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AVO

AVO

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- Tech Ref
- petrel manual.pdf
- Petrophysical Formulae
- Particle Size
- Heat Transfer correlations
- 01 Introduction
- Geological Society, London, Special Publications 2003 Mees 1 6
- Basic Well Logging Analysis -8 (Neutron Log)
- JD Course 2008b
- 16KJM5100_2006_porous_e
- Synthesis and characterization of Ti–Ta–Nb–Mn foams
- No fines concrete
- 1B
- PETSOC-05-07-TN2
- Development of Hydraulic Unit
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HRS10

Table of Contents - Part 1

Appendices

2

Table of Contents – Part 2

AVO Inversion - Elastic Impedance

Exercise 7 : The Colony Gas Sand – Extended elastic impedance

AVO Inversion - Independent AVO Inversion

AVO Inversion - Simultaneous Inversion

Exercise 8 : The Colony Gas Sand – Simultaneous Inversion

AVO Inversion - Lambda Mu Rho Theory

Exercise 9 : The Colony Gas Sand – LMR application

Processing Issues in AVO

Exercise 10 : Gulf Coast – Data Preparation

AVO Modeling Summary

Exercise 11: Gulf Coast – AVO Modeling

AVO Inversion - Some Practical Issues

Exercise 12: Gulf Coast – AVO Inversion

Summary

References

Appendices

3

Overview of the AVO Process

with Offset, or Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) method.

changed through the years.

We will then look at why AVO was an important step forward for

the interpretation of hydrocarbon anomalies.

the rock physics of the reservoir.

4

A Seismic Section

The figure above shows a stacked seismic section recorded over the shallow

Cretaceous in Alberta. How would you interpret this section?

5

Structural Interpretation

Your eye may first go to an anticlinal seismic event between 630 and 640 ms. Here, it

has been picked and called H1. A seismic interpreter prior to 1970 would have looked

only at structure and perhaps have located a well at CDP 330.

6

Gas Well Location

And, in this case, he or she would have been right! A successful gas well was drilled

at that location. The figure above shows the sonic log, integrated to time, spliced on

the section. The gas sand top and base are shown as black lines on the log.

7

“Bright Spots”

But this would have been a lucky guess, since structure alone does not tell you that a

gas sand is present. A geophysicist in the 1970’s would have based the well on the

fact that there is a “bright spot” visible on the seismic section, as indicated above.

8

What is a “Bright Spot”?

Geology Seismic

Surface

Seismic

raypath

R0

r2 V2

r 2V2 r1V1

Gas Sand

Interface at

Reflection at time Seismic

depth = d

t = 2d/V1 Wavelet

coefficient, shown in the figure above. R0 , the reflection coefficient, is the amplitude

of the seismic trough shown. Note also that the product of density, r, and P-wave

velocity, V, is called acoustic impedance.

9

Gardner’s results for GOM

Gardner et al. (1974), sand velocity at shallow depth.

shows a big difference

between shale and gas

sand velocity at

shallow depths in the

Gulf of Mexico. The

paper also derived the

“Gardner” equation,

which states that

density and velocity are

related by the equation

r = 0.23 V 0.25

Thus, we would expect

a large reflection

coefficient, or “bright

spot”, for shallow gas

sands.

10

The AVO Method

be caused by

lithologic variations

as well as gas

sands.

Geophysicists in

the 1980’s looked at

pre-stack seismic

data and found that

amplitude change

with offset could be

used to explain gas

sands (Ostrander,

1984). This example

is a Class 3 gas

sand, which we will

discuss later.

11

What causes the AVO Effect?

Surface

q2 q1

q3

r2 VP2 VS2

angles of incidence q. The first order approximation to the reflection

coefficients as a function of angle is given by adding a second term to the

zero-offset reflection coefficient:

R(q ) R0 B sin2 q

B is a gradient term which produces the AVO effect. It is dependent on

changes in density, r, P-wave velocity, VP, and S-wave velocity, VS.

12

Why is S-wave Velocity Important?

As just shown, the

gradient term is

dependent on density, P

and S-wave velocity. The

plot on the left shows P

and S-wave velocity plot

as a function of gas

saturation (100% gas

saturation = 0% Water

Saturation), computed

with the Biot-Gassmann

equations. Note that P-

wave velocity drops

dramatically, but S-wave

velocity only increases

slightly (why?). This will

be discussed in the next

chapter.

13

AVO Modeling

Poisson’s

P-wave Density S-wave Synthetic Offset Stack

ratio

Based on AVO theory and the rock physics of the reservoir, we can perform AVO

modeling, as shown above. Note that the model result is a fairly good match to the

offset stack. Poisson’s ratio is a function of Vp/Vs ratio and will be discussed in the

next chapter.

14

AVO Attributes

Intercept: A

Gradient: B

AVO Attributes are

used to analyze

large volumes of

seismic data,

looking for

hydrocarbon

anomalies.

15

Cross-Plotting of Attributes

discussing later in the course involves

cross-plotting the zero-offset reflection

coefficient (R0, usually called A), versus the

gradient (B), as shown on the left.

zones correspond to the top of gas sand

(pink), base of gas sand (yellow), and a hard

Intercept (A)

streak below the gas sand (blue).

16

AVO Inversion

A new tool combines

inversion with AVO

Analysis to enhance the

reservoir discrimination.

Here, we have inverted for

P-impedance and Vp/Vs

ratio, cross-plotted and

identified a gas sand.

Gas

Sand

17

Summary of AVO Methodology

Input NMO-corrected Gathers

Rock Physics

Modeling Partial Intercept

Stacks Gradient Elastic Simultaneous

Impedance Inversion

LMR

Synthetics Synthetics Plot

18

Conclusions

structural interpretation, through “bright spot” identification, to

direct hydrocarbon detection using AVO.

presented in this short introduction.

rock physics in more detail.

In each case, we will first look at the theory and then perform a

workstation example.

19

Exercise 1

The Colony Gas Sand

Setting up the project

Exercise 1

Our first set of exercises comes from the Colony sand formation, a Cretaceous sand

from Western Canada.

Poisson’s

P-wave Density S-wave Ratio

The target is a thin, 8 meter

thick, gas sand.

measured sonic and

density logs.

contain 50% water, and 50%

gas.

up the project and read in

the data.

21

Exercise 1

Geoview icon on your desktop:

Geoview, the first

window that you see

contains a list of any

projects previously

opened in Geoview.

Your list will be blank

if this is the first time

you are running

Geoview.

22

Exercise 1

For this exercise, we will start a new

project. Before doing that, it will be

helpful to set all the data paths to point

to the location where we have stored

the workshop data. To do that, click the

Settings tab:

the option Set all default directories and then click the button

to the right:

Selection Dialog,

select the folder which

contains the workshop

data:

23

Exercise 1

After setting all three paths, the Geoview window will now show

the selected directories (note that yours may be different):

When you

have finished

setting all the

paths, click

Apply to store

these paths:

24

Exercise 1

Now click the Projects tab and choose the option to create a

New Project:

25

Exercise 1

A dialog appears,

where we set the

project name. We

will call it colony, as

shown. Enter the

project name and

click OK on that

menu:

26

Exercise 1

Now a dialog appears, asking you the name of the database to use for

this project:

wells used in this project. By default,

Geoview creates a new database, with

the same name as the project and

located in the same directory. For

example, this project is called

colony.prj, so the default database will

be called colony.wdb. This is desirable

since we were starting a new project,

intending to read in well logs from

external files. Occasionally, we may

want to use an existing database, which

has wells already stored. Then we

would click on the option Specify

database. For this exercise, click OK to

accept the default database name.

27

Exercise 1

28

Exercise 1: Loading the well log data

(called the Project Manager)

shows all the project data so far.

The tabs along the left side select

the type of project data. Right

now, the Well tab is selected. It is

empty, since we have not yet

loaded any data

Import Well, and select Logs, Check

Shots, Tops, …:

29

Exercise 1

You need to select the file avo_well.las. Highlight the file name in the

list of available files on the left and then click the Select option:

file has an LAS format because of Now click OK to load this file in

the name extension. LAS format:

30

Exercise 1

By default,

the program

has opened

and displayed

all of the

available log

curves and

tops in the

avo_well.las

file.

31

Exercise 1

Project Manager) shows all the project

data so far. The tabs along the left side

select the type of project data. Right

now, the Well tab is selected and we can

see the well (AVO_WELL) which has

been loaded into the project. Click the

arrow sign near the well name to see a

list of curves in that well:

wells, click the Data Explorer

tab to the right:

32

Exercise 1

changes as shown:

to the well name to

get more information

about the curves in

that well:

33

Exercise 1

the display are listed, as well as the

Depth-time_P-wave log, which was

created from the sonic log and will

be used for depth-to-time

conversion.

table. For example, if the Density

units were wrong, we could

change them here. Also, we can

click the arrow next to any of the

curve names to see the numerical

values in that curve:

34

Exercise 1

pointing to the left to go

back to the previous

menu since we will not

be editing the density

values in this tutorial.

see a series of buttons. Click the button

Show Map, the map view will appear

showing the location of the wells:

35

Exercise 1

button. This shows the

curves for the selected well:

36

Exercise 1

of the log curves within a well, double-

click the icon for that well within the

Project Data window:

tab within the main

Geoview window,

called the Wells tab,

which displays the

well curves:

37

Exercise 1

by clicking the “eyeball” icon, to bring up a

dialog for that purpose:

processing options, like Log Editing, by

going to the Processes list:

the logs have been properly edited.

38

Exercise 1: Loading the seismic data

be used in the AVO Modeling process.

The next step is to load the seismic

volume, which we will compare with the

calculated synthetic.

window, click the Seismic tab:

seismic data loaded so far. This is empty. Go

to the bottom of the window and click the

Import Seismic button:

SEG-Y File:

39

Exercise 1

appears, select the file

gathers.sgy:

appears on the right of

the menu, as shown.

Click Next at the base of

the dialog:

to 2D and click Next:

40

Exercise 1

program what information it can use from

the trace headers. In fact, in this data set,

there are X and Y coordinates. That is

why we answer Yes to this question:

seismic data is a SEG-Y file with all

header values filled in as per the

standard SEG-Y convention. For

example, it expects to find the Inline

and Xline numbers at the byte

locations shown. If you are not sure

that is true, you can click Header Editor

to see what is in the trace headers.

41

Exercise 1

information is correct, so click Next to

move to the next page. Now the

following warning message appears

because the program is about to scan

the SEG-Y file:

process. When the scanning has

finished, the Geometry Grid page

appears:

information from the headers, the

program assumes this is a single

straight line, which is correct.

Click OK.

42

Exercise 1

After building the geometry files, a new window appears, showing how

the well is mapped into this seismic volume.

In this case, the mapping is correct because we supplied the X-Y

location of the well, and there were X-Y coordinates in the seismic trace

headers.

If this information

were not correct, we

could manually

locate the well at the

known CDP location

(330).

43

Exercise 1

appears within the

workspace:

The workspace

currently shows the

single line, positioned

at the left, from this

dataset. To see other

parts of the line, slide

the scroll bar at the

base of the display.

44

Exercise 1

location, go to the Well icon and click

the down arrow:

the one well in the project.

Select the well and the

Geoview window shows the

seismic data in the vicinity of

that well location:

by using the Seismic View Parameters

window. To make that window appear, click

the “eyeball” icon:

45

Exercise 1

contains a series of pages which

control various aspects of the plotting.

item, select that item from the list at the

left side. For example, here we have

selected the Inserted Wells item:

density log by selecting that item as

shown from the pull-down tab of the

Inserted Curve Log option:

46

Exercise 1

Parameters window. The display is

modified accordingly:

the sonic log inserted. To do this,

click Cancel on the View Parameters

window. This redraws the Geoview

window as before.

(End of Exercise 1)

47

Rock Physics & Fluid

Replacement Modeling

Basic Rock Physics

S-wave velocity (VS), and density (r) in a porous reservoir rock. As shown

below, this involves the matrix material, the porosity, and the fluids filling

the pores:

49

Density

ρsat ρm (1 ) ρw S w ρhc (1 S w )

where : ρ density,

porosity,

S w water saturation,

sat,m,hc, w saturated, matrix,

hydrocarbon, water subscripts.

50

Density versus Water Saturation

vs water saturation for a Sandstone with Porosity = 33%

porous sand with the Densities (g/cc): Matrix = 2.65, Water = 1.0,

parameters shown, Oil = 0.8, Gas = 0.001

where we have filled the 2.2

pores with either oil or

gas. 2.1

2

In the section on AVO

Density

wet sand and the 50%

saturated gas sand. 1.8

Note that these density 1.7

values can be read off

the plot and are: 1.6

rwet = 2.11 g/cc 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

rgas = 1.95 g/cc Oil Gas Water Saturation

51

P and S-Wave Velocities

function of time. As shown below, a cube of rock can be compressed, which

changes its volume and shape or sheared, which changes its shape but not

its volume.

52

P and S-Wave Velocities

The leads to two different types of velocities:

P-wave, or compressional wave velocity, in which the direction of

particle motion is in the same direction as the wave movement.

S-wave, or shear wave velocity, in which the direction of particle

motion is at right angles to the wave movement.

P-waves S-waves

53

Velocity Equations using and

The simplest forms of the P and S-wave velocities are derived for

non-porous, isotropic rocks. Here are the equations for velocity

written using the Lamé coefficients:

2

VP VS

r r

= the second Lamé constant,

and r = density.

54

Velocity Equations using K and

bulk and shear modulus:

4

K

VP 3 VS

r r

= + 2/3

= the shear modulus, or the second Lamé constant,

and r = density.

55

Poisson’s Ratio from strains

F

If we apply a compressional R

force to a cylindrical piece of

rock, as shown on the right, we R+R

change its shape.

L+L L

The longitudindal strain is given

by L/L and the transverse strain

is given by R/R.

F (Force)

The Poisson’s ratio, , is defined as the negative of the ratio

between the transverse and longitudinal strains:

(R / R) /(L / L)

(In the typical case shown above, L is negative, so is positive)

56

Poisson’s Ratio from velocity

and this definition is given by:

2 2

2

2 2

VP

where :

VS

This formula is more useful in our calculations than the formula given

by the ratio of the strains. The inverse to the above formula, allowing

us to derive VP or VS from , is given by:

2 2

2

2 1

57

Poisson’s Ratio vs VP/VS ratio

0.5

0.4

0.3

Poisson's Ratio

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

-0.2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Gas Case Wet Case Vp/Vs

58

Poisson’s Ratio

From the previous figure, note that there are several values of

Poisson’s ratio and VP/VS ratio that are important to remember.

Note also from the previous figure that Poisson’s ratio can

theoretically be negative, but this has only been observed for

materials created in the lab (e.g. Goretex and polymer foams).

59

Velocity in Porous Rocks

Velocity effects can be modeled by the volume average equation:

Velocity vs Water Saturation

A plot of velocity versus Wyllie's Equation

water saturation using Porosity = 33%

the above equation. We Vmatrix = 5700 m/s, Vw = 1600 m/s,

Voil = 1300 m/s, Vgas = 300 m/s.

used a porous sand with

3500

the parameters shown

and have filled the pores 3000

2000

This equation does not

hold for gas sands, and 1500

this lead to the

1000

development of the Biot-

Gassmann equations. 500

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

60

The Biot-Gassmann Equations

It has been found that the volume average equation gives incorrect

results for gas sands. Independently, Biot (1941) and Gassmann (1951),

developed a more correct theory of wave propagation in fluid saturated

rocks, especially gas sands, by deriving expressions for the saturated

bulk and shear moduli and substituting into the regular equations for P

and S-wave velocity:

4

K sat sat sat

VP _ sat 3 VS _ sat

r sat r sat

Note that rsat is found using the volume average equation discussed

earlier, or:

ρsat ρm (1 ) ρw S w ρhc (1 S w )

61

The Biot-Gassmann Equations

To understand the Biot-Gassmann equations, let us update the figure we

saw earlier to include the concepts of the “saturated rock” (which includes

the in-situ fluid) and the “dry rock” (in which the fluid has been drained.)

Saturated

Rock

Dry rock (pores full)

frame, or

skeleton

(pores

empty)

62

Biot-Gassmann - Shear Modulus

In the Hampson-Russell AVO program, Biot-Gassmann analysis is done

using the FRM (Fluid Replacement Modeling) option. Let us first look at

some theory and then consider several practical considerations when

using the FRM option.

