' influence had increased. He kept urging fice .American interests to those of France and Spain.
that the colonies should be independent, and opposed For this reason, they departed from their instaictions
all half-way measures. He persuaded Congress to adopt and carried on private negotiations with the British com-
the 16,000 minutemen of New England as the "Con- mission. Franklin, although he was not of the same
tinental Anny." He also helped to bring about the ap- mind as the other two .American commissioners, went
pointment of Washington as commander-in-chief. along with his colleagues. In the end, Wrgennes, too,
Adams was an unusually busy patriot. He ser\ed as consented to the separate treaty which the .Americans
chairman of the colonial Board of War and Ordnance. concluded on .\ov. 30, 1782. Jay and Franklin played
He was a member of a committee appointed to draft a the chief parts in the negotiation of the treaty, but
treaty with France. He ser\ed on another committee .Adams was largely responsible for the pro\isions with
which established methods for training officers for the respect to the fisheries and the loyalists. During the next
Continental Amiy. Later, Adams wrote, '1 was inces- t\vo years .Adams ser\ed in Paris on a commission which
santly employed through the whole fall, winter, and prepared trade treaties with many foreign goNernments.
spring of 1775 and 1776, in Congress during their sit- The French came to call him "'The Washington of
tings, and on committees in the mornings and evenings, Negotiations." In i 785 .Adams became the first United
and unquestionably did more business than any other States minister to England. But his indep>endent man-
memlx'r of the house." ner and the attitude he had always held toward the
Adams and the Declaration of Independence. John British made it difficult for him to Ix- diplomatic. .Adams
Adams played an important part in the adoption of the asked to he recalled to the L'nited States in 1788.
Declaration of I ndejsendence. On June 7, 1776, Richard As Vice-President. .Adams had been home only a
Henry Lee of \' irginia presented a resolution to Con- few iTionths when he was named \'ice-President of the
gress which declared that "'these United Colonies are, United States. .At that time, everv- elector voted for two
and of right ought to be, free and indep>endent states." men for the presidency. Whoever ran second in the race
•Adams seconded the resolution. He was appointed a for President became \'ice-President. .Adams was more
member of the committee to prepare a declaration of hurt than pleased with the result, because each of the
independence. It was .-Xdams who insisted that Thomas sixty-nine electors gave one of his votes to Washington,
Jefferson write the historic document. For himself. while .Adams was named by only thirty-four. Adams
Adams chose the task of defending the Declaration in had hofjed to make a better showing. I.ater, he wrote
the stormy debate that followed its presentation. Jefler- that the vice-presidency was "the most insignificant
son called .\dams the "colossus'' (giant) of that debate. office that ever the invention of man contrived or his
Another delegate described .\dams as "'the .Atlas of imagination conceived."
.American Independence." \'icc-President .Adams presided o\er the .Senate with
As a Diplomat. In 1778 .Adams was sent to France ability and dignity. He k<'pt himself out of political
to help obtain a treaty of alliance with that countn.-. arguments. He did not let his personal quarrels or
But when Adams arrived at Paris, he found that the jealousies influence his slatesmansliip. Whenever he was
by Alexander Hamilton, tlie other by .Adams. The
c|uarrel between the two groups became bitter. Some
inemlx'rs of the Adams cabinet even made rep<jrts to
llaniilton, and tcxjk orders from him rather than from
the PrcsidciU.
with France. .Most of the problems which
President Adams hadto face resulted from the French
Revolution and the Europ)ean wars which followed it.
Washington had insisted that the best policy for the
United States to follow in any purely European war
was to remain neutral. But the quarrels in the Old World
affected the United States in tAvo ways. First, .American
ships on the high seas were exposed to attacks from
ships of the nations at war. By 797, more than three

hundred American ships had been captured by the

French, and about as many had been taken by the
British. Both French and British claimed that they had
a right to seize American ships. For their reasons, see
Continental System. Secondly, the principles involved
in the French Revoludon affected American politics.
Thomas JefTerson and his party believed that the French
Revolution was a f)eople's movement like the American
Revolution. They syTnpathized with the French people
and wished to aid them as much as possible. The
Federalists could see no good in the French Revolution.
They feared it might have a disturbing influence on
.American life. Their desire was to support England
against France.
Adams leaned to neither side, and determined to keep
the United States neutral. One of his first acts as Presi-
dent was to call a special session of Congress to consider
ways of keeping peace. He sent ministers to France to
1' -1. ;. Miist'um of Fiiif Arts negotiate a treaty. These ministers refxjrted that they
John Adorns In OfTiciol Court Dress, as Minister to England. had been offered a treaty if the United States would
This portrait, painted in 1783 by John S. Copley, now hangs in pay a bribe to TallevTand, the French foreign minister.
ttie Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Moss.
The French diplomats also insisted that the United
called upon to cast a deciding vote in the Senate, he States lend the French Government $10,000,000.
sided with President Washington. In 792 he was re- i
This episode became known as "the XYZ .Affair." It
elected Vice-President. During his tvvo terms as Vice- was so called because the three French diplomats who
President. .Adams published his Discourses of Davila. In made the offer used these initials instead of their names.
this series of papn-rs he presented his conservative polit-
The XYZ .Affair caused great anger among the people
ical beliefs. of the United States. The popular cry, ''Millions for
When Washington refused to serve a third term as defense, but not one cent for tribute," rang through the
President, Adams seemed to his party to be the next land. Congress began to prepare for war with France.
best candidate. The Republican party nominated The Navy Department was created, and new warships
Thomas Jefferson. Adams received only three more were built. George Washington was called from Mount
votes than Jefferson, who became Vice-President. Vernon to command the army. War was not officially
.Adams was the first President to live in the White declared, but there were many battles at sea between
House. The mansion was built at the new capital, American and French ships.
Washington, D.C., in the first year of his administration. •Adams was still determined to keep peace, and he
New York and then Philadelphia had been the capital again asked Talleyrand for a treaty. This time Talley-
during the two terms of President Washington. rand was eager to negotiate, because he feared that the
United States might join forces with England. Without
Administration as President (1797-1801) consulting either his cabinet or Congress, .Adams sent
a commission to France. This act was one of the bold-
Federalist Party Split. The four yeare during which est of his career as President. .At the time, his independ-
John .Adams was President were among the stormiest in ent policy made .Adams probably the most disliked
the history of the United States. There were many man in the United States. But .Adams believed that
problems to b<- setded at home and in regard to the keeping the country out of war with France was the
relations of the United States with foreign countries. To most imp)ortant achievement of his administration. He
make his la.sk more difficult. .Adams could not count on later said that he wanted this inscription over his grave:
the suppjrt of rither his party or his cabinet. The 'Here lies John .Adams, who took upon himself the
was split into two groups. One was led
Federalist party resjxjnsibility of p)eacc with France in 1800."

