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UEME 3223 T3

UEME UEME 3223 3223

Computer Computer Aided Aided Design Design

And And Manufacture Manufacture

Topic 3:

Computer Aided Manufacturing

Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

UEME 3223 T3

UEME UEME 3223 3223

Computer Computer Aided Aided Design Design

And And Manufacture Manufacture

On the completion of this course, students shall be able to:

CO1

Explain the hardware and software requirement for a standard

CO2

industrial CAD/CAM system. Differentiate machining processes and tools used in a standard

CO3

industrial CAD/CAM system. Create standard industrial CNC program for machining a

CO4

mechanical component. Produce 3D model, engineering drawings and also simulated

[Lab1 to 4]

virtual manufacturing using standard industrial CAD/CAM

CO5

software. Produce a mechanical component using standard industrial

[Grp Assgnt]

CAD/CAM tools.

Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

UEME 3223 T3

3.0 Introduction [CO2]

Computer Aided Manufacturing is a wide range of computer-based software tools, used to assist engineers and CNC machinist in the manufacture or prototype of product components.

Historically, CAM has been considered as an NC programming tool wherein 3D models of components generated in CAD software are used to generate CNC codes to drive the numerical controlled machine tools.

CAM functions therefore has expanded into integrated CAM more fully with CAD/CAM/CAE/PLM solutions.

CAM does not eliminate the need for skilled professionals such as Manufacturing Engineers and NC Programmers.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

CAM actually leverages the value of most skilled manufacturing professionals through advanced productivity tools, while building the skills of new professionals through visualisation, simulation and optimisation tools.

The first commercial applications of CAM were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries in 1971 at Renault (Bezeir) for car body design and tooling.

In the beginning, CAM has several shortcomings that necessitated an overly high level of involvement by a skilled CNC machinist. CAM would output codes for the least capable machine, as each machine tool interpreter added on to the standard G-code set for increased flexibility.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

During this improperly set up CAM or specific tools, the CNC machine therefore requires manual editing before the program will run properly.

No matter how advance, CAM still could not reason / judge as a machinist can. CAM could not optimise tool paths to the extent that is required in mass production. Users would select the type of tool, machining process and paths to be used for the task.

Over time, these shortcomings are being attenuated / improved, both by providers of niche solutions and by providers of high-end solutions.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

Overall, CAM:

•provides graphic representation of the part •is PC based •has integrated CADCAM functionality •has “some” built-in expertise / intelligence •has built-in speed and feed data specifications based on material and tools •has tools and materials libraries •has tool path simulation •has tool path editing •has tool path optimisation •has cut time calculations (for cost estimation) •has import / export capabilities to other systems (eg: Drawing Exchange Format (DXF), Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES)).

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

Machining Process:

•Regardless of types of machines (lathe, milling, turn-mill), most machining progresses go through 4 stages of roughing, semi finishing, contour milling and finishing. Each is implemented by a variety of basic and sophisticated strategies, depending on the material and software available.

1. Roughing •This process begins with raw stock (known as billet) and cuts it very roughly to shape of the final model. •In milling, the result often gives appearance of terraces, because the strategy has taken advantage of the ability to cut the model horizontally. •Common strategies are zig-zag clearing, plunge roughing, rest- roughing, etc.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

2. Semi finishing •This process begins with a roughed part that unevenly approximates the model and cuts to within a fixed offset distance from the model. •The semi-finishing pass must leave a small amount of material so the tool can cut accurately while finishing, but not so little that the tool and material deflect instead of shearing. •Common strategies are raster passes, waterline passes, constant step-over passes, pencil milling, etc.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

3. Contour Milling •In milling applications on hardware with 5 or more axes, a separate finishing process called contouring can be performed. •Instead of stepping down in fine-grained increments to approximate a surface of the tool tangent to the ideal part features. •This produces an excellent surface finish with high dimensional tolerances.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

4. Finishing •Finishing involves a slow pass across the material in very fine steps to produce the finished part. •The step between one pass and another is minimal. •Feed rates are low and spindle speeds are raised to produce an accurate surface

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

CAM software supports the complete range of major manufacturing applications, which includes 2.5D Milling, 3D Milling, Turning, Turning with Driven tools and Wire EDM, in one integrated solution.