In the Biot-Gassmann equations, the shear modulus does not change for

varying saturation at constant porosity. In equations:

sat dry

and dry the shear modulus of the dry rock.

63

Biot-Gassmann – Saturated Bulk Modulus

The Biot-Gassmann bulk modulus equation is as follows:

2

K dry

1

(1) K sat K dry Km

1 K dry

2

K fl Km Km

Mavko et al, in The Rock Physics Handbook, re-arranged the above

equation to give a more intuitive form:

K sat K dry K fl

(2)

K m K sat K m K dry ( K m K fl )

where sat = saturated rock, dry = dry frame, m = mineral, fl = fluid,

and = porosity.

64

Biot’s Formulation

Biot defines b (the Biot coefficient) and M (the fluid modulus) as:

K dry 1 b

b 1 , and ,

Km M K fl Km

1 1

If b = 1 (or Kdry= 0), this equation simplifies to:

K sat K fl Km

have particles in suspension (and the formula given is called Wood’s

formula). These are the two end members of a porous rock.

65

The Rock Matrix Bulk Modulus

We will now look at how to get estimates of the various bulk modulus

terms in the Biot-Gassmann equations, starting with the bulk modulus of

the solid rock matrix. Values will be given in gigaPascals (GPa), which

are equivalent to 1010 dynes/cm2.

The bulk modulus of the solid rock matrix, Km is usually taken from

published data that involved measurements on drill core samples.

Typical values are:

Ksandstone = 40 GPa,

Klimestone = 60 GPa.

66

The Fluid Bulk Modulus

The fluid bulk modulus can be modeled using the following equation:

1 S 1 Sw

w

K fl K w K hc

K w the bulk modulus of the water,

and K hc the bulk modulus of the hydrocarbon.

Equations for estimating the values of brine, gas, and oil bulk modulii are

given in Batzle and Wang, 1992, Seismic Properties of Pore Fluids,

Geophysics, 57, 1396-1408. Typical values are:

67

Estimating Kdry

The key step in FRM is calculating a value of Kdry. This can be done in

several ways:

(1) For known VS and VP, Kdry can be calculated by first calculating Ksat

and then using Mavko’s equation (equation (2)), given earlier.

(2) For known VP, but unknown VS, Kdry can be estimated by:

(a) Assuming a known dry rock Poisson’s ratio dry. Equation (1) can

then be rewritten as a quadratic equation in which we solve for Kdry.

68

Data Examples

In the next few slides, we will look at the computed responses for

both a gas-saturated sand and an oil-saturated sand using the

Biot-Gassmann equation.

We will look at the effect of saturation on both velocity (VP and VS)

and Poisson’s Ratio.

Keep in mind that this model assumes that the gas is uniformly

distributed in the fluid. Patchy saturation provides a different

function. (See Mavko et al: The Rock Physics Handbook.)

69

Velocity vs Saturation of Gas

A plot of velocity vs water Velocity vs Water Saturation - Gas Case

saturation for a porous gas Sandstone with Phi = 33%, Density as previous figure for gas,

Kmatrix = 40 Gpa, Kdry = 3.25 GPa, Kw = 2.38 Gpa,

sand using the Biot-Gassmann Kgas = 0.021 Gpa, Shear Modulus = 3.3. Gpa.

shown.

2400

Velocity (m/s)

the 50% saturated gas sand.

1800

Note that the velocity values

can be read off the plot and 1600

are: 1400

VPwet = 2500 m/s

1200

VPgas = 2000 m/s

1000

VSwet = 1250 m/s 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

VSgas = 1305 m/s

Vp Vs

70

Poisson’s Ratio vs Saturation of Gas

water saturation for a porous Sandstone with Phi = 33%, Density as previous figure for gas,

Kmatrix = 40 Gpa, Kdry = 3.25 GPa, Kw = 2.38 Gpa,

gas sand using the Biot- Kgas = 0.021 Gpa, Shear Modulus = 3.3. Gpa.

0.5

parameters shown.

Poisson's Ratio

the 50% saturated gas sand. 0.3

values can be read off the plot 0.2

and are:

wet = 0.33 0.1

gas = 0.12

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

71

Velocity vs Saturation of Oil

A plot of velocity vs water Sandstone with Phi = 33%, Density as previous figure for oil,

Kmatrix = 40 Gpa, Kdry = 3.25 GPa, Kw = 2.38 Gpa,

saturation for a porous oil Koil = 1.0 Gpa, Shear Modulus = 3.3. Gpa.

sand using the Biot-

2600

Gassmann equations with

the parameters shown. 2400

2200

Note that there is not much

of a velocity change. 2000

Velocity (m/s)

However, this is for “dead” 1800

oil, with no dissolved gas

1600

bubbles, and most oil

reservoirs have some 1400

gas.

1000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

Vp Vs

72

Poisson’s Ratio vs Saturation of Oil

Sandstone with Phi = 33%, Density as previous figure for oil,

water saturation for a porous Kmatrix = 40 Gpa, Kdry = 3.25 GPa, Kw = 2.38 Gpa,

oil sand using the Biot- Koil = 1.0 Gpa, Shear Modulus = 3.3. Gpa.

parameters shown.

0.4

Note that there is not much of

a Poisson’s ratio change.

Poisson's Ratio

However, again this is for 0.3

gas bubbles, and most oil 0.2

reservoirs have some

percentage of dissolved gas.

0.1

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

73

Fluid substitution in carbonates

In general carbonates are thought to have a smaller fluid sensitivity than

clastics. This is a consequence of the fact that they are typically stiffer (i.e.

have larger values of Km and Kdry ) implying a smaller Biot coefficient b and

hence fluid response.

contain irregular pore shapes and geometries.

High aspect ratio pores make the rock more compliant and thus more

sensitive to fluid changes.

Aligned cracks require the use of the anisotropic Gassmann equation,

resulting in the saturated bulk modulus being directionally dependent.

Gassmann assumed that pore pressure remains constant during wave

propagation. If the geometry of the pores and cracks restrict the fluid

flow at seismic frequencies then the rock will appear stiffer.

substitution in carbonates more complex.

74

Patchy Saturation

When multiple pore fluids are present, Kfl is usually calculated by a Reuss

averaging technique (see Appendix 2):

1 S w So S g

K fl K w Ko K g

the most compressible phase.

Kfl vs Sw and Sg

This averaging 3

technique assumes 2.5

uniform fluid 2

distribution! 1.5

1

0.5

-Gas and liquid must

0

be evenly distributed

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

in every pore.

Water saturation (fraction)

75

Patchy Saturation

When fluids are not uniformly mixed, effective modulus values cannot be

estimated from Reuss averaging. Uniform averaging of fluids does not

apply.

When patch sizes are large with respect to the seismic wavelength, Voigt

averaging (see Appendix 2) gives the best estimate of Kfl (Domenico, 1976):

K fl S w K w So Ko S g K g

be performed for each patch area and a volume average should be made.

This can be approximated by using a power-law averaging technique,

which we will not discuss here.

76

Patchy Saturation

Gassmann predicted velocities

Unconsolidated sand matrix

Porosity = 30%

100% Gas to 100% Brine saturation

2.5

2.3

Vp (km/s)

2.1 Patchy

Voigt

1.9 Reuss

1.7

1.5

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

Water Saturation (fraction)

77

The Mudrock Line

derived by Castagna et al (1985):

VP 1.16 VS 1360 m / s

2 2

VP VS

2 1

78

The Mudrock Line

(Castagna et al, Geophysics, 1985)

79

The Mudrock Line

6000

5000

Mudrock Line

4000

3000

Gas Sand

VP (m/s)

2000

1000

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000

VS(m/s)

80

The Mudrock Line

6000

5000

= 1/3 Mudrock Line

or

4000 VP/VS = 2

3000

Gas Sand

VP (m/s)

2000

1000

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000

VS(m/s)

81

The Mudrock Line

6000

5000

= 1/3 or Mudrock Line

VP/VS = 2

4000

3000

Gas Sand

VP

(m/s)

2000

= 0.1 or

VP/VS = 1.5

1000

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000

VS(m/s)

82

The Greenberg-Castagna method

Greenberg and Castagna (1992) extended the previous mud-rock

line to different mineralogies as follows, where we have now

inverted the equation for VS as a function of VP:

Limestone : VS 1.031 km / s 1.017 VP 0.055VP2

Dolomite : VS 0.078 km / s 0.583 VP

Shale : VS 0.867 km / s 0.770 VP

(1992) first propose that the shear-wave velocity for a brine-saturated rock

with mixed mineral components can be given as a Voigt-Reuss-Hill

average (see Appendix 2) of the volume components of each mineral.

83

The Greenberg-Castagna method

To compute the shear-wave velocity of a rock with multiple

minerals and a known hydrocarbon component (i.e. SW < 1),

Greenberg and Castagna (1992) then propose the following

iterative scheme:

1. Estimate the brine-filled P-wave velocity. This is nothing more

than an initial guess.

2. Compute the S-wave velocity from the regression just given.

3. Perform Gassmann fluid substitution with the values from

steps 1 and 2 to compute the P-wave velocity for the SW < 1

case. This requires estimates of the moduli and density of

each component.

4. Based on the error between the measured and computed P-

wave velocities (for SW < 1), go back to step 1 and perturb the

estimate of the brine-filled P-wave velocity.

5. Iterate until the brine-saturated P-wave velocities agree.

84

The rock physics template (RPT)

(2003) proposed a

technique they called the

rock physics template

(RPT), in which the fluid

and mineralogical

content of a reservoir

could be estimated on a

crossplot of Vp/Vs ratio

against acoustic

impedance, as shown

here.

85

The rock physics template (RPT)

function of porosity using Hertz-Mindlin (HM) contact

theory and the lower Hashin-Shtrikman bound.

Hertz-Mindlin contact theory assumes that the porous rock

can be modeled as a packing of identical spheres, and the

effective bulk and shear moduli are computed from:

1 1

n 2 (1 c ) 2 m2

3

5 4 m 3n 2 (1 c ) 2 m2

3

K eff P , eff P ,

18 (1 m ) 5( 2 m ) 2 (1 m )

2 2 2 2

where : P confining pressure, m mineral shear modulus,

n contacts per grain, m mineral Poisson' s ratio,

and c high porosity end - member.

86

The rock physics template (RPT)

the dry rock bulk and shear moduli as a function of porosity

with the following equations:

1

/ c 1 / c 4

K dry eff

K eff ( 4 / 3) eff K m ( 4 / 3) eff 3

1

/ c 1 / c 4

dry z, where :

eff z m z 3

eff 9 K eff 8eff

z and K m mineral bulk modulus.

6 K eff 2 eff

Standard Gassmann theory is then used for the fluid

replacement process.

87

The rock physics template (RPT)

clean sand case. We will build this template in the next exercise.

88

Using the Biot-Gassmann Equations

(1) Fluid Substitution

The basic use of the Biot-Gassmann equations is to “substitute” or replace the fluids

in a set of target layers with another set of fluids.

In this case, VP, VS, and ρ must all be known for the input logs, along with the fluid

content (SW). Generally all three logs are changed within the target zone.

VP ρ VS VP ρ VS

SW = 50% SW = 100%

89

Using the Biot-Gassmann Equations

(2) Calculating Vs

has not been measured in the well. Either KDRY is assumed known or the Greenberg-

Castagna method is used.

In this case, VP and ρ must both be known, along with the fluid content (SW). The VP

and ρ logs are unchanged, and a new VS log is created.

ρ VP ρ VS

VP

SW = 50% SW = 50% 90

Conclusions

An understanding of rock physics is crucial for the interpretation of AVO

anomalies.

sand, but this equation does not match observations for velocities in a

gas sand.

unconsolidated gas sands.

When dealing with more complex porous media with patchy saturation,

or fracture type porosity (e.g. carbonates), the Biot-Gassmann equations

do not hold.

The ARCO mudrock line is a good empirical tool for the wet sands and

shales.

91

Exercise 2:

The Colony Gas Sand

Biot-Gassmann analysis

Exercise 2

Now that we have read in all the data

necessary for the AVO Modeling, we are ready

to start the process.

First, look at the tabs to the left of the

Geoview window. You will see that one of

those tabs is called Processes. Click on that

tab to see a list of all the operations which are

available in Geoview. Each of the processes

can be expanded. For example, if you click

on the AVO Modeling option, the following

expanded list is seen:

options, Seismic Processing options, AVO

Modeling and Analysis tools, Inversion options,

etc. One way to do the modeling would be to

apply each of the desired options in turn. That

would be the traditional approach.

93

Exercise 2

tutorial. We will use the pre-defined

Workflows. Click the Workflows tab. The

window changes like this:

a complete workflow for the specified

process. Click on the item called AVO

Modeling. The window changes like this:

to be followed for AVO Modeling. The

steps are colored red to indicate that the

parameters have not yet been supplied.

These are the “default” steps, but the list

can be edited and customized, as we will

see later.

94

Exercise 2

Well. An arrow will appear in front of

the item, as shown here:

the right with a list of all

wells in the project:

that well is selected. Note that at the

lower right corner of the dialog, there is

a button for importing more wells:

95

Exercise 2

the Workflow list, Select Logs:

AVO Modeling, we need three log

curves:

Two of them, the P-wave velocity

(sonic log) and the Density curves are

available in the well. The third, S-wave

velocity, is not present in the well and

will be computed in the next step.

latest curves for the calculation:

96

Exercise 2: Calculating the Shear Wave Log

workflow, Shear Wave Estimation:

This step is necessary because a shear

wave velocity log is required to do AVO

offset modeling. However, like many

wells, this well does not include a

measured shear wave log. Therefore,

we must compute it now from the

existing sonic and density logs. If the

well had contained a measured shear

wave log, we could skip this step in the

workflow.

a series of tabs, which must

be completed in order:

97

Exercise 2

of the Reservoir within the well:

are two types of equations used,

depending on whether we are within

the hydrocarbon zone or outside in

the wet background. This page

specifies the Reservoir or

hydrocarbon zone. The actual

equations are described on the next

page. A convenient way of specifying

the zone is to use the formation tops,

which have been imported from the

LAS file. These tops have been called

TOP_GAS and BASE_GAS for this

well. Alternatively, we could specify

the depth range directly.

98

Exercise 2

velocity is coming from the

sonic log in the well:

calculations will be used, one

for the samples within the

reservoir, and the other for

samples outside the reservoir:

explained in greater detail in

the tabs below:

99

Exercise 2

This tab appears because the density and porosity of the reservoir are

related by the Volume Average Equation:

calculated. Alternatively, with a measured porosity log, the density

can be calculated. Finally, the option exists to use both measured

density and porosity logs, and that requires a calculation of the

matrix density.

100

Exercise 2

fluid properties within the

reservoir. The first thing we

specify is the relative

concentrations of fluid:

101

Exercise 2

In this case, we have told the program that the reservoir is 50% brine

and 50% gas. This is assumed known about the reservoir.

Alternatively, we could use a water saturation log, if available. Change

the saturations as shown above.

parameters for the density and bulk

modulus of the fluids:

102

Exercise 2

properties using empirical

relationships:

this calculation, so unselect that

check box:

103

Exercise 2

properties within the reservoir.

The top part is grayed out – i.e.,

disabled – because we have

chosen to use the Greenberg-

Castagna equations within the

reservoir. Those equations

require a mixture of minerals,

which we specify below:

Note that, since we do not have any volumetric logs in the well, our

only option is to specify constant percentages for the whole reservoir

zone. By default, the specification is 100% sand for the reservoir,

which we will accept for this tutorial.

104

Exercise 2

S-Wave velocity curve we will create.

We also can click the QC Display button

to see some of the internal calculations

within the reservoir:

problems with the model.

velocity log:

105

Exercise 2

now includes the

calculated shear

wave log:

106

Exercise 2 The rock physics template (RPT)

template for this well, which will allow

us to see the effect of the porosity as

well as the fluid.

ratio versus P-impedance, so first we

will create these logs.

tab in the project manager, select Log

Processing>Log Transform>

Impedances>P-impedance:

107

Exercise 2

and click OK.

108

Exercise 2

Log Processing>Log Transform>Other

>Vp/Vs Ratio in the project manager,

fill in the menu as shown and click OK.

109

Exercise 2

You will see that the two log curves are created and displayed as

new tracks at the right end of the AVO_WELL display.

