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Chapter -1: Casting Process

1. Define the terms “Casting” and “Foundry”.

2. Why casting is preferred over other methods of manufacturing? Discuss.
3. What are the common basic features to various casting process.
4. What is a pattern?
5. What are the basic features common to various casting processes? Discuss their
relative merits and demerits.
6. What considerations are necessary while designing a pattern?
7. How is layout of a pattern made? State the procedure for pattern construction.
8. Discuss briefly various types of pattern materials.
9. List the types of factors on which the various types of patterns depend.
10. Enumerate the various types of commonly used patterns.
11. With neat sketches explain briefly solid pattern, skeleton pattern and loose piece
12. With neat sketches explain briefly the following patterns:
(a) Segmental pattern (b) Cope and drag pattern (c) Sweep
13. List the various types of allowances which are usually provided in a pattern.
14. Explain briefly the following pattern allowances:
(a) Shrinkage allowance (b) Machining allowance
(c) Rapping or shaking allowance (d) Distortion allowance

Chapter -3: Mould Making

1. What are the main characteristics which a good moulding sand should posses?
2. How does the characteristics of moulding sand influence the performance during
moulding and casting?
3. Discuss briefly the materials which are added to moulding sand to improve their
moulding properties.
4. Explain how the grain size and shape affect the performance of foundry sand.
5. Discuss briefly the influence of water-content on moulding sand properties.
6. Explain the process of sand preparation and sand conditioning.
7. What is “Stop-off”? Explain briefly.
8. Explain briefly, parting sand, facing sand and backing sand.
9. What are mould surface coatings? Explain.
10. Explain the process of sand preparation and sand conditioning.
11. Why testing of foundry sand is necessary? What are the common tests performed
on foundry sands?
12. What are the main characteristics of a good core sand?
13. What are the main core binders? Discuss their uses in making core sand.
14. Classify the different types of moulds and state their advantages.
15. Draw the sketch of a typical mould and name its principal parts.
16. What is stack moulding?
17. Sketch and describe the following techniques, stating clearly their advantages and
special applications :
(a) use of false cope, (b) use of dry sand cores, (c) use of drawbacks,
(d) bedding-in, (e) coping down.
18. How does machine moulding differ from hand moulding? List the advantages and
disadvantages of moulding machines.
19. Discuss briefly moulding machines.
20. State the advantages of the following
(a) Dry sand mould over green sand mould,
(b) Loam mould over dry sand mould,
(c) Permanent mould over dry sand mould.
21. With a neat sketch explain briefly the construction and working of a cupola
22. With a neat sketch explain briefly the electric furnace.

Chapter -4: Gating Systems

1. What is a gate and list the functions of a gating system.

2. With a neat sketch explain the different parts of a gating system.
3. How a gate is designed?
4. What is meant by “risering”? State the advantages that are provided by a riser.
5. What is the best shape and size of a riser? Why?
6. Write short notes on
(a) Use of padding (b) Use of exothermic materials, and
7. With neat sketches explain the different types of gating systems.
8. What is gating ratio? Explain.

Chapter -5: Cooling and Solidification

1. Explain briefly the process of crystallization of pure metals.

2. What is dendritic solidification? Explain.
3. What is the critical size of nucleation that nucleates from melt?
4. Deduce the expression for free energy concept in solidification.
5. Explain the following:
(a) Normal segregation, (b) Gravity segregation, (c)
Micro-segregation and (d) Macro-segregation.
6. What is the scope of chills in obtaining directional solidification? Explain.

Chapter -6: Casting Processes

1. What are the steps involved in preparation of a casting?

2. State the advantages and disadvantages of casting process.
3. What are the basic rules for good casting design?
4. List the different types of casting processes.
5. With a neat sketch explain the sand casting process.
6. Write short notes on:
(a) Shell-mould casting, (b) Plaster-mould casting, (c)
Ceramic-mould casting, (d) Vacuum casting and (e) Evaporative
pattern casting.
7. With neat sketch’s explain the investment casting process. List its advantages,
disadvantages and applications.
8. Explain briefly slush casting, electroslag casting, precision casting, semi solid
metal forming and pressed casting.
9. What is centrifugal casting? For what type of jobs would you recommend this
casting process?
10. Explain briefly true centrifugal casting, semi-centrifugal casting and centrifugal
11. What is continuous casting? Explain the process of continuous casting with a neat
12. List the advantages claimed by permanent mould casting over sand casting.
13. Describe the pre-design consideration in the design of castings.
14. List the factors which influence the choice of the proper casting method.
15. Enumerate the methods of repairing and salvaging defective castings.
16. What are the common defects of casting? State their causes and remedies.
17. Explain briefly the different types of cleaning operations performed on castings.
18. Discuss briefly the various methods employed to inspect the castings.
Chapter -7: Hot working processes – Forging