Machining operations can be based on 2D Design Drawings as well as on 3D Solid and Surface Models.

CAM usually have a powerful general post-processor tool that enables easy customisation of the G-Code file output to various types of CNC controllers.

In the end, we need to just specify all information relevant to the machining project or workpiece we want to manufacture.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]

These information includes all machining geometries, operation definitions, and generated G-Code files.

We can also define the Coordinate system origin location and axes orientation by selecting the elements of the solid model or the already define Coordinate system.

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Before there are computer controlled machines, there were manual machines.

Manual machines still holds an important role especially if the need to machine something simple, fast while being accurate. This of course depends entirely on the machine operator.

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Milling machine

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Milling machine UTAR

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Lathe machine

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Lathe machine UTAR

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UEME 3223 T3

3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Milling table (T-slots, Fixture plate)

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Milling table (T-slots, Fixture plate) UTAR
UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Milling table (T-slots, Fixture plate) UTAR
UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Milling table (T-slots, Fixture plate) UTAR

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Milling / precision vices NO!

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Milling / precision vices NO! YES! UTAR
UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Milling / precision vices NO! YES! UTAR
UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Milling / precision vices NO! YES! UTAR

YES!

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UEME 3223 T3

3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Step Clamps
Step Clamps

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Jigs and fixtures
Jigs and fixtures

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Custom design work piece holder

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Custom design work piece holder UTAR

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Large milling machines

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Large milling machines UTAR

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Lathe chuck (3 Jaw and 4 Jaw)

Lathe chuck (3 Jaw and 4 Jaw)

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Lathe chuck (3 Jaw and 4 Jaw)

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UEME 3223 T3

3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Lathe chuck (5 jaw and 6 Jaw)

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Lathe chuck (5 jaw and 6 Jaw)
UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Lathe chuck (5 jaw and 6 Jaw)

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Lathe faceplate with dog leg
Lathe faceplate with dog leg

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UEME 3223 T3

3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]

Large lathe machine

UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Large lathe machine UTAR
UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Large lathe machine UTAR
UEME 3223 T3 3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2] Large lathe machine UTAR

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3.2 Coordinate System [CO1]

During the Coordinate System definition for 3-axis CNC- machine, we have to define 3 points:

•Origin: Select the origin point (1 st point) on the graphics screen. •X-direction: Select a point (2 nd point) relative to the origin that defines the X-axis. •Y-direction: Select a point (3 rd point) to finish the definition of the XY-plane.

The Tool start level defines the Z-level at which the tool starts.

The Clearance level is the Z-level to which the tool rapidly travels when moving from one operation to another (in case the tool does not change).

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3.2 Coordinate System [CO1]

The Part Lower level defines the lower surface level of the part to be milled.

The Tool Z-level is the height that the tool moves to before the rotation of the 4/5 axes to avoid collision between the tool and the workpiece.

This level is related to the Coordinate System position and we have to check if it is not over the limit switch of the machine.

It is highly recommended to send the tool to the reference point or to a point related to the reference point.

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3.3 Axis Type [CO1]

The axis type defines the Coordinate System definition method.

The axis type can be: 3 axis, 4_axis_around_X or 4_axis _around_Y and 5 axis.

3 Axis:

•In this type of machine, every side requires a new clamping (new Machine CoordSys). •For each Machine CoordSys, we have to define the origin position, the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction

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3.3 Axis Type [CO1]

4 and 5 Axis:

•4_axis_around_X is used for vertical machines with the 4 th axis on the table along X-axis. •For all additional positioning, based on this clamping, we have to define origin position and Y-axis direction only (angle). •The X-axis direction is determined automatically by the X- axis direction of the Machine CoordSys. •4_axis_around_Y is used for horizontal machines with 4 th axis along the Y-axis.

