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Contact with a Plane Surface

,I

B. Nelson Norden

National Bureau of Standards

Washington , D. C. 20234

July 19 , 1973

Final Report

u . S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS

NBSIR 73- 243

CONTACT WITH A PLANE SURFACE

Nelson Norden

N ationa I Bureau of Standards

Washington , D. C. 20234

July 19 , 1973

Final Report

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS, Richard W. RobertS. Director

CONTENTS

Page

List of Illustrations

Nomenclature iii

lntroduc t ion

General Description of Contact Problem Between Two Elastic Bodies

Experimental Verification

Conclusion

Summary of Equations

References

Illustrations

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

3lB-inch anvils

Figure 11. Analysis of total system deformation using equations (55),

(62), (73), (76), and (79)

(B3), and (84)

Figure 13. Nomograph for computation of maximum s tress in cylinder-

plane contact

contact

NOMENCLATURE

l' R

principal radii of curvature of body 2

2' R

distance from a point on body 1 to the undeformed condition

point of body 2

deformation point body

l z and x

parameter equal to 1 - vi where vi is Poisson I S ratio for

TIE.

total load applied to produce deformation

stress at some point on surface of body

potential function used by Lundberg

iii

ABSTRACT

in the metrology field and industrial sector. Since the cylinder is usually

placed between two flat parallel anvils, one needs to be able to apply corrections

to account for the finite measuring force used, for the most accurate determina-

which have been developed for deformation' of a cylinder to plane contact case.

There are a number of formulae depending upon the assumptions made in the develop-

ment. It was immediately evident that this subject has been unexplored in depth

by the metrology community, and thus no coherent treatise for practical usage

to compare their results within the force range normally encountered in the

Since the ultimate usefulness of any formula depends upon experimental

empirical formulae. A complete bibliography has been included for the cylinder-

INTRODUCTION

, female or neuter

The problem of contact between elastic bodies (male

gender) has long been of considerable interest. Assume that two elastic

If collinear

solids are brought into contact at a point 0 as in Figure

, deformation

forces are applied so as to press the two solids together

occurs , and we expect a small contact area to replace the point of the

unloaded state. If we determine the size and shape of this contact area

and the distribution of normal pressure, then the interval stresses and

The mathematical theory for the general three-dimensional contact

problem was first developed by Hertz in 1881. The assumptions made are:

z = Dx + Ey + Fxy.

The elastic limits of the materials are not exceeded during

materials occurs.

The two bodies under examination must be isotopic.

Only forces which act normal to the contacting surfaces are

The other assumption is that the contacting surfaces must be

Based on the above assumptions and by applying potential theory,

bodies.

-2-

2 1/2

(1 - (x/a) - (y/b) J

because the materials (usually possessing finely lapped surfaces), and the

measuring forces normally used are sufficient for the Hertzian equations

to be accurate. In the case of surfaces that are not fine 1y lapped , the

actual deformation may differ by more than 20% from those ca1cu1a ted from

eqUB tions.

Since the subject of deformation has such widespread impact on the

(1) dealing with line contact and particularly the contact of a cylinder

to a plane , and; (2) which treats the general subject of contacting bodies

and derives formulae for all other major cases which should be encountered

An exhaustive literature search was conducted to determine eq.uations

able for large forces, it was found that the data is scarce for forces

in the range used in measurement science. One reason for this scarcity

Depending upon the assumptions made , there are a number of formulae

ellipse.

The approach where the contact area between a cylinder and plane

where L ~:;::.b.

The determination of compression formula by empirical means.

- +- :;:. -

the curve of compression. Th. theory was first developed by H. Hertz ClJ~

state with a point of contact at The two surfaces have a common tarigeRt

at point O. The principal radii of curvature of the surface at the point

of contact is R

l for body 1

, and R

2 for body

R ' and R I repr~sent

the other radii of curvature of each body. The radii of curvature are

the body, . and negative if the center of curvature lies outside the body.

Also planes x

l z and

Z should be chosen such that

The angle (j) is the angle between the normal sections of the two bodies

1 and R

Figure 2 shows a cross-section of the two surfaces near the point of

contact O. We must limit our analysis to the c. ase where the dimensions

of the compressed area after the bodies have been pressed together are

also assume that the surface of each body near the poin t of contact can

Z = Dx + Ey + 2 Fxy

-5-

If the two bodies are pressed together by applied normal forces (Figure

3), then a deformation occurs near the original point of contact along the

Z-axis. Here again, we consider only forces acting parallel to the z-axis

The displacements at a point are w 1 and ~2 where w I is the deformation

of point P

1 of body 1 and w 2 is the deformation of point P 2 for body 2

plane C is the origina 1 plane of tangency; z

l is the distance from P l to

the undeformed state , and z 2 is the distance from P 2 to the undeformed

+ w ) + (z ) = 0 (1)

2 + w

The equation for surface 1 may be written as:

l = D 1 x + E1 Y + 2F 1

z2=D 2 x + E2Y+ 2F

2 xy.

l and z 2 enter into the equation we obtain

l + z 2 = (D l + D

Now Hertz showed that the axis can be transformed so that F 1 = -F 2' and

l + D l + E

2 + By

l + z 2 = Ax

2 + By 2 + w + w (3)