1. What do you understand by the term forging?

2. How does hand forging differ from machine forging?
3. State the advantages and disadvantages of forging.
4. Explain briefly the following three basic categories of forging:
(a) Open-die forging, (b) Impression-Die forging, and (c) Closed-
die forging.
5. What are the different operations carried out by hand forging? Explain.
6. What are the different types of machines used in machine forging? Explain.
7. What is forgeability? Explain.
8. Explain briefly the following forging processes:
(a) Precision forging and (b) Isothermal forging.
9. Explain briefly various cold forging techniques.
10. What do you understand by the term draft on forgings and why is it provided?
11. Describe briefly the following forging processes:
(a) Drop forging, (b) Press forging, and (c) Machine forging.
12. Explain briefly the following types of forging processes:
(a) Roll forging, (b) Rotary forging or swaging, (c) High
velocity forging, (d)Orbital forging, (e) Incremental forging, (f) Liquid metal
forging, and (g) Gatorizing.
13. Explain briefly the various defects in forging.
14. How are forgings cleaned and finished? Explain briefly.

Chapter -8: Welding and Allied processes:

1. Define the term welding and name the various welding techniques.
2. List out the advantages, disadvantages and applications of welding.
3. Explain forge welding with their advantages and disadvantages.
4. What is the principle of operation of resistance electric welding?
5. Explain the following resistance electric welding processes:
(a) Butt welding, (b) Flash welding, (c) spot welding, (d) Seam
welding, (e) Projection welding, and (f) Percussion welding.
6. What do you understand by gas welding? List its advantages, disadvantages and
7. Describe in brief the equipment required for oxy-acetylene gas welding.
8. What are the different types of flames obtained in gas welding? Explain.
9. Explain the leftward and rightward methods of gas welding.
10. With a neat sketch explain oxy-acetylene gas welding.
11. Define soldering. Name types of solders.
12. Explain briefly the term ‘Flux” or ‘Soldering fluid’. Enumerate the fluxes commonly
used in soldering process.
13. Describe briefly the equipments used in soldering.
14. How is soldering process carried out?
15. What are the characteristics of a good soldering joint?
16. State the applications of soldering.
17. Explain the term ‘Brazing’.
18. What is the action of a flux in brazing process? Name the chief flux used in
19. Describe step wise the procedure of brazing.
20. Enumerate the applications of brazing.
21. What are the characteristics of a good weld?
22. Explain the different defects in welds.
23. Define weldability. What factors affect weldability explain.
24. List the different tests carried out in inspecting the welded joints.
25. What are the basic principles of welding design?

Chapter -9: Electric Arc Welding

1. What do you understand by electric arc welding? List its advantages and
2. With neat sketches explain in brief the following electric arc welding processes:
( a) Metallic arc welding, (b) Carbon arc welding,
(c) Atomic arc welding, and (d) Shielded arc welding.
3. What do you mean by arc blow? Explain.
4. How do you compare AC and DC for arc welding?
5. What are the advantages of each of the several sources of current for arc welding?
6. What do you understand by the term ‘polarity’ and what is the advantage and
disadvantage of having different polarity.
7. What are the different types of electrodes used in electric arc welding? Explain.
8. What are the functions of coatings on shielded electric arc electrodes?
9. With neat sketches explain the different types of welding joints.
10. With neat sketches explain the different types of welding positions.

Chapter -10: Special Welding Processes

1. Sketch and explain Thermit welding process. List its advantages, limitation and
2. With neat sketches explain TIG and MIG welding processes. Also give their
advantages, limitations and applications.
3. Differentiate between TIG and MIG welding processes.
4. Explain the following welding processes giving neat sketches:
(a) Submerged arc welding, (b) Electro-slag welding,
(c) Electro-gas welding.
5. Sketch and explain the electron beam welding process.
6. With a neat sketch explain the ultrasonic welding process.
7. Sketch and explain plasma arc welding process.
8. Giving the advantages and limitations explain the laser beam welding process with
a neat sketch.
9. Explain the following non traditional welding processes:
(a) Friction welding, (b) Explosive welding, (c) Diffusion welding, (d)
Induction welding, (e) Induction welding, (f) Cold welding, (g) Stud-arc
welding, (h) Hydrodynamic welding, and (h) under water welding

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