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3.3 Axis Type [CO1]

4 and 5 Axis:

•The Y-axis direction is determined automatically by the Y- axis direction of the Machine CoordSys. •5 axis type is used for 5-axis CNC machines, where all additional positioning is related to this Machine CoordSys.

•5 axis type is used for 5-axis CNC machines, where all additional positioning is related to

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

There are a plenty types of tool that can be used for milling purposes.

End Mill / Rough Mill •These tools are used for the definition of rough / finish cutters. •The tool shape and basic parameter are shown.

tools are used for the definition of rough / finish cutters. •The tool shape and basic

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

End Mill / Rough Mill
End Mill / Rough Mill

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UEME 3223 T3

3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

End Mill / Rough Mill

UEME 3223 T3 3.4 Milling Tools [CO2] End Mill / Rough Mill UTAR
UEME 3223 T3 3.4 Milling Tools [CO2] End Mill / Rough Mill UTAR

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Ball Nose Mill •The corner radius of a tool of the Ball nose mill type is always equal to a half of the tools diameter

Nose Mill •The corner radius of a tool of the Ball nose mill type is always
Nose Mill •The corner radius of a tool of the Ball nose mill type is always
Nose Mill •The corner radius of a tool of the Ball nose mill type is always

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.

Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.
Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.
Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.

Drills

Boring tools

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.

Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.

Reams

Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.
Drill •This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores, reams, threading tools, etc.

Threading

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Shaped tools •Used for the definition of shaped end / rough mills and drill tools. •The tools diameter describes the cutting diameter of the shaped tool that will be coincident to the machining geometry.

tools diameter describes the cutting diameter of the shaped tool that will be coincident to the
tools diameter describes the cutting diameter of the shaped tool that will be coincident to the

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Slot Mill •Used in a variety of applications from simple 2.5D undercut profiles to machining cavities in Simultaneous 5 Axis operations. •The parametric definition of a slot mill tool also enables to define a cylindrical tool with a tool shank with a relived diameter.

definition of a slot mill tool also enables to define a cylindrical tool with a tool
definition of a slot mill tool also enables to define a cylindrical tool with a tool

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Taper Mill •It is supported in the calculations of the simultaneous 5 Axis, 3D milling rough and finish operations. •In 2.5D milling operations, such as profile and pocket, only the bottom diameter is taken into account in the tool path calculation. •It Is used for milling internal / external walls with a constant drift angle.

in the tool path calculation. •It Is used for milling internal / external walls with a
in the tool path calculation. •It Is used for milling internal / external walls with a
in the tool path calculation. •It Is used for milling internal / external walls with a

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Lollipop Mill •It is used in the simultaneous 5-axis operations

UEME 3223 T3 3.4 Milling Tools [CO2] Lollipop Mill •It is used in the simultaneous 5-axis
UEME 3223 T3 3.4 Milling Tools [CO2] Lollipop Mill •It is used in the simultaneous 5-axis
UEME 3223 T3 3.4 Milling Tools [CO2] Lollipop Mill •It is used in the simultaneous 5-axis

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Tap Tool •It is intended to machine the internal threads in Drilling. •The tool consists of two parts: cylindrical and conical.

is intended to machine the internal threads in Drilling. •The tool consists of two parts: cylindrical
is intended to machine the internal threads in Drilling. •The tool consists of two parts: cylindrical

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Reamer •It is intended to machine precise holes in drilling operations.

UEME 3223 T3 3.4 Milling Tools [CO2] Reamer •It is intended to machine precise holes in
UEME 3223 T3 3.4 Milling Tools [CO2] Reamer •It is intended to machine precise holes in

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]

Thread Mill •It is intended to machine internal and external threads in Thread Milling operations.

Tools [CO2] Thread Mill •It is intended to machine internal and external threads in Thread Milling

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]

Corner Radius •When the tool is Rough Mill or End mill, the corner radius field is displayed. •There are 3 possibilities to enter the corner radius of tool.

or End mill, the corner radius field is displayed. •There are 3 possibilities to enter the

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]

Angle •If the tool type is Drill, the Angle field is displayed •Enter the drill point angle of the tool (between 0.01 and 180 degrees.