= 6

The constants A and B are expressible in terms of combinations of

the principal curvatures of the surfaces and the angle between the planes

follows:

A + B = '2 R (4)

' + R~' + ;

1 + ;

2 + 2 +

B - A = 12 R1 R

- 1

' R2 - 1

R

-1

R' R R'

-1 cos 2W

1/2

(5)

Since the points within the compressed area are in contact after the

compression we have:

1 + w 2 = 6 - Ax -

= 0),

and since 6 is the value of w

1 and 101 2 at the. origin (Figure 3 , x =

e must evaluate w

I and w

The pressure P between the bodie. s is the resultant of a distributed

pressure (P' per uni t of area), over the compressed are. From Prescott C2J

1 and w 2 under the action of normal forces

are:

== A (6)

l ~

and

(7)

2 = A2 ~ (x

where i- vl.

TIEi

, y

-7-

i = Poisson

By substitution in Equation 3 we obtain,

2 - By

l + A

' dy I = 6 - Ax (8)

where the subscripts 1 and 2 represent the elastic constants for bodies

1 and 2.

One important Jact should be observed from Equations 6 and 7 and this

is:

1 - 1) 2

TIEi

(9)

1 -

TIE 2

which means if the two bodies are made of the same material w

1 = w

The integral equation 8 allows one to compute the contact area , the

The problem is now to find a distribution of pressures to satisfy

distributed over the compressed area with surface density P' we see the

analogy between this problem and potential theory. Hertz saw the ana logy

since the integral on the left side of equation 8 is of a type commonly

,y : ~ /:~/:~((. /: /::~/:+~) (~))

/:~ ~+ ~ ((/

((. +

If an ellipsoid

mass npabc, then the potential within the ellipse is given by Kellog (JJ

~.ex , y, z) =

(10)

TIP~C~( 1 .

2 + If l: y 2 on) (b

y) (0

2 + y)) 1/

If we consider the case where the ellipsoid is very much flattened (c .... 0)

then we have

2 + ~)( ~/2

((8

The potentia 1 due a mass density

..1.1L 1 - (l2)

2,- 2TIab

a b

P = 4/3 TIPC ab. (13)

~I' (14)

4'(", y) .

' dy l =

(A + A

2')~ r E.:.

'A

1 + A ) 4"

1 ~-+ ~ b 'J.'

2 + ~)(m

(15)

~ + ~)(b

Thus we have

d'J.'

' dy l =

(16)

~ /:~\ -9-

/:((.

1 + A t p 1 -

((a +

2 'i')d(b + 'i') ('i') =

6 - Ax - (17)

.. be equal in Equation 17,

we have

) ~oo

6 ~ 4" 1

3 P (A + A

2

'i'

2 + y) (b 2 HHy)r/2

(18)

A = ~ P (A

'i'

(19)

1 + A

0 (a 2 + 'i') 3/2 ((b 2 + 'i')('i')) 1/2

d'i'

B = p (A (20)

1 + A

0 (b 2 + 'i') 3/2 ((a 2 + 'i')

('i')tI2

are readi 1y avai lab Ie. Since the eccentricity (e) of any ellipse may be

2 1/2

=1- or e = (1 - ~)

we mliiy express Equations 18, 19 and 20 in terms of the eccentricity of

From Equation 19 we obtain,

;::: ~ +;.... :.

-10-

2 0 (a 2 + 'i') 1/2 'i' 1/2

2 + 'i') 3/2 2 - a

5/2

By multiplying the numerator and denominator by (- and making the

A =.~ P (~

1 + ~

(1 + i;) 2 + !;) 1/2~ 1/2

Aa 3 ::: .~ P (A.

1 + A.

)F (1 + ~ )

3/2 (1

.d~

- e

2 +~) 112 ~ 1/2

(21)

Ba 3 ;::: 1. P (A. + A. )

d ~

(22)

2 + ~ ) 3 I 2 (~

(1 - e (1 + ~ ) J 1/2

and

6a = 7;

(A.

1 + A.

00 (~ (1 + ~ ) (1 .. e 2 + ~ )J 11 2

(23)

'2 to 0

;::: 1. P (A. + A.

. -2 cot csc

2 ,,/2

3/2 (00t 2 e) ~/2

(~+ oot e (1 - ~ 2 + oot

2 csc

(A.

1 + A.

/2 (csc e)

3/2 (csc e - e )

2 l/2

= ~ p p("-("- .. . ..

..

-11-

= ~ P ("-

1 + "- 10

) l/2

1/2

n/2 (csceH csc e (l ) J

csc e

= 4 P ("- 1 + "-

2 e

/2csc e. (l

csc e

--1.... '

and since sine - csce

. 2

Aa = 4 P "- 1 + "- Sln e

. 2

(24)

. 1 2 de

/2 (1 - e Sl.n e)

3 = l P (~ -2 sin

l + "- 2 sin 3/2 (25)

TI/2 (l ~ e

and

6a =

1 + "-

TI/2 (1 .. e

.2

sin e)

(26)

TI/2~l.n e 2

Ai

(27)

1 + "-

(l - e sin e) l/2

3 = ~ P ("-

n/2 ~n ~2 3/2 . 2

(28)

1 +"- (1 - e sin e)

n/2

5a = 2 ("- 1 + "- (29)

(l - e2Sl.n

. 2

)=. q,)

q, = q,) =

-12-

Now the Legendre forms of elliptic integra 1s of the first . and second

:5; e s;

q,) 1/2

sin

. . = oinB

E (e - e siiq,)

112"

dq, \ 0 :5; e :5; n/2

.t(1

2 1/2

(1 - e ) and ~s called the complementary modulus.

The complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds are the

n/2

I( = K(e) = F(e, /2)

2 . 2

- e s~n e

TI/2

=1

There are numerous ways to evaluate the above integrals. Hastings (5J,

has po1ynomia 1 approximations accurate to 2 parts in 10

8 which are of

the form

K(e) = (a o +a 1 + ... + a 1 J +

o + b l + ... + b l J In(l/m

= 1.38629 436112 b =

1 = . 09666 344259

l = . 12498 593597

2 = . 03590 092383

2 = . 06880 248576

03742 563713

3 = . 03328 355346

4 = . Ol451 196212

4 = . 00441 787012

-13-

l = COB

and the approximation for the elliptic integral of the second kind is

given by,

E (e) = C1 + a

1 + ... a l J + (b 1 + 1 J In

a 1 = . 44325 141463

1 = . 24998 368310

2 = . 06260 601220

2 = . 09200 180037

3 = . 04757 383546

3 = . 04069 697526

4 = . 01736 506451

4 = . 00526 449639

TI/2

K - (1 - e2Sl.n

. 2 -1/2

e)

we can obtain

TI/2

(1

Sl.n

= e (30)

- e sin e)

3/2

and in a simi 1ar manner for the elliptic integra 1 of the second kind

e obtain

TI/2

-e! sin e

.2l

e sin e)

(31)

Aa 3 = .2.. P

1 2 de -1) (32)

3 = .2.. P

(33)

de e

-14-

TI/2

J = t ~ (A.

I. + A. 2'!

(I. - e 2~l.n e) 1/2

(1 - e

2~in l/2 (1 .. ;::n 1/2

~lt~~1 )::~~:;b

~ ~ P (~ 1/2 J de

1 +

(1 - ~2 $in

1/2

(1 - . .irt e)

- e sin e) 1

1 + A.

(K .. E J (35)

dE= - (E - K)

de (36)

From equation 30

e s~n

(1 - e sin e)

3/2

TI/2

(1 - e sin e) 1/2 (e sin

3/2

-0 e (1 .. e sin e) 1/2 (1 .. e sin

TI/2

(1 - ~ s1n 8)

1/Z

fl - (1 - ~ sin en-

3/2

(l - e sin e)

e (1 - e sin e) (1

1/2 e(l .. e

sin

. 2 3

(1 - e

e (l

sin

(1 .. e 2s~n

. 2e)

.. e 2Sl.n

1/2.. e

. 2 e) (1 - e sin)

(l

2 . 2

Sl.n (1)

2 3 12

. de

..

l5-

/2

. 1

l/~ 3/~

e(l 'in e(1. ;Sin

TII 2

de ...! K +

0 (1

-e

..d

2 i 2 ) 3/2

e s ne 2 -e (l - e)

thus

de !K +

e (1 - e e(l - e

(E - (1 - e 2 ) K J (37)

-dE

(38)

obtain

- (1 - e ) (E - K)

(39)

E - (1 - e 2 ) K

We noo see that for any va 1ue of the eccentricity of the contact e 11ipse

we can obtain values for~, K , and ~ which wi 11 allow us to compute the

-16-

object with zero force applied , Figure 4b shows the exaggerated resultant

shape of the anvi 1s and cylinder after a measuring force is applied. Since

the customer usually desires to know the lI unsquashed" diameter , certain

To solve this problem we shall make use of the expressions already

deve loped to solve for the " pressure distribution " and size of the area

To determine the deformation , the contact area will be taken as being a

finite rectangle wit:h one side very much greater than the other.

The derivation will be for the case of a pair of cylinders with their

axes parallel and is based on the works of Thomas and Hoersch (7J, and

Love (8J. The solution for a cylinder to plane contact can easily be

Line contact occurs when two cylinders rest on each other with their

axes parallel (figure Sa), and when a cylinder rests on a plane. As the

two cylinders are pressed together along their axes , the resulting pressure

area is a narrow " rectangle " of width 2b and length L (assuming no taper

ellipse with the major axis of the ellipse equal to L and the eccentricity

p(" p= y.!!:..)

-17-

:L.....