110

Exercise 2

the SP curve has not been displayed,

due to having the wrong default limits.

An easy way to fix this problem is to

left-click on the area around the SP

heading to get the menu shown below:

on the bottom of this menu, set

display range to data range, and click

OK to set the new values.

the SP curve is properly displayed.

111

Exercise 2

created logs P-impedance and

Vp/Vs ratio. To do that, double

click Cross Plot Logs in the

project manager:

the well and the logs as shown

below:

112

Exercise 2

we will define the Zone of

Interest by constant depths

[of 600-700m].

menus, click on All Data

first; select All Data

Between Targets.

Then fill in the menu as

shown and click OK:

113

Exercise 2

On the crossplot window, click on the box to the right of RPT Selection.

This brings up the RPT menu. Note that the menu is all blank, and if you

know your parameters you can fill them in.

small cluster of

yellow points (with

depths between

630 and 650 m)

shows the gas

sand and the other

trends are from

shales and wet

sands.

114

Exercise 2

you can create a default RPT by clicking on the RP

Template menu and selecting New:

On the crossplot

window, the default

parameters have been

filled on the RPT menu.

some of the cross plot

points are not visible

due to the data range of

Y-axis.

115

Exercise 2

select Plot Options on View

menu:

change Max to 3.0. Click

Apply and close this menu.

be done using View > Reset

Display Range or by right

clicking on the vertical

scale itself and selecting

Set axis scale..)

116

Exercise 2

We will change the Kdry calculation type to User input, and toggle the Bulk

dry modulus up to 2.65 and the Shear dry modulus to 2.0 to get a very

good fit to the gas sand at 35%. Select Apply. Note the interactive curve

changes.

117

Exercise 2

Next, add a second template by selecting RP

Template>New and change the RPT type to Shale line.

The new template shown below fits the shales quite

well. Experiment with the parameters to get a better fit.

118

Exercise 2

original Standard template to make it

live (the points will turn yellow).

Menu Option. Check on Advanced

fluid property analysis.

starting fluid, which can be done

interactively on the ternary diagram

for Brine, Oil and Gas; Temperature,

Bubble Point Calculation, etc) and

see what effect they have on the

template.

119

Exercise 2

Finally, click the Matrix tab, check on Advanced matrix property analysis

and select Rock Type of Matrix Property Calculator. Create a matrix of

50% Quartz and 50% clay and click Apply. Note the effect on the RPT.

120

Exercise 2

as good a fit to your points as you want.

Note that as many templates can be added as you want, and that

options exist for Limestone, Dolomite and Quartz lines as well.

porosity, lithology and fluid fits to your well log data.

be noted that the RPT can also be applied to the inverted seismic

data crossplot.

(End of Exercise 2)

121

AVO Theory & Zoeppritz Modeling

P and S-Waves

The above diagram shows a schematic diagram of (a) P, or compressional,

waves, (b) SH, or horizontal shear-waves, and (c) SV, or vertical shear-waves,

where the S-waves have been generated using a shear wave source. (Ensley,

1984)

123

From P and S-Waves to AVO

surface by P and S-wave sources. We could use the differences

between the recorded P and S reflections to discriminate gas-filled

sands from wet sands, using the properties discussed in the last

section.

However, most seismic surveys record P-wave data only, and S-wave

data is not available.

than zero, we produce mode conversion from P to S-wave data.

quantitatively and qualitatively.

124

Mode Conversion of an Incident P-Wave

If q > 0°, an incident P-wave will produce both P and SV reflected and

transmitted waves. This is called mode conversion.

Reflected

Incident SV-wave = RS(q1)

P-wave

Reflected

1 P-wave = RP(q1)

q1

q1

VP1 , VS1 , r1

VP2 , VS2 , r2 q2

2 Transmitted

P-wave = TP(q1)

Transmitted

SV-wave = TS(q1)

125

Utilizing Mode Conversion

But how do we utilize mode conversion? There are actually two ways:

(in the X, Y and Z directions). Note that when we analyze the

converted waves, we need to be very careful in their processing and

interpretation.

angle, which contain implied information about the S-waves. This is

called the AVO (Amplitude versus Offset) method.

In the AVO method, we can make use of the Zoeppritz equations, or some

approximation to these equations, to extract S-wave type information

from P-wave reflections at different offsets. Before discussing these

equations, the next figures shows a typical set of gathers over a gas sand

and intuitively explain the relationship between offset and angle.

126

A Data Example

figure shows the

“stacked” traces

corresponding to the

five P-wave gathers

shown in the bottom

figure.

amplitudes in the

gathers over the

highlighted region

show an increase in

amplitude as a

function of offset.

This is called an AVO

(Amplitude Variation

with Offset) effect.

127

Angle and Offset

Surface

Angles q2 q1

q3

r2 VP2 VS2

Common mid-point

there is a direct relationship between angle and offset, which depends on

velocity. We can model these amplitude changes using either the full

Zoeppritz equations or the linearized Aki-Richards approximation.

128

The Zoeppritz Equations (1919)

reflected and transmitted waves using the

conservation of stress and displacement

across the layer boundary, which gives four

equations with four unknowns.

1

sin q1 cos 1 sin q 2 cos 2

RP (q1 ) cos q sin 1 cos q 2 sin 2 sin q1

R (q ) 1 cos q

S 1 sin 2q r 2VS 2VP1 r 2VS 2VP1

cos 22

2

VP1 1

cos 21 sin 2q 2

TP (q1 ) 1

VS 1 r1VS12VP 2 r1VS1 2

sin 2q1

r 2VP 2 r 2VS 2

T (q

S 1 cos 21

) VS 1

sin 21 cos 22 sin 22 cos 21

VP1 r1VP1 r1VP1

129

The Zoeppritz Equations at 0 degrees

incidence (0 degrees) the equations give us the following simple values for

the reflection and transmission coefficients (see Appendix 3 for the

mathematical details):

RS (0o ) RS 0 0, TS (0o ) TS 0 0,

r 2VP 2 r1VP1

RP (0 ) RP 0

o

,

r 2VP 2 r1VP1

2 r1VP1

TP (0 ) TP 0

o

1 RP 0 .

r 2VP 2 r1VP1

These equations tell us that there is no S-wave component at zero angle,

and the reflection and transmission coefficients are related to changes in

the acoustic impedance (P-velocity x density).

130

The Zero Angle Trace

wave gather as a set of reflection coefficients

corresponding to the changes in acoustic

impedance (density x P-velocity) at each

interface. The equation is below, and an Zi

illustration is on the right. This is not the

complete story, as the reflectivity is Ri

convolved with a wavelet. Zi+1

Z Pi 1 Z Pi

RP 0i = ,

Z Pi 1 Z Pi

where :

Z Pi r iVPi impedance,

r density.

131

Convolution

as S = W*R, is illustrated pictorially below:

* = + + + + =>

W = Wavelet

R = Reflection S = Seismic

Coefficients Trace

132

The A-B-C equation

can either use the full Zoeppritz equations given earlier, or the linearized

Aki-Richards equation, which will be discussed later in more detail. We will

show that there are several equivalent versions of this equation, but the

most common is written in the following form:

1 VP r

2 2

1 VP VS VS VS r

A RP (0 )

o

, B 4 2 ,

2 V p r 2 Vp VP VS VP r

1 VP

and C .

2 Vp

A is the linearized zero-offset reflection coefficient and (see Appendix 4)

is called the intercept, B is the gradient, and C the curvature. This

equation tells us that as the angle increases, so does the effect of S-wave

velocity.

133

A two-layer model

We can use the previous equation to model the top and base of a simple

sand. The figure on the left below shows the wet case and the one on the

right shows the gas case, using values computed in our rock physics section.

Notice the difference between using two terms and three terms in the

modeling.

134

AVO Class 3

The model curves just shown for the gas case were for a Class 3 AVO

anomaly, of which the Colony sand we are considering is an example.

Here is a set of modeled well logs for a Class 3 sand, with the computed

synthetic (using all three terms in the A-B-C equation) on the right. Note that

the P-wave velocity and density (and thus the P-impedance) decrease in the

gas sand, the S-wave velocity increases, and the VP/VS ratio decreases. The

synthetic shows increasing amplitude versus offset for both the overlying

trough and underlying peak. The far angle is 45o.

135

AVO Class 2

As will be discussed later, there are several other AVO classes, of which

Class 1 and 2 are the most often seen.

Here is a Class 2 example well log, where the P-impedance change is very

small and the amplitude change on the synthetic is very large. Note that the

VP/VS ratio is still decreasing to 1.5, as expected in a clean gas sand (recall

the discussion in the rock physics section).

136

AVO Class 1

Here is a Class 1 well log example, where the P-impedance change is now

an increase and the amplitudes on the synthetic are seen to change

polarity. Again, the VP/VS ratio is still decreasing to 1.5, as expected in a

clean gas sand.

The figure on the next slide compares all three classes and also shows the

picked amplitudes.

137

The three AVO Classes

A comparison of the

synthetic seismic

gathers from the three

classes, where the top

and base of the gas

sand have been picked. Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

The picks are shown at time (ms)

the bottom of the

display and clearly

show the AVO effects.

created at the same

time, but in practice

amplitude

class 2 sands are at

medium depths and

class 3 sands are at

shallow depths.

138

Multi-Layer AVO Modeling

We are usually interested in modeling a lot more than one or two layers.

Multi-layer modeling in the AVO program consists first of creating a stack

of N layers, generally using well logs, and defining the thickness, P-wave

velocity, S-wave velocity, and density for each layer, as shown below:

139

Multi-Layer AVO Modeling

You must then decide what effects are to be included in the model: primaries

only, converted waves, multiples, or some combination of these.

140

AVO Modeling Options

calculation.

for calculation.

optional anelastic effects), which includes primaries, converted

waves, and multiples.

141

AVO Modeling

Poisson’s

P-wave Density S-wave Synthetic Offset Stack

ratio

Based on AVO theory and the rock physics of the reservoir, we can perform AVO

modeling, as shown above. In this case, we have used the Aki-Richards equation in the

modeling. Note that the model result is a fairly good match to the offset stack.

Let us now do an exercise where we will perform this modeling.

142

Exercise 3:

The Colony Gas Sand

Creating Zoeppritz Synthetics

Exercise 3

Now double-click the fourth step on the

workflow, Select Seismic:

We need the seismic data for these steps

in the AVO Modeling workflow:

• To extract a wavelet.

• To correlate the well, i.e., to optimize the

depth-time relationship between well and

seismic.

• To compare with the resulting synthetic.

list of the seismic volumes which

have been loaded into the project.

Since there is only one volume, that

has been selected:

gathers:

144

Exercise 3

Now the seismic data

appears inserted within

the Wells tab:

Extract Statistical Wavelet, by double-

clicking that option:

145

Exercise 3

There are two basic methods for extracting the wavelet. One method uses

the wells, and can give a good estimate of both amplitude and phase

spectra of the wavelet. However, that method cannot be used until the

well is correlated, i.e., until the proper depth-time relationship has been

determined.

alone to extract the wavelet. This method will estimate the amplitude

spectrum from the seismic data, but we must make an assumption

about the phase – typically we assume the data are zero phase. In

this step, we are extracting a statistical wavelet.

range of data to analyze:

146

Exercise 3

the entire data volume, but this is

rarely appropriate. In particular, we

want to set a time window around the

zone of interest. Change the dialog

to extract just using the limited time

window shown below:

shown above, click Run to extract the

wavelet.

The extracted wavelet appears in its

own pop-up window:

in the upper window, while the

amplitude and phase spectra are in the

lower window.

147

Exercise 3

Note also this small button at the lower

right of the wavelet window:

wavelet window will be “docked”

within its own Wavelets tab:

created within Geoview. To release the wavelet

window from its tab, click on the “airplane” at the

lower right of the wavelet window:

148

Exercise 3

be docked or floated in this way. Finally,

send the wavelet window back to the

wavelets tab by clicking the Wavelets button

once again:

Correlate the Well, so double-click that

item:

and optimizes it so that the derived synthetic matches the seismic optimally.

149

Exercise 3

A dialog appears, specifying which seismic volume will be used for the

correlation process, and how the composite trace will be extracted from

that volume:

created by averaging the

traces around the borehole

location we are using for

the seismic correlation. For

a vertical well, such as this

one, that means averaging

a selected set of

neighboring traces around

the borehole. By default

this is plus or minus 1

inline or crossline.

For this tutorial, we will accept the defaults. Click OK on this dialog.

150

Exercise 3

The Log Correlation Window now

appears:

copies of the synthetic trace. This

trace was calculated from the sonic

and density logs in this well, the

depth-time curve currently stored in

the database, and the wavelet we

have previously extracted.

the average (or composite) trace

extracted from the seismic data.

The plot at the upper right shows the

cross correlation between the

synthetic trace and the composite

trace:

151

Exercise 3

That correlation result depends on the

analysis window. We can improve the

calculation by changing this window. The

cross correlation window defaults to be the

largest possible window containing both

the synthetic and real trace. We should

narrow the analysis to the region where the

log tie is best:

and click on Apply. The correlation plot

now shows a maximum correlation of 62%.

should be shifted down by 50 ms. That

information is also displayed on the

menu bar at the base of the window:

152

Exercise 3

shows a roughly symmetrical peak at

zero Lag Time, with a maximum

correlation of 61%

153

Exercise 3

a good correlation for this well. Click

OK to accept this correlation.

the new sonic log we have created by

the log correlation process. Even

though this process, by default, has

only changed the depth-time curve and

not the actual sonic log, Geoview

calculates a new sonic log (identical to

the previous) as a place holder for

identifying the new depth-time curve.

Click OK to accept that new name:

154

Exercise 3 Identifying scenarios and creating synthetics

The next step in the Workflow is Extract wavelet using wells. We very

often perform that step within the Log Correlation Window. In this

case, we will assume the zero-phase statistical wavelet is adequate, so

we will skip that step here.

155

Exercise 3

By “scenarios”, we mean the geologic

conditions which we wish to model.

Each scenario is a different fluid

combination within the target

reservoir.

– the in situ scenario which is present

in the logs. In addition, we can model

up to 4 other scenarios. In the figure

above, we have chosen Pure Oil and

Pure Brine, as well. Note that in

addition to specifying pure

hydrocarbons, we can specify any

combination of the 3 components

using the Ternary diagram. Set the

dialog as shown above, and click Run.

156

Exercise 3

the 3 scenarios for each of the P-

wave, S-wave, Density, and Poisson’s

Ratio curves:

the workflow, Create Synthetics:

157

Exercise 3

The dialog on the right shows that, by

default, Zoeppritz ray-tracing will be used

to calculate the synthetics:

been automatically set to be consistent

with the real data being used:

button for viewing all the Advanced

Parameters:

synthetics using the default parameters.

158

Exercise 3

Workflow is AVO What Ifs:

159

Exercise 3

This step is used after the synthetics have been created. Here we can

interactively modify various parameters and see their effects on the

calculated synthetics.

parameters used to generate the in-situ

synthetic.

saturation is 50% brine and 50% gas:

thickness of the target layer. The dialog

currently shows the reservoir thickness as

7 meters:

160

Exercise 3

To see the effect of thickness

change, change the thickness

to 20 meters, as shown here:

immediately change. To

produce the new synthetic

click the Preview button:

produce new log curves (with

a thicker reservoir) and a new

synthetic:

for assessing the impact of

thickness changes is to use

the Wedge Modeling process.

161

Exercise 3

By default, the model changes are not calculated until the Preview button

is clicked. This is because some calculations may take a while. However,

by selecting the Interactive Preview option, you can force the model to be

updated immediately after every change.

Finally, the model changes are normally temporary and disappear as soon

as the dialog is closed. You can save the current model by clicking the

Save Results button.

For this tutorial, just Close the menu, without saving any results:

162

Modifying and saving the workflow

process we will examine in this tutorial is customizing and saving a

new workflow.

looks like this:

wells, is still colored red, because we

did not explicitly perform that step. We

might wish to create a new workflow,

with that item removed.

163

Exercise 3

wavelet using wells, and right-click:

Remove process. Click OK on this

dialog which appears:

164

Exercise 3

the User tab:

saved under the Default tab.

add a process. For example,

select the item Extract statistical

wavelet on the User tab, and

right click as shown:

Below and double-click Check

Shot Correction.