White House Became Official
Home of the President, 1 800
John Marshall Began G
Career as Chief Justice, 1801
The Alien and Sedition Lows. Durinc; Adams' ad- been a feeling of intense p>crsonal bitterness bet\vcen
ininLstMUDii. C;uiii;us.s adupicci the Alien and Sedition the two statesmen. But after they had both retired from
Acts. The Alien Act gave the President the power to political they forgot their political quarrels and

expel foreigners by a simple order. The Sedition Act carried affectionate correspondence. By
on a long and
made it a crime for anyone to criticize the CJovernment. remarkable coincidence, both men died on July 4, 826. 1

the President, or the Clongre.ss. The namrali/ation pro- [his was cxartly fifty years after the adoption of the
\isions of the Alien Act Declaration of Independ-
made it necessary- for px-r- ence, in the framing of
st)ns to live in the United w hich both men had played
.Slates for fourteen years so large a part. John
Ix-fore they could Ijecomc Adams' last words were,
citi/ens. There was a storm "Thomas Jefferson still sur-

of disapproval from persons vives." H.S.C.

who claimed that these law s

Abigail Smith Adams
' I 744- H 8
1 1 I, w as the daugh-
\ iolated the i^uaraniees of
ter of William Smith, a New
freedom of sjx-ech and of England minister. Poor
thepressintheCbnstiiution. health kept her from get-
The legislatures of X'irginia ling even the little scliooling
and Kentucky adopted that was open to girls dur-
ing colonial times. But,
resolutions declaring the
through her association
.Mien and Sedition Acts
with brilliant people and
unconstitutional. Enforce- her wide reading, Abigail
ment of the .Sedition Act Adams became one of the
made the Adams admin- most alert and best-informed
isir.ttion unpopular. women of her day. Her de-
lightful letters to her hus-
The Election of 1800.
band during his long ab-
Because of the public dis-
sence from home are valued
satisfaction with the Fed- even today for the picture
eralists, the Republican they give of colonial life.
party was victorious in the Abigail Adams was mis-
tress of the While House for
election of 1800. Hamil-
only a few months, as the
ton's strong criticisms of
family did not move into it
.\dams. intended only to be until near the close of the
read by Federalist leaders, Adams administration. She
fell Republican hands
into was not greatly impressed
and were effectively used. with the presidential man-
sion, for it had not been
The Republican candi- completed when the Presi-
dates.Thomas Jefferson and dent's familv moved in. She
. ,. .....^ u
Mistress of the White House. *L.-
Abigail Aj
Adams, 1

a woman oft ^ • ., ,
.\aron Burr, rccei\ed 73 .
L ^ . • X »u \A/i.-. u_ oitcn hune the iamilv wash-
the first mistress of the White House.
great charm, was j .u '

votes, and Adams, 65 votes. " ' mg . •

. i? .
to dr\- in the great Last
Adams continued to make appointments to various Room of the White House. Abigail .-Xdams lived to see
government offices until his last day in office. One of her son, John Quincy Adams, appointed Secretary of
State. But she died seven years before he became the
his most important last-minute appointments was that
sixth President of the United Stales.
of John Marshall, Adams' Sccretarx- of State, as Chief
An Outline suitable for John Adams will be found with
Justice of the Supreme Court. Sec M.arshali., John. the article "President of the United States."
Later Years Questions
John Adams was nearly 66 years old when he left the What did John Adams consider his most important
White House. He was so angr>' about his defeat that he act as President?
What was "The XYZ Affair"?
refused to stay in Washington for Jefferson's inaugura-
What was meant by "Millions for defense but not
tion. He
hurried off in his coach on the morning of one cent for tribute"?
March 4, 1801, for his home in Quincy, Mass., where For how long did John .Adams occupy the While
he devoted himself to the study of history and phil- House?
osophy. Later the people began to appreciate some of How many terms as Nice-President did .Adams
the things Adams had done for his countrv'. He received
Of what well-know n college was .Adams a graduate?
many letters of respect and affection from all parts of
What amendment to the Constitution was adopted
the nation. As .Adams grew older, he enjoyed watching during .Adams' administration? What cabinet de-
the brilliant political career of his son, John Quincy partment was created?
Adams, who became President while his father was still What other great .American statesman died on the
alive. .Another source of happiness to John Adams was same day as John .Adams?
What great chief justice did .Adams appoint to the
the renewal of his early friendship w ith Thomas Jeffer- Supreme Court?
son. These t\vo great .Americans had disagreed on basic To what use did .Abigail .Adams put the great
matters throughout their political lives. There had often East Room of the White House?
Jffix^^ 2ct^>»i.*y c^-^^^AvU

6th President of the

United States, 1825-1829

ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY (i 767-1848) was the sixth

Brown Brotnen
Presidfiu of United States and the oldest son of

John Adains, the second President. They are the only as his fathers secrciary during the writing of a treaty
father and son who both became President. between the United States and England. Young Adams
John Quincy Adanis had four public careers. He also went along when his father was appxjinied Ameri-
served his country as a diplomat, as a lawmaker, as can minister at London. There the youth met many
Secretary of State, and as President. important English leaders, including William Pitt,
In appearance, Adams was short and stout. He be- Edmund Burke, Charles Fox, and Richard Sheridan.
came bald early in His voice was high and shrill, and
life. Education as a Lawyer. In 1785 young Adams re-
Wcis likely to break when he became e.xcited. \'et he turned to the United .States to complete his education.
Sf)oke so well that he earned the popular naines of ''Old He was admitted to Har\ard College as a member of
Man Eloquent'" and 'The Walking Vocabulary." Adams the junior class, because of his year of school in Europe.
was affectionate to his family and friends, but his man- He was graduated from Har\ard in 787. For three 1