~:b 1 .

across the minor axis of the ellipse in the plane x = 0 (figure Sc), is

a (0

1/1 d. '

2TIab

f1 -

b 2

2nab 2 - (40)

..1L

constant. Then the va lue of P is the force per unit length of the contact

area. For a = 00 , the compressive stress at any point is given by,

a(y) =

3P

2nab

(1 - ~)

2 1/2

(41)

P = pIL

a(y) =

nLb

2P (1 - ~)

2 1/2

(42)

We can now see that the maximum value for the stress within the area

amax=- TILb

(43)

(j

-18-

because the surface area of contact is small and very high stresseS may

exceeds the

l = B1 Y

2 = B2 Y

we obtain

(44)

2 + 'J:') 2 + 'J:')'J:')

0 (b ((a

and since the one axis of the ellipse , a -+ 00 , the expression becomes

(b +

'J:'

3/2 1/2

'.l') '.l'

(45)

B = 2 (A. ) plLb or

I + "-

2 ("-

1 + "- (46)

, y) ::: ((y - y

-19-

For a pair of cylinders with their axes parallel and radii r 1 and r

respectively, we have

l = B 2r 1

2 = B

B = B

1+r

Thus l + B2 - 2r 1 r

2 =

4("- )P(r (47)

1 4- A.

L(r 1 + r

Z=

z =-=0

thus

4r ("- (48)

1 + "-

from Equation 8,

l = 6 - By (49)

(A. + A.

where r = ((Y

2 +x 1/2 and the integral applies to the flnite

rectangle of contact with one side (L) very much longer than the other (2b).

We now have

~(O

-I-b

. 2

.2

P(y , )

) + X l2) 1

dx dy

-b -L

, y) p(y ' y -~.)

-20-

-b ) 2 + x I 2) 1

dx '

I/~

) In

If We assume very large in relation to ) then,

('2) is

~J-H,

and

us the relation between the total deformation 0 to the potential for

points within the contact area. Since we are interested in the maximum

maximum potentia

-b

Ho, 0) ~ 2 In L fp(Y )dy . . (pey' )

f = frb

In(y

) dy (52)

1J t2

~ ), --)

-21- .

'll - ie)

V 2 (In 0. sin 2 e))(~"o.e) de

-rr/2

tTT

12TI/2

we know that,.,

b(21nb)r CD

/2 - ie de + Zbr coa

TI/2 ..

e Inlsinelde

l2

cos e de =

TI/2

and the integral

I = . cos e 1n Isine de

+rr/2

TI 12

has been evaluated by Birens de Haan (9J, to give

I = (1 + 1n4)

= b 21nb

-2 11. + 2b 11. - !!. In4

1n4

= TIb (lnb - -

(1 ; 1n4)

0(0 0) . 2 t 1n L - (rtb (lnb

1 + 104

- 2 t (lnL - lob +

Since

6 = (A. + A.

2 . 'Feyr dx ' ' + By

)p

22-

and if1 (0, 0) gives uS th~ potential at the center of pressure zone we have,

(rnL - .

substitute:l into equation 54 to obtain the appropriate answer for any

particular case.

: "-

b =

we have

4r ("- ) P

1 + "-

6 = ("- 1 + "- ) 2 L 1nL - 2" 1n

+ 1.193145

4'("

(:l1n1 - 1n( + 2. 38629J

= L ("- 1 + "-

4r ("-

1 + "-

4(/"

i = 1 - vI ITIE

= radius of cylinder

Another form of Equation 54 can be obtained by not evaluating the

(1 + 2 ln4

term which gives

::;: ::;: ,+- + - ,) (

-23-

(1.00 + I. (55)

::;: L (/.. 1 + "- 1,. ) Pr

I ;

Remember this formula is for th~ case of a cylinder to plane on only one

side. If both sides are desired , such as the case in Figure 4, then

::;: 20

If the lengths of the lines of contact are not equa 1 or if the ma teria 1

will be

T = 01 + 6

cylinder to plane has been obtained from correspondence with Bob Fergusson (1OJ.

The basis of the work is a paper by Airey C llJin which formulae are given

for the solutions of elliptic integrals when the eccentricity (e) approaches

unity.

From Equations 4 and 5 we have

A + B ::::0---. +

1 1

1 D1 D2 D

A)

..l 1... 1... cos 2UJ

1 D

Iii the case cylinder plane, body the cylinder aad body

is the plane , then

Diameter of cy1inde~

D' ::;: 00

~~=

~ - ~. ~ ~~ : :.. . . . .!

24-

D'

Since we have shown for the case of a cylinder to plane

B=-"'-

l D

Thus the parameter ~ = --- = AD

A -

K is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind

e is the eccentricity of the " ellipse " of contact which approaches unity

In Airey s work Ill), expressions were given for evaluation of the

elliptic integrals when the eccentricity approaches one , viz

) = In ~. K -

K (e 2

Vh (56)

= square of modulus e

h = square of the complementary modulus or (1 - e )

~ 1 . h + 22

2 . 3

l = 1

1 +

. 4 2.h+

2 +

h + ). h

2 = J - i). :~ (i

) = In E+ (57)

and E(e

Vh

where E (e ) = complete elliptic integral of second kind

2 . 3

2 +

0: ~ 1_. h +

. 2

Z - .