165

Exercise 3

applying a Check Shot Correction

before doing Log Correlation:

workflow is only available within this

project. To make it available to other

projects and other users, we need to

export the workflow.

166

Exercise 3

on the workflow, and click Export

Workflow and Parameters:

give the new workflow a name,

like Test , and click OK:

167

Exercise 3

We have now saved the new workflow, and the

parameters used in this project, to two separate

files. To import the saved workflow and

parameters into a new project, click on the Import

Workflow button at the top of the Workflow

menu:

On the dialog which appears, we see the two

files which have been created:

The file with the shorter name,

Test_workflow.xml, is the list of process

names in the new workflow. This is the file

we need to import if we wish to use the

chosen steps in a new project.

The other file, TestAVOModelingParameter_parameter.xml, is the complete

list of parameters used in this current project. If we import this second file,

as well as the first, the dialogs which are created will have exactly the same

parameters as used previously. Thus, the combination of both files together

will be a reproducible history of the project.

168

Exercise 3

above. The right side of the dialog now

changes to this:

the list of processes and their

parameters. For this tutorial, click

Cancel on this dialog.

(End of Exercise 3)

169

Elastic Waves and Anisotropy

Multi-Layer AVO Modeling

in the AVO program consists first of creating a stack of N layers, generally

using well logs, and defining the thickness, P-wave velocity, S-wave

velocity, and density for each layer.

171

Elastic Wave Modeling

propagating through a series of layers.

specify a frequency range, which affects the run-time.

and converted waves. In principle, these can be turned off, but

that may produce instability.

172

Zoeppritz – Elastic Wave Comparison

Modeling

Primaries x x

Multiples x

Converted Waves x

Refractions x

Anisotropy (VTI) x x

Frequency dependent absorption x

Post-critical events x

Fast computation x

The following example, taken from a paper by Simmons and Backus (1994),

illustrates the difference between Zoeppritz and Elastic modeling.

173

The Oil Sand Model

Simmons and Backus used the thin bed oil sand model shown above.

174

The Possible Modeled Events

175

Responses to Various Algorithms

(A) Primaries-only Zoeppritz, (B) + single leg shear, (C) + double-leg shear,

(D) + multiples, (E) Wave equation solution, (F) Linearized approximation.

+ multiples

Wave equation

Aki-Richards

Simmons and Backus (1994)

176

Zoeppritz vs Elastic Wave Summary

multiples and converted waves.

Modeling, if the input parameters are correct.

problems.

177

Anisotropic AVO

In an isotropic earth P and S-wave velocities are independent of angle.

dependent on direction, as shown below.

VP(90o)

VP(45o)

VP(0o)

vertical symmetry axis, or VTI, and Transverse Isotropy with a Horizontal

symmetry axis, or HTI . In particular, the HTI model gives us a way to model

azimuthal AVO, or AVAZ.

178

Anisotropic AVO

The figure below, from Ruger, illustrates the difference between the VTI and

HTI models of anisotropy.

Media” by Andreas Ruger, SEG Geophysical Monograph No. 10, 2002

The VTI model consists of horizontal layers and can be extrinsic, caused

by fine layering of the earth, or intrinsic, caused by particle alignment as in

a shale. The HTI model consists of vertical layers and is caused by parallel

vertical fractures or steeply dipping shales (see Appendix 5).

179

Velocities for the VTI case

Although the equations for full anisotropy are quite complex, Thomsen

(1986) showed that for weakly anisotropic materials the velocities in VTI

media are dependent on the parameters , , and , called Thomsen’s

parameters.

parameters:

o 2 2 4

V 2

(0 o

) 2

VSV (q ) VSV (0 ) 1 2 o ( ) sin q cos q

o P 2

VSV (0 )

VSH (q ) VSH (0o ) 1 sin 2 q

180

Thomsen’s Parameters

Thomsen’s parameters are simply combinations of the differences between

the P and S velocities at 0, 45, and 90 degrees. The following relationships

can be derived quite easily using the velocities in the previous slide:

VP (0o ) VSH ( 0 o )

VP ( 45 o ) VP ( 0 o ) VP ( 45 o ) VP ( 0 o )

4 o 4 o

V P ( 0 ) V P ( 0 )

angle for different values of and . (As mentioned, VSH will not be

used in AVO).

181

AVO and VTI

Thomsen (1993) showed that VTI terms could be added to the Aki-Richards

equation using his weak anisotropic parameters and , where Ran(q ) is the

anisotropic AVO response and Ris(q ) is the isotropic AVO response.

Ran (q ) Ris (q ) sin q

2

sin 2 q tan 2 q ,

2 2

where : 2 1 , and 2 1.

2 2

or : Ran (q ) A B sin q C sin q tan 2

q

2 2

182

Typical Values for Delta, Epsilon and Gamma

Typical values for , , and were given by Thomsen (1986). Here are some

representative values from his table:

183

AVO and VTI

Blangy (1997) computed the effect of anisotropy on VTI models of the three

Rutherford-Williams type. Blangy’s models are shown below, but since he

used Thomsen’s formulation for the linearized approximation, his figures

have been recomputed in the next slide for the wet and gas cases using

Ruger’s formulation. The slide after that shows our example.

184

VTI – AVO Effects

Class 1

Class 1

= -0.15

= -0.3

Class 2

Class 2

Class 3

Class 3

Isotropic

--- Anisotropic

(a) Gas sandstone case: Note (b) Wet sandstone case:

that the effect of and is Note that the effect of and

to increase the AVO effects. is to create apparent AVO

decreases.

185

VTI Applied to Colony Example

Gas Sand Top, = -0.15, = -0.3

0.000

Amplitude

-0.100

-0.200

-0.300

-0.400

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Angle (degrees)

R (Isotropic) R (Anisotropic)

186

VTI AVO Model Example

In the above display, we have added simple and logs to the sonic

and density logs from the Colony gas sandstone play in Alberta. Notice

that only the gas sand is isotropic.

187

Anisotropic AVO Synthetics

In this display, the synthetic responses for the logs shown in the

previous slide are shown. Note the difference due to anisotropy.

188

Exercise 4:

The Colony Gas Sand

Elastic Wave Modeling

Exercise 4

In the previous exercise, we used Zoeppritz

ray-tracing to create synthetics corresponding

to a series of lithologic scenarios. In this

exercise, we will use elastic wave modeling.

Modeling workflow. Instead, we will use the

Processes list. To see that list, click on the

Processes tab:

item and double click Create AVO Synthetics:

190

Exercise 4

see that all the parameters have

been saved from our previous

Zoeppritz synthetic.

items – the Algorithm is Elastic

Wave and the Output Name is

modified to include the word

“synthetic_elastic”.

items, click on OK to create the

new synthetic.

191

Exercise 4

The new elastic wave synthetic is

plotted in the Geoview window.

are no longer visible. We would

like to see both the new elastic

wave synthetic and the original

Zoeppritz synthetic.

the window is to drag-and-drop

from the Project Data list. Click on

the Project Data tab and the

Seismic side-tab, as shown. Then

select the Zoeppritz synthetic,

which was called In-

situ_AVO_WELL.

192

Exercise 4

Holding the left mouse button down, drag the name (In-situ_AVO_WELL) over

between the elastic wave synthetic and the real data display. You will know

where you are dropping it, because of the green vertical line which appears.

Release the mouse button and the original synthetic is added to the display.

193

Exercise 4

synthetic is plotted along with

the previous Zoeppritz

synthetics. We can see

significant differences in

character due to the elastic

wave modeling. In particular,

the elastic wave model looks

more noisy and does not

display the AVO anomaly as

strongly.

194

Exercise 4

A very convenient tool for analyzing the

amplitudes of individual events is AVO Gradient

Analysis.

double-click the item on the Processes list:

set the Input as the in-situ

synthetic which was originally

created. Then click the Specify

Velocity button:

195

Exercise 4

The dialog which appears is

used to set the velocity field

for the AVO attribute

calculation. In this case, we

used a single P-wave log. So,

select Single Well: P-wave

Curve from the pull down

menu:

Click on P-wave_corr.

Velocity Field Model dialog:

196

Exercise 4

Then, click OK on the bottom of

the gradient analysis menu:

appears shows the

in-situ synthetic

along with a series of

picked amplitudes:

quite correct, since

we have not

specified the location

of the target event.

197

Exercise 4

First, improve the synthetic

display by clicking on Fit to

View:

Gradient Analysis display by

temporarily removing the Project

Manager. To do that, click the “x” as

shown:

corresponding to the top of the gas

sand at around 630 ms:

198

Exercise 4

The display should change to this, showing the picked events from the

synthetic along with an AVO curve. If your display looks quite

different, try clicking close to the event again.

199

Exercise 4

AVO Curve display, which we will study in a later

exercise. For now, we will use the display to

compare the picked amplitudes between the two

synthetics. To bring in the second synthetic, click

on View 2, as shown:

set the Input for View 2 to be

the Elastic Wave synthetic

we just created. Then click

Apply at the base of the

menu.

200

Exercise 4

Now the two synthetics appear, with the two sets of picks:

As we saw on the

synthetic displays,

the curve for the

Elastic Wave

synthetic does not

show as much AVO

variation as the

Zoeppritz synthetic.

201

Exercise 4

We can see this even better by

normalizing the amplitudes of the near

traces.

click Ok:

202

Exercise 4

difference in AVO behavior:

these curves with the real data

event. To see that, click to turn on

View 3:

203

Exercise 4

must select the input (gathers),

and also specify which CDP to

show. Click the down arrow and

select the well location:

look like this. Click Apply at the

base of the window.

204

Exercise 4

Once again, click Pick Normalization. Then

click Ok on the dialog that appears to force

all the intercepts together.

and the Zoeppritz model lie

practically on top of each other.

model is a very good representation

of the real response.

(End of Exercise 4)

205

AVO Analysis on Seismic Data

Introduction

function of angle, the equations themselves do not lend themselves to an

intuitive understanding of the AVO process for angles greater than zero

degrees.

For that reason, although modeling should be done with the Zoeppritz

equations, most AVO theory for analyzing real data is based on a

linearized approximation to the Zoeppritz equations initially derived by

Bortfeld (1961) and then refined by Richards and Frasier (1976) and Aki

and Richards (1980).

The equations on the next few slides will show various equivalent

formulations of the Aki-Richards equations.

the rock physics model developed in the first section.

207

The Zoeppritz Equations

Zoeppritz Equations

1919

1

sin q1 cos 1 sin q 2 cos 2

RP (q1 ) cos q sin 1 cos q 2 sin 2 sin q1

R (q ) 1 cos q

S 1 sin 2q r 2VS 2VP1 r 2VS 2VP1

cos 22

2

VP1 1

cos 21 sin 2q 2

TP (q1 ) 1

VS 1 r1VS12VP 2 r1VS1 2

sin 2q1

r 2VP 2 rV

TS (q1 ) cos 21 cos 21

VS 1

sin 21 cos 22 2 S 2 sin 22

VP1 r1VP1 r1VP1

208

Approximations to Zoeppritz Equations

1980 Vp, Vs and Density 1999 EI

A, B, C

The AVO equation

Fatti 1994

Rp, Rs, Rd

HRS Intercept,

Gradient, and

combinations HRS Sim Inv HRS Rp,Rs

209

The Aki-Richards Equation

The Aki-Richards equation is a linearized approximation to the Zoeppritz

equations. The initial form of this equation separated the velocity and

density terms.

VP VS r

RP (q ) a b c , where :

2VP 2VS 2r

r 2 r1

a 1 tan q ,

2 r , r r 2 r1 ,

2

VS

2

VP 2 VP1

b 8 sin 2 q , VP , VP VP 2 VP1 ,

2

VP

VS 2 VS 1

2 VS , VS VS 2 VS 1 ,

V 2

c 1 4 S sin 2 q ,

VP q q

and q 1 2 .

2

210

The Aki-Richards Equation

The Aki-Richards equation is a linearized approximation to the Zoeppritz

equations. The initial form of this equation separated the velocity and

density terms (note that sometimes this is written without the factor 2 in

the denominator and with a, b and c scaled by 2):

VP VS r

RP (q ) a b c , where :

2VP 2VS 2r

r 2 r1

a 1 tan q ,

2 r , r r 2 r1 ,

2

VS

2

VP 2 VP1

b 8 sin 2 q , VP , VP VP 2 VP1 ,

2

VP

V VS 1

V

2 VS S 2 , VS VS 2 VS 1 ,

c 1 4 S sin 2 q , 2

VP q q

and q 1 2 .

2

As we will see when we get to the section on Elastic Impedance (EI), this

is the form of the equation that was used in the derivation of EI.

211

Understanding Aki-Richards

at a given time on the 3 trace angle gather shown below:

Constant Angle

o o o Each pick at time t and angle q is equal to

0 15 30 the Aki-Richards reflectivity at that point

600 ms

(after convolution with an angle-dependent

t Picks wavelet) given by the sum of the three

weighted reflectivities. If we assume that at

time t, (VS/VP)2= 0.25, we see that:

700 ms

VP r

RP (0 o )

2VP

0

2r

Note : sin 0 o tan 0 o 0

VP VS r

RP (30 o ) 1.333 0.500 0.750

2VP 2VS 2r

Note : sin 2

30 o 0.25 and tan 2 30 o 0.333

212

The A, B, C Equation

form of the Aki-Richards equation. They separated the equation into three

reflection terms, each weaker than the previous term:

1 VP r

2 2

1 VP VS VS VS r 1 VP

A , B 4 2 ,C .

2 V p r 2 Vp VP VS VP r 2 Vp

B the gradient, and C the curvature. Note that A is identical to the

linearized zero-angle reflection coefficient, which we called RP(0o) in the

previous slide.

previous slide except that the weights are now 1, sin2q, tan2q *sin2q, and

the physical parameters are A, B and C.

213

Fatti et al’s Formulation of the Aki-Richards Equation

An third equivalent form of the Aki-Richards equation was formulated by

Fatti et al. (Geophysics, September, 1994) and is written:

c1 1 tan 2 q , c2 8(VS / VP ) 2 sin 2 q , c3 4(VS / VP ) 2 sin 2 q tan 2 q ,

1 VP r 1 VS r r

RP (0 )

o

, RS (0 )

o

, and RD .

2 VP r 2 VS r 2r

Note that the RP(0o) term given above is identical to the A term in the

previous equation. Also, the first two scaling terms are identical to those in

the original Aki-Richards equation. This equation will be used later in the

course as the basis for independent and simultaneous pre-stack inversion.

The physical interpretation of this equation is the same as for the original

Aki-Richards equation except that the weights are now c1, c2, c3, and the

physical parameters are RP(0o), RS(0o) and RD.

214

A Summary of the Aki-Richards Equation

All three forms of the Aki-Richards equation consist of the sum of three

terms, each term consisting of a weight multiplied by an elastic parameter

(i.e. a function of VP , VS or r). Here is a summary:

VP VS r

Aki-Richards a, b, c , ,

2VP 2VS 2 r

Note that the weighting terms b, c and c2, c3 contain the squared VS/VP ratio as

well as trigonometric functions of q. However, in the Wiggins et al.

formulation, this term is in the elastic parameter B.

215

Physical Interpretation

A physical interpretation of the three equations is as follows:

(1) Since the seismic trace consists of changes in impedance rather than

velocity or density independently, the original form of the Aki-Richards

equation is rarely used.

(2) The A, B, C formulation of the Aki-Richards equation is very useful for

extracting empirical information about the AVO effect (i.e. A, which is

called the intercept, B, called the gradient, and C, called the curvature)

which can then be displayed or cross-plotted. As pointed out in the

previous slide, explicit information about the VP/VS ratio is not needed

in the weights.

(3) The Fatti et al. formulation gives us a way to extract quantitative

information about the P and S reflectivity which can then be used for

pre-stack inversion. As shown in Appendix 1, the terms RP0 and RS0

are the linearized zero-angle P and S-wave reflection coefficients.

216

Wet and Gas Models

Let us now see how to get from the geology to the seismic using the

second two forms of the Aki-Richards equation. We will do this by using

the two models shown below. Model A consists of a wet, or brine, sand,

and Model B consists of a gas-saturated sand.