ner toward others was cold and stiff. He was never liked years he read law in the office of Theophilus Parsons,
by the people, and made no effort to gain popularity. who later became Chief Justice of the Massachusetts
But even those who disliked him recognized him as one .Supreme Court. Young Adams Ix'gan the practice of law
of the keenest and most brilliant men of his day. in I 790. He had few clients, and his interest soon turned
to politics.
EQrIy Life
Arguments ^ith Thomas Paine. In 1790
John Quincy Adams was born on July 767, in 1 1 , 1 Thomas Paine had published his famous Rights of Man
the Adams family home at Braintree (now Quincy), and other pamphlets. These writings shocked Adams,
Mass. Hedid not enjoy the nonnal experiences of boys who considered Paine's political ideas too radical. The
of his time. He cared little for play or for companions young lawyer answered Paine's arguments in a series of
of his own age. His father was a diplomat, and the Ixjy eleven unsigned articles. These articles were so well
spent most of his time in the company of brilliant men written that many p)ersons Ijelieved John Quincy Adams'
and women. At the age of eleven, he went with his father was their author. Young Adams also wrote a
father to France. During the voyage their ship, the series of articles defending President George Washing-
Boston, was chased by a British warship. The elder ton's advice that the United States should stay out of
Adams wrote to his wife, ''My Johnny's behavior gave the war between France and England. Adams signed
me a satisfaction I cannot express his thoughts con-
. . . these articles with the name "'Marcellus." Later he wrote
stantly ninning in a serious vein." another series of articles under the name "'C'olumbus." In
A Yankee Schoolboy in Europe. The boy attended this series .Adams attacked the French minister, Edmond
Amsterdam, and Lcyden. He was moved
schools in Paris, Genet, who was tr\'ing to get the United States to join
from school to school as his father was transferred from the French in war against the English.
one diplomatic post to another. When John Quincy
As Diplomat and Legislator
Adams was fourteen, he went to Saint Petersburg as
Secretary to Francis Dana, the American minister to Public Service Overseas. The pamphlets which John
Russia, -\fterward, young Adams traveled through .Swe- Quincy .\dams had written attracted the attention of
den, Denmark, and northern Germany. Then he joined President Washington, who recognized the ability of
his father at The Hague, in The Netherlands. Father the author. In 794 the President offered .Xdams a posi-

and son then went to Paris. There young Adams served tion as American minister to Holland, although Adams
was only twriity-st-vrn yrars olci. 1 hrrc clays alter
tlicn the p>eace treaty had .Adams went tt. Lon-
Ix'en signed,
Adanis I lolland.lhr French invaded the coun-
arris txl in don to arrange a While there he was
trade treaty.
try and the Dutch republic was overthrown. Adams was appointed minister to Great Britain, a post which his
then sent to London. There he met and married Louisa father had held Ixrfore him. .Adams initiated discussions
Catherine Johnson, daughter of the .\merican consul at which led to an agreement with the British Government
Ixjndon. In 1796 Adams ending the use of forts and
was appointed minister to warships on the Great
Portugal. He wiis alxiut to Lakes by Canada and the
v»o to I .islx)n when his father United .States.

was elected President of the As Secretary of State.

United States. The elder In 181 7 President .Monroe
Adams wanted to canc<'l called .Adams back to the
hisson'sappointment. Both United States and ap-
the new President and his [xjinted him Secretary of
son felt that it would Ix' in State. .Adams was well
poor taste for young .Adams qualified for the position,
to hold a diplomat's post because of his years of ser\-
during his father's adminis- ice in the State Depart-
tration But Wiishington ment. He setUed a number
urged 'hat young ,\dams of boundary disputes be-
be kept in the diplomatic tween Canada and the
Washington called
service. United States, and also
John Quincy .Adams 'the arranged the purchase of
most valuable public char-
Birthplace of John € ir.ry Adams. His father, the second
Florida from Spai n .Adams'

President of the United States, was born in the house next door.
acter now
abroad." Presi- It is almost exactly like this one.
best-known achievement as
dent Adams then trans- Secretary of State was the
f<'rred his son to Berlin, where he served as minister to development of the px)licy known
as the Monroe Doc-
Pru.ssia for alK)ut five \ears. The first public expression of this famous doctrine
Public Service at Home. In 1801 Adams returned to came when Adams told the Russian foreign minister
the L nitcd Stales. He was elected
to the that "the American continents are no longer subjects for
.Senate the next year. .Adams soon displayed the inde- any new European colonial establishments." At that
fjcndence from party politics that marked his entire time, the rulers of Russia, Prussia, and .Austria had formed
life. The new senator was described as "too unmanage- the Holy Alliance, and were trying to wip>e out all the
able" by Fisher Ames, the leader of the Massachusetts effects of the French Revolution. One of these effects was
Federalist party. that Spanish colonies in America had won their inde-
In 1803 .\dams was elected to the L^nited States pendence. Many feared that the Holy Alliance would
Senate. Here also he proved "'unmanageable." He was try to reconquer them for Spain. Great Britain opposed
a member of the Federalist party, but he often voted tlie Holy Alliance. The British Minister, George Can-

with the Republican Senators. As the influence of tlie ning, asked the United States to join in a declaration
Federalist party grew weaker, Adams drifted more and against any attempt to return the new Latin-.American
more toward the Republicans. He finally broke w ith the republics to Spain. President Monroe w as in favor of sub-
Federalists over the embargo policy. The Embargo .Act scribing to Great Britain's declaration. But .Adams insisted
was a law forbidding American trade with England and upon a separate statement of policy for the United States.
France while these countries violated American rights. He declared that the L'nited States must not "come in as
The New England Federalists favored the British cause a cockboat (small rowboat) in the wake of the British
and wanted the embargo on shipping dropped. But man-of-war." The Monroe Doctrine was then announced
.Adams supported it. The Massachusetts Federalists felt as an .American policy, w hich made it plain that Euro-
that .Adams had Ix-trayed them. In 1808 diey elecK'd pean nations were not to seize territory in the .Americas.
another person to his place in the Senate, several months The Election of 1824. Jefferson's Secretan.' of State
Ix-fore the election was scheduled. Adams did not wait had followed him as President, and so had .Madison's.
for the end of his term, but resigned immediately, and Many persons believed that .Adams should follow Mon-
prepared to devote his full time to a position as a pro- roe as president. Adams thought so. too. But he made
fes.sor and oratory at Harvard College.
of rhetoric little effort to obtain votes in the presidential election
More Diplomatic Service. .Adams never intended to of 1824. The other candidates for the presidency were
return to public life. But President James Madison was Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford,
determined to make u.se of his ability. .Madison per- and John C. Calhoun. Calhoun withdrew as a presiden-
suaded .Adams to accept an appointment as minister to tial candidate, and was elected Nice-President. When
Ru.ssia. .Adams held that post until 1814. While he was the electoral votes for the presidency were counted, the
there, he refused to accept an appointment to the total was 99 votes for Jackson, 84 for .Adams, 41 for
United .States .Supreme Court. .After the end of his ser- Crawford, and 37 for Clay. Since no candidate had a
vice in Ru.ssia, he was made a memlxr of a commission majority of electoral votes, tlie election was left to
which wrote the Treaty of CJhent with CJreat Britain. the House of Representatives, which was required to
This trcatv marked the end of the War of 181 2. .After choose one of the first three candidates. This require-
First Passenger Railroad
Constructed, 1828-1829