Z=j - ~). h -

(i -

). h

p:. - ))(~)(-~)

(*~)

25-

Thus as e ..... 1

k(e ) = In 4 (58)

(1 - e

dE -

IK+

e(l - e

which reduces to

dK

dE = (59)

and

(60)

h B

Since from previous derivations , namely Eq.. 32 where

A a 3 = ~p ('\

1 +'\

We substitute (6) into the above to obtain

A a 3 = ~p (A. l + A

and

A a = IP (~ + ~) h (AD

3 PD

= 2 (A 1 + A

3 PD3""

h = 2 (AI + ~)

Now since a = 2 (the ellipse of contact approach where the major axis of the

ellipse is a) we have

h = 12 (\ + A

2 L

~ ~ (~ .\) (. . .. ... -

-Z6-

From Equation 34

3P

1 + ~

= '2 a (~ l + ~) ;Jh

Since 1n

= '2 In 16 - '2 1n h = '2 1n

1 + '\ '2 In

16 L

1Z(A

3j )PD)j

4 L

8 = '2 (A (61)

1 + A ) I 1n

3(Ar + A )PD

4 L

8 = 1. (.\ + A ) 1.0

2 L 3(\ + A )PD

since D = Zr

4L

= 1. (.\ +

2L In

3(2)(A1 + AZ )pr

In 6(\ +.\

)pr = In '6 +

4 L

1.0 (.\

1 + .\

L1

8 = ~ (A

t.

40547 + In

~)t:

l +

Az)~

60S205 + 1. 5 In

(62)

+Az) f (~ f

9~,:J

This expression is for the contact case of one side of the cylinder pressed

-27-

against a plane. If the normal approach (deformation) for the cylinder is

Total = 8 1 + 8

then X

l = X2 and Eq. 61 becomes

2 L 3

8 = 3 (). ) L 1n 3 A. PD

where ).

0 = ( ). 1 + ~) = 2).

P = Total load applied

L = Length of contract

D = Diameter of cylinder

Lundberg ~2J in 1939 in which the contacting bodies were treated as elastic

Recalling Eq. 1 and Figure 3 we have

1 + w2 + Z l + Z 2 = 8

whe re 8 is the approach ing dis tance of the points at the surface of the bodies.

Z '-

v = F(x

y) = t

(~:t:\ (8 - Z

t.

, y) ~ , y) =,y) + (y - y ) , y~ y).

-28-

where 9. =

~ 2

1 -

Now F(x

i; '" (x ,y) = i;

) d,, ' dy

where r (x - x) l/2

and if w

I = F 1 (x

2 = F 2 (x

that is some function of x and y.

Then we have

)r. t

Do not confuse the potential F(x ,y) with F Since the

l (x ,y) and F

2 (x ,

total deformation is

8 = 4 (t F (x (63)

l +

we have

1 + *Jr("",

Thus we see the relationships between the pressure distribution and the total

The relationship for the displacement of the surface of the plane under

! ~ (y

-29-

l (x

o) + FlX, o) = (t 1932 + In (65)

1 + ~ )f ~ (1.

1 (x

L 2

e. =

1 - v

P = Total Load

b = Hertzian half-width

E. = Modulus of elasticity

The relationship for the total deformation 8

1 + 8864 + in (66)

8 =

L rr ~bJ

is accurate for all values of )excePt when ~ 1. In this case the accuracy

4r(1.. + A

1/2

b =

1 + 1.. ) t (2(1.

= (1..

1 + 1.. ) L (3. 7728 + 2 1n L - 2 In 2 - 2 1nb)

1 + 1.. )L 7728 - 1.3863 + 2 1n L - 2(1) 10

= 0. 1 + 1.. 3865 + in L

2 + ln

) L 4r(A~ + A )PJ

= (" )- +! &~-+ . .

-30-

= (A 3865 + In 25) + in (A

1 + A )L 1 + A

)Pr

8 = (A

)L OOO9 + In (67)

i + "

9pr

This 8 gives uS the normal approach for one side of a cylinder- plane contact.

and

F = (" 1 + "

l + "

p r.

) f (1.

) L ~.

1932 + 1.0 L ...

1932 + 1n L -

ln 2b)

1.0 2

;2 1n L

4r(" 1 + "

11932 - ~9315 +t In

= ('r + A ) t (10 4r(Ai + 91'

F = (1.

1 + 1. ) f (:5 4r(A.~ + A.

F = (" + A

2 L 193145 + 2 1n (" )pr (68)

1 + A

The assumption made here 'Was that the Hertzian half-width b ~~ radius of

v =

l-v

1/'E L 1n (69)

This equation assumes that both contacting bodies are of the same material.

1 - \,

c 1/'E

= 2 ~n'- !fL 1

:~~

-31-

~1

;t( )I (In

- t)

Now

1n -- = In 4 + 1nr- 1nb

4r(A 1 + A

= 1n 4 + 1nr -

2' ln

1n 4 + 1nr +

2' ln 4r(A

1 + A

.L

= l. 38629 + 2' 1nr

+ 2

1.0 4r(A

1 + A

+ +

2'ln (A + A)P

. = 8 693l45

In -- +_

1 +A

So we have

(19314, + t 1n

f ~) (70)

~ ~l + A ) t

Weber also obtained an expressed for the deformation of the plane surface as

2 in (71)

F "

(1 ;E

- 2 )(f) (t + in

l - 1 1 - 1'

l.