VP1,VS1, r1 VP1,VS1, r1

VP2,VS2, r2 VP2,VS2, r2

217

Model Values

In the section on rock physics, we computed values for wet and

gas sands using the Biot-Gassmann equations. Recall that the

computed values were:

Wet: VP2 = 2500 m/s, VS2= 1250 m/s, r2 = 2.11 g/cc, 2 = 0.33

Gas: VP2 = 2000 m/s, VS2 = 1310 m/s, r2 = 1.95 g/cc, 2 = 0.12

Shale: VP1 = 2250 m/s, VS1 = 1125 m/s, r1 = 2.0 g/cc, 1 = 0.33

The next four figures will show the results of modeling with the

ABC and Fatti equations. On these four figures, the curves have

been calculated as a function of incident angle and scaled to

average angle.

218

Zoeppritz vs the ABC Method – Gas Sand

shows the AVO curves AB method

computed using the

Zoeppritz equations

and the two and three

term ABC equation, for

the gas sand model. ABC method

Notice the strong

deviation for the two

term versus three term Zoeppritz

sum.

219

Zoeppritz vs the ABC Method – Wet Sand

right shows the AVO

curves computed

using the Zoeppritz

equations and the ABC method

two and three term

ABC equation, for

the wet sand model. Zoeppritz

strong deviation for

the two term versus

three term sum. AB method

220

Zoeppritz vs the Fatti Method – Gas Sand

right shows the AVO

curves computed

using the Zoeppritz

Zoeppritz

equations and the

two and three term

Fatti equation, for Fatti method,

the gas sand model.

two term

Notice there is less

deviation between

Fatti method,

the two term and three term

three term sum than

with the ABC

approach.

221

Zoeppritz vs the Fatti Method – Wet Sand

right shows the AVO

curves computed

using the Zoeppritz

equations and the two Zoeppritz

and three term Fatti

equation, for the wet Fatti method,

sand model. two term

As in the gas sand

case, there is less

deviation between the

two term and three Fatti method,

term sum than with three term

the ABC approach.

222

The Two-Term Aki-Richards Equation

Recall that:

R( q ) A B sin 2 q

where we have dropped the C term and define A and B as:

1 VP r

2 2

1 VP VS VS VS r

A , B 4 2 ,

2 V p r 2 Vp VP VS VP r

1 2 VP / VP

B A D 2( 1 D ) , D .

1 ( 1 ) 2

VP / VP r / r

223

The Two-Term Aki-Richards Equation

It is common practice to use only 2 terms because:

(2) For angles less than about 40 degrees, the third term is not significant,

as shown previously:

224

Estimating the Intercept and Gradient

data.

of the sine of the angle squared.

225

Converting from Offset to Angle

450 Offset (m) 6000 0 Angle (degrees) 90

The offset

domain is the The angle domain

conventional represents a

CDP stack with theoretical

each trace at a acquisition

different geometry in which

offset. The each trace

acquisition corresponds to a

geometry is constant incidence

shown below. angle.

226

Converting from Offset to Angle

Conversion from offset to angle can be done using one of these options:

(1) Straight ray assumption (constant velocity)

(2) Ray Parameter approximation (variable velocity approximation)

(Reference: Walden, 1991, Making AVO sections more robust: Geophysical

Prospecting, 39 , no. 7, 915-942.)

(3) Ray-tracing (variable velocity)

(2) Ray Parameter :

X X

tan q , XVINT

2d Vt0 sin q 2 ,

tVRMS

where X offset ,

where VINT Interval velocity,

VRMS t0

d depth , t total traveltime.

2

t0 2 way time,

VRMS RMS velocity.

227

Converting from Offset to Angle

Ray Ray

Tracing Parameter

usually used when analyzing

seismic data.

than Ray Tracing.

it begins to degrade slightly at

angles greater than 50 degrees.

angle contours calculated using

Ray Tracing and Ray Parameter.

35 43 50 35 43 50

228

Common Offset Picks as Function of sin2q

The pick amplitudes are extracted at all

times, two of which are shown.

Offset

+A

+B

sin2q

Time -B

-A

The Aki-Richards equation predicts a

linear relationship between these

amplitudes and sin2θ.

calculated, to give A and B values for

each time sample.

229

Intercept: A

The result of this

calculation is to

produce 2 basic

attribute volumes

Gradient: B

230

Derived Attributes

The raw A and B attribute volumes are rarely used in that form. Instead,

other AVO attributes are usually calculated from them.

(2) Scaled Poisson’s Ratio Change : A+B

(3) Shear Reflectivity : A-B

(4) Fluid factor

Appendix 7.

231

Derived Attributes AVO Product : A*B

Many AVO anomalies have the form

shown at the right.

the gradient (B) are large numbers or

“bright”. Also, they have the same

sign.

+A

+B

This is an example of a Class 3

anomaly.

sin2q

Forming the product of A and B, we

get:

-B

-A

Top of sand : (-A)*(-B) = +AB

Base of sand : (+A)*(+B) = +AB

at both top and base.

232

Derived Attributes: AVO product

The AVO product shows a positive response at the top and base of the

reservoir:

Top

Base

233

Derived Attributes

Scaled Poisson’s Ratio Change : A+B

The second combination is derived from Shuey’s equation:

RP (q ) A B sin 2 q , where :

1 VP r 1 2

A , B A D 2(1 D) ,

2 V p r 1 (1 ) 2

VP / VP 1

D , 2 , and 2 1.

VP / VP r / r 2

1

B A D 2(1 D) 2.25 A

2 (2 / 3) 2

change in Poisson’s Ratio.

234

Derived Attributes

Scaled Poisson’s Ratio Change : A+B

The AVO sum (A+B) shows a negative response at the top of the reservoir

(decrease in σ) and a positive response at the base (increase in σ):

Top

Base

235

Derived Attributes

Shear Reflectivity : A-B

The third combination is derived from the Aki_Richards equation:

VP r

2 2

VP VS VS VS r

A and B 4 2 .

2V p 2 r 2V p VP VS VP r

If we assume the background VS /VP = 1/2, then:

VP VS r VP r VS r

B RP 0 2 RS 0 ,

2V p VS 2 r 2V p 2 r VS r

VP r VS r

where : RP 0 A and RS 0

p

2 V 2 r SV r

the Shear Reflectivity.

236

A-B Difference Attribute

The AVO difference (A-B) shows an increase in Shear Impedance at the top

of the reservoir. This calculation is usually done with the more accurate

Fatti equation, which we will see next.

Top

Base

237

RP and RS Attributes

(Geophysics, September, 1994) which can be written (for 2 terms) as:

c1 1 tan 2 q , c2 8(VS / VP ) 2 sin 2 q ,

1 VP r 1 VS r

RP (0 )

o

and RS (0 )

o

.

2 VP r 2 VS r

This allows us to calculate RP0 and RS0 volumes from seismic data in exactly

the same way as A and B volumes.

Again, note that the full mathematical way of extracting attributes is given in

Appendix 7.

238

RP0 and RS0 Attributes

RP0

RS0

239

RP0 and RS0 Attributes

The RP0 and RS0 attributes are usually transformed into one of 2 new

attributes:

a later section.

240

Derived Fluid Factor Attribute

The Fluid Factor attribute (Smith and Gidlow, 1987, Fatti et al., 1994) is

based on Castagna’s mudrock equation, which is assumed to be true for

non-hydrocarbon filled layers:

VP 1.16 VS 1360 m / s

Using calculus, we can derive the following equivalent equation:

VP VS VS

VP 1.16VS Divide by Vp 1.16

VP VP VS

The Fluid Factor is defined to highlight layers where Castagna’s equation

does not hold, i.e., potential hydrocarbon zones:

VP VS VS VS

F 1.16 , or : F RP 1.16 RS

VP VP VS VP

VS

Note that the factor 1.16 is often customized to fit the local data.

VP

241

Mudrock Line

- Castagna et al (1985)

cross-plotted Vp vs. Vs

for different types of

sedimentary rocks 3 gas

sandstones

carbonates

- ‘mudrock’ line for fluid 2 water

sandstones

saturated sandstones

dry

sandstones

1

- deviations from the

Mudrock line

mudrock line indicate

other lithologies and 1 2 3 4 5

pore fluids

P-wave velocity (km/s)

242

Fluid Factor attribute

The AVO Fluid Factor shows a strong deviation from the mudrock trend at

both the top and base of the 15 m Colony reservoir. Fluid Factor anomalies

also appear for two stacked gas sands above the main Colony reservoir.

The carbonate under the Paleozoic unconformity also deviates from the

from the mudrock trend. Note the different polarity in this case (red over

blue instead of blue over red).

Top

Base Colony

Top Carbonate

243

Approximations to Zoeppritz Equations

1980 Vp, Vs and Density 1999 EI

1985 A, B, C

The AVO equation

Fatti 1994

Rp, Rs, Rd

HRS Intercept,

Gradient, and

HRS Sim Inv HRS Rp,Rs

combinations

244

Exercise 5

The Colony Gas Sand

Calculating AVO Attributes

Exercise 5

So far, in our analysis, we have used the AVO

Modeling Workflow to create AVO synthetics.

We will now turn to the analysis of the real

seismic data.

Analysis workflow, shown in the list of

standard Workflows.

in the course.

Processes list.

246

Exercise 5

Processes. You will see a list of all the

operations which are available in

Geoview. Each of the processes can be

expanded. For example, if you click on

both the Seismic Processing and AVO

Analysis options, the following

expanded list is seen:

247

Exercise 5

To start, we will create a CDP stack.

Click next to the Stack option in the

Seismic Processing submenu to see the

two types of stack available, and

double-click CDP Stack:

process appear on the right:

248

Exercise 5

There are some features of this

dialog which are common to all

Process Parameter dialogs. For

example, there is a location to

specify the input and output files

names:

range to process. By default, it is

the entire volume:

stack only a limited range of offsets:

249

Exercise 5

By default, only the most critical parameters for this process are

specified on this page. To see the more advanced option, click the

button at the base of the menu:

process to be performed. Note that these will differ from one

process to the next.

icon showing an “airplane”:

detaches from the Geoview window to

allow it to be moved aside, making the

data more visible. Clicking the

“airplane” again re-attaches the dialog.:

250

Exercise 5

At the base of the Parameter Dialog, we see a series of buttons:

If we click the Run Batch button, that will create a batch file which

could run the process later. That is often helpful for long, computer-

intensive processes. For now, click OK to start the CDP stack process

as usual.

finishes, the Geoview

window looks like this

– a split window

showing both the input

and output volumes:

251

Exercise 5

The default split-screen display is very

useful for looking at the results, but

there are many modifications possible.

available plot space by clicking the “x”

on the Project Manager window, as

shown, to temporarily hide that window:

click its name to the left:

252

Exercise 5

You can also temporarily hide one of

the views. For example, click on the

first icon shown below to temporarily

hide View 1, which shows the input

data:

orientation horizontally:

the vertical orientation:

253

Exercise 5

Finally, to see the most complete

control of the seismic display, right-

click on either of the seismic windows.

A pop-up menu appears:

Parameters:

appears, allowing complete

control of the display:

click Cancel on this dialog.

254

Exercise 5

The next process we will apply is Super Gather. Super Gather is the

process of forming average CDPs to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio.

We do the averaging by collecting similar offset traces within adjacent

CDPs and adding them together. This process reduces random noise,

while maintaining amplitude versus offset relationships.

Process list as we did before, but now

we will use a little trick to speed up

that search.

tab, there is a box called Filter. This is

used to quickly find a process in the

list.

Now, the list is reduced to five entries:

255

Exercise 5

the only changes we will make are to set

the Input name to gathers and the output

name to super_gather ; change the Size

of Rolling Window to 5:

be summed to give each output CDP.

Notice that the program has defaulted to

create output bins with 11 offsets each.

This was chosen because that is the

average fold of the input gathers. When

you have changed these parameters,

click OK to run the process.

256

Exercise 5

The result looks like this:

cleaner and more

consistent, with a

pronounced AVO anomaly at

around 630 ms.

range of incident angles as

a color display.

Super Gather, right-click and

select Color Data Volume and

Incident Angle:

257

Exercise 5

We can see from this display that the maximum incident angle

at the zone of interest (630 ms) is around 30 degrees. That

information will be used in a later step.

258

Exercise 5

In this step, we will pick an event at the zone of interest and display those

picks to observe the AVO anomaly.

First, turn off the color display by right-

clicking on that display and selecting

Color Data Volume > none:

Gather display fills the window:

259

Exercise 5

Now select Horizon > Pick Horizons:

specify which data set we are picking.

We are picking the Super Gather in View

2, so this field must be modified:

OK to start the picking process:

260

Exercise 5

A series of controls appears at the base of the seismic window. These are

used for the picking process:

picks will be created using mouse

clicks:

The Rubber Band Mode means that if you click somewhere, then

hold the left mouse button down, move the mouse along the

section and release the button, picks will be created in the

region of the “rubber band” which appears between the mouse

clicks. That is very useful for detailed picking.

261

Exercise 5

For a very clean data set like this one, a convenient mode is Left & Right

Repeat. In this case, you would click a point that you interpret as being part

of the horizon. This becomes the seed point. Picks will be created

throughout the entire line based on this point.

shows the AVO anomaly at around 630

ms. Change both the Mode and Snap

parameters as shown:

Then position the mouse cursor anywhere near the trough at 630

ms and click once:

262

Exercise 5

The entire event should be picked like this:

If your display looks different, check your Mode and Snap parameters

and click again. There is no need to delete the original picks. They

will be automatically replaced.

Horizon from the picking dialog.

single event, so click OK to complete

the picking process:

263

Exercise 5

Now that we have picked the event,

we would like to see a display of the

picked amplitudes. To do that, right-

click and select View > Show Pick

Analysis:

264

Exercise 5

On the Pick Attribute Option dialog

which appears, choose the option to

Show Pre-stack Picks With Gradient

Analysis. This option is based on the

two term Aki-Richards equation.

the defaults for this analysis. The

second last page confirms that we

are using the Two Term Aki-Richards

equation and the velocity field we

have defined previously:

Analysis display.

265

Exercise 5

This display shows the

original pick values (in

blue) and the calculated

Aki-Richards curves (in

red). By scrolling through

the data volume, we can

see that the AVO behavior

is most pronounced in the

vicinity of the well and

flattens out as we move

away.

right click on the display window and

toggle OFF the display:

266

Exercise 5

In this step, we transform from the offset to

angle domain. From the Processes tab,

double-click Angle Gather:

see that we are transforming the volume

super_gather into the new volume

angle_gather:

maximum angle is about 30 degrees, so we

will change the maximum Angle To to 30,

as shown. Also, note that we are using the

velocity field set up in a previous step

(Note: yours may be called velocity field 1,

rather than velfield1 as shown here.)

Parameters dialog as shown, click OK to

run the Angle Gather process. 267

Exercise 5

When the process has completed, the Geoview window

shows the calculated Angle Gathers:

268

Exercise 5

The next step we will perform is AVO

Gradient Analysis. The purpose of this

process is to analyze the AVO behavior of

one or more events at a particular CDP. To

start that process, double click AVO Gradient

Analysis:

the Input Volume as the super_gather. We

also tell the program that we are analyzing

the CDP near the well, which is CDP 330:

clicking OK at the base of the dialog:

269

Exercise 5

The display which appears

shows the seismic gather at CDP

330, along with AVO pick values

for the default initial time, which

is at the centre of the gather time

scale:

scale of the gather data. One quick way to do

that is to select the Fit to View check box:

or more times:

270

Exercise 5

arbitrary time of 550 ms:

anomaly at around 630 ms. So, position

the mouse cursor near the trough at 630

ms and click the left mouse key:

271

Exercise 5

The red line on the seismic display shows the

time location at which the amplitudes have been

extracted. Those amplitudes are plotted as red

squares on the right-hand graph. The curve

which has been fit through the picks is a plot of

the Aki-Richards two-term equation. We can

confirm this by the information at the top of the

graph:

By clicking various time locations on the gather,

we could see the equivalent picks and curve for

any other event on the gather. Actually, it can

often be helpful to see two events at the same

time. To do this click the Two Events toggle ON:

click near the strong peak below the

target trough:

272

Exercise 5

Now the display should look like this:

class 3 AVO anomaly with amplitudes

increasing for both the trough at the

top of the sand (red) and the peak at

the base of the sand (green). Notice

also that the fit of the AVO curves is

extremely good. Mathematically, this

is expressed by the normalized

correlation between the picked

amplitudes and the curves, printed at

the top of the graph:

at other neighboring CDP’s we can

modify this selection item:

273

Exercise 5

Notice, also, that the AVO curves are plotted as a

function of Offset, because we have used the

super_gather as input. We can see the same plot

as a function of angle this way: Go to this

selection box at the top of the graph and change

to Angle:

this event is about 30 degrees, as we

observed when creating the angle

gather:

of tabs. One of them, for example,

allows us to access the Parameters,

which control the calculation of the Aki-

Richards curves:

274

Exercise 5

Another interesting display is the Cross

Plot of calculated Gradient against

Intercept. This is accessed by clicking

the Cross Plot tab:

to the calculated Intercept/Gradient

values for the selected events. Note

that the locations of these squares are

consistent with the interpretation of this

anomaly as a class 3 AVO anomaly.

to intercept/Gradient values from other

times on this CDP, and represent an

approximate wet trend.

