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GEODYNAMICS

MOUNTAIN BELTS

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GEODYNAMICS

EARTH SURFACE FEATURES

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DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES

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OROGENESIS

Major Processes :

• Crustal Deformation
• Metamorphism
• Magmatism

Geologic factors :

• Rock Sequences
• Structural Deformation
• Metamorphism
• Magmatic Activities
• Erosion & Isostatic adjustment
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MAJOR TECTONIC FEATURES

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GEODYNAMICS

DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE MOUNTAIN BELTS

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MOUNTAIN BELTS

Canadian
Rockies

Appalachians

Alps

Mountain Belts
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MOUNTAIN BELTS

Himalaya

Indonesian

Circum Pacific

Auletian

Cordillera-Andes

Mountain Belts
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Simple & Complex Ocean-Ocean Subduction

Simple; Volcanism
Tongan, South Pacific

Complex; Volcanism,
Metamorphism, Granitic Intrusion
Japan Arc

>> OROGENIC BELTS


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Tectonic Elements of O-C Subduction Zones

Convergence > Active Continental Margin > Young Mountain Belts

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GEODYNAMICS

CONTINENTAL MARGIN

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CONTINENTAL MARGIN

Sediment Sequences in Continental Margin

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Ocean-Continent Subduction & Orogenesis

Deformation, Mountain Building >> OROGENESIS


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GEODYNAMICS

Ocean-Continent Subduction & Orogenesis

Deformation, Mountain Building >> OROGENESIS


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Mountain Building

Continent-Continent convergence >> Orogenesis


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GEODYNAMICS

Mountain Building

COLLISIONS

Continent-Continent convergence >> Orogenesis


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GEODYNAMICS

COLLISIONS

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GEODYNAMICS

COLLISIONS

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GEODYNAMICS

COLLISIONS

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GEODYNAMICS

COLLISIONS

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COLLISIONS

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COLLISIONS

– “Collision” terjadi apabila lempeng yang


menunjam membawa kerak kontinen atau
busur kepulauan kedalam jalur subduksi.
– Hadirnya kerak densitas rendah kedalam jalur
subduksi merubah geometri lempeng dan
kinematika karena pengapungan (bouyancy)
akan berakibat balik terhadap ‘driving force’
dari subduksi dan akan merubah pergerakan
lempeng.

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COLLISIONS

– Beberapa kemungkinan type collision;


melibatkan satu jalur subduction : passive
cont. margin-active cont. margin/forearc;
melibatkan 2 subduction pada arah sama :
back-arc - active cont. margin/ forearc ;
melibatkan 2 subduction zone pada arah
berlawanan : 2 lempeng yang naik - 3
kemungkinan kombinasi forearc dan active
cont. margin.

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Tectonic & Mountain Building

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COLLISIONS

– Arc Continent & Arc-Arc Collision


(Southwest Pacific, Indo-Australia,
Eurasian). Taiwan, Halmahera-Philippine,
Irian, Vanuala. Timor
– Continent-Continent Collision
(Alpine-Himalaya System)

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GEODYNAMICS

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Metamorphism

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GEODYNAMICS

Metamorphism

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GEODYNAMICS

Structural Deformation

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GEODYNAMICS

Structural Deformation

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GEODYNAMICS

Orogenesis

SUBDUCTION ZONE – FOLD THRUST BELTS


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GEODYNAMICS

Orogenesis

SUBDUCTION ZONE – FOLD THRUST BELTS


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GEODYNAMICS

Orogenesis

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Orogenesis

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Orogenesis

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Orogenesis

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COLLISIONS

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GEODYNAMICS

COLLISIONS

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COLLISIONS

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COLLISIONS

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COLLISIONS

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ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTS

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MAJOR TECTONIC FEATURES

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CONTINENTAL CRUST

Basic Structures :

• Shields
• Stable Platforms
• Mountain Belts

Geologic facs :
• “Granitic” Rocks
• Thickness ; 30 – 50 Km, covers 1/3 portion
• Complex sequences metamorphosed volcanic
and sediments , granitic rocks
• Oldest rocks 3.8 billion yrs.
• Continental Crust >> Earth
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GEODYNAMICS

CONTINENTAL CRUST

Old Orogen
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CONTINENT

SHIELDS & STABLE PLATFORM

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ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTS

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GEODYNAMICS

ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTS

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GEODYNAMICS

ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTS

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GEODYNAMICS

ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTS

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