F ~ 2" + In ~bj

7:;'

-32-

...1 == 1n L

In 7I'b ln7T - 1nb

== In L 1n7T1- 4r(A

2~n1 + A

== '2 1n

L - 1n7T + 2 In 4r(A

1 + A

L3

== -ln7T

+ 2 1n 4r(A

1 + A

)Pr

I + A

1 + 1\. 2 Pr

7Tb

In 1- == -1. 83787 + 11n

2 (A

L

l + A

)Pr

== (A

P (

l + A ) L C1.

33787 + '2 1n (A

)Pr (72)

1 + A

To obtain the total deformation for the case of a cylinder between two

anvils we have

Total == 2(Vc + V

~ A

.1. 337~7 + t In ~F"

" 2 ((A

I + 1, ) fr1. 14473 + 11n

)9

I +

L: X

8 = 2 (0' 1 + ' ) f(-lo

14473 + In (73)

been derived by Db'rr (14), FO'pp1 (15), Kovalsky (16) , and DinniK (17) . Only

the pertinent results will be given here.

== ~- (\ + '

-33-

2(1 - I' 2

7TE (f) (In

one-sided

) t) 1/2

2(1 - v

I )

193145 + '2 In (74)

7TE L 0 1 + A

== 28

Total

Total " 4 ( ) f (1 + ln

where b is Hertzian half-width

one-side . Z

1 -

.E Z

P 3333

t (

r -Ie '2 1-n

LR )1'

(75)

Roark also gives an expression for the mutual approach of remoted points in

two plates as

1 - 1rEL

== 4 7TE . L P(l (76)

elliptically across the contact width. The change in diameter parallel to the

. .

Tot

4(1 -

7I"E

In b2r -34-

+ 0. 407 (77)

P = Total load

L = Length of contact

r = Radius of cylinder

by assuming the pressure distribution across the contact width was parabolic

Tot = 4

- '0

7I"E L (In

+ ~J

(78)

relation

. - 2

:t? (1.1932 + In

We may write the normal approach of a distant point in the elastic plane to

where

.1. 8Tot +

Another relationship was obtained from a Canadian report which gives the

(~

-35-

8 ;: (1 + 1n

a = Length of contact

1+ l' 1 +

= 7I"E

l 7I"E

if we replace L = a and 2r = 'W then

8 = .E.Q 1 + 1 (79)

QFr

Thus the total deformation for a cylinder between two planes would be

Total

= 8 +

In a paper by Loo

(19) the

problem of line contact between two infinitely

2 under the

action of a compressive force P (where P :: load per unit longitudinal length)

is discussed.

1/2

8 . P In 2R ) In

I + 111 In 2R2 + (K l + K

.. t(K1 + K (80)

P = Load per unit length P

Tota1 1contact length

2(1 - 1,

K. = 7I"E.

---- (~y

-36-

1 + 1 + z.\p (81)

2(" +

~J

real world of metrology this may well be the case anyway because any " flat

measuring surface is not perfec tly flat. In Figure 4 , if one of the contac ting

anvils has a very s light curvature and its surface can be approximated by the

arc of a circle , then we can solve for the radius by the sagitta formula.

For example , if the anvil surface is 5p. higher at the center than the

.......jA .,....

Anvil Width

( Anvil Width

Radius =

z.

2(0 5)(10

Thus we may solve for the deformation by plugging this value back into

Equation 80. To obtain the total deformation for the case of a cylinder

Tota1 = S l + S

") ".

..37-

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

of the deformation of steel balls. He began by assuming the ob1ateness of a

was devised for amplifying the deformation and a Zeiss optimeter was used as

the readout device. The c. ontacting anvils were hardened and finished to

end-s tandard qual i ty The optimeter was calibrated with end standards but

2p. (8p. The cylinders used in the test 'Were steel wires (used tome. asure

the pitch diameter of external threads) with nominal diameter 0. 18mm to 50 7Ommo

The applied load varied from 1 Kg to 10 Kg in some cases Anvil pairs used

The contac t case where the wires were shorter than the measuring surfaces

was also examined. The test results proved that the length of the wire exceeding

the size of the measuring surface has no effect on the amount of deformationo

In other words it is immaterial whether the length of the wire exc~eds that of

The values for ob1ateness for the 1 Kg load were plotted against the cube

root of the curvature (reciprocal cylinder radius) with the result being linear..

Thus he concluded the proportionality equation was

3t:'T,..

M = C x 10

- 3 P

v1/D mm (82)

-38-

where M = ob1ateness in mm

C = Constant of proportion~lity

D = Cylinder diameter in mm

The factor C was determined as 0. 9228 from 35 test series. The mean

error of the individual value of C was + 1. 99% and the maximum deviations from

-1/3 microinches

20 = 0. 2207 L

-6 inches) of a

where 20 = ob1ateness in micro inches (10

steel planes

D = Cylinder diameter in inches

shown in Figure 7 along with the results of Equations 55 62 and 82 from this

see from Figure 7 that the data from NPL agrees quite closely with Equation 62..