American Labor Movement

Begun in Philadelphia, 1827 Webster's Dictionary Published, 1828

ment removed Clay from the race. Clay threw his sup- men thought it was dangerous for the United States to
port to Adams, who was elected. discuss the issue of slavery. Congress finally consented to
send two representatives to the conference, but one dele-
Administration as President (1825-1829)
gate died on the way to Panama and the other did not
Republican Party Split. The four years during which arrive until the conference was over.
Adams was President were in some ways the least inter- The "Tariff of Abominations." The tariff was a
esting of his life. They were certainly his most unhappy stormy issue during tlie last part of the Adams adminis-
years. Almost time was taken up by violent quar-
all his tration. By 1828, manufacturing rather than farming,
rels within his party. Early in his administration, he had become the chief activity in most New England
chose Henr\' Clay as Secretary of State. Because Clay states. These states wanted high duties on manufactured
had given his support to Adains during the election, goods brought into the United Slates from other coun-
Andrew Jackson and his followers accused Adams and tries. In the South, however, the farmers wanted a low

Clay of having made a "corrupt bargain." They tariff, or free trade. The followers of Andrew Jackson

claimed, quite wrongly, that Adams had promised Clay tried to get supp)ort from both sections of the countn.' by
a cabinet position in return for his support. The quarrel presenting their candidate as a protectionist to the
between the followers of Adams and the followers of North, as afree trader to the South. They wrote a fan-
Jackson grew bitter, split the Republican party, and tastic tariff bill which placed high duties on manufac-
ended the "era of good feelings." tured goods, but also raised the duties on raw materials
Differences with Congress. In his inaugural address so high that even the New England manufacturers could
and in liis first message to Congress, Adams recom- be expected to vote against it. To evervone's surprise,
mended a program of national improvements. His plans enough New Englanders voted for the bill to pass it.
included the building of Federal highways, canals, a The tariff, justly called the "Tariff of Abominations,"
national universitv', and Federal weather obser\atories. aroused bitter anger in the South.
But Congress refused to vote the money for these proj- The Election of 1828. Because of his proud and for-
ects. The only real achievement in internal improve- mal manner, .Adams had never been popular. Nor had
ments was completion of the Erie Canal in 1825. This he made the slightest attempt to defend himself from
canal was built by the State of New York. the attacksof the Jacksonians. Meanwhile, Jackson had
Adams started a bitter debate in Congress when he been growing in popularity. In the election of 1828,
accepted an invitation to send delegates to the Panama Jackson won the electoral college vote by 178 to 83.
Congress, a conference of North and South American His popular vote was proportionately larger than any
republics. The question of trading in slaves was to be other presidential candidate was to receive during the
one of the topics of the conference and some Congress- remainder of the nineteenth century.



Later Life floor of the House of Representatives, and two days
John Quincy Adains rciuriud to liis lioiiu- at Quincy, later he died. Adams" last words were, "This is the last
M.«ss.. and prrparrd once more to retire from f>olitirs. of earth. I am content."
But in 830 liis fellow townsmen asked him to Ix- a candi-

His Place in History

date for the House of Repres<"ntati\es. In the election
he defeat«"d two other candidates by a large majority. In each of lii.s scjjarate careers, John Quincy .\dams
Adams was greatly pleased. contributed greatly to the
In hisdian.' he wrote. "My welfare of the United
election as President of the States. The treaties which
I'nited States was not half he prepared after the War
.so gratifying." In 1831. at of 1 81 2 established the
the age of sixty-four. Adams United States in world
took his seat in the House. trade. Through his efforts
He scr\ed for seventeen the Monroe Doctrine be-
>ears and was easily the came a distinctively .Ameri-
most distinguished mem- can policy. He was the first

ber. Adains was a forceful President to urge Federal

speaker, skillful in parlia- improvements on a large
mentarv- law. He became scale.Adams will be re-
chairman of the House membered gratefully for his
P'oreign Affairs Committee historic defense of free
and the Committee on speech and of the right of
Manufactures. Adams re- petition. He also made an
mained as independent of important contribution to
party politics as he had American literature in his
been in earlier life. He diar\\which he kept from
fought his old political en- 1 795 until the year of his
emy. Andrew Jackson, on death. Thisdiar^*, in twelve
the Bank issue and the volumes, is the most color-
Texas question. But he sup- ful and detailed record in
ported the President in existence of this period of
other matters such as nulli- American life. H.s.c.
fication. Johnson Adams
His Last Fight — against (i 775-1852 I, was a woman
particularly fitted by intelli-
Slavery, .\ciam.s cham-
gence and social grace to
pioned free speech during
ser\c as mistress of the White
the years when slavery be- House. But poor health
came a public issue. Con- often prevented her appear-
gress received many peti- Mistress of the White House. Louisa Johnson Adams was ance on social occasions.
on excellent hostess in spite of her poor health. She was the daughter of
tions from the Abolitionists
urging that slavery' liC abolished. These peiiiions became Joseph Johnson, a Mar\ land colonist who became the
.American consul in London.
so troublesome that in 836 1the House of Representa-
During her husband's term in the White House, Mrs.
tives adopted a group of resolutions called the "Gag .\dams appeared only at public receptions. She began
Rules" to keep such petitions from being read on the the custom of serving cakes and wine to White House
flc«r of the House. Adams belie\ed that the "'Ciag guests on these occasions. The .\damses had four children.
Rules" violated a constitutional right of the people. He I hey were George Washington, John Quincy. Jr.. Charles

fought the resolutions until he succeeded in having them Francis, and Louisa C. Mrs. .Adams died in 1852.

abolished in 1844. Related Subjects. The reader is also referred to:

Adams was the first to speak for the right of the

C:lay. Htmy Holy .Alliance Tariff
Democratic Republican Jackson, .Andrew Whig
P'ederal Go\ ernment to free slaves during time of war.
Party Monroe Doctrine
.\braham Lincoln later based his Emancipation Procla- Genet, Edmond C. E.
mation on .\dams' argument. ^\s early as 836. .\dams1
An Outline suitable for John Quincy Adams will be
had said, "from the instant your slave-holding states found with the article "President of the United States."
Ix'come a theater of war—<:ivil, servile, or foreign Questions
from that instant the war powers of the Constitution ex- Why was John Quincy .Adams called "Old Man
lend to interference with the institution of slavery in Eloquent"?
every way that it can be interfered with." In 1842 How many sons of United States Presidents have
Adams expressed an even Ixjlder belief. He said that become Presidents?
th<- President, as C'ommander in Chief in time of war,
What honor pleased .Adams more than his election
as President of theUnited States?
had the pcjw er to order the freedom of slaves.
What part did .Adams play in the development of
In 1846 .Adams sufTered a stroke of paralysis. He re- the Monroe Doctrine?
covered, however, and returned to Congress. On Feb. Why was John Quincy .Adams named President
21, 1848, he suffered another stroke at his desk on the even thouRh .Andrew Jackson got more electoral votes?
ADAMS, MAUDE 187 J- ), is an American actress the popular party, and helped form the Committees of
whoso most succrsslui roles were in the plays of James Carre spotxderwe among llie colonies. Adams Ix'came a
M. Barrie. Her interpretations of leading parts in Pfta member of the First and
Pan; 1 he LittU MtniiUr; and What Every Woman Knows Second Continental Con-
are famous. Born in Salt Lake City, Utah, she first gress, and represented his

appeared on the stage while she was a child. Her family state at Philadelphia until
name u as Kiskadden, but she chose her mother's maiden I 781. He t(j<jk part in the
name, Adams, for the stage. Charles Krohman was her Massachusetts State Con-
stitutionalConvention of
779 and 780. He also took

part in the state conven-

tion which was called to
ratify, or approve, the Fed-
eral Constitution. He be-
Samuel Adams, a leading
came lieutenant go\ernor Revolutionary statesman
of Massachusetts from
I789 to 794, and Governor from 794 to 797. d.Pe.
I i i