275

Exercise 5

We can control the display of the

background wet trend, by turning on Plot

Background and clicking the Background

parameters button:

will need to click on All Data first.

created from a window of data, covering

5 CDPs near the zone of interest.

276

Exercise 5

Now that we have examined the AVO

anomaly using AVO Gradient analysis, we

will apply the calculation to the entire

volume to see the distribution of AVO

anomalies. To start that, double-click

AVO Analysis > AVO Attribute Volume:

three term Aki-Richards equation to

extract AVO attributes from the seismic

data. The attributes are based on

combinations of intercept, gradient and

curvature, as defined by the Aki-Richards

equation.

we see the input and output volumes for

this process:

277

Exercise 5

Because we have created an angle gather volume, this will be used as input.

Note that the original offset gathers or super gathers could also be used, but

then a velocity field would be needed to convert from offset to angle during

this calculation. As output, the program will create several volumes,

depending on the Type of Analysis. For the default case of two-term Aki-

Richards analysis, the volumes will be called avo_a and avo_b,

corresponding to the intercept and gradient.

dialog, we see that the default Type of

Analysis is the Two Term Aki-Richards:

angles less than 30 degrees. In order to reliably extract three terms

we need high angle data, usually exceeding 45 degrees. Click OK to

extract the AVO Attributes using the default parameters.

278

Exercise 5

When the process

completes, the

calculated attributes

appear in a split screen:

contains two separate volumes. The annotation

at the top of the window shows what is currently

plotted:

The wiggle trace data is the calculated Intercept (A). The color data is

currently the product of intercept and gradient (A*B). Since this is a class 3

AVO anomaly, we can see a strong positive response at the top and base of

the reservoir at 630 ms.

279

Exercise 5

Actually, the response is currently

obscured a little by the horizon which is

drawn over it. Temporarily remove that

horizon from the display by right clicking

and selecting View > Seismic View

Parameters:

select Horizons and No Horizons, as

shown.

clearly shows the positive AVO response

at the top and base of the reservoir.

280

Exercise 5

To see another combination of attributes

in color, right-click in that window as

shown:

This is the sum (A+B), which is roughly

proportional to the change in Poisson’s

Ratio. This produces this attribute plot:

can see a strong negative

response (orange), indicating a

drop in Poisson’s Ratio, while

at the base of the reservoir we

see a positive response

(yellow), indicating an increase

in Poisson’s Ratio.

Cross-Plotting AVO

Attributes and the Third

Order Term

AVO Cross-Plotting

AVO cross-plotting involves plotting the intercept against the gradient and identifying

anomalies. The theory of cross-plotting was developed by Castagna et al (TLE, 1997,

Geophysics, 1998) and Verm and Hilterman (TLE, 1995) and is based on two ideas:

(2) The Mudrock Line.

Rutherford/Williams Classification

Rutherford and Williams (1989) derived the following classification scheme for AVO

anomalies, with further modifications by Ross and Kinman (1995) and Castagna (1997):

Class 1: High impedance sand with decreasing AVO

Class 2: Near-zero impedance contrast

Class 2p: Same as 2, with polarity change

Class 3: Low impedance sand with increasing AVO

Class 4: Low impedance sand with decreasing AVO

283

Rutherford/Williams Classification

contrast in Acoustic Impedance between

the target sand and the surrounding Acoustic Impedance =

shales:

ρVP

Shale

Sand

Shale

284

Rutherford/Williams Classification

These are the generic AVO curves at the top of the gas sand:

285

An Example of a Class 1 Anomaly

(b) Model

example.

Rutherford and

Williams (1989)

286

Angle Stacks over Class 2 & 3 Sands

(a) Class 2 sand. (b) Class 3 sand.

Rutherford and

Williams (1989)

287

Class 2 & 3 Sands

288

Class 4 Anomalies

Castagna (1995) suggested that for a very large value of A, and a small

change in Poisson’s ratio, we may see a reversal of the standard Class 3

anomaly, as shown below. Castagna termed this a Class 4 anomaly. Here is

an example using Shuey’s approximation:

Letting B 2.25 A :

(1) A 0.3, 0.1

B 0.575 (Class 3)

( 2) A 0.1, 0.3

B 0.075 (Class 4)

Castagna et al (1998), illustrates

the concept of the Class 4

anomaly in more detail.

289

Intercept vs Gradient Cross-plot

The second key in understanding AVO cross-plotting is to derive a

linear relationship between intercept, A, and gradient, B.

This has been done in two different ways by Castagna et al.

(Framework for AVO gradient and intercept interpretation,

Geophysics, May-June, 1998) and Foster et al. (Interpretation of AVO

anomalies, Geophysics, September-October 2010).

Although both approaches have merit, the Foster et al. (2010)

approach lends itself to the interpretation of both the wet trend line

and the Rutherford-Williams anomalies, so will be used here.

Foster et al. (2010) start with the two term AVO expression that we

have looked at often in this course:

RPP (q ) A B sin 2 q , where :

VP r VP VS r V

A ,B 8 2 4 2 , and S .

2V p 2 r 2V p 2VS 2r VP

You will also recall that VP, VS, r and are averages of the parameter

across a layer boundary and the terms are differences.

290

The Foster relationship

Foster et al. (2010) derive their equation by noting that if we neglect

second order terms, we find that:

VS VP

, where 2 1 , and 2 1 .

VS VP 2

Substituting the above equation into the gradient on the previous

slide, and re-arranging terms (see the Appendix), gives:

B (1 8 2 ) A 4 ( 4 2 1) r / 2 r

than the first two terms and can often be dropped, giving:

B (1 8 2 ) A 4

The first term of this equation defines the slope of the line in cross-

plot space and the second term is an intercept that is non-zero for a

change in VS / VP ratio.

291

Simple wet and gas sand models

To illustrate the Foster relationship, we will consider the two simple

models shown below, a wet sand and a gas sand, which are slightly

different than the models we considered earlier.

The difference in these new models is that we will keep the average

value equal to 0.5 (that is: VP/VS = 2, and 2 = 0.25).

This means that the third term in the full Foster expression is

identically equal to zero and for the other two terms we get:

B A 2

292

Simple wet and gas sand models

The linear trends for the brine sand ( = 0) and top ( = +1/3) and

base ( = -1/3) of gas sand are shown below on an A-B cross-plot.

Note that this is an extremely large value for , but the key point is

that as the absolute value of increases from zero, the hydrocarbon

lines will move further away from the “wet” line.

moves us to the Sand

Base of

Gas Sand

negative quadrant of A-B

space and a decrease in

moves us to the positive

quadrant.

For changes in VP/VS ratio,

the inverse of , a decrease

moves us to the negative Top of

quadrant and an increase Gas Sand

to the positive quadrant.

293

Simple wet and gas sand models

classes along the A axis on the cross-plot, and noting that all have a

deviation in VP/VS ratio away from the wet trend, we can position

them on the previous cross-plot as shown below:

a roughly elliptical trend Base 1 Base of

Gas Sand

around the wet trend. Base 2p

Base 2

Also note that the class 3

sand is the easiest to Top 4

Base 3

identify on the cross-plot

and the class 1 sand is the Top 3 Base 4

Top 2

might fall on the wet trend.

Top of Top 2p

The next figure shows a Gas Sand Top 1

seismic data interpretation

of a class 3 sand.

294

Intercept / Gradient Cross-Plots

(1) VP/VS Ratio variability.

(2) Wavelet interference.

295

Seismic Display from A/B Cross-Plots

296

Three Term AVO

only the first two terms of the Aki-Richards equation are usually extracted

from the CDP gathers. Recall that the full Aki-Richards equation, as shown

below, has three terms:

1 VP r

where: A RP 0

2 VP r

VP VS r

B 4 2

2Vp VS r

2

VP VS

C , and .

2Vp VP

297

Three Term AVO

An alternate form of the Aki-Richards equation was formulated by Fatti et

al. (Geophysics, September, 1994) which can be written:

RP (q ) c1 RP (0o ) c2 RS (0o ) c3 RD ,

where : c1 1 tan 2 q , c2 8(VS / VP ) 2 sin 2 q ,

c3 4(VS / VP ) 2 sin 2 q tan 2 q ,

1 VP r 1 VS r

RP (0 )

o

, RS (0 )

o

,

2 VP r 2 VS r

r

and RD .

r

Either the A, B, C or the RP, RS, RD terms can be extracted from the seismic

gathers using a least-squares fitting technique with different weighting

coefficients.

298

Density Term

variations.

Using the original A,B,C form, we see that:

1 V r VP r

AC P

2 VP r 2V p 2r

This means that if we can estimate all three coefficients, we can generate a

density attribute volume.

saturation. This could solve the “fizz water” problem.

However, the third coefficient can be very noisy since it depends on the far

angle data (>45 degrees), and is very sensitive to noise.

299

Gulf of Mexico Example

Top

Base

These are angle gathers from the Gulf of Mexico, showing a strong Class II

AVO anomaly. Angles range from 0 to 60 degrees. The target layer is

annotated at right.

300

3 Term Gradient Analysis

These displays show the results of fitting the Aki-Richards equation, using 2

and 3 terms, to the event highlighted on the previous slide.

Note that the equation for 2 terms begins to deviate from the seismic picks

after about 45 degrees.

2 Term 3 Term

Base

Top

301

Conclusions

Richards equation and showed several examples of this approach.

302

Exercise 6:

The Colony Gas Sand

Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

The final step we will perform on this 2-D AVO example is to create a

cross plot of the derived attributes. The purpose of the cross plot is to

further investigate the type of AVO anomaly and to delineate cross plot

zones which can be mapped to the volume. In HRS-9, there are two

separate approaches to cross plotting seismic data, both of which will

be used in this exercise. These two approaches are as follows:

(1) Launch the Cross Plotting > Cross plot seismic option under

Processes. This allows the user to select a single cross plot zone

by typing a time and trace range in a menu and until recently was

our only option. This will be done first in this exercise.

(2) Launch the View > Create Section Zones … option, interactively

pick a number of zones on the seismic volume, and then launch the

cross plot. This allows the picking of multiple zones as well as

interactive views of the changes as each zone is moved. The

launched cross plot has the same features as in option 1. This will

be done second in this exercise.

304

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

plotting, double-click Cross Plotting > Cross

plot seismic:

number of items which need to be filled in.

We are specifying the Cross Plot Type as AVO attributes and the input

volume is the avo volume just created in the previous step:

305

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Give this cross plot a unique name

crossplot_AVO.

from 300 to 360:

around the picked horizon, with a

window size of 100 ms:

306

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

The cross plot which appears shows the We can improve this plot by

expected background trend through the focusing attention on only the

origin, with anomalous events in peaks and troughs. To do that,

quadrants 1 and 3, consistent with class right-click in the plot area and

3 AVO anomalies. select Set data sample filter:

307

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Troughs as shown, and click OK:

simpler character, with anomalies

clearly separated from the

background trend:

308

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Now we will highlight the two anomalous zones and project those

zones onto the seismic section.

icon:

shape roughly as shown below, using a

series of left-mouse clicks at each of the

corners of the polygon and double-click on

the last corner to finish the polygon. When

you are done, the screen should look

similar to this:

grabbing the “handles” and dragging

them.

309

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

You will be asked if you want to

create a seismic plot of the zones.

click on Yes.

inscribed by the polygon has been

highlighted on the seismic section

which is now visible in the Seismic

tab. If the red zones appear too

small, expand your zone by

dragging the handles.

sand reservoir (you may want to remove

the horizon to see it better). We can

name this zone by going back to the

cross plot window and typing in a new

name (you may need to click Enter on the

keyboard for this change to apply):

310

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

the sand. Click on the polygon icon.

Then draw a polygon around the

anomalous points in quadrant 1:

shows both the top and base of the

sand reservoir delineated:

311

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

the Geoview window. We can dock it into its

tab by clicking the Cross Plots button at the

lower right.

the seismic tab by clicking the “Airplane”

button at the lower right.

312

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Now we will move to the second cross plot option, which allows us to pick

multiple seismic zones. Although one or more areas within the seismic may

be selected, this option does not include the ability to use a horizon to

guide the data selection, so does not fully replace the other option.

Go to Seismic

tab under Project

Data. Double-

click avo(A,B) to

display it on

seismic section

window.

313

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Create Section Zones. A series of

controls appears at the base of

the seismic window. These are

section zone controls.

under Section Zone Set and click on

the rectangle icon:

314

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

The menu should now look like

this, allowing you to select

Zone_1. Select the color red by

clicking on the color icon.

a rectangular zone

around the gas sand

(roughly between

traces 320 and 344

around a time centered

at 630 ms).

315

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Next, check on Show Cross Plot Control to bring up a set of options.

Check on Feature Group Only and then click Launch Cross Plot:

cross plot of the points outlined in Zone

1. Note from our previous theory

section that this is a typical gas zone

signature cross plot.

depend on exactly where you drew the

Zone_1 box on the seismic section.

316

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

zone_1 by positioning the

mouse over the zone on the

seismic scene (you will see a

hand), by left-clicking and

dragging the mouse.

change to cross plots more

typical of wet zones, as seen

below:

You can also resize the zone by moving to an edge, waiting for an arrow

to appear, and repeat the same sequence. Move Zone 1 back to the time

zone around 630 ms.

317

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

icon again to create Zone_2.

Change the color to blue by

clicking on the color icon.

zone roughly as shown

on the right.

318

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

updated with the new points,

colored blue.

interactively until you define

a wet trend as shown on the

right.

same crossplot.

defined separate cross plot zones on a single seismic zone.

319

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Next, click on the polygon icon to create

Zone_3, and change the color to green by

clicking on the color icon.

(remember to double-click on the last

point),

new points, colored green, and should

look somewhat as seen on the right.

separate seismic zones on the same

crossplot.

we want, but will stop at three for this

exercise.

320

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Right-click inside the crossplot and

select the Show histogram>X

Histogram. We can also turn on the

Y Histogram by repeating the same

process.

and Y histograms for all three

zones. Note that the distributions

overlap in X and Y but show better

separation in two dimensions.

321

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Next, remove Zone_3 by clicking on the x

icon at the bottom of the seismic window:

unselect the Show histogram>X

Histogram and Show Histogram>Y

Histogram successively.

having only two zones, a red gas

zone and a blue wet zone, as

shown here.

zones from these seismic zones.

322

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

Previously, we used the polygonal zone

selection. Now we will use elliptical

zone by selecting the ellipse icon to

create Zone1. We will first find the top

of the gas sand in the negative

intercept/gradient region.

once to pin the start of the ellipse, a

second time to pin the end, move the

mouse to open the ellipse up and then

click a third time to end the process,

as shown here.

323

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

You will be asked if you want

to create a seismic plot of the

zones. click on Yes.

you have picked the top of

the gas sand. Notice that the

first cross plot zone roughly

coincides with the first

seismic zone. They will never

be exact because the

crossplot zone extends to

other values in the seismic

data volume.

324

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

the base of the gas sand in

the positive intercept/gradient

region.

to create Zone2 and fit an

ellipse as shown here.

display window, the base of

the gas sand should appear.

325

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

cross section Zone3 by

using the blue points from

the second seismic zones,

the wet zone.

like this. Now, the zone

name will depend on which

zone you highlight.

Highlighting a zone will

allow you to move, resize,

or rotate the ellipse, which

you can make your zones

look close to the ones

shown here.

326

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

zones, click the “eyeball”

button on the floating

seismic window:

attributes dialog, select

Cross Section Zone on the

left. Then select Set_1 and

click Ok:

327

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

On the seismic section, the zones selected on the cross plot should look like

this, where the red is top gas, the blue is base gas and the green are shales

and wet sands. The cross plot zones were picked from the seismic zones.