-39-

resu1 ts of a series of tests on hardenec;l steel rollers between parallel plates

was discussed. From Equation 61 the equation for two bodies of the same

material ti

B = 3(A

) f In 3A PD

Thus the total deformation for the case of a cylinder between two planes would be

Tota1 = 2B

1 inch. The relation is

(83)

B = 0. 00534 L ) inch

where B = Deformation

p = Total force in Ibs

The experimental results for a 1. 0 inch cylinder between flat , parallel

planes 0. 118 inch in width were summarized by still another empirical formulao

B = 0. 0091 L

-0. 73 D-Oo 08 p 6666

(10 ) inch (84)

case such as the type of surface finish and the parallelism of the plane

surfaces.

".

40-

In the most recent measurements on the compression of a roller between

shaft with an air bearing for loading coupled with capacitance probes to sense

the compressi.on. The test cylinder and flat were made of Cr - Mn hardened

tool steeL The plane was flat within 0. 025llm (Ill ) and the cylinder was

straight to 0. 025llm. Both plane and cylinder possessed a surface roughness

of measurements were made on a 6. 35mm diameter cylinder in contact over a length

215 ~

L (A I + A

. 1. 0 + In

I + A

)pr

while the values predicted by the Bochman and Berndt (20) relationship differ

Thwaite concludes that within the load range tested the equation based on

the finite rectangle gives the b~st approximation to compute the compression

involved in the case of a cylinder between two planes. That is, the finite

rectangle relation seems to be the one that would be of more practical use in

CONCLUSIONS

Since the contacting case of a cylinder between two planes has such

apply elastic corrections for the most precise determination of a diameter of the

cylinder. There are many prediction foDnulae depending upon the assumptions made.

-41-

This paper has assembled the majori tyof the equations in existence in the

and 10 give the results of three equations 62 55 and 82 which are representative

and cylinder diameter varying from . 001 to 1. 00 inch. The slopes (micro-

inches lIb) of five theoretical equations are plotted in Figure 11. The slopes

of three empirical equations over the same range are shown in Figure 12. 'ro

a) Find the diameter of the cylinder

total deformation.

Note: Keep in mind that these slopes are for the total deformation of a

cylinder between two plane surface. For example the values are

twice the values given by the equations listed. Also the values for

Poisson I S ratio and Young ' s Modulus are for 52100 bearing steel

in which

6 psi.

The length of contact between cylinder and plane is 0. 375 inches

in all cas. es.

One importan t fact to remember in all contact problems is to keep the

measuring force less than that force which will cause permanent deformation to

the objec t under test. For the case of a cylinder against a plan~ a

nomograph has been developed for easy computation of the stress (Figure 13).

. .

-42-

In certain cases where the compression needs to be known to better than

5% then the only practical way to account for surface finish, the actual

material parameters , and the exact geometry of the cylinder and flat would be

used in the metrology field it appears that Equation 55 , based on the finite-

On a practical basis, since most line compress ion is small an error of

10 - 30% is not enough to give one insomnia because the measurement uncertainty

(standard deviation) ~il1 likely be the same order of magnitude if not larger

SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS

~R(\ + A

b=

. Equations for Compression of Cylinder and Plane in Contact

(55) L 0' 1

.r.

+ A ) L1.

00 + ln (A

1 + A

)PR

. ~ 3

(62) I + A

608205 + 1. 5 1n

. )PR

1+" 1 + '.

(79)

1 7T 2 7T 00 + 1n PR

1 + ~1

1 7T

1 +

D (10 ) inches

765 D 053 940 (10

(83) 8 = 0. 00534 L ) inches

73 D 08 p 6666 (10

(84) ~ = 0. 0091 L ) inches

) ~. . .

-43-

(68) F . t (A

I + 1.

193145 + t In

f\)PR

(72) 8 33787 + t 1n

p * t (A 1 + A

) t1. 1 ~\)PRJ

. Equations for Compression of A Cylinder Between Rigid" Planes

(70) S =2L 1 -

1TE

193145

+ 2

1 '

1n (11.

1 + A

1 - LIt

(75) S = 2 L.

1TE

3333 1n (A

+ 2

I + A

1 -

(77) 8 = 2

1TE

407 + In

1 - v

(78) a t = 2 L 333 + in

Equations for Normal Approach of Two Planes with Cylinder Between the Planes

(1.

1 +A

Equation 73 is the sum of Eqs. 70 " 72

1 - I' 1TEL

(76) M = 4 L In

1TE P(l _

, " ".

-44-

REFERENCES

die Beriihrung fester elastischer Korper und uber die Harte , 1882,

(4J Mary L. Boas: Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences . John Wiley

sol id upon another , Bulle.tin No. 212 Engineering Experiment Station , University

New York , 1957.

-45-

Formanderungszustand , Z. angew Math. u. Mech. , Vol. 13 , 1933 , pp 11-16.

1964.

(17 J Dinnik: Quoted in H. Rothbart I Mechanical Desip;n and Systems Enp;ineering

1964.

(18J R. J. Roark: Formulas . for Stress and Strain , McGraw Hill , New York , 1965.

(l9J T. T. Loo: Effect of curvature on the Hertz Theory for Two circular cylinders

(20J I. H. Bochman: The Ob1ateness of Steel Balls and Cylinders due to Measuring

June 1971.