Shank Diameter •This parameter is relevant only for Slot, Lollipop and Taper tools.

(between 0.01 and 180 degrees. Shank Diameter •This parameter is relevant only for Slot, Lollipop and
(between 0.01 and 180 degrees. Shank Diameter •This parameter is relevant only for Slot, Lollipop and

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]

Pitch •It is the distance between corresponding vertices of adjacent teeth of a thread for Tap tool

Number of Flutes •This field defines the number of teeth of the tool. •It is used when calculating the feed in the Feed rate type Fz.

field defines the number of teeth of the tool. •It is used when calculating the feed
field defines the number of teeth of the tool. •It is used when calculating the feed

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]

Length •In milling calculations, the system does not use this data. •The length of the tool is only the output to the G-Code file.

calculations, the system does not use this data. •The length of the tool is only the

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]

H Length •It defines the distance from the tool end to the CNC machine spline.

T3 3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2] H Length •It defines the distance from the tool end

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3.6 Milling Tools Data [CO2]

Spin

•It defines the spinning speed of the tool. It defines two spin values:

• Spin Rate: Normal spin rate, used in rough milling

• Spin Finish: Finish spin rate, used in finish milling

•For Drill and Tap tools, the Spin Finish parameter is not relevant. •The spin value can be defined in two types of units, namely S and V.

•S is the default and it signifies Revolutions per Minute. •V signifies Material cutting speed in Meters/Min in the Metric system, and is calculated according to the following formula:

V = (S x π x Tool Diameter)/1000

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3.6 Milling Tools Data [CO2]

Feed

•It defines the feed rate of the tool. It defines 3 feed values:

• Feed XY: Feed rate in the XY plane.

• Feed Z: Feed rate in the Z direction.

• Feed Finish: Feed rate used for finish mill.

•For Drill and Tap tools, Feed XY and Feed Finish parameters are not relevant. •The feed value can be defined in two types of units, namely F and Fz. •F is the default and it signifies units per minutes. •Fz signifies Units per tooth and is calculated according to the following formulat:

Fz = F / (Number of Teeth x S)

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3.6 Milling Tools Data [CO2]

Tool Holding System •CAM software enables us to define a variety of tool holders to help us check and prevent all possible collisions of the tool holding system with the workpiece. •The tool holder is defined by combining two components. The first component is the tool adaptor mounted in the spindle of the milling machine. •The second component may consist of different types of extension and reductions like collet chucks, arbors, shanks and any other components.

consist of different types of extension and reductions like collet chucks, arbors, shanks and any other

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3.7 Geometry

CAM enables us to turn 3D models, 2D and 3D sketches built with CAD into G-Codes for any CNC-machine.

Geometries have to be defined to determine where the model will be machined. Eg: A drill geometry consists of one or more points (drilling centers / holes) that are defined by the X-, Y- and Z-values.

They can be selected from models using a number of different methods.

The drill points have been selected by their radius and Z- level on a 3D solid model.

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3.7 Geometry

With automatic selection, the distance between two drilling points is optimised to reduce machining time.

Geometry With automatic selection, the distance between two drilling points is optimised to reduce machining time.

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3.7 Geometry

Wireframe Geometry •It has several subtypes, each with its own set of rules. •All the subtypes use the same interface to select the geometry. •Chain geometries are defined by picking the following entities: edges of models, 2D curves, circles, lines and splines. •Each chain is composed from one or more entities and defines an open or closed contour.

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3.7 Geometry

3D Model Geometry •Any surface, solid or a combination of surfaces and solids can be selected as a 3D Model geometry. •We need to build or import a model of our workpiece or part into the CAD system. •This model describes the actual part with all the dimensions and topology information, and enables CAM to use this model to calculate the NC tool path.

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3.7 Geometry

Defining a Drill Geometry •The XY mode enables us to define the geometry on the plane / face parallel to the XY-plane of the current CoordSys.