See also Co.m.mitiees of CIorrispo.ndknce; Revere,

Paul; REvoLirnoNARY War in America; Statuary
ADAMS, SAMUEL HOPKINS (1871- ), is an Am-
eri(ciii journalist and writer
popular fiction. His

articles on patent medicines for Collier'' s Weekly helped

to bring about passage of the first Pure Food and Dmg
Act. In 191 he also wrote a series of detective stories

on the same subject. Average Jones, the main character,

became an American favorite. Adams was born in
Dunkirk, N. Y. He was a special writer for the New
York Sun, a reporter for the New York Times, and later
joined the stafl of AfcClure's Magazine. I.J.
His Works include Revelry, a best-selling novel on the
Harding administration; I he Lije and Times oj Warren G.
Harding; A. H'ooUcoll: His LiJe and His World: The Great
American Fraud; The Flagrant Tears; Incredible Era; Success;
It Happened One Night; The Gorgeous Hussy; and The
Harifv Girls.
Oliver Scr%-ice
ADAMS ACT. See Agricultural Experlment Sta-
Maude Adams in Her Best-loved Role of Peter Pan tion.
manager throughout her career. She retired in 1918, ADAM'S APPLE is the projecting cartilage of the

but later returned to the stage to play Portia in The lar\'nx, or voice box, in the throat. It is present in all
Aferchanl of Venice, opp>osite Otis Skinner as Shylock. people, but is noticeable particularly in men. It re-
In 1937, she became professor of drama at Stephens ceived its name from the belief that a piece of the apple
College. B.M. which Eve gave to Adam stuck in his throat. See also
ADAMS, MOUNT. See Cascade Range; White Cartilage; Larynx. a.b.h.
ADAMS, SAMUEL (i 722-1803), was an -American ADAMSON ACT. See Labor (Labor Legislation).
political leader during the early hi.stor)' of the United AD AN A, ur SEYHAN. .See Tt rkey (Cities).
States. He stirred up discontent among the colonists in ADAPTATION is the power of living things to fit
his public speeches before the Revolutionary War. He themselves to changes in their living conditions. All
told themthat they should be free from Great Britain. forms of life seem to have this power. Those kinds of
Adams also wrote bitter articles against Great Britain plants and animals with the greatest power of adapta-
and for the cause of American indep)endence. These tion manage to keep alive when their living conditions
show his genius as a leader of public opinion. He opposed change. But those that cannot readily adapt themselves
the Stamp Act and was a leader of the Boston Tea die out sooner or later.
Party. It is believed that he gave the signal to dump Many kinds of plants and animals that once lived on
the tea in Boston harbor. He was one of the signers of earth became extinct because they could not adapt
the Declaration of Independence. themselves well enough. .-Xt one time the world contained
Adams, who was a cousin of John Adams, was bom great numbers of large reptiles called dinosaurs (see
in Boston, Mass. He was graduated from Harvard Col- Dinos.\ur). Though the dinosaurs were huge and strong,
lege. He was never successful in business, and he wasted they could not sur\ive the changes in the earth's cli-
the money that was left him by his father. mate. Little by little, dinosaurs died out.
In 1765 Adams was elected to the general court, or Changes in the living conditions of plants and ani-
legislature, of Massachusetts. He became the leader of mals are going on constantly ever^'where. Some of these
changes arc sudden and violent, like earthquakes, forest Adaptations for Reproduction. TTie various forms o(
fires, and outhreaks of diwase. Other chanRe* are so h.ivc ti<-\ (loped many ditierent ways of repnxlucing

gradual that they can hardlv Ix- noticed. Living tliinps themselves and giving their young a good start in life.
must adapt theniscK es to Ixith kinds of chani^cs. Arlaj)- The bright colors, sweet odors, and nectar of certain
tations to pradn.il changes are ea.sier to make than flowers are adaptations which attract insects. These in-
adapt.itioiis to Muldcii ones. sects pxjllinate the flowers so that seeds will be formed
Kinds of Adaptation. .Ml living things, from human (see Pollen a.nd Polli.natio.n). Other flowers produce
Ix'ings down onc«lU'd plants, must do
to tlie simplest so much pollen that some of it is alm(.)st sure to bx;
three things. They must hnd fcxxl for thcm.selvcs, pro- carried by the wind to flowers of the same kind.
tect themsi'lves. and reprixiuce their kind. The ways in .•\nimals have develop)ed many curious ways both of
which living creatures soKe these problems are their attracting their mates and of caring for their young.
adaptations. The organs and habits of all living crea- Some insects have strong odors, which bring their mates
tures are adaptations which they made at one time or from long distances. Many male birds have bright plum-
another in order to thrive in a changing world. age which they display to the females during breeding
Both the individual plants or animals and the species season. Insects, frsh, and mollusks usually leave their
to which they Iwlong can adapt themselves. Each in- eggs to hatch and their young to de\elop without any
dividual adapts itself during its own lifetime, but the further care by the parents. .Such animals usually lay
sp)ecies adapts itself little by little through the course of enormous numbers of eggs, so that some of the young
many generations. Ihe individual cannot make nearly w ill li\e to grow up even if most of them are eaten. But
such great adaptations as can the species. If a horse is animals which have fewer young at one time usually
taken from a warm climate to a cold one. it can grow take better care of them. No other animals look after
a wami coat of shaggs' hair. But if a horse were dropped their young as carefully as mammals do. and mammals
into the ocean it could not suddenly develop flippers have only one or a few young at a single birth.
and swim alxjut like a seal. Such a change would be Adaptations to Environment. The place in which a
too great for the adaptive pow ers of any individual horse. plant or animal lives has much to do with the problems
But many species of plants and animals have made of food, protection, and reproduction to which it must
adaptations even greater than this. Through the ages, adapt itself. Besides these, each environment has its own
some species of land animals have developed the ability and cold, light and darkness,
special conditions of heat
to spend their whole lives in the water. The organs of dryness and wetness, and pressures of air and water.
their bodies have changed. In the same way, many Every animal and plant must fit itself to live under the
sp>ecies of animals which once dwelt in the sea ha\e special conditions of its particular home. In the depths
adapted themselves to life on dr\' land. of the ocean there is great pressure from the water