-46-

L26J J. A. Greenwood: The Areaof Contact of Rough Surfaces and Flats , Journal

Machinery Design , Vol. 2 , Mashgiz , Mosco;," 1958.

L30J C. A. Moyer and H. R. Neifert: A First Order Solution for the Stress

pp 324-336 , 1963.

area of contact between rough surfaces , Proc. R. Soc. London , Vol. 327

pp 147-157 , 1972.

(36J G. Berndt: Die APp1attun.g von Stahlkuge1n und zylindern durch den

Messdruck , (The Compression of Steel Spheres and Cylinders by Measurement

Pressure), Z. Instrumentenkunde, Vol. 48 , p. 422.

1959.

-47-

(383 10 Yao Shtaerman: The Contact Problem of Elasticity Theory , Mosc.ow"

Leningrad , 19490

",.

with principal axes of body I ( x I, Y I , z) and the

principal axes of body 2 (X2 , Y2 , z). The angle w

the angle between the x, z and x 2 z planes, i. e.

the princi po I radii of curvatures R I and R2.

FIGURE I

Body

Body 2

Cross - section of two surfaces nea. r the point of

contact O.

FIGURE 2

Body I Force

Force

Body 2

Geometry of deformed bodies. Broken lines show the

surface as they would be in the absence of deformation.

Continuous lines show the surfaces of the deformed bodies.

FIGURE 3

(a)

Measuring Measuring

Force Force

(b)

MEASUREMENT OF THE DIAMETER OF

c..'l'LINDE R

FIGURE 4

( a) (b)

max

(1' y

FIGURE 5

400

of Surface Finish from reference

350

t/) YS=K/~

YS = Stress at which permanent

deformation will occur

300 ':: 400, 000 pounds per square

inch for hardened s tee I

a:: AA = Arithmetic Average

CJ)

finish in 10-6 inclies

250

..J

200

150

AA SURFACE FINISH MICROINCHES

FIGURE 6

// /.

/Eq. 62

/ I

:I:

"." 4

::~t.

~teel cylinder etween 0. 25 inch

~ I a n v it s .

I 0

LB FORCE

FIGURE 7

"/

IE 62

Eq.

::x: 5

diameter steel cylinder between

37. inch flat steel contacts

using equations ' 55, 62, and

O 1.5 2. 2..

LB. FORCE FIGURE 8

Eq. 62

::l.

diameter steel cylinder between

375 inch flat steel contacts

using equations 55, 62. and 82",

1.0 5 2.

LB. FORCE

5'

FIGURE 9

.... ... . "---

.... .... "'"

diameter steel cylinder between

375 inch flat steel contacts

using equations 55, 62, and 82 /Eq.

:r: Eq. 55

(.) 4

:::S...

~82

LB. FO

5 RC2.E0 2.

FIGURE 10

'+- - - . . . -- - - - - ----

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . .

. . .

Theory

Fro m Force 0. 5 Ibf to 2 . 51b f

..c

375 inch Contact length

Eq.

W-

::l

Eq. 62

-I Eq.

Cf)

Eq.

Eq. 55

CYLI NDE R DIAMETER - (INCHES)

.10

FIGURE II

(/)

..... ~ .---------

----- -- --- -- ..- - -------

--------- - --- ---

. -

Empirical Equ at ions

From O. 51bf to 2. 1bf

375 inch Contact length

..Q 4

a.. -

..J

3 -

- E q.

. Eq.

CYLINDER DIAMETER - (INCHES)

FIGUR E 12

-- ... ... ,.,

FIGURE 13 (a)

ENCOUNTERED IN CONTACT PROBLEM OF A

CYLINDER AGAINST A PLANE

the diameter of a steel cylinder will exceed the yield point

and cause permanent deformation to the cylinder.

where = measur ing force

= contact length between cylinder and plane

= Hertzian half-width of contac t

1/2

~R(A

= Radius of cylinder

1-.. =

1 - vi

TIEi

Ei = Modulus of elasticity for one material.

The nomograph was developed for 52100 steel in which

= 0. 295 and E = 29. 0 x 10 6 psi

Example:

If Force = 1 lb, Contact Length 375 inch, Radius = 0. 01 inch--Find maxi-

mum stress

375

010

Force

Rodiu.

Contact Length

(1) Locate measuring force and length of contact on the appropriate scales

and connect these points until the turning axis T is intersected; (2) Lo-

cate the radius and connect with the intersected T axis;

(3) Read maximum

stress to be expected wi thin the contact area; (4)

Compare maximum stress

read from nomograph with curve in Figure 6.

400

001 300

200

100

005

010

1.5

1.0

100

STRESS

x 103 PSI

FORCE

L.BS.

RADIUS

CaNT ACT

IN. LENGTH

IN.

FIGURE 13 (b)

Equation For The Calculation Of Compression Between

A Cylinder And Plane Surface

Force

8 = L (X I + X 2 ) 1. 00 + I n ( ). rt X2 ) P R

L3

L" contact length between cylinder and plane

R = radius of cylinder

I-u

Vi = Poisson ratio

*' Young s modulus

8Total = 8, +

FIGURE 14

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