•The around 4 th axis mode enables us to select the drill geometry wrapped on the solid model around the 4 th axis. This method enables us to select on the holes whose axis intersects with the revolution axis of the CAM part.

axis. This method enables us to select on the holes whose axis intersects with the revolution

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3.7 Geometry

Defining a Profile Geometry •Chains for Profile Milling can be either open or closed. •We can machine one or more profiles in one operation.

•Chains for Profile Milling can be either open or closed. •We can machine one or more

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3.7 Geometry

Defining a Pocket Geometry •Chains for Pocket Milling must be closed. •The first chain defines the contour of the pocket. •All closed chains inside first chain of each pocket are automatically treated as pocket islands. •Overlapping chains are milled as separate pockets, not as islands. • To select multiple pockets with islands, continue adding chains to the geometry.

pockets, not as islands. • To select multiple pockets with islands, continue adding chains to the

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3.7 Geometry

Defining a Working Area •Working areas are used to constrain the machining to certain areas of the 3D model. •The working area is defined by a closed chain. •The chain can consist either selected points or 2D/3D edges, curves or splines. •As in pocket geometries, working areas can be defined with internal chains, so that the islands are excluded from machining. •The working area has been selected to machine the cavity. The External chain defines the outside boundary of the area. The Internal chain excludes the porting surface from machining.

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3.7 Geometry

Boolean Operations

Union •It enables us to unite selected geometries into a single one. •All internal segments are removed. •The resulting geometry is outer profile

geometries into a single one. •All internal segments are removed. •The resulting geometry is outer profile

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3.7 Geometry

Boolean Operations

Merge •It enables us to merge a number of geometries, created by different methods, into a single one.

Operations Merge •It enables us to merge a number of geometries, created by different methods, into

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3.7 Geometry

Boolean Operations

Subtract •It enables us to perform subtraction of two geometries. •The order of the geometry selection is important. The second selected geometry is subtracted from the first selected one.

order of the geometry selection is important. The second selected geometry is subtracted from the first

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3.7 Geometry

Boolean Operations

Intersect •It enables us to perform intersection of two geometries.

UEME 3223 T3 3.7 Geometry Boolean Operations Intersect •It enables us to perform intersection of two

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

CNC refers specifically to a computer “controller” that reads G-code instructions and drives a machine tool, a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate components by the selective removal of material.

CNC does numerically directed interpolation of a cutting tool in the work envelop of a machine.

The operating parameters of the CNC can be altered via software load program.

CNC was preceded by NC (Numerically Controlled) machines, which were hard wired and their operating parameters could not be changed.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

NC was developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s by John T. Parsons in collaboration with the MIT Servomechanism Laboratory.

The first CNC systems used NC style hardware, and the computer was used for the tool compensation calculations and sometimes for editing.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

UEME 3223 T3 3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1] UTAR

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Later version used punched tape to transfer G-codes and later superseded by RS232 cables, floppy discs, and now commonly tied directly to the plant networks.

Introduction to CNC machines radically changed the manufacturing industry.

Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines, a complex 3D structures are relatively easy to produce and the number of machining steps that required human action has been drastically reduced.

Increased in automation of manufacturing processes with CNC machining, considerable improvements in consistency and quality has been achieved.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

CNC automation reduced the frequency of errors and provided CNC with time to perform additional tasks.

CNC automation also allows more flexibility in ways parts are held in the manufacturing process and the time required to change the machine to produce different components.

A series of CNC machines may be combined into one station, commonly called a “cell”, to progressively machine a part that requires several operations.

CNC machines today are controlled directly from files created by CAM so that a part or assembly can go directly from design to manufacturing without the need of producing a drafted paper drawing of the manufactured component.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

CNC machines represent a special segment of industrial robot systems, as they are programmable to perform many kinds of machining operations (within their designed physical limits, like other robotic systems).

CNC machines can run over night and over weekends without operator intervention.

Error detection features have been developed, giving CNC machines the ability to call the operator’s mobile phone if it detects that a tool has broken.