Such gradual changes in the bodies and habits of an above. The bodies of some deep>-sea fish are built to
entire species of plants or animals are called evolution. withstand this terrific pressure. Other fish which live in
Adaptations for Getting Food. Each kind of plant pools in ca\erns underground have lost their eyesight
and animal has developed special ways and organs for entirely, and dep>end on their other senses. Certain ani-
getting its food. Plants w hich make their own food have mals living in mountainous regions w here the air is thin
green leaves in which chemical substances are turned have developed extra-large lungs. The llama of the high
into nourishment. Some plants, however, get all their altitudes in South America has a type of blood which
food from other plants. They have no green leaves, as seems able to carr\- unusually large amounts of o.xygen.
they never needed to develop such food-making organs. This enables the llama to live actively w here most other
Other plants can eat insects. animals would find it hard to breaUie. Plants and ani-
Animals cannot manufacture their own food. Some mals of very dry regions have develof>ed the ability to
animals eat plants, and some eat the bodies of other get along with little water, or else to store water in
animals. Many plant-i'ating animals have strong, flat their bodies. The camel is a desert animal with the
teeth for biting off and grinding their food. ability to store water; the cactus is a desert plant with
Adaptations for Protection. .Ml living creatures try this same power. Many desert plants have very long
to find ways of eating \sith<)ut being eaten. Some ani- roots which find sources of water far underground.
mals use the same organs both for eating other animals Animals and plants living in parts of the w orld w here
and for keepint; other animals from eating them. The the seasons change from warm to cold ha\e adapted
teeth and claw s of lions, tigers, and leopards are organs themselves to these changes in many ways. Many plants
of this kind. Many
animals that eat plants are able to shed their lea\es in cold weather and enter a resting
hop or run rapidly out of danger, as kangaroos and rab- stage. Some animals store up fat in their bodies during
bits do. Some animals, like the turtle, have protective the wann weather, and spend the winter in the deep
armor. Others are protected in part by their colors and sleep called hibrrnation. Many birds and some kinds of
shapxrs. bats fly toward the tropics at the approach of cold
.Many plants, too, use weapons of defense. Plants weather, and spend the winter there. Some other kinds
living in deserts, where vegetation is scarce, are in of animals must adapt themselves to climates with sea-
special danger of lieing eaten. For this reason many sonal changes from wet to dry. Many fish, frogs, and
desert plants such as yuccas and cacti are armed with other w ater animals of these regions bury themselves in
sharp thorns. Other desert plants have disagreeabh- or the mud of ri\ er bottoms. There they remain dry and
poi.sonous substances in their leaves w hich keep animals motionless until the rainy season comes and they can
from eating them. swim forth again.
Human Adaptations. Man, like the other animals,
has many bodily adaptations to his way of living.
Among these adaptations are his hands, with which he
is able to grasp his tools and to write. The vocal cords
are another important adaptation of the human Ixxly.
They enable a human Ix-ing to express his thoughts u>
others. Ixxlily adaptations man makes
B<"sides these
manv adaptations to add to his health, com-
fort, and con\enience. He uses furnaces to heat his

home, and clothing to keep his Ixxly warm. Man, far

above all other animals, adapts his living conditions tc
himself instead of merely trying to adapt his body and
his habits to his living conditions. Because he can do
this, man is able to live under a great variety of differ-

ent conditions. The cities, the bridges, the water sys-

tems, the roads, the electric systems, the factories and
allthe things produced in factories —
all these are adap>-

lationsby which man rebuilds the world to suit his

needs and desires. g.u.bj.
A.nimal; Biology; Ecology; Plant.
.See also
ADDAMS, JANE ( 86<v 935), was an American social
1 1

Ewlng Calloway
worker who founded Hull House in Chicago.
Jane Addams, world-famous founder of Hull House, one
Jane .^ddams was born at Ccdar\ille. 111., the daugh- of ttie first social settlement houses in the United States.
ter of a banker.Her father also owned mills. Jane was
just a small girl when she visited the px-ople who worked the Nobel p>eace prize with Nicholas Murray Butler
in these mills. They were vers' pxxjr and had to live in in 93 1.
1 R.M.B.
"horrid, dirty houses." as she called them. She decided Her Werkc include T/u Spirit of Youth and the City
to buy a big house when she grew up. She wanted a Streets; Democracy and Social Ethics; A .NVw Conscience and

many Ancient Evil; The Second Twenty Tears at Hull House.

house in the midst of little houses, so that all the
poor, lonely people could come and talk with her. .She See also Hull House; Social SETTLE.vfENT.
never forgot this ambition. ADDAX, AD aks, is an antelop>e which lives in the

After she was graduated from Rockford (111.) .Semi- North Africa. It is found from Tunisia to the
deserts of

nan,- in 1881 Jane .\ddams traveled in Eurojje. But she

Egyptian Sudan. Tunisian .Arabs call it the wild cow.
did not go to see the historic churches and buildings or The addax resembles its close relative, the ory.x. .See

beautiful mountain scenen,-. Instead she visited the sick, .Antelope.