328

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

This completes our initial exercise on the two cross plot options in the

Hampson-Russell suite, which are:

1. Define a single seismic section zone using a parameter menu and then

select cross plot zones on the resulting cross plot.

2. Define multiple seismic section zones interactively and then launch the

cross plot to see each zone in a different color. The cross plot zones

can then be selected from the multiple seismic zones.

Note that both options have advantages, but that the second one is

certainly both more powerful and “fun” to use. When the zone window is

moved, it is almost like looking at the data with a microscope! The main

advantage of the first option is that the seismic zone can be more precisely

selected based on a CDP or inline and cross line range, a time range, or on

previously picked seismic events (e.g. all samples from Horizon 1 to

Horizon 2 between Inlines 5 and 10 and Crosslines 40 and 50, etc.)

Before finishing this exercise we will briefly look at the Scenes option.

329

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

access any of the displays created so

far. Click on the Scenes tab.

we are looking at. For example, click on the

Seismic side tab to see all seismic displays

created in the project.

is currently visible in the tab. To turn one on,

click this box.

330

Exercise 6 Cross Plotting AVO Attributes

for AVO Day 1. To close down the Geoview

program, click File -> Exit.

there is no need to save the project, as it

is constantly being saved.

(End of Exercise 6)

&

End of AVO 1

331

Appendices

Appendix 1: Calculation of VS using Castagna’s Assumption

Appendix 2: Averaging Multiple Minerals

Appendix 3: The Zoeppritz Equations

Appendix 4: The Linearized Approximation

Appendix 5: Foster’s approximation

Appendix 6: HTI anisotropy

Appendix 7: Shuey’s Equation

Appendix 8: Extracting Attributes

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

Appendix 10: AVO Case Study: Onshore Texas Example

Appendix 11: AVO Fluid Inversion: Analyzing uncertainty in AVO

332

Appendix 1: Calculation of VS using Castagna’s

Assumption

saturation:

Mwet

ρwet = ρbr φ + ρm ( 1 - φ) Vpwet

r wet

2) Calculate input P wave modulus: 6) Calculate Vs_wet from Vp_wet

M = Vp2 ρ Vswet =Ac Vpwet + Bc

3) Calculate matrix P wave

modulus:

4 7) Calculate Vs_input from Vs_wet

Mm Km m

3

r wet

Vs Vswet *

4) Adjust P wave modulus to 100% r

water:

M Kfl Kbr

d

Mm M *( Mm Kfl ) *( Mm Kbr )

Mm

Mwet d *

1 d 333

Appendix 1: Calculation of VS using Castagna

Assumption

8) Calculate K and m from input data: 10) Calculate Ksat with new fluid:

Vs * r ;

2

a

Kdry out

out

Kfl out

Km Kdry out

*( Km Kfl out )

4

K r *Vp * 2

a

3 K Km *

out

1 a

9) Obtain K_dry:

11) Get new density:

K Kfl r out r fl out * out r m *(1 out )

a

Km K * ( Km Kfl )

a 12) Finally – the new velocities!

Kdry Km *

1 a 4 out

K out out

Vp out 3 ; Vs out

r out

r out

334

Appendix 2

which we can average multiple minerals. Note that

these averages also apply to multiple fluids, etc. The

techniques we will discuss are:

1. Voigt averaging

2. Reuss averaging

3. The Voigt-Reuss-Hill average.

4. The Hashin-Shtrikman Bounds

335

Appendix 2: Voigt, Ruess and Hill

(where f1 + f2 = 1), M1 be the modulus of mineral 1 (bulk or shear) and

M2 be the modulus of mineral 2, then the Voigt average is the

arithmetic average given by:

M V f1 M 1 f 2 M 2

The Reuss average is the harmonic average given by:

1 f1 f2 M 1M 2

MR

M R M1 M 2 f1 M 2 f 2 M 1

Finally, the Hill average is the average of the Voigt and Reuss

averages:

M H (M V M R ) / 2

These averages can be easily extended to N components.

336

Appendix 2: Hashin-Shtrikman Bounds

The Voigt and Reuss bounds give extreme values. Another approach is to

use Hashin-Shtrikman bounds, which are different for the bulk and shear

modulus components. If mineral 1 is stiffer than mineral 2, then the upper

bound is given by (Mavko et al.):

f2

K HS K1

( K 2 K1 ) 1 f1 ( K1 ( 4 / 3) 1 ) 1

f2

HS 1

2 f1 ( K1 2 1 )

( 2 1 )

1

51 ( K1 ( 4 / 3) 1 )

The lower bounds are given by reversing the order of the two minerals in the

equations given above. An example is shown on the next page.

337

Appendix 2: Comparing the Bounds

The figures above show the effect of Voigt, Reuss and Hashin-Shtrikman

upper and lower bounds for materials with K1 = 60 GPa, K2 = 40 GPa, 1 = 45

GPa, and 2 = 15 GPa. Note that the H-S bounds are between the Voigt and

Reuss bounds. In the software, we use the average of the H-S bounds.

338

Appendix 3: The Zoeppritz Equations

using the conservation of stress and displacement across the layer

boundary, which gives four equations with four unknowns. Inverting the

matrix form of the Zoeppritz equations gives us the exact amplitudes as a

function of angle:

339

Appendix 3: The Zoeppritz Equations at 0 degrees

Although the Zoeppritz equations look intimidating, in the case of normal

incidence the equations reduce to the following simple form:

1

0 1 0 1

RP (0o ) RP 0 0

1 0 1 0

o r 2VS 2VP1 1

R

S ( 0 ) S 0 0 VP1

R

0

TP (0o ) TP 0 VS 1 r1VS 1

2

0

o r 2VP 2

TS (0 ) TS 0 1 0 0 1

r1VP1

By performing the above matrix inversion, we will see some interesting

features about the zero angle case.

340

Appendix 3: The Zoeppritz Equations at 0 degrees

The matrix inversion can be done by hand when there are so many zeros

(but great care must be taken with the signs!), and we get:

r 2VP 2 r1VP1

0 0

r 2VP 2 r1VP1 r 2VP 2 r1VP1

RP 0 r 2VS 2 r1VS12 0

R 0 0 1

r V

2 S 2 1 S1

S 0 r V V r V r V

P1 2 S 2 1 S1

TP 0 r1VP1 r1VP1 0

0 0

r VP 2 r1VP1 r VP 2 r1VP1 1

S0

T 2 2

r1VS1 r1VS1

2

0 0

r r

2 S 2 1 S1

V V V r V

P1 2 S 2 r V

1 S1

The zero angle reflection and transmission coefficients are therefore:

RS 0 TS 0 0, RP 0 , TP 0 1 RP 0

r 2VP 2 r1VP1 r 2VP 2 r1VP1

341

Appendix 4: The Linearized Approximation

A useful approximation to RP0 can be derived by noting that:

RP 0= , where Z P P1 .

r 2VP 2 r1VP1 Z P 2 Z P1 2 Z P 2

d ln(Z (t )) 1 dZ (t ) dZ (t )

d ln(Z (t ))

dt Z (t ) dt Z (t )

Replacing the derivative d with the difference operator gives:

ln Z P ln VP ln r 1 VP r

r

RP 0

2 2 2 VP

Notice that the above equation is the linearized A or RP0 term in the Aki-

Richards equation and its various reformulations.

342

Appendix 5: Deriving the Foster relationship

To derive the Foster et al. (2010) relationship, first recall the

definitions of A and B:

VP r VP VS r V

A , and B 8 2 4 2 , where S .

2V p 2 r 2V p 2VS 2r VP

VS VP

Next, note that we can write:

VS VP

To prove the above relationship, we first find from calculus:

d d (VSVP1 ) dVP1 1 dVS VS dVP 1 dVS

VS 2

dt dt dt VP dt VP dt VP dt

Transforming from d to , cancelling the t terms and multiplying

both sides by VP,/VS gives:

VP V V V VS VP

P VS 2P S

VS VS VP VP VS VP

343

Appendix 5: Deriving the Foster relationship

Since A is a function of r and VP, but B is a function of r, VP, VS and

, let us transform B into a function of only r, VP, and , by noting:

VS VP

2VS 2 2VP

Substitution of this expression into B gives:

VP

2 VP r V r

B 8 4 2 1 8 2 P 4 4 2

2V p 2 2V 2r 2V p 2r

p

VP r r r r

B 1 8 2 4 4 2 1 8 2 8 2

2V p 2r 2r 2r 2 r

Grouping density and VP terms and simplifying gives the final form:

r

B (1 8 2 ) A 4 (4 2 1)

2r

344

Appendix 6: HTI anisotropy

In this appendix, we will discuss AVO and HTI anisotropy, and AVAZ

(Amplitude versus Azimuth). Let us first define our geometry. As shown

below, the symmetry-axis plane is at right angles to the fractures and the

isotropy plane is parallel to the fractures.

Appendix 6: Azimuth angle

In addition to the raypath angle q, we now introduce an azimuth angle ,

which is defined with respect to the symmetry-axis plane:

Note that the azimuth angle is equal to 0 degrees along the symmetry-

axis plane and 90 degrees along the isotropy plane.

346

Appendix 6: AVO and HTI

With this definition of azimuth angle, we can derive the following

linearized modeling equation for AVO in HTI media:

Ran (q , ) Aiso ( Biso Bani cos 2 ) sin 2 q (Ciso Cani cos 2 ) sin 2 q tan 2 q ,

where Aiso , Biso , and Ciso are the isotropic AVO terms,

VS

2

1

2

(V ) 1

Bani 8 and Cani (V ) sin 2 (V ) cos 2

VP 2

are the AVO HTI anisotropy terms, with :

(V ) Thomsen' s parameter defined with respect to vertical,

(V ) Thomsen' s parameter defined with respect to vertical,

q incidence angle, and azimuth angle.

347

Appendix 6: Ruger’s B term

(2002), he rewrites the gradient term B in the AVO

equation in terms of VP and , as shown below:

Standard form of B :

1 VP

2

VS VS

2

VS r 1 VP VS 2 VS r

2

B 4 2 4

2 Vp VP VS VP r 2 Vp

VP VS r

Ruger' s form of B :

2

2

1

1 V V

2 VS r 1 VP V 2

B P 4 S 4 S 2 ln ln r

2 Vp VP VS r 2 V p VP r

1 VP VS

2

1 VP VS

2

4 ln 4

2 Vp P

V 2 pV P

V

348

Appendix 6: AVO and HTI

To show the effects of HTI, Ruger (2002) created the following four models:

A 0.1 0.1 0.2 0 0 0.1

2 VS r

Note :

VS r

The results of these four models will be shown on the next two slides.

349

Appendix 6: Models A and B

Model A (change in ) as a B (change in ) as a function of

function of incidence angle for 0, incidence angle for 0, 30, 60 and 90

30, 60 and 90 degrees azimuth. degrees azimuth.

350

Appendix 6: Models C and D

Model C (change in ) as a function D (change in , , and ) as a

of incidence angle for 0, 30, 60 and function of incidence angle for 0,

90 degrees azimuth. 30, 60 and 90 degrees azimuth.

351

Appendix 6: AVAZ

versus offset and azimuth (AVAZ) effects.

To observe AVAZ effects, AVO analysis is done on seismic data that

has been binned into different sets of azimuths.

The first step is then to extract an estimate of Bani using the inverse of

the two-term modeling equation.

As shown on the next slide, Bani will give us an estimate of fracture

density.

Next, we can estimate the fracture orientation, as discussed in the

slides following the next slide.

As shown on the final five slides, AVAZ analysis can thus be quantified

to give us an interpretation over a fractured reservoir, both in map and

cross-section view.

352

Appendix 6: Fracture density

0.1

gas

0.09

As shown in this hudson wet

Gassmann wet

figure, using 0.08

several different 0.07

rock physics

0.06

modeling schemes,

Bani

the value of Bani is a 0.05

good indicator of 0.04

the crack, or

0.03

fracture, density in

a fractured 0.02

reservoir. 0.01

0

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

crack density

353

Appendix 6: Fracture orientation

In our modeling slides, we

assumed that the direction of

the fractures was known.

However, this is often

unknown, and needs to be

determined. Let us first define

sym to be the azimuth angle sym

along the symmetry-axis plane,

and iso to be the azimuth angle

along the isotropy plane, as

shown on the right:

We can then write the near offset HTI AVO equation as either:

Ran (q , ) Aiso [ Biso Bani cos 2 ( sym )] sin 2 q

or, since sym is orthogonal to iso, as:

354

Appendix 6: Fracture orientation

Regardless of which convention we choose, we can then plot the reflectivity

as a function of azimuth, as shown below, and determine the symmetry-plane

and isotropy-plane angles from the minimum and maximum values of the

curve. AVAZ Effect

Assuming Bani is positive, we find 2000.00

Relative Amplitude

Note that iso gives us the

de 1500.00

fracture orientation.

Amplitu 1000.00

500.00

However, Bani can also be

negative. Later is the appendix 0.00

350

330

we see how this leads to a 90

310

290

270

250

230

degree ambiguity in the

210

5

190

170

20

150

symmetry axis.

130

Azimuth

110

Angle 35

o

90

130

70

50

30

40o

10

355

Appendix 6: Variations in AVAZ

Amplitude

This figure shows

offset gathers at two

different azimuths

over a fractured

reservoir. As seen

in the next two

slides, 1 = iso and

2 = sym.

change in the AVO

responses.

1 2

Courtesy: Dave Gray, CGGVeritas

356

Appendix 6: AVO parallel to fractures

source

q receiver

iso

fractured medium

azimuth= 1 =iso

Courtesy: Dave Gray, CGGVeritas

357

Appendix 6: AVO across fractures

receiver

source

medium

358

Appendix 6: Fracture Interpretation

AVO Fracture Analysis Orientation

measures fracture volume of Fault

from differences in AVO

response with Azimuth.

Fracture strike is

determined where this

difference is a maximum.

Oil Well

Edge

Direction of Line is Effects

estimated fault strike,

length of line and color Fractures curling

is estimated crack into the fault

Fractures abutting

density Interpreted Faults the fault

Appendix 5: Outcrop compared to AVAZ

Base of

Dunes Fracture Strike

Fractures

NW-SE E-W

360

Appendix 6: Linearized near offset Ruger equation

reparameterizing the problem

Ran (q , ) Aiso [ Biso Bani sin 2 ( iso )] sin 2 q

1

B Biso Bani

2

2

Bani C 2 D2

tan 2iso D / C

Ran (q , ) A [ B C cos 2 D sin 2 ] sin 2 q

which may be solved by least squares

m G G GT d

T

1

361

Appendix 6: Fracture orientation

The near offset Ruger equation

Ran (q , ) Aiso [ Biso Bani sin 2 ( iso )] sin 2 q

is nonlinear and multi-modal. Two sets of parameters fit the data equally

well. The nonlinear inversion solves for the magnitude Bani and azimuth iso.

perspective the expectation is that Bani should generally be positive so the

typical convention is to chose Bani to be positive.

the wave is moving from an isotropic to an anisotropic layer or vice versa.

estimate compared to a positive Bani

362

Appendix 6: Fracture orientation

For a particular angle of incidence the

Azimuthal Reflectivity is Azimuthal reflectivity for a

• circular for an isotropic media

constant angle of incidence

• elliptical for an HTI media

0.04

•the anisotropic gradient specifies the perturbation from the

isotropic (circular) solution

0.03

+Bani

parameterizations which describe

0.02 -Bani

the elliptical reflectivity 0.01 iso

iso

• Solution 1 (positive Bani): 0

-0.01

•Bani is positive forming Blue ellipse

•Isotropy-plane azimuth is defined by red line segment -0.02

•isotropic media is characterized by the black circle

•Bani is negative forming Blue ellipse -0.04

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

•Isotropy-plane azimuth is defined by black line segment

363

Appendix 6: Fracture orientation

180° 180°

0° 0°

performing a nonlinear inversion on multiple azimuthal Fourier coefficients

• The Fracture strike is consistent with maximum horizontal stress (135 degrees) in

the area

364

Appendix 7: Shuey’s Equation

Shuey (1985) rewrote the ABC equation using VP, r, and . Only the gradient

is different than in the ABC expression:

1 2

B A D 2(1 D) ,

1 (1 ) 2

VP / VP 1

where : D , 2 , and 2 1.