While the machine is awaiting replacement on the tool, it would run other parts it is already loaded with up to that tool and wait for the operator.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

The ever changing intelligence of CNC controllers has increased job shop cell production.

Some machines might even make 1000 parts on a weekend with no operator, checking each part with lasers and sensors.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Numerical Control (NC) •Electronics Industries Association (MA) standard defined it as “a system in which actions are controlled by direct insertion of numerical data at some point”.

•Machines controlled by electronic systems designed to accept numerical data and other instructions usually in a coded form.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Numerical Control (NC) It can perform the following:

•Absolute Programming: All tool motion is derived from the origin of the part. (G90) •Incremental Programming: Next tool movement is relative to the previous position. (G91) •Machine / Tool home Position: Internal machine reference typically used to initialise the system. •Floating Zero: Ability to set the machine zero to a location on a part relative to the parts datum(s).

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Numerical Control (NC) (Cont.):

•Work Offset Coordinate Shift: Ability to shift the machines home position so as to set a zero point for a particular part. (G54 – 59) •Cutter Compensation: Ability to adjust the cutter location with offset values in the controller. The adjustment may be necessary due to tolerance issues associated with cutter condition, material problems or program utilisation. (G40 –

42)

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

CNC vs. NC Machine Tools. CNC:

•It is a numerical control system in which the data handling control sequences, and response to input is determined by an on-board computer system at the machine tool.

Advantages of CNC Machine Tools:

•Increased Program storage capability at the machine tool. •Tool path verification. Ease of part duplication, flexibility and repeatability. •Accommodates simple to complex parts geometry. •Reduced set-up time, and lead times. Better machine utilisation, increased productivity. •CNC machine tools are more rigid than conventional machine tools.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

CNC vs. NC Machine Tools. NC:

•It is a control system which primarily processes numeric input.

Disadvantages of NC Machine tools:

•Limited programming capability at the machine tool. •Limited logic beyond direct input. •These types of systems are referred to as “hardwire controls” and were popular from the 50’s to 70’s. •NC language is series of commands which “direct” the cutter motion and support systems of the machine tool.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Types of Instruction •A line in a G-code file can instruct the machine tool to do one of several things.

Movements •The most basic motion for a controller is to move the machine tool along a linear path from one point to another. •Some machine tools can only do this in XY, and have to accept changes in Z separately. •Some have 2 further axes of rotation to control the orientation off the cutter, and can move them simultaneously with the XYZ motion.

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UEME 3223 T3

3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Movements (Cont.) •Additional 2 axes allow the work surface or medium to be rotated around X and Y axis. •Eg: A 4-axis machine can move the tool head in XY and Z directions, and also rotate the medium / workpiece around the X or Y axis, similar to a lathe. This is called A or B axis. •All motions can be built from linear motions if they are short and there are enough of them. •Most controllers can interpolate horizontal circular arcs in XY. •Some implement the ability to follow and arbitrary (NURBS) curve. Quite sceptical, since unlike circular arcs, their definitions are not natural and too complicated to set up by hand. CAM can generate any motion using many short linear segments.

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UEME 3223 T3

3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Tool Changes •Originally there would be a G-code instruction telling the machine tool to stop, so that a human operator could remove the cutting tool from the chuck and insert a new one. •Modern machine tool have a magazine of different tools which they can change themselves pneumatically, hydraulically, or electromechanically.

Drilling •A tool can be used to drill holes by pecking to let the swarf out. •Screw threads can be produced by using special tapping tool and the CNC’s ability to control the exact rotational position of the tool with the depth of cut.

UTAR

UEME 3223 T3

3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

Drilling Cycle •It is used to repeat drilling or tapping operations on a workpiece. •It accepts a list of parameters about the operation, such as depth and feed rate. • To begin drilling any number of holes to the specifications configured in the cycle, the only input required is a set of coordinates for hole location. •The cycle takes care of depth, feed rate, retraction and other parameters that appear in more complex cycles.

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