hungry people who lived in the big cities. .She returned The addax is from thirty-eight to forty-two inches
to the United States after se\eral years and studied at high at the shoulders. In summer its color is reddish-
the Women's Medical College in Philadelphia. Then
she and her friend, Ellen Gates .Starr, went to Chicago.
They found a large red brick mansion, the old home of
Charles J. Hull, on the city's near west side. It was
surrounded by many miserable little houses.
Jane Addams moved into "the big house" in 1889
and sfjent the rest of her life there working for the poor.
.She made friends with her neighbors^Poles. Jews. Rus-
sians. Italians. Greeks. Gennans. Irish. Mexicans, and
Negroes. Hull House, as the settlement house was called,
became the neighborhood meeting place. Playgrounds
were opened for the children. A health clinic was set up
for the sick people who could not afford to pay a doctor
or nurse. In her lxx)k. Turrity Tears at Hull Housf, Jane
Addams told about her first years in Chicago.
Jane .\ddams was considered an authority on many
social matters. She wrote and lectured on such problems
as child labor, public health, woman suffrage, unem-
ployment, and old-age insurance. For three years she
was a city insf>ector of streets and alleys. In 1909 she
became president of the National Conference of Chari-
tiesand Correction.
Throughout her life, she worked for world peace. .She
helped found and was president of the Women's Inter- Oilra^o Sun
national Peace Congress from 191 5 to 1929. Then she Addax with its Young. This antelope of the deserts of ^4orth
was made honorary international president. She shared Africa bear> one fawn at a time in winter or early spring.
brown, but in winter it changes to a grayish-brown. At ADDIS ABABA, MID is AH bah bah, (population
all tiim-s the i«-gs, belly, tail, and part of the hips of the aUjut I n\.iKH>) is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
addax are white, and it has a broad white stripe across The city is located on high land surrounded by moun-
its face. A dark brown mane on top of its h<"ad hangs tains. The fx'ople li\e in \illages which are clustered
almost to It luis twisting hcjrns from two to
its eyes. about the government buildings. A railroad connects
three feet long. hey cur\ e upward and backward. The
1 ,\ddis Ababa with Djilxjuti, which is a French port 488
female has more slender horns than the male. miles away on the Ciulf of .Aden. Addis Ababa became
This antelo|H' is seen usually only with one or two an Italian capital alter the Italians conquered Ethiopia
others. The .\rabs hunt the adda.\ on horseback with in 1936. In 1940 British militar\' forces drove the Italians
hounds. v.ii.c. fnjm Ethiopia, and in 1941 Emjx-ror Haile Selassie
See also M.\mmal. returned to his j)alace in Addis .Ababa to rule the
Clastiflcalion. The adda.x is a mammal. It belongs to countr\ . R.Pea.
the oidtr lioiidaf. Its scientific name is Addax nasoma- ADDISON, JOSEPH (i was an English poet
672-1 719),
culalus. and writer of essays. He had an important influence on
ADDER, the name
given to several different snakes the development of English
in \arious parts of the world. Some of these snakes are prose. His graceful, flowing
poisonous and others arc harmless. The European viper helped perfect
style of writing

is often called "adder" in Great Britain. It is the only the form of essay which pic-
p>oisonous snake of that country. The puff adder of Africa tures contemporary life and

isa large, deadly snake with beautiful markings. It hcis manners. Addison's popular
a thick Ixxly and long fangs. The death adder of Aus- contributions to the latler,

tralia is a \erv' dangerous snake related to the cobra. and Guardian in the
eighteenth century have con-
tinued to charm readers
tlirough the years. His clear-
cut descriptions of people are
made lively by wit and satire
that never wound. Samuel
Johnson admired Addison's
•'*»»«?*' Addison, Essayist
work. He suggested that any-
one interested in improving his writing should sjDcnd
"'days and nights" with the works of Addison. Addi-
son's poetr\- was popular in his time. Addison's drama.
Tragedy of Cato, was translated into several languages,
but it seems dull to modern readers.
He was born in Milston, Wiltshire, and attended
Charterhouse School. He became the friend of Richard
.Steele. Later they worked together on the Tatler and
H. K. Gloyd
Spectator. Steele originated the famous character. Sir
The Puff Adder, a deadly African snake, pufFs itself up and
hisses loudly when it is disturbed or onnoyed. Roger de Coverley, a country squire. Addison developed
the character in his Roger de Coverley series in the Spec-
The harmless hognose snakes of the United States are tator. Addison also gained attention through the Latin
commonly called "blowing adders." They are .so named \erse which he w rote while he was a student at Oxford.
for their habit of hi.ssing and flattening the front part
.After graduation, he obtained a government f>ension
of their bodies when they are disturbed. See also which enabled him to travel. He was given a political
Snake. c.h.po.
office in 704 after he w rote The Campaign, a poem

Clatsiflcation. The European viper, or "adder," is alx)ut Marlborough's victory at Blenheim. He also
Vtpna berui. llie puff adder is Bilis arielans. Both these
wrote the famous h)Tnn, The Spacious Firmament on
snakes beloni^ to the family Viperidae. The death adder,
High. G.E.B.
Acanthophis anltircltrus, is in the family FJapidae. The hog-
nose snakes are in the genus Hetrrodon and the family See also Johnson, S.amltl; Steele, Sir Richard.
Coltthrtil'ir-. ADDISON'S DISEASE is a serious ailment of the ad-
ADDER'S-TONGUE. Sec Dogtooth Violet; Fern; renal glands in human beings. Victims of this disease
Flowir (color plates. Mountain Flowers). are generally \en.' tired and weak, and become ex-
ADDING MACHINE is an apparatus which is used to hausted quickly. They have low blood pressure and
add numlwrs. Although some adding machines can be weakened muscles. They also suffer from intestinal dis-
u.scd for subtraction, multiplication, and division, they turbances and a gradual darkening of the skin. .Addison's
arc not as useful in these operations as the calculating disease may result when tuberculosis or cancer attacks
machine. Adding machines may be operated electri- the adrenal glands. In some cases the cause is still un-
cally or by means of a hand lever. Adding machines are known. It was first described by the English physician
important because they spx-cd up bookkeeping opera- Thomas .Addison in 855, and for years was thought to be

tions in business offices. .Sec also Business Macium s; incurable. 1 1 can now be treated with some success. Treat-
Calculating Machine. h.a.ii. ment consists in taking a dnig which is similar to the
For a picture of an adding machine, sec page 42. secretion of the adrenal glands. Sec also Gland. p.r.C.
ADDITION is a way of finding out how many things five." Five is the sum of three and two. The sum is writ-
there are in two or more groups. \\ hen a person adds, ten below the line. The sum is the answer a person
he counts the things all together, or he thinks the things gets when he adds.
all together. The Table. On the next page there is a list of addi-
Counting Together. Get some pennies and count out tions of numbers from one to nine. The list makes what
pennies and place them together. Next,
one, two, three is called a table. There are 81 additions in the table.

count out one, two pennies and place them in another Notice the additions to the left of the hea\y crooked

group. How many pennies are there in both groups? line. These are the 45 easiest additions. These 45 addi-
If you did not know that three and two are five, you could tions can be counted, or thought, just as could be counted,
count together the three p>ennies and the two pennies, like or thought, 'Three and tsvo are five."
this: oru, two, three, Jour, five pennies. Thus, you find The Harder Additions. There are 36 other additions
out by counting how many three and two are all to- besides the 45 easy additions. Notice the 36 to the right
gether: "Three and two are five." of the heavy crooked line in the table. The sums in

OOO OO these additions are 11 to 18.