VP / VP r / r 2

The above equation is quite complicated but can be greatly simplified by

assuming that = 1/3 (the same as Vp/Vs=2). This gives:

1 9

B A D 2(1 D ) 2.25 Δσ A

2 4

This leads to a very intuitive version of the two-term AVO equation:

RP (q ) A ( 2.25 Δσ A) sin 2 q

365

Appendix 7: Shuey’s Equation

Aki-Richards vs Shuey

This figure shows a

comparison between the 0.250

two forms of the 0.200

Aki-Richards equation for 0.150

the gas sand considered 0.100

earlier.

Amplitude

0.050

0.000

Note that the values are -0.050

close but, unlike the -0.100

previous three forms of the -0.150

equation, Shuey’s version

-0.200

does not give exactly the

-0.250

same values. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Angle (degrees)

A-R Base Shuey Base

366

Appendix 7: Hilterman’s Approximation

A (1 sin 2 q ) 2.25 sin 2 q

A cos 2 q 2.25 sin 2 q

Notice that this equation is very intuitive, since it shows that, as the

angle increases, so does the dependence on . Keep in mind that this

equation is strictly correct only for = 1/3 and that the C term has been

dropped. Note also that another way of writing this equation is as

follows, which shows the dependence on A and B:

367

Appendix 8: Extracting Attributes

In the course we have often discussed the need to extract attributes from

the pre-stack seismic gathers. To see how this is done, note that all the

linearized equations we have looked at so far can be written as:

RP (q ) f1 p1 f 2 p2 f 3 p3 ,

where f1 , f 2 , and f 3 are functions of q and sometimes VS2 / VP2 ,

and p1, p2 , and p3 are functions of VP ,VS , and r .

2 2

VP r VP V VS V r VP

p1 A , p2 B 4 S 2 S , p3 C .

2V p 2 r 2V p VP VS VP r 2V p

368

Appendix 8: Extracting Attributes

RP (q 2 ) f1 (q 2 ) p1 f 2 (q 2 ) p2 f 3 (q 2 ) p3

RP (q N ) f1 (q N ) p1 f 2 (q N ) p2 f 3 (q N ) p3

This can be written in matrix form as:

R (q ) f (q ) p1

f 2 (q 2 ) f 3 (q 2 )

P 2 1 2 p2

p2

P N f1 (q N )

R ( q ) f 2 (q 2 ) f 3 (q N )

369

Appendix 8: Extracting Attributes

R MP,

time, M is an N x 3 vector of computed values, and P is the unknown vector

containing the parameters to be estimated.

p1 1 0 0

P p2 ( M T M I ) 1 M T R, where I 0 1 0,

p3 0 0 1

and is a pre - whitening factor.

370

Appendix 8: Extracting ABC Attributes

Let us take the specific case of extracting ABC attributes, for which the

forward problem is:

R (q ) A

P 2 1 sin 2

q2 tan q 2 sin q 2

2 2

B

C

RP (q N ) 1 sin 2

qN tan q N sin q N

2 2

2

, we can write :

RP (q1 ) 1 X V / tVRMS

2 2

X V / tV 2

2

/

X V / tV 2

2

1

R (q )

A

1 INT 1 INT RMS 1 INT RMS

P 2 1 X V

2 INT / tV 2

RMS 2

X V

2 INT / tVRMS / X 2VINT / tVRMS 1

2 2 2 2

B

RP (q N ) 1 X NVINT / tVRMS

2 2 2 2

X NVINT / tVRMS / X NVINT / tVRMS 1

2 2

C

371

Appendix 8: Extracting ABC Attributes

1

1 b1 c1 RP1

A 1 1 1 1 1 1

B b b b 1 b2 c2 b b

bN

R

P 2

1 2 N

1 2

C c c cN c1 c2 cN

1 2

1 bN cN PN

R

1

N N

N

N

b

i 1

i

i 1

ci

i 1

RPi

N N N

N

bi RPi , bi X iVINT / tVRMS , ci 1

2 bi

bi bi2 bi ci 2

i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 bi 1

N N N N

b c

i 1

ci

i 1

i i

i 1

ci

2

i 1

ci RPi

372

Appendix 8: Extracting RP0, RS0 and RD Attributes

Next, let us take the case of extracting RP0, RS0 and RD attributes, for which

the forward problem is:

R (q ) d (q ) e(q ) RP 0

f (q 2 )

P 2 2 2 RS 0 , where :

RD

P N d (q N ) e(q N )

R ( q ) f (q N )

VS2 2 VS2 2 1

d (qi ) 1 tan qi , e(qi ) 8 2 sin qi , f (qi ) 2 2 sin qi tan 2 qi ,

2

VP VP 2

1 VP r 1 VS r r X iVINT

RP 0 , RS 0 , RD , and sin qi .

2 VP r 2 VS r r 2

tVRMS

373

Appendix 8: Extracting RP0, RS0 and RD Attributes

1

d1 e1 f1 RP1

RP 0 d1 d 2 d N d1 d 2 d N

R e e e d 2 f2 e e

eN

e2 R

P 2

S 0 1 2 N

1 2

RD f f 2 cN f1 f 2 f N

1

d N eN f N PN

R

1

N N N

N

d d e

i 1

i

2

i 1

i i

i 1

di fi

i 1

d i RPi

N N N

N

i 1

d i ei

i 1

ei2

i 1

ei f i

i 1

ei RPi

N N N N

d f e f

i 1

i i

i 1

i i

i 1

fi

2

i 1

f i RPi

374

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

seismically derived cross-plots is wavelet interference.

AVO hodogram (Keho et al: The AVO hodogram: Using

polarization to identify anomalies, TLE, November, 2001 and

Mahob and Castagna: AVO hodograms and polarization

attributes, TLE, January, 2002).

attribute volumes. We will see this in a later section.

375

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

Up to now, we have

calculated cross plots of A

and B, using fairly large

analysis windows.

points, containing both the

background trend and the AVO

anomalies:

376

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

cross plots over small sliding windows

on a single trace.

377

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

can calculate the

polarization vector.

direction of the

dominant energy for

this cluster.

vector measures the

average energy in the

cluster.

378

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

-45o

points to fall around the -45o trend,

while class 3 AVO anomalies fall

around +45o.

+45o

379

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

time

One way to display this result is to plot the calculated polarization vector on

a 3-D display with time as the third axis. This is called a Hodogram.

380

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

calculated polarization angle for a single

trace as a function of time.

the sliding window.

Polarization Angle around 630 ms

indicating the Class 3 anomaly.

381

Appendix 9: Polarization and the AVO Hodogram

In addition to the Polarization Angle itself, a very useful attribute is the

Polarization Product, which is Polarization Angle multiplied by the length of

the Polarization Vector. This is expected to highlight bright spots which

have high hydrocarbon potential:

382

Appendix 10:

AVO Case Study

Onshore Texas Example

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

This case study comes from a paper by Mark Gregg and Charles Bukowski

(Leading Edge, November, 2000).

mature basin.

384

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

the clastic Oligocene Vicksburg

formation in South Texas.

trillion ft3 of gas since the

1920’s, but not much AVO work

has been reported.

AVO application comes because

“the Vicksburg trend is not a

typical amplitude-supported

play”.

385

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

came from results like those

shown on the left.

stack data, it is difficult to

distinguish Gas from Wet sand

before drilling.

authors had drilled one

commercial gas well, one non-

commercial gas well, and three

dry holes.

386

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

discovery well show both a

Gas and a Wet zone.

impedance is small but the

change in Poisson’s ratio is

large.

AVO anomaly.

387

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

Synthetic modeling

confirmed the expected

class 2 response.

388

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

reprocessed to include

nonhyperbolic

moveout. This turned

out to be critical, as the

figure shows.

389

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

Near and Far Angle Stack.

its brightest response on the

Far Angle stack, as expected

for the class 2 behavior.

Angle Stack as the main tool

for searching for new

anomalies.

390

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

The authors studied the existing wells and came to these conclusions:

(1) There were about 100 gas wells in the area with cumulative production

> 1 billion ft3.

(2) About ½ of these were associated with class 2 AVO anomalies.

(3) About 65% of the ~70 drilled anomalies were commercial gas

accumulations.

(4) Thicker, better-developed reservoirs produced the most distinctive

anomalies.

(5) Threshold gross reservoir thickness required to produce an anomaly

was about 30-60ft.

(6) Most productive anomalies were at depths of 5,000-10,000 ft.

391

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

anomaly.

with 72 ft of net pay,

producing initially 3

million ft3 of gas per

day.

not visible on the

conventional stack, this

would not have been

drilled without the AVO

analysis.

392

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

identified by interpreting the

far-angle stack using

Landmark’s Earthcube

software.

before AVO, because of the

poor quality of the

conventional stack. This was

presumed to be because of

the small acoustic impedance

contrast.

multiple anomalies at the

prospective level.

393

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

encountered 2 pay

zones.

thickness of 54 ft,

with 28 ft net pay.

thickness of 214 ft

with 69 ft net pay.

Initial production

rate was 5.3 million

ft3 with estimated

ultimate recovery of

14 billion ft3.

394

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

Two more

successful wells

are shown here.

395

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

low-gas-saturated sand at the anomaly.

396

AVO Case Study, Onshore Texas Example

Results:

(2) Two dry holes, caused by low gas saturation.

(3) This is a 75% success rate, dramatically improved from the original

20% success rate.

Authors’ conclusions:

(2) Look beyond conventional seismic techniques, e.g. AVO.

(3) Low gas saturation remains a pitfall of the AVO method.

397

Appendix 11:

uncertainty in AVO

Overview

development.

there is a wide range of lithologies which could account for

any AVO response.

quantifying AVO uncertainty.

hydrocarbon detection.

399

AVO Uncertainty Analysis: The Basic Process

G STOCHASTIC

AVO

CALIBRATED: MODEL

I

GRADIENT

INTERCEPT FLUID

BURIAL DEPTH PROBABILITY

MAPS

AVO ATTRIBUTE

MAPS PBRI

ISOCHRON

MAPS POIL

PGAS

400

“Conventional” AVO Modeling:

Creating 2 Pre-Stack Synthetics

IN SITU = OIL

IO GO

FRM = BRINE

IB GB

401

Monte Carlo Simulation:

Creating Many Synthetics

BRINE OIL GAS

75

50

25

402

The Basic Model

We assume a 3-layer

Shale model with shale

enclosing a sand (with

various fluids).

Sand

Shale

403

The Shales are

Vp1, Vs1, ρ1 characterized by:

P-wave velocity

S-wave velocity

Density

Vp2, Vs2, ρ2

404

Each parameter has a

Vp1, Vs1, ρ1 probability distribution:

Vp2, Vs2, ρ2

405

The Sand is characterized by:

Brine Modulus

Brine Density

Shale Gas Modulus

Gas Density

Oil Modulus

Sand Oil Density

Matrix Modulus

Matrix density

Shale Porosity

Shale Volume

Water Saturation

Thickness

406

Trend Analysis

Some of the statistical distributions are determined

from well log trend analyses:

5000

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4

DBSB (Km)

407

Determining Distributions at Selected Locations

Assume a Normal distribution. Get the Mean and Standard

Deviation from the trend curves for each depth:

5000

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4

DBSB (Km)

408

Trend Analysis: Other Distributions

5000

Shale Velocity

4500

3.0

4000 Sand Density

3500 2.8

3000 2.6 3.0 Shale Density

2.8

2500 2.4 40%

2.6 Sand Porosity

2000 2.2

2.4 35%

1500 2.0

2.2 30%

1000 1.8

2.0 25%

500 1.6

1.8

0 1.4 20%

0.41.2

1.6 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4

15%

1.4 DBSB (Km)

1.0 10%

1.2

0.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4

1.0 5%

DBSB (Km)

0.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4

0% DBSB (Km)

0.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4

DBSB (Km) 409

Practically, this is how we set up the distributions:

Shale:

Vp Trend Analysis

Vs Castagna’s Relationship with % error

Density Trend Analysis

Sand:

Brine Modulus

Brine Density

Gas Modulus

Gas Density

Oil Modulus Constants for the area

Oil Density

Matrix Modulus

Matrix density

Dry Rock Modulus Calculated from sand trend analysis

Porosity Trend Analysis

Shale Volume Uniform Distribution from petrophysics

Water Saturation Uniform Distribution from petrophysics

Thickness Uniform Distribution

410

Calculating a Single Model Response

calculate two synthetic traces at assumed known.

different angles. 0o 45o

Top Shale

Sand

Base Shale

411

Note that these amplitudes include

On the synthetic traces, pick the

interference from the second interface.

event corresponding to the top of o o

the sand layer: 0 45

Top Shale

P2

P1

Sand

Base Shale

412

Using these picks, calculate the Intercept and Gradient for this

model:

0o 45o

I = P1

G = (P2-P1)/sin2(45)

Top Shale P2

P1

Sand

Base Shale

413

Using Biot-Gassmann Substitution

Starting from the Brine Sand case, the corresponding Oil and Gas Sand models are

generated using Biot-Gassmann substitution. This creates 3 points on the I-G cross plot:

BRINE

GAS OIL

KGAS KOIL

rGAS rOIL

G G G

I I I

414

Monte-Carlo Analysis

By repeating this process many times, we get a probability distribution for

each of the 3 sand fluids:

Brine

I Oil

Gas

415

The distributions are depth-dependent

416

The Depth-dependence can often be understood using

Rutherford-Williams classification

2 4 6

5

3

1

Sand

Impedance

4

3

Shale

2

5 6

1

Class 1

Class 2

Bayes’ Theorem

Bayes’ Theorem is used to calculate the probability that any new (I,G) point

belongs to each of the classes (brine, oil, gas):

~

P F I,G

~

~

p I , G F * P( F )

k

p I , G Fk * PFk

where:

P(Fk) represent a priori probabilities and Fk is either brine, oil, gas;

p(I,G|Fk) are suitable distribution densities (eg. Gaussian) estimated

from the stochastic simulation output.

418

Example Probability Calculations

419

Real Data Calibration

In order to apply Bayes’ Theorem to (I,G) points from a real seismic data set,

we need to “calibrate” the real data points.

This means that we need to determine a scaling from the real data amplitudes

to the model amplitudes.

Gscaled = Sglobal * Sgradient * Greal

known regions to the model data.

420

Fitting 6 Known Zones to the Model

4 5 4 5

6 6

3 1 3

1

2 2

1 2 3

4 5 6

421

Real Data Example – West Africa

performed by one of the authors (Cardamone).

shallow formation.

trends from the productive wells, calibrate to the known

data points, and evaluate potential drilling locations on a

second deeper formation.

422

One Line from the 3D Volume

0-20 degrees

20-40 degrees

423

Near Angle Stack

0-20 degrees

Deeper target zone

20-40 degrees

424

AVO Anomaly

0-20 degrees

20-40 degrees

425

Amplitude Slices Extracted from Shallow Producing Zone

0-20 degrees

+189

-3500

20-40 degrees

426

Trend Analysis : Sand and Shale Trends

5000

3.00

4500

2.75

4000

Sand velocity Sand density

DENSITY

VELOCITY

2.50

3500

3000

2.25

2500

2.00

2000

1.75

1500

1000 1.50

500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900

4000

3.00

VELOCITY

DENSITY

3000

2.50

2500

2.25

2000

2.00

1500 1.75

1000 1.50

500 700 900 1100 1300 1500

BURIAL DEPTH (m)

1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 500 700

BURIAL DEPTH (m)

900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900

427

Monte Carlo Simulations at 6 Burial Depths

428

Near Angle Amplitude Map Showing Defined Zones

Wet Zone 1

Well 6

Well 3 Well 5

Well 7 Well 1

Well 2

Well 4

Wet Zone 2

429

Calibration Results at Defined Locations

430

Well 3 Well 6

Well 4 Well 1

431

Using Bayes’ Theorem at Producing Zone: OIL

1.0

.80

Probability of Oil

.60

.30

432

Using Bayes’ Theorem at Producing Zone: GAS

1.0

.80

Probability of Gas

.60

.30

433

Using Bayes’ Theorem at Target Horizon

1.0

.60

.30

434

Verifying Selected Locations at Target Horizon

435

Summary

can calculate the range of expected AVO responses.

potential pore fluids.

and model data.

underlying probability distributions.

436

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