Why is eleven written with two figure "s? Eleven is i

Thinking Together. Suppose a boy had three dimes one more than ten, or oru and ten. Write the figure i

and his father gave him two more dimes. How many to show on/. Put another figure i beside it on the left
dimes would he have all together? He could know the to show oru ten. This figure shows one ten because it

answer by thinking "Three and two are five." He would is written in ten's place. Eighteen means eight and a ten.

not have to go to all the trouble of counting together the Write 8 to show eight, and write in ten's place toi

three dimes and the two dimes. Thinking things together show one tefi. Thus, 1 shows one and a ten, or eleven;

is eaisier and quicker than counting them together. 18 shows eight and a ten, or eighteen.
Writing Additions. A person can write his additions The tsvo groups to be added together, in each of the
both when he counts things together and when he thinks 36 harder additions, have to be counted or thought to
things together. Three pennies were counted out in one make a ten and so many more.
group. The figure 3 is written to show how many. Two Suppose there are eight pennies in one row, and
pennies were counted out in the other group. Write seven in another, like this:
the figure 2 under the figure 3 to show how many.
3 o

Draw a line under the figures. Then the figures ask,

"Three and tsvo are how many?" Count the three pennies How many are there all together? The answer is 15.
and the two pennies together, or think the three dimes and How is this known? There are 8 in the first row. The
the two dimes together. The answer is five each time. table which was studied said that 8 and 2 make 10,
3 like this:
2 8
5 2
The fibres now tell the answer, 'TTiree and two are



1 1111
81 Simple Addition Combinations




2 2


2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4 5 6 7 8 7 10 11 12

4 4 4 4 4 4 } 4 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
5 6 7 8 10 TT 12 13

5 ;
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
2 3 4 s r, 7 8 9
6 T 8 9 To 11 12 13 14

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T5
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
') To IT 12 13 14 15 16 n
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 TT 12 13 14 15 T6 17 18

Now IcKjk at the line which is drawn around the pen- this page. Suppose that e\cry figure there has a zero
nies. The 8 in the firstrow are joined with 2 in the beside it. Go through the table adding the numbers that

second row. 8 and 2 are 10. How many are not inside the zeros would make the figures show. Say the sums
the line? The answer is five. So all together there are aloud: 10 and 10 are 20; 20 and 30 are 50, and so on.
ten and five, or fifteen. Therefore, eight and seven Adding Tens and Ones. .Suppose there are two num-
are fifteen. bers like this: ->^

Adding Tens. Tens are added just as ones are added. 30

Th<- only extra thing to do is be sure the iens^ answer
is written in tens place. The figure 2 in 20 shows tens The column to the right is the ones" column. How many
Ix'cause it is in tens place. In 20 the zero — o — puts one's zu-e in it? The answer is 4. Put it down, and pay
the figure 2 in tens place and makes it show 2 tens, or
no attention to the o. Now add the tens' column. The
twenty. In 30 the figure 3 shows 3 tens. In 50 the figure
answer is 5. Write it down. Now the problem looks
like this:
5 shows 5 tens. 24
Suppf»se one wants to add 30 and 20: 30 30
20 54
Three tens have to l^- added to 2 tens. The answer will -Always add the ones' column first. Keep the lines
Ik" in tens. Get ready to make straight. Now add this:
the answer show tens by writ- 24
ing o in one^s place. Now you 30
are ready toadd the 3 (tens) 45
and the 2 (tens). Think, In the ones' column are 4
'Three and two are five," and and 5. That makes 9. Put
write 5 in tens place. The it down. Add the tens' col-

answer is 5 tens, ox fifty. umn, 2, 3, and 4. That also

makes q. What is the an-
swer? Ihc sum is <)((.
Adding Ones and Tens,
Rlngtot*. Peggy hot thrown and Carrying. C:arr\'ing is a Dart Game. Jane hat just
three rif>gi. Whot it her ^-^^^ again at the table of very important step. The thrown two darts. What is
total icoref simple additions at the top of right answer will not be her total score?
found if carn'ing is not Tenplnt. Set up the tenpins at shown. Take turns in problem: $1.98
done coiTfCtly. playing. Each player rolls the ball twice. Keep score.
Add 97 and 36. Put Add total for each player. Who has the highest scoref
•lu-ni down on paper like What is the answer? The
this: q; sum is S', 14.
Adding Backwards.
Now add the ones' col- I lir I'a.sicsi way U) si'C il

umn. The sum is 13, that numlx-rs have \x'vn added

is three orifs and one ten. right is to add them back-
Write the 3 in the one's wards. .Start at the Ixjttom
column beneath the line, of the column, and add
under the 6. Then take the i
up. .Another way is to s<'par-
(ten) and put it at the top of the ate the column in the middle,
tens' column. Then the problem and add Ixnh jiarts .separately.
will l(X)k like this: i
1 luti add the two parts together.

97 Partial Sums. This is another

36 way of checking. .Add all the num-
3 bers in the thousands' column or the
Now add the tens' column. The answer hundreds' column first. Put this sum
is Write the 13 down. The figure i
13. down inhundreds or thou.sands. Then
will stick out to the left. This is all right. add all the tens, and put that sum down.
The completed problem will look like this I
Then add all the numbers in the ones'
97 column. Now add all the sums of those
separate columns together.
'33 Things to Remember
A longer problem is worked the same way. Supp>ose
Only numbers of things should
1. be added.
these numbers are to be added: 26
Write numljers to be added directly under each
43 other, in a straight line.
3. Learn by heart die eighty-one simple addition
First, add the ones' column. 5, 3, and 6. This gives 14.
Write the 4 in one's place beneath the 5. Put the i (ten)
4. Check all an.swers rarefullv.
above the 2 in the tens' column. The problem will look
like this: i
Special Methods of Addition

26 Civil Service Method. Hiis is like the usual way of

adding. But the zeros are not used. Here an example:
3245 32 sum of ones' column

4 837 14 sum of tens' column

Now add the tens' column. The sum is 10. Put it down. 6248 18 sum of hundreds" column
The an.>;wcr to the problem is 104. 27 _2 sum of thousands' column
Adding Hundreds and Thousands. This is no 615 10972
harder tlian the odier steps. The hundreds' column is If the zeros were used, the addition would look like
to the left of the tens' column,
234 like this: this: 32
567 140
The 2 and 5 are in the hundreds' column. Add these 1800
two numbers. What is the answer? The sum is 801. 9000
The thousands" column is to the left of the hundreds, 10972
like this: 2340 Bankers' Method. Here
6 9 4
5^7" the nuinlxT to he carried
Add these two numbers. Do isadded to the next col-
not forget to carr>'. What umn. But it still shows in 8 3 5
is the answer? the first partial sum. Study
Adding Dollars andCents. this example: 6 4 7
This is simple if one thing 324.5 32
is remembered. The litUe 837 •7
black dot is called a decimal 6248 19
4 3 5
p>oint. It must always be 27 10
brought down in a straight 61 =s Misting Number Gome.
line. same
Canning is the 3 is be carried. It is
to Copy square on paper.

as in adding ordinary added to 14. This gives What number should you add
in each blank square so that
numbers. E\er\'thing to the 17. But the 3 still app)ears
Bean Bag. Stand eight feet each up-and-down column
tlie decimal point is above the 